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Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse. PMID:25300846

Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

2015-01-01

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Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth tests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

P.G.C. Odeigah

1998-09-01

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) r...

Xavier Filho, J.

1991-01-01

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J., Xavier Filho.

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J. Xavier Filho

1991-01-01

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Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Tw...

Sawadogo, A.; Thio, B.; Kiemde, S.; Drabo, I.; Dabire, C.; Ouedraogo, J.; Mullens, T. R.; Ehlers, J. D.; Roberts, P. A.

2009-01-01

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Proximate, Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Whole and Dehulled Cowpea Seed Flour (Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available Study was conducted to analyze the production, proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic properties of whole and dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds. Flour samples were produced from whole and dehulled cowpea seeds which was purchased from Obada market Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. The flour samples were subjected to proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses. The results of proximate analysis showed that dehulled cowpea was higher in crude protein (23.12% and carbohydrate content (62.86% than whole cowpea flour, which was recorded as 22.85% and 61.67% respectively. The fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture content were 1.6%, 1.03%, 0.48%, 10.89% for dehulled cowpea flour and 1.83%, 1.12%, 0.65%, 11.88% for whole cowpea flour respectively. The results obtained for physicochemical analysis showed that the pH, TSS and TS of whole cowpea flour were 6.84%, 16.47% and 88.12% while dehulled cowpea were recorded as 6.80%, 12.85%, 89.11% respectively. The results of organoleptic analysis revealed that beans ball produced from dehulled cowpea flour was more acceptable than that from whole cowpea flour.

W.A. Oyeleke

2011-01-01

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Assessment of genetic diversity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available Sixty six genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp were investigated to understand the extent of genetic diversitythrough twelve quantitative traits. Mahalanobis’s D2 analysis established the presence of wide genetic diversity among thesegenotypes by the formation of 23 clusters. Cluster I had the maximum number of genotypes i.e 22 and cluster 23 had onlyone genotype. Intra cluster distance analysis revealed that the minimum intra cluster distance was observed in the cluster II.The inter-cluster distance (D was found to be the maximum between the clusters XXII and XXIII and the same wasminimum between clusters II and V. The results indicated that grain yield per plant contributed maximum to the totaldivergence followed by 100 seed weight and days to 50% flowering. Number of branches per plant had least contribution tothe total divergence followed by petiole length. The existence of wide genetic diversity among the types chosen from thesame geographical location was obviously seen. In the present study, the variety Vellayani local had the maximum value forplant height and pod length and thereby distinguished from other varieties and it is present singly in the cluster XXIII. Henceit is proved to be widely divergent, since its yield is high, it can be used for further crossing and yield improvement. Thecluster XVIII had the highest cluster mean values for number of clusters per plant and the cluster XIV has the highest meanvalue for grain yield per plant. These two clusters may be utilized in crossing programme which may yield in a widespectrum of variability and for selection for seed yield in the subsequent generations. The clustering pattern of the varietiesin the present study clearly indicated that there was no parallelism between genetic and geographic diversities. Based on themean performance and genetic divergence, the genotypes Vellayani local, NBC 7, Lola, CP 18, CP 150, ACM 05-07 can beused for crossing and further selection.

R.M.Nagalakshmi, R. Usha Kumari and M. B. Boranayaka

2010-07-01

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Antimicrobial activity and fumonisins associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

OpenAIRE

A survey involving 71 farmers from rural communities in Mpumalanga, South Africa was conducted to gather information regarding the importance and utilisation of cowpea. Cowpea was rated third most important in contributing to household security, preceded by maize and vegetable production. Cowpea was mainly produced for own consumption, as a source of income and as fodder for livestock to a lesser extent. The crop was used by 8.5% of the farmers for medicinal purposes. Results indicated that 2...

Kritzinger, Quenton

2004-01-01

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Nutritional aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fortified cookies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Defatted cowpea flour was used to replace 10%, 20% and 30% of wheat flour in cookies. The wheat flour and cowpea-fortified cookies were prepared with standardized levels of ingredients. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and sensory characteristics of the different cookies were investigated. The fortification with cowpea flour increased the contents of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus and reducing non-reducing and total sugars. The fortification resulted in slight reduction in the in vitro digestibility. The products were accepted by the panelists who gave high scores for most of the attributes, although the fortification with more than 10% cowpea flour significantly (P<0.05) affected those attributes when compared with the control sample.(Author)

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Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

2012-01-01

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Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ? 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus. PMID:22661784

Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

2009-06-01

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Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) after tannery sludge compost amendment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with ta [...] nnery sludge compost (TSC). Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%). Only Cr accumulation was significant (P

Maria Doroteia, Marçal Silva; Ademir Sérgio, Ferreira Araújo; Luís Alfredo, Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José, de Melo; Rajeev, Pratap Singh.

2013-09-01

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Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: ? We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. ? Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ? Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. ? .05) affected by the radiation. ? Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

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Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

2012-01-15

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced...

Silva, F. V.; Simo?es-arau?jo, J. L.; Silva Ju?nior, J. P.; Xavier, G. R.; Rumjanek, N. G.

2012-01-01

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Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than ...

Warin Pimpa; Chanin Umponstira; Suckaluck Nanegrungsun

2006-01-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biologi [...] cal nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Terezinha Ferreira, Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de, Lima; José de Paula, Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo, Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

2011-09-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp. development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206. The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC and mineral nitrogen control (NC, all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24 in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima

2011-09-01

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Comparative Analysis of Six DNA Extraction Methods in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp  

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Full Text Available High quality DNA extractions are a prerequisite for genetic studies of a variety of plants including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Nowadays, there are a great number of plant DNA extraction methods, and commercially available extraction kits are also becoming more and more popular. It appears that different procedures work best for different plant groups. Thus in the genetic studies of cowpea, which DNA extraction method to choose becomes a concern. To solve this problem, five classic plant DNA isolation methods, including three CTAB methods and two SDS methods, were compared and evaluated while isolation using a commercial kit was also undertaken. The DNA extracted by these six methods from two-week-old cowpea seedlings were analyzed according to their cost and time, yield, purity, integrity, and functionality in restriction endonuclease digestion and PCR (polymerase chain reaction based downstream analysis. After the evaluation, one most suitable method, described by Dellaporta et al. (1983 was selected and chosen for isolating DNA from young leaves of cowpea seedlings. The cost and time required in this method was relatively low. In addition, the quantity and the quality of the DNA extracted by this method were high enough to perform hundreds of PCR-based reactions.

Huaqiang Tan

2013-06-01

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Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

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Composition and Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp Flour and Protein Isolates  

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Full Text Available Protein isolates from dehulled defatted cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. seeds were prepared using isoelectric (CPIA precipitation and micellization (CPIB procedures. Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB.The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF, protein isolates showed 75 and 76% for CPIA and CPIB, respectively. The minimum protein solubility for CPIA was at pH 5.0 and for CPIB at pH 4.0. Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions. For water and oil absorption capacity, DDCF gave 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample, respectively; while CPIA gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.93 mL oil g-1 sample, CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 sample. Thus CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein at pH 2.0 The emulsion capacity for both cowpea protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. Least gelation concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF and both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and (CPIB was noted at 12.0% (w/v at both pH 4.0 and 7.0.

E.A. Elkhalifa

2012-01-01

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Production of intraspecific F1 hybrids between wild and cultivated accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) using conventional methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants. PMID:17612353

Lelou, B; Van Damme, P

2006-01-01

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Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

2011-09-15

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Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: ? In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ? Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. ? Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. ? Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. ? Irradiatioutritional content. ? Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

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Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments. PMID:21732069

El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

2012-07-01

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Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to Water Stress and Phosphorus Fertilization  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted in the experimental college of agriculture and forestry, in Maputo-Mozambique, in order to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to irrigation and phosphorus and test the hypothesis that high levels of phosphorus improves the tolerance of plants to water stress. We used a variety IT 18 of cowpea, short cycle and ended. The experiment was subdivided into building plots complete block design with five repetitions, the irrigation factor was fixed at the main plot with two levels (with irrigation and without irrigation and phosphorus factor in sub-plots with 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of phosphorus. The fertilization strongly influenced the yield and the number of pods per plant in both irrigation conditions. The effect of fertilizing phosphorus was higher under irrigation. The interaction was significant only for grain yield and number of pods, which means that the effect of phosphorus in these two variables has not been the same for the two levels of irrigation, high levels of phosphate fertilizer (P2O5 have improved the tolerance of cowpea when not irrigated.

V.G. Uarrota

2010-01-01

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CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS. Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

Spraggins Thomas A

2007-04-01

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Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

Vincenzo De Feo

2013-02-01

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer. PMID:16256689

Mota, A C; Damatta, R A; Lima Filho, M; Silva, C P; Xavier-Filho, J

2003-09-01

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Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F.) Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.)  

OpenAIRE

Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower) were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fu...

Naheed Ikram; Shahnaz Dawar

2012-01-01

32

Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

OpenAIRE

The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets fo...

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe Salazar-García; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo

2009-01-01

33

Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Science.gov (United States)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

2011-09-01

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as trap plant  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

F.V. Silva

2012-06-01

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhi [...] zobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

F.V., Silva; J.L., Simões-Araújo; J.P., Silva Júnior; G.R., Xavier; N.G., Rumjanek.

2012-06-01

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. PMID:24031880

Silva, F V; Simões-Araújo, J L; Silva Júnior, J P; Xavier, G R; Rumjanek, N G

2012-04-01

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Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp using a soybean genome array  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an important food and fodder legume of the semiarid tropics and subtropics worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High density genetic linkage maps are needed for marker assisted breeding but are not available for cowpea. A single feature polymorphism (SFP is a microarray-based marker which can be used for high throughput genotyping and high density mapping. Results Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%. Conclusion We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.

Wanamaker Steve

2008-02-01

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A stakeless yard long bean cultivar derived from an interspecific cross between cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and yard long bean Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: 'Yard long bean' is an important vegetable in the Thai diet, particularly in Northeast Thailand. However, growing 'yard long beans' requires stakes for supporting the twining stems and keeping the pod from touching the ground. Staking costs money, takes time and needs labour. An ideal cultivar would be a 'yard long bean' with erect plant type and under 80 cm in height that produces typical long bean pods and allows convenient picking during the harvest time. An attempt to breed such a cultivar was made by crossing cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) with' yard long bean' Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.) in 1984. This resulted in a new cultivar 'KKU 25'. This cultivar, having erect plant type, requires no staking for supporting the stem and produces long fresh pods with acceptable taste which can be harvested within 43 days. The average pod length is 48 cm, and pod diameter 1.43 cm. In a preliminary yield trial, an average fresh pod yield of 16 t/ha was obtained. (author)

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) / Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata) como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC), de [...] corticado (DC), cocido (CC), germinado (GC) y extruido (EXC). Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g) usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos. Abstract in english The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled [...] (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g) to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.

Martha Elisa, Rivas-Vega; Ofelia, Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe, Salazar-García; Josafat Marina, Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto, Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto, Civera-Cerecedo.

2009-04-01

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC, dehulled (DC, cooked (CC, germinated (GC and extruded (EXC. The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC, decorticado (DC, cocido (CC, germinado (GC y extruido (EXC. Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos.

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega

2009-04-01

41

Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation - modulation of microRNA 126.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-?, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-?B and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component. PMID:25300227

Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

2015-01-24

42

Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

2014-01-01

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COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.) / COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP) base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ) para l [...] os caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa) y vega (textura franco-arcillosa). Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a) Sin fertilizante; b) FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c) DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d), con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreció el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF) on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF) for the above characters. Two soil types were used: sa [...] vanna (sand lime texture) and “vega” (lime clay texture). Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a) without fertilizer; b) CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c) WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS), with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor

Jesús Rafael, Méndez-Natera; Víctor Alejandro, Otahola-Gómez; Rubén E, Pereira-Garantón; José A, Simosa-Mallé; Luis, Tellis; Enrique, Zabala.

2007-04-01

44

COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP. COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L. WALP.  

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Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ para los caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa y vega (textura franco-arcillosa. Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a Sin fertilizante; b FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d, con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreci?? el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF for the above characters. Two soil types were used: savanna (sand lime texture and “vega” (lime clay texture. Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a without fertilizer; b CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS, with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor for average number of total germination days and germination velocity, whit averages of 3.2 and 7.9,

Jesús Rafael Méndez-Natera

2007-04-01

45

Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested c...

Sule Ola Salawu; Emmanuel Oluwafemi Ibukun; Oladipupo David; Bukola Bunmi Ola-Salawu

2014-01-01

46

Comparative Protection of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers Against Field Insect Pests Using Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Cypermethrin (Cymbush)  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of ethanolic extract of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) in protecting Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. against field insect pests was ascertained through two field trials at two different planting seasons by comparing with a suitable insecticide, Cymbush 10 EC containing 100 g Cypermethrin per litre of water under natural infestation at Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. The liquid which is viscous and contains Phenolic compounds was first standardized in the screen house using concentrat...

Ofuya, T. I.; Olotuah, O. F.

2010-01-01

47

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays) and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality  

OpenAIRE

Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop) were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping...

Ghanbari, Ahmad; Eskandari, Hamdollah

2009-01-01

48

Cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.: traditional and improved cropping methods in northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The present article describes the traditional cowpea cropping system in Dambatta, Kano State, Nigeria. Through a baseline survey it becomes clear that traditionally cowpea is mostly intercropped with cereals, that the importance of land preparation is marginal, that yields are low and that, in general, the technical level of the cowpea grower is low (low inputs of fertilizer and pesticide. In a second part some data are given about a project that introduced à new cowpea variety, T.V.X.-3.236, and improved methods. It is shown that, although better yields are possible, the extension service does not succeed in motivating the farmers enough so that the outcome of the project intervention is uncertain.

W. Sampers

1986-01-01

49

Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in the Tropics / Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. en los Trópicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En los trópicos húmedos, el mayor obstáculo para la aplicación de sistemas de agricultura sostenible es la reducción de la eficiencia del uso de nutrientes por los cultivos. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de cinco cepas de rizobios seleccionados en simbiosis con frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. [...] ), con el objetivo de sustituir la fertilización nitrogenada en el sistema de uso de suelo predominante utilizado por los pequeños agricultores. El estudio se llevó a cabo en tres zonas adyacentes de distintos usos agrícolas: labranza convencional, agricultura itinerante, y un sistema de no laboreo. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete tratamientos: cinco cepas de rizobios (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B y UFLA 3-84) y dos controles sin inocular (uno sin N mineral y otro fertilizado con 74 kg de N ha-1). Se midió el peso en seco de 100 granos, de los nódulos y de los brotes, así como los rendimientos de frijol y se calcularon los índices de eficiencia relativa y absoluta para la producción de biomasa seca de los brotes de frijol. El sistema de uso del suelo afecta el número y peso en seco de los nódulos y, en consecuencia, la masa de la materia vegetal seca y el rendimiento del frijol. En términos de rendimiento, hubo una gran diferencia entre el convencional y los sistemas itinerantes. La productividad fue alrededor de cuatro veces mayor en la agricultura itinerante (1009,9 kg ha-1 en comparación con 243,7 kg ha-1). En condiciones de suelos propensos a la cohesión, el sistema de labranza convencional reduce la posibilidad de cultivo de una segunda cosecha en el año, incluso con la inoculación o la fertilización nitrogenada. Abstract in english In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), with the objective of r [...] eplacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage, itinerant agriculture, and a no-till system. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates and seven treatments: five rhizobia strains (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B, and UFLA 3-84) and two controls without inoculation (one without mineral N and another fertilized with 74 kg N ha-1). We measured the dry mass of 100 grains, nodules and shoots, as well as cowpea yields and calculated relative and absolute efficiency indices for dry biomass production of cowpea shoots. Agricultural uses affected the number and dry mass of the nodules and, consequently, the mass of the dry plant matter and bean yield. In terms of yield, there was a major difference between the conventional and the itinerant systems. Yield was around four times as high in the itinerant system (1009.9 kg ha-1 compared to 243.7 kg ha-1). Under conditions of cohesion-prone soils, the system of conventional tillage reduces the possibility of cultivation of a second harvest in the year even with inoculation or N fertilization.

José Geraldo, Donizetti dos Santos; Alana das Chagas, Ferreira Aguiar; Edilson Máximo, Silva Junior; Danubia, Lemes Dadalto; Merijane, Rodrigues Sousa; Gustavo, Ribeiro Xavier; Emanoel, Gomes de Moura.

2011-12-01

50

Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips  

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Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

Ampong-Nyarko, K.

1994-01-01

51

Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length of seedling in vigna unguiculata . The chlorine water has inhibitory effect on root growth ( radical length and number of rootlets in Vigna unguiculata . The fresh weight and dry weight goes on decreasing in chlorine water treatment of Vigna unuiculata over control.Chlorine is essential micronutrient in plant vital processes. However, higher concentration of chlorine inhibits the plant vital process during seed germination of Vigna uguiculata. The higher concentration of chlorine affects the seed germination percentage, leaves number, seedling growth, radical length with rootlets, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling

Sharad Phulari

2013-08-01

52

Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia" in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, ?15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study all belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Some strains from Southern Africa were phylogenetically very distinct, suggesting a new Bradyrhizobium species.

Dakora Felix D

2010-03-01

53

Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)  

OpenAIRE

Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming sig...

Eskandari, Hamdollah; Kazemi, Kamyar

2011-01-01

54

Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis  

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Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI

2011-11-01

55

Mycoflora and fumonisin mycotoxins associated with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea seed samples from South Africa and Benin were analyzed for seed mycoflora. Fusariumspecies detected were F. equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, F. sambucinum, F. semitectum, and F. subglutinans. Cowpea seed from South Africa and Benin and F. proliferatum isolates from Benin, inoculated onto maize patty medium, were analyzed for fumonisin production. Samples were extracted with methanol/water and cleaned up on strong anion exchange solid phase extraction cartridges. HPLC with precolumn derivatization using o-phthaldialdehyde was used for the detection and quantification of fumonisins. Cowpea cultivars from South Africa showed the presence of fumonisin B(1) at concentrations ranging between 0.12 and 0.61 microg/g, whereas those from Benin showed no fumonisins. This is believed to be the first report of the natural occurrence of FB(1) on cowpea seed. Fumonisin B(1), B(2), and B(3) were produced by all F. proliferatum isolates. Total fumonisin concentrations were between 0.8 and 25.30 microg/g, and the highest level of FB(1) detected was 16.86 microg/g. PMID:12670154

Kritzinger, Quenton; Aveling, Theresa A S; Marasas, Walter F O; Rheeder, John P; Van Der Westhuizen, Liana; Shephard, Gordon S

2003-04-01

56

Germination studies in some varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. walp. (cowpea) from northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%), seedling weight change (1.52 g), shoot length (25.81 cm), root length (23.12 cm) was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties. PMID:24506028

Wada, B Y; Abubakar, B Y

2013-10-15

57

Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea from Northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%, seedling weight change (1.52 g, shoot length (25.81 cm, root length (23.12 cm was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

B.Y. Abubakar

2013-01-01

58

Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp as influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed interference in South-West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Weed problem appears to be the most deleterious factor causing between 25 and 60% reduction in potential yield of cowpea. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effect of inter-row spacing and period of weed interference on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07° 15'; 03° 25' E in South Western Nigeria during the early and late wet seasons of 2009. The experiment consisted of eight main plots of weed interference which included initial weed removal for 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS and subsequently weed –infested until harvest as well as initial weed infestation for corresponding periods and thereafter kept weed free until harvest. There were also sub-plot treatments of three inter-row spacing of 60, 75, and 90 cm. All treatments in different combinations were laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. In both trials, the use of inter-row spacing of 60 cm resulted in significant reduction in weed growth as evident in lower weed dry matter production and subsequent higher cowpea pod and grain yields than those of 75 and 90 cm inter-row spacing. Initial weed infestation of up to 3 WAS did not have any adverse effect on crop growth and cowpea grain yields provided the weeds were subsequently removed. On the other hand, cowpea grain yield loss was not significantly averted by keeping the crop weed free for only 3 WAS without subsequent weed removal. In this study, initial weed-infestation for 6 WAS and beyond significantly depressed various crop growth parameter and cowpea grain yield compared with the crop kept weed free throughout its life cycle. In order to obtain optimum yields similar to that of the weed free cowpea field, it was required to keep the crop weed free for 6 WAS and beyond. However, frequent weeding beyond 9 weeks after sowing did not improve cowpea yield significantly and as a matter of fact it may even result in reduction of cowpea grain yield due to mechanical damage of hoe weeding. The practical implication of this finding is that early weeding starting from 3 WAS is very crucial for cowpea production while the critical period of weed removal for optimum yield in cowpea is between 3 and 9 WAS in the forest-savannah transitional zone of south Western Nigeria.

Joseph Adigun

2014-03-01

59

A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea  

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Full Text Available Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

T.M. Venâncio

2003-09-01

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Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea)  

OpenAIRE

Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v) chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length ...

Sharad Phulari

2013-01-01

61

Response of Vegetable Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Intra-Row Spacing and Defoliation at Garkawa  

OpenAIRE

A field experiment aimed at investigating the response of vegetable cowpea to intra-row spacing and defoliation at 4, 6 and 8 Weeks after Sowing (WAS) was conducted in 2009 at the Plateau State College of Agriculture, Garkawa, Nigeria (Southern guinea Savannah). Treatments consisted of four intra-row spacing (20, 30, 40, 50 cm, respectively) and four defoliation levels (0, 25, 50 and 75%, respectively). These were factorially combined and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with th...

Badi, S. H.; Dikwahal, H. D.; Jibung, G. G.

2012-01-01

62

Genetic divergence in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] for yield components and seed quality parameters  

OpenAIRE

Forty cowpea genotypes were evaluated for 18 quantitative characters to estimate the genetic diversity existing among them by using Mahalanobis D2statistics. The genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The cluster strength varied from single genotype (Clusters III, IV and V) to 25 genotypes (Cluster I). Clusteres IV and VI had high inter cluster distance. Clusters II, III and I had maximum 100-seed weight, number of seeds per pod and seed yield respectively. Cluster IV had maximum seedling ...

Brahmaiah M, Jhansi Rani K.

2014-01-01

63

Response of Vegetable Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to Intra-Row Spacing and Defoliation at Garkawa  

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Full Text Available A field experiment aimed at investigating the response of vegetable cowpea to intra-row spacing and defoliation at 4, 6 and 8 Weeks after Sowing (WAS was conducted in 2009 at the Plateau State College of Agriculture, Garkawa, Nigeria (Southern guinea Savannah. Treatments consisted of four intra-row spacing (20, 30, 40, 50 cm, respectively and four defoliation levels (0, 25, 50 and 75%, respectively. These were factorially combined and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Vegetable Cowpea growth related characters (plant height, shoot fresh weight per plant increased significantly with decreasing levels of intra-row spacing. The intra-row spacing of 20 cm yielded 5.7 g edible leaf yields per plot. Defoliation level at 25% gave 6.8 edible leaf yields. The interaction between intra-row spacing at 20 cm and defoliation level at 25% produced the highest green pod yield of 404.7 kg/ha. Based on these findings, it would be suggested that harvesting 25% leaves of vegetable cowpea at a spacing of 20 cm at 4 and 6 WAS be practiced for optimum leaf and seed production.

S.H. Badi

2012-05-01

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Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation. PMID:25601371

Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

2015-02-01

65

Fresh Pod Yield and Some Pod Characteristics of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes from Turkey  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the fresh pod yield, some plant and pod characteristics of eight local cowpea genotypes and two registered cowpea cultivars as control during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 plant growth season in Samsun. Plant height, number of branches per plant, days to first pod setting, fresh pod harvest period, number of pods per plant, average pod weight, pod length, width, thickness, flesh thickness and seed coat, flower and pod colour were determined. Simple correlations were also calculated between fresh pod yield per plant and all investigated traits. The highest fresh pod yield per plant was in G10 genotype (110.23 g plant-1. This was followed by registered cowpea cv. Karagoz-86 (81.92 g plant-1, Akkiz-86 (58.12 g plant-1 and Kirazlik1 (54.55 g plant-1. Positive and highly significant (P<0.01 correlations were found between fresh pod yield per plant and fresh pod harvest period, number of pods per plant, average pod weight, length and width. There were also positive and significant (P<0.05 correlations among fresh pod yield per plant, number of branches per plant and pod thickness.

Aysun Peksen

2004-01-01

66

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality  

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Full Text Available Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays and cowpea (Vigna sinensis monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on forage dry weight, where dry matter yield was increased by intercropping as compared with maize and cowpea sole crops. It was related with a higher consumption consumption of environmental resources, such as photosynthetically active radiation and soil moisture, by intercropping. Maize forage quality in terms of crude protein was improved by intercropping. It was because of more nitrogen availability for maize in intercropping compared with its sole crop.

Ahmad GHANBARI

2009-11-01

67

VALOR NUTRICIONAL DEL ENSILAJE DE MAÍZ CULTIVADO EN ASOCIO CON VIGNA (Vigna radiata  

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Full Text Available Se cuantificó la fermentabilidad y valor nutricional del ensilaje de maíz cultivado en asocio con vigna (Vigna radiata mediante la técnica de microsilos. Se trabajó con 2 densidades de siembra de maíz y vigna (70:30 y 60:40, 3 niveles de melaza (0, 2 y 4% p/p e inóculo bacterial (con o sin. El material se cosechó a 85 días de sembrado. Al material antes de ensilar y ensilado se le determinó materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, extracto etéreo (EE, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS, cenizas (Ce, fibra detergente neutro (FDN, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, capacidad buffer (CB, pH, nitrógeno amoniacal (N-NH3.N-total-1 y lignina. Al mejor tratamiento, se le fraccionó la PC y se estimó el contenido energético. La asociación maíz-vigna presentó un contenido de humedad, digestibilidad y Ce alto; PC y EE aceptables y contenidos de FDN y FDA bajos. En el material ensilado, la densidad de siembra fectó la MS, Ce, PC, EE, FDN, FDA, lignina, N-NH3.N-total-1, CB y pH. La melaza modificó la composición nutricional y las características fermentativas de los tratamientos, excepto el pH. El inóculo bacterial afectó la PC, CB y pH del material. La densidad de siembra 70:30, con adición de 2% de melaza y sin inóculo bacterial presentó valores de DIVMS y PC altos, porcentajes de FDN y FDA bajos, N-NH3 bajo y un pH inferior a 4,2. En este ensilaje se estimó un valor de NDT (1X de 63,9% y de ED, EM, ENm, ENg y ENl de 2,8, 2,3, 1,4, 0,8 y 1,4 Mcal.kg-1 MS, respectivamente. La fracción proteica se separó en A, B1, B2, B3 y C con valores de 2,3, 0,2, 2,6,2,4 y 1,9% PC, respectivamente, donde el 24,4% de la PC es degradable en el rumen, lo cual podría limitar la síntesis de proteína microbial.

Marianela Castillo Jim\\u00E9nez

2009-01-01

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Insecticidal Effect of Jatropha curcas Oil on the Aphid Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the Main Insect Pests Associated with Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in Niger  

OpenAIRE

The insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas has been evaluated on various crop pests. Oil concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15% were first tested on the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) as part of an efficacy test conducted in the laboratory. During a second stage, the insecticidal efficacy of 5 and 7.5% oil concentrations was evaluated on the main pests infesting cowpea crops (Vigna unguiculata L.) as part of a field test conducted at the University of Niamey (Niger)....

Abdoul Habou, Z.; Haougui, A.; Mergeai, G.; Haubruge, E.; Toudou, A.; Verheggen, Fj

2011-01-01

69

Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils  

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Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

José B. M. Coelho

2013-04-01

70

Induced genetic variability for quantitative traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variability in a crop plant can be increased either by hybridization among diverse genotypes or through induced mutation. To harness more variability, mutation has been superimposed on hybridization in several crops. An attempt has been made to study the variability generated by hybridization and mutagenesis in cowpea in the present investigation. The evaluation of about 200 germplasm lines of cowpea, revealed the superiority of C-11 and C-70 in respect of pod length, number of pods per plant and boldness, while KM-1, distinctly determinate in nature, thus acting as source for creation of different plant types which is an important aspect in cowpea breeding. C-152 is a locally adopted variety but lacking in some of the desirable features that are present in C-11,KM-1 and C-70.Therefore it was planned to attempt hybridization with C- 152 as base and C-11,KM-1 and C-70 as the different sources of specific features. But as outlined above, since the combination of mutation is expected to release more variability subjected for an appropriate dose of gamma radiation. The resulting M2 and F2M2 populations of different crosses were evaluated for comparing their relative efficiency in generating variability of quantitative characters. The F2M2 population of C-152 x C-11 showed highest mean values for plant height, number of pods per plant and yield. Variance and range values were high in F2M2 populatiigh in F2M2 populations for all the characters except number of seeds per pod. The irradiated population of C-152 x KM-1 proved to be superior in producing greater frequency of transgressive segregants for individual traits. Irradiated heterozygous population produced more variability than that of irradiated parent (C-152 M2) and control. (author)

71

Determination of Genotypical Differences for Leaf Characteristics in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes  

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Full Text Available Leaf characteristics of ten cowpea genotypes, including registered Cv. Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, from diverse locations in Turkey and relationships among leaf characteristics such as length of leaf, petiole, petiolule and terminal leaflet, terminal leaflet width and leaf area were determined. Significant differences were found among genotypes in terms of leaf and petiole length while highly significant differences found for petiolule length. There were no significant differences among genotypes for width and length of terminal leaflet and leaf area. Terminal leaflet length positively and significantly correlated with petiole and petiolule length. Positive and highly significant correlations were found between the other leaf characteristics.

Erkut Peksen

2005-01-01

72

Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.  

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Full Text Available Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152 of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi and mean square deviations (s2di from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment, environment (linear weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability analysis, the genotype IL3 was found stable across the seasons fortest weight. Genotypes such as M17, Goa local and Bailhongal local were stable and superior across all the environments for seed yield.

Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

2010-12-01

73

Transport and utilization of 14C photosynthate in cowpea (Vigna uniquiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out to study the transport and distribution patterns of 14C assimilate during the reproductive phase of cowpea var. Pusa dofashali. The pattern of 14C distribution and relative transport from different leaf positions were assessed. The effect of 'Source' and 'Sink' size on movement and distribution of assimilates was also studied. During the reproductive phase, a considerable amount of 14C assimilates was trans-located to pod (34%) and to stem and branches (25.5%). Roots gained little amount of assimilate when whole plant was exposed to 14CO2. The export of 14C assimilates from middle leaf on plant without pod as well as from leaf at node bearing pod was of greater maqnitude as compared with the lowest leaf on the main stem. Export of 14C photosynthates was highest from 'source leaf' when all other leaves were removed and a higher proportion of 14C was recovered in stem and pods. When pods were removed the export of assimilate from source leaf was reduced. On depodded plants the stem and roots accumulated considerably larger amounts of 14C assimilates than normal plants. The assimilate requirements by pods determined the degree of diversion of assimilate into the vegetative parts during the reproductive ohase. Thus source sink relationships in varietal improvement programmes with cowpea merit consideration. (auth.)ation. (auth.)

74

Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F.) and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

OpenAIRE

Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infeste...

Darfour, B.; Ocloo, F. C. K.; Wilson, D. D.

2012-01-01

75

Inheritance of Time to First Flower in Photo-insensitive Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Early maturity is a relatively important agronomic trait and is important in the adaptation of annual crops, including cowpea to any agro ecological zone. This trait was studied using days to first flowering under screen house condition to determine heterotic effects, heritability and inheritance of early heritable (h2ns was 98.9% while (h2bs was 68%. The F1 hybrid performed better than the average parent by 8.82 and 23.3% over the superior parent. Transgressive segregation was observed in the F2 population with plants flowering 9 days earlier than the early parent and 37 days later than the late maturing parent. Inheritance of earliness was observed to be controlled by duplicate dominant epistasis with late flowering partially dominant over early flowering.

A.O. Adeyanju

2007-01-01

76

Reaction of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Cultivars to Yellow Mosaic Virus Disease  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at three different locations of Punjab with twenty-four genotypes of cowpea under natural field conditions where yellow mosaic virus disease is a serious problem. Yellow mosaic virus infestation was rated after 4-5 weeks of sowing. Results indicated that genotypes 1T-95k-1156-3, 1T-94k-137-6, 1T-97k-9042-8,1T-97k-499-4, 1T-97k-497-2, 1T-93k-452,1T-97-k-350-4, SA Dandy, p-518, Elite, No.44 and 1T-84-552 showed highly resistant to resistant reaction, 1T-94k-440-3, 1T-95k-627-34, 1TK-238-3 gave tolerant to moderately tolerant reaction and 11-97k-461-4, 1T-97k-1021-15 showed moderately tolerant to susceptible reaction.

Yousaf Ali

2002-01-01

77

Mecanismos de adaptación a sequía en caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Una revisión / Drought adaptation mechanisms in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.). A review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de adaptación a sequía observados en fríjol caupí, mostrando las respuestas morfológicas, las relaciones hídricas e intercambio gaseoso, el ajuste osmótico, el sistema antioxidante y la actividad molecular. Se describen algunos indicadores que pe [...] rmiten la aproximación a un diagnóstico del nivel de estrés de las plantas tales como la relación raíz/parte aérea, densidad y profundidad de raíces, materia seca radical, área foliar específica, número de hojas y flores, senescencia foliar y abscisión foliar, componentes del rendimiento, conductancia estomática, transpiración, eficiencia en el uso del agua, contenido de osmolitos: prolina, glicina betaína y azucares; actividad de enzimas antioxidantes involucradas en procesos de detoxificación de las especies reactivas de oxígeno: catalasa, ascorbato peroxidasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión reductasa, así como la visualización de la frontera del conocimiento en este aspecto de gran importancia para el mejoramiento de la especie y los avances en biología molecular. Abstract in english This article presents a review of the drought adaptation mechanisms observed in the cowpea bean, providing the morphological responses, water and gas exchange ratios, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant system and molecular activity. Furthermore, the indicators that allow for the diagnosis of the plant [...] stress level are described, such as the root / shoot ratio, density and root depth, root dry-matter, specific leaf area, number of leaves and flowers, leaf senescence and abscission, yield components, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water-use efficiency, contents of the osmolytes: proline, glycine-betaine and sugars; activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification processes of the oxygen-reactive species: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, as well as the visualization of the knowledge-frontiers in this area that are of great importance to the improvement of the species and advances in molecular biology.

CARLOS, CARDONA-AYALA; ALFREDO, JARMA-OROZCO; HERMES, ARAMÉNDIZ-TATIS.

2013-12-01

78

Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed c [...] oats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

Walison Fabio, Rogério; Ralf, Greiner; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Sabrina, Feitosa; Dalva Maria da Nóbrega, Furtunato; Deusdélia Teixeira de, Almeida.

2014-06-01

79

Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested cowpeas commonly consumed in Nigeria. The result revealed that infestation brings about an increase in the evaluated anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and alkaloids and a marked reduction in protein, carbohydrate content, whereas a marked increase was recorded for the fibre content. The result of the antioxidant activities revealed a significant reduction for total phenol, total flavonoids and reducing power and a slight reduction was recorded for the inhibitory action against lipid oxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and 1, 1-diphenyly-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities after infestation. The present investigations revealed that Callosobruchus maculatus infestation do not only affect the nutrient composition of the studied cowpeas by reducing the nutritional value, but would also have an adverse effect on their potential to prevent free radical mediated diseases.

Sule Ola Salawu

2014-03-01

80

Minimising Insecticide Application in the Control of Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L) WALP) in Delta State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Many commercial cowpea farmers control insect pests on cowpea with synthetic chemicals and may sometimes spray their farms during the growing season as many as 8 to 10 times. This leads to health hazards and environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to reduce the number of times, cypermethrin (conventional chemical) is applied before harvest and still, produce the expected cowpea grains. The experiments were carried out in two agro-ecological zones - Asaba and Abraka of Delta S...

Egho, E. O.; Enujeke, E. C.

2012-01-01

81

Atuação de rizóbios com rizobactéria promotora de crescimento em plantas na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. = Rhizobias performance with rhizobacteria growth promoter in plants in the cowpea crop (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a potencialidade da colonização conjunta em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. por Paenibacillus e Bradyrhizobium em diferentes métodos de inoculação que proporcionam crescimento visando a uma agricultura sustentável. Os trabalhos foram realizados na Empresa Pernambucana de PesquisaAgropecuária (IPA, com Argissolo Amarelo (Itapirema, Estado de Pernambuico, dois modos de inoculação (semente e solo em cultivar de caupi (IPA-205. Foi determinado: número e matéria seca dos nódulos; matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA e raiz (MSR; relação MSPA/MSR; Nitrogênio acumulado na MSPA; altura da planta. As estirpes de rizóbios apresentaram comportamento instável nos diferentes métodos de inoculação. A eficiência simbiótica da colonização conjunta do sistema radicular por Paenibacillus e as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium nos diferentes métodos de inoculação apresentou-se variável. Os benefícios têm sido aqui evidentes e os fatos informados na literatura podem direcionar futuros estudos que ajudem a explicar os comportamentos acima relatados sobre diferentes mecanismos de ação de cada célula bacteriana.The aim of this work was to verify the cocolonization potential in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. for Paenibacillus andBradyrhizobium, using different inoculation methods to provide growth, seeking a maintainable agriculture. The study was carried out at Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária, in Yellow Argisol (Itapirema, Pernambuco State. Two methods of inoculation (seed and soil in cowpea crop (IPA-205 was used. The following aspects wereevaluated: number and dry matter nodule; shoot dry matter (SDM and root (RDM; relation SDM/RDM; nitrogen accumulated in the SDM and plant height. The rhizobial strains showed low stability in the different inoculation methods. The symbiotic efficiency of the cocolonization for Paenibacillus and the Bradyrhizobium strains in the different inoculation methods were variable. Results showed that the benefits here are evident. And, this literature review can address future studies aiming to explain the behaviors mentioned above under different mechanisms of action of each bacterial cell.

Valéria Nogueira da Silva

2006-07-01

82

Minimising Insecticide Application in the Control of Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L WALP in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Many commercial cowpea farmers control insect pests on cowpea with synthetic chemicals and may sometimes spray their farms during the growing season as many as 8 to 10 times. This leads to health hazards and environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to reduce the number of times, cypermethrin (conventional chemical is applied before harvest and still, produce the expected cowpea grains. The experiments were carried out in two agro-ecological zones - Asaba and Abraka of Delta State during the late cropping season. The experiments consisted of 4 treatments - cowpea plots sprayed 4 times (at 7 days’ intervals, cowpea plots sprayed 5 times (at 10 days’ intervals, cowpea plots whose insect infestation were monitored before chemical application and control plots (without chemical treatment. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experiments were organised into a randomised complete block design (RCBD. The results indicated that cypermethrin controlled the major insect pests of cowpea.  Second, grain yield was high at both locations; significant differences did not exist (P>0.05 in insect number and grain yield among the treatments. The study provides the evidence that (i high cowpea grain yield is obtained at reduced number of chemical application of 4 or 5 times during the growing season (ii Grain yield was significantly (P<0.05 higher at Abraka with1400.60kg ha-1 than Asaba (714.40kg ha-1 during the late cropping season.

E. O. Egho

2012-01-01

83

Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae  

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Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

Sales M.P.

2001-01-01

84

Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption. PMID:11442221

Jirapa, P; Normah, H; Zamaliah, M M; Asmah, R; Mohamad, K

2001-01-01

85

Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield  

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Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were cropped continuously for 3 years in plots with a natural infestation of 24-53 microsclerotia g(-1) soil at the onset of the experiment. Next, a susceptible cowpea variety was grown to...

Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Bruggen, A. H. C.

2008-01-01

86

Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Results Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible and incompatible (resistant interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi and late (13 dpi stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301 – SG4z, multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Conclusion Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots following successful and unsuccessful attempted parasitism by Striga. Induction of specific defense related genes and pathways defines components of a unique resistance mechanism. Some genes and pathways up-regulated in the host resistance response to SG3 are repressed in the susceptible interactions, suggesting that the parasite is targeting specific components of the host’s defense. These results add to our understanding of plant-parasite interactions and the evolution of resistance to parasitic weeds.

Huang Kan

2012-08-01

87

Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita  

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In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

1988-01-01

88

Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de [...] feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains [...] were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

Simone Janaína da Silva, Morais; Ivano Alessandro, Devilla; Daiane Assis, Ferreira; Itamar Rosa, Teixeira.

2013-09-01

89

Effect of Sowing Distances on Edible Pod Yields and Yield Components of Three Vegetable Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis Subspecies, Grown in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Northeast Thailand in the 2006 (August to October to investigate effect of sowing distances on edible pod yields and yield components of three vegetable cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis subspecies. The experiment was laid in a split plot arranged in a Randomize Complete Block Design with four replications. Five sowing distances were used as main plots (50?10, 50?20, 50?30, 50?40 and 50?50 cm between rows and within rows, respectively and three cowpea cultivars were used as subplots (MSU 1, KKU 40 and SNU 1. The results showed that there were no statistical differences due to cultivars on total dry weight ha?1, number of branches plant?1, marketable pods ha?1, 100-seed weight and total fresh weight of pods ha?1 where in most cases genetic potential of the three cultivars were similar. Number of off standard pods was significantly highest with KKU 40 (6.13 pods plant?1, whilst MSU 1 and SNU 1 cultivars gave smaller values but both were similar (4.80 and 4.53 pods plant?1, respectively. The closest sowing distances (T1 gave significantly higher total dry weight ha?1 and number of off standard pods plant?1 than other treatments (T2-T5. An increase in sowing distances significantly increased number of branches plant?1 up to T2 but T2 was similar to other higher sowing distances (T3-T5. Total marketable pods (12,196.50 kg ha?1 and total fresh weight of edible pods (12,588.88 kg ha?1 were significantly highest with T3 where T3 was the most suitable sowing distances for either of the three cowpea cultivars (50?30 cm between rows and within rows, respectively.

Sinsiri Wantana

2007-01-01

90

Gibberellic Acid (GA3 Influence on Vegetative Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of GA3 on the growth and development of cowpea cultivars Blackeye and Tswana. Exogenous application of GA3, 7 days after emergence at 30, 60 or 90 mg L-1 significantly increased cowpea plant height, first node height, leaf area and leaf number/plant, nodulation, plant dry matter accumulation, pod length, pod number/plant, seed number/pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield ha-1. Gibberellic acid had no significant effect on cowpea plant senescence. The results of this study suggests that exogenous application of GA3 can be used to modify growth and development of some cowpea varieties.

V. Emongor

2007-01-01

91

Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

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Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

B. Darfour

2012-03-01

92

Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)  

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Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (pfoam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

Darfour, B.; Wilson, D. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Ocloo, F. C. K.

2012-04-01

93

Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

P. Van Damme

1986-01-01

94

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

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Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

2012-12-01

95

USING A SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM TO MEASURE CROP COEFFICIENTS AND WATER USE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Crop coefficients and water use by CB46 cowpea were measured using the same field and the same "slope" procedure developed and published for cotton, using a highly-efficient subsurface drip irrigation system on sandy soil at the University of California Shafter Research and Extension Center, near Sh...

96

Applicability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determination of crude protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is uncertainty on how generally applicable near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations are across genotypes and environments, and this study tests how well a single calibration performs across a wide range of conditions. We also address the optimization of NIRS to perform the analysis of crude protein (CP) content in a variety of cowpea accessions (n?=?561) representing genotypic variation as well as grown in a wide range of environmental conditions in Tanzania and Uganda. The samples were submitted to NIRS analysis and a predictive calibration model developed. A modified partial least-squares regression with cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. Calibration statistics for CP suggests that NIRS can predict this parameter in a wide range of cowpea leaves from different agro-ecological zones of eastern Africa with high accuracy (R (2)cal?=?0.93; standard error of cross-validation?=?0.74). NIRS analysis improved when a calibration set was developed from samples selected to represent the range of spectral variability. We conclude from the present results that this technique is a good alternative to chemical analysis for the determination of CP contents in leaf samples from cowpea in the African context, as one of the main advantages of NIRS is the large number of compounds that can be measured at once in the same sample, thus substantially reducing the cost per analysis. The current model is applicable in predicting the CP content of young cowpea leaves for human nutrition from different agro-ecological zones and genetic materials, as cowpea leaves are one of the popular vegetables in the region. PMID:24804013

Towett, Erick K; Alex, Merle; Shepherd, Keith D; Polreich, Severin; Aynekulu, Ermias; Maass, Brigitte L

2013-01-01

97

Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. Conclusion Effective sources of host resistance were identified in this study. QTL mapping and synteny analysis identified genomic loci harboring resistance factors and revealed candidate genes with potential for further functional genomics analysis.

Ehlers Jeffrey D

2011-01-01

98

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth.  

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The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8-1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth at a wide range of pH 6-12, optimum at pH 7.0 and tolerates up to 7% (w/v) salt concentration. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the confirmation of isolates to Enterobacter aerogenes sp. (NII-0907 and NII-0929), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae sp. (NII-0931) and Enterobacter asburiae sp. (NII-0934) with which they share >99% sequence similarity. Under in vitro conditions, all the four isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid, P-solubilization and hydrogen cyanide. The P-solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium (pH 7.0-<3.0). The plant growth promotion properties were demonstrated through a cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp) based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in root, shoot and biomass and it stimulated bacterial counts in the rhizosphere. Hence, these isolates can further formulated and used for field application. PMID:24026928

Deepa, C K; Dastager, Syed G; Pandey, Ashok

2010-07-01

99

Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short-term experiments were conducted with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solutions to examine the alleviation of Cu and Pb toxicities by Al, Ca, H, Mg, and Na. For Cu, the cations depolarized the plasma membrane (PM) and reduced the negativity of ?(0)(o) (electrical potential at the outer surface of the PM) and thereby decreased {Cu(2+)}(0)(o) (activity of Cu(2+) at the outer surface of the PM). For Pb, root elongation was generally better correlated to the activity of Pb(2+) in the bulk solution than to {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). However, we propose that the addition of cations resulted in a decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o) but a simultaneous increase in the rate of Pb uptake (due to an increase in the negativity of E(m,surf), the difference in potential between the inner and outer surfaces of the PM) thus offsetting the decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). In addition, Ca was found to alleviate Pb toxicity through a specific effect. Although our data do not preclude site-specific competition (as incorporated in the BLM), we suggest that electrostatic effects have an important role. PMID:21563792

Kopittke, Peter M; Kinraide, Thomas B; Wang, Peng; Blamey, F Pax C; Reichman, Suzie M; Menzies, Neal W

2011-06-01

100

Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Meth...

Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Fla?vio S. N.; Carvalho, Jose? L. V.; Viana, Daniela S.; Freitas, Sidinea C.; Rocha, Maurisrael M.

2014-01-01

101

Varietal Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to Striga gesnerioides (Willd. Vatke Race SG5 Infestation  

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Full Text Available The parasitic plant Striga gesnerioides (Willd Vatke is becoming a serious threat to cowpea production in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 7 races of S. gesnerioides exhibiting specific virulence have been identified. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 spreads in northern Cameroon and to study the inheritance of the resistance. Twelve accessions of cowpea, IT98K-205-8, IT98K-503-1, IT98K-1092-1, IT99K-216-1-1, IT98K-494-6, IT99K-529-4, IT99K-573-1-1, IT99K-573-2-1, IT00K-1207, IT03K-378-4, IT04K-227-4 and VYA were assessed in field trials for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 in Maroua, northern Cameroon and the genetics of the resistance from two sources was elucidated in artificially infested pots. Data on resistant and susceptible cowpea plants were analyzed using the chi-square test to ascertain the goodness of fit to different genetic ratios. Tests of resistance using field screening techniques showed that among these varieties, four were susceptible, four tolerant, two partially resistant while IT99K-573-1-1 and IT98K-205-8 appeared completely resistant to Striga race SG5. On susceptible varieties, the mean number of emerged S. gesnerioides plants 9 weeks after sowing was 1.8 to 2.4 per cowpea plant, while completely resistant lines carried none. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for percentage of infected plants, the decimation rates and Striga height. On susceptible genotypes, the seeds yield losses due to Striga infestation varied from 28.4 to 36.6% while for the fodder yield these losses ranged between 23.63 to 41.03%. The analysis of F1 and F2 populations resulting from crossings between resistant varieties and the susceptible tester VYA demonstrated that resistance is was controlled by two factor inheritance with duplicate dominant genes (Rsg5a and Rsg5b for IT99K-573-1-1 and a single dominant gene (Rsg5 for IT98K-205-8. These two varieties provide newly additional sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides and can be used in programmes of genetic improvement of this legume.

Emmanuel YOUMBI

2010-09-01

102

Restriction site polymorphism-based candidate gene mapping for seedling drought tolerance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.].  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies provide insight into the complexity of drought tolerance mechanisms. Molecular markers used in these studies also allow for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs, enabling transfer of genetic factors between breeding lines without complete knowledge of their exact nature. However, potential for recombination between markers and target genes limit the utility of MAS-based strategies. Candidate gene mapping offers an alternative solution to identify trait determinants underlying QTL of interest. Here, we used restriction site polymorphisms to investigate co-location of candidate genes with QTL for seedling drought stress-induced premature senescence identified previously in cowpea. Genomic DNA isolated from 113 F(2:8) RILs of drought-tolerant IT93K503-1 and drought susceptible CB46 genotypes was digested with combinations of EcoR1 and HpaII, Mse1, or Msp1 restriction enzymes and amplified with primers designed from 13 drought-responsive cDNAs. JoinMap 3.0 and MapQTL 4.0 software were used to incorporate polymorphic markers onto the AFLP map and to analyze their association with the drought response QTL. Seven markers co-located with peaks of previously identified QTL. Isolation, sequencing, and blast analysis of these markers confirmed their significant homology with drought or other abiotic stress-induced expressed sequence tags (EST) from cowpea and other plant systems. Further, homology with coding sequences for a multidrug resistance protein 3 and a photosystem I assembly protein ycf3 was revealed in two of these candidates. These results provide a platform for the identification and characterization of genetic trait determinants underlying seedling drought tolerance in cowpea. PMID:19834655

Muchero, Wellington; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A

2010-02-01

103

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

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Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

F.A.Ajayi

2006-01-01

104

Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, cultivar BRS-Milênio Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, BRS-Milênio cultivar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando-se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1: 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1: ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra. O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados.Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1: 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1 were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample. The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

2008-06-01

105

Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), cultivar BRS-Milênio / Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), BRS-Milênio cultivar  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio) foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando [...] -se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1): 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1): ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra). O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados. Abstract in english Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio) was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty [...] acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1): 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1) were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample). The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves, Frota; Rosana Aparecida Manólio, Soares; José Alfredo Gomes, Arêas.

2008-06-01

106

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), coletados em Roraima / Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata) blight in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris) é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com si [...] ntoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata) e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado). Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani. Abstract in english The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris) is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected i [...] n two ecosystems (savannah and forest) in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG) and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates) and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates). Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

Kátia L., Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

2006-10-01

107

Resistance of ?AI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Dry grain legume seeds possessing ?AI-1, an ?-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing ?AI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to ?AI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The ?AI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control ?AI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to ?AI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures. PMID:23458831

Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg

2013-08-01

108

Evaluation of dwarf mutant of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) developed through gamma irradiation for nitrogen fixation characters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dwarf mutant developed through gamma-irradiation and mutation breeding of its parent cowpea variety, namely KBC-1 has been characterized for nitrogen-fixation characters such as root nodule acetylene reduction activity (ARA) and legthemoglobin content at different days after sowing (DAS). Significant variations in these characters were noticed among the varieties and for interactions between the varieties and DAS. The ARA was nearly one-and-a half fold higher in the mutant at both 30 (12.69 ?moles)C2H4 formed/h/g fr.wt. of nodules) and 50 DAS (6.74 ?moles) over its parent (9.20 and 4.46 ?moles at 30 and 50 DAS, respectively). Further, the ARA in the mutant decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS. The leghemoglobin (Lb) content was also higher in the mutant over the parent at all the DAS. However, it decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS in both the mutant and the parent. The highest leghemoglobin content was noticed at 30 DAS in both mutant (2.1 mg/g fr. wt. of nodules) and the parent (1.45 mg/g). Thus, the dwarf cowpea mutant was found to be associated with higher nitrogen-fixing ability which could be exploited in future breeding programmes. (author)

109

Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-floweringfixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

110

A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of c [...] owpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein) of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

T.M., Venâncio; A.E.A., Oliveira; L.B., Silva; O.L.T., Machado; K.V.S., Fernandes; J., Xavier-Filho.

1167-11-01

111

Leaf Photosynthetic Metabolism and N2 Fixation at the Flowering Stage in Three Genotypes of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in cultivars of cowpea is not yet understood. The hypothesis proposed by this study is that lack of basic technology, including sufficient mineral nutrition, combined with periods of water shortage during the crop cycle leads to insufficient photosynthetic metabolism in the flowering stage in nodulated plants. Two experiments were conducted in northeastern Brazil, one under field conditions and another in a greenhouse at near optimal conditions. Two of the principal cultivars selected for northeastern (Mulato and Gurguéia and one for northern Brazil (Milênio were evaluated regarding physiological, biochemical and biometric variables between the late vegetative and early reproductive stages under mineral nutrition and BNF treatments. Gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, proteins and chlorophyll of inoculated plants were similar to plants fertilized with mineral nitrogen, in the three cultivars in both experiments, with emphasis on Gurguéia. Leaf nitrogen concentrations and the number and dry weight of nodules were higher in Mulato and Gurguéia compared to Milênio. Milênio and Gurguéia under BNF showed higher total dry weight compared to controls; however, the number of pods per plant was higher in inoculated plants compared to controls. In conclusion, based on these results under non-stressful conditions, cultivars selected for the northeastern region inoculated with an effective rhizobia strain and receiving a mild dose of mineral nitrogen can ensure development similar to that verified in plants fertilized only with correct nitrogen fertilization.

Marciel Teixeira Oliveira

2012-02-01

112

Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

113

Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside the shade of six randomly selected Parkia biglobosa trees during one season in south-central Burkina Faso. The area under the canopy of each tree was divided into four main plots according to cardinal directions, and sub-divided into three concentric zones. Control plots were established outside the tree canopy. The crops were intercropped in two different proportions using the replacement method and compared to sole crops. Days to flowering were noted and yields were measured, and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) and Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) calculated. Flowering was earlier outside than under the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate that intercropping could improve the system’s productivity, increase the income for farmers, and compensate losses in pearl millet under the canopy.

Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders

2011-01-01

114

In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts  

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Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

2013-02-01

115

Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under water deficit / Intercambio gaseoso y distribución de biomasa de caupí (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) bajo déficit hídrico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La tolerancia a sequía es importante para la supervivencia y productividad de las plantas en ambientes con aumentos de sequía, como resultado de la variabilidad climática por causas naturales y, el cambio climático por actividades humanas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las dinámicas de fot [...] osíntesis (A), conductancia estomática (gs) y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA=A/gs) en función del contenido de humedad del suelo durante un periodo de sequía, y la recuperación pos-estrés en 14 genotipos de caupí. Los genotipos estudiados toleraron tensiones de humedad del suelo cercanas a -2 Mpa, sin presentar marchitamiento permanente. A partir de potencial hídrico del suelo de -0,7 Mpa, fueron evidentes las disminuciones en A y gs, así como el aumento en A/gs, las cuales variaron con el genotipo; sus estimaciones con modelos de regresión permitieron discriminar grados de tolerancia a sequía entre cultivares. A los 4 días después de reasumir la hidratación, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medias de tales parámetros. Los genotipos L-047 y L-034 conservaron entre 4 y 6 hojas, se mostraron como los de mayor retraso en senescencia foliar durante la sequía y presentaron mayor biomasa a los 16 días de recuperación post-stress Abstract in english Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of [...] photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

Cardona-Ayala, Carlos Enrique; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Araméndiz-Tatis; Marvin, Perneth-Montaño; César Augusto, Vergara-Córdoba.

2013-12-01

116

Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed for the two periods. About 23 fungal species were identified on cowpea seed samples across zones of which Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that produces aflatoxins, was most frequently encountered. Fusarium species shown to produce fumonisins were not recorded from cowpea seeds. Overall incidence of A. flavus infection was found to increase after storage from 7.6% at T0 to 28.25% at T3. In spite of this natural infection of cowpea, very low levels of fumonisin and aflatoxin were detected. Only three out of the 92 cowpea samples, all collected at T0, were found to be fumonisin B1 positive with a mean level of 0.03 mg/g. Similarly, only six samples out of the 92, all collected at T3, were aflatoxin B1 positive with mean levels of 3.58 µg/kg. Fumonisin (B2 and B3) and aflatoxin (B2, G1 and G2) were not detected in any of the samples. Contrary to the situation with maize and groundnut where high levels of toxin are often detected in naturally infected samples, the current results indicate that cowpea is less susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. A low susceptibility could be due to the presence in cowpea of substances that inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis. Further investigations are underway to confirm this hypothesis.

Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.

2009-01-01

117

Proximate, Antinutrient and Mineral Composition of Five Varieties (Improved and Local of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Commonly Consumed in Samaru Community, Zaria-Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, several improved varieties of cowpea have been developed, yet little effort has been made to ascertain their nutritional advantage over local varieties, hence the need for this research. In this work, five varieties of cowpea (which include two local and three improved varieties consumed in Samaru community, Zaria-Nigeria were analyzed for their proximate composition, antinutrients and mineral contents. The results shows that IAR48 an improved variety has significantly higher (p0.05 between the five varieties. In conclusion, the result of this research suggests that the improved varieties are indeed better than the local varieties.

U.S. Ndidi

2012-04-01

118

Grain legume improvement in Ghana with induced mutagenesis - Special reference to winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two varieties each of winged bean and cowpea were exposed to various doses of gamma irradiation from a 60Co source. Seed emergence, seedling height, seedling survival, plant survival at maturity, and plant and pod fertility were all progressively reduced with increasing dosage of irradiation. Mutants isolated in th M2 for winged bean included a single stem erect mutant, a multiple branch bush, early, extra long-poded, strap and a spectrum of seed size and colour mutants. In cowpea an erect mutant was isolated. (author)

119

Allelopathic Effects of Some Selected Tree Species on the Germination and Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)  

OpenAIRE

The allelopathic effect of three tree species (Azardiracta indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, and Parkia bi-globosa) on germination and growth of cowpea was investigated in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro ecological zone of Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) replicates. Data were collected on germination, plant height, stem ...

Aleem, M. O.; Alamu, L. O.; Olabode, O. S.

2014-01-01

120

Influencia de la germinación en la composición del Phaseolus vulgaris y Vigna sinensis / Influence of germination on composition of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las leguminosas son fuente de proteínas que al combinarla con cereales incrementa su valor biológico. Adicionalmente, las leguminosas son fuente de calorías, hierro, fósforo, magnesio y potasio. Las caraotas negras, Phaseolus vulgaris, son además una buena fuente de calcio. En este estudio se determ [...] inó el contenido de proteínas, grasas, cenizas, fibra dietética soluble e insoluble y de los minerales Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn y Mn, en caraotas negras y en frijoles, Vigna sinensis, variedad Tuy y Orituco. Las leguminosas fueron germinadas a 25±2 °C, en presencia de luz natural y humedad relativa de 78±4%. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología oficial. Para la determinación de minerales se utilizó un equipo de Plasma de Acoplamiento Inducido (ICP). Con fines comparativos, se utilizaron granos sin germinar. Se observó que la germinación incrementa el contenido de proteína en aproximadamente 7% y de fibra soluble en frijoles Tuy en 2% en frijoles Orituco. También se observó una disminución del contenido de grasa de 25% en las caraotas y en un poco más de 50% en frijoles. La germinación afecta el contenido de minerales en las caraotas y en las dos variedades de frijoles, sin una tendencia definida. Se demostró que la germinación varía la composición de las caraotas negras y frijoles variedad Tuy y Orituco. Abstract in english Legumes are a source of proteins that combined with cereals increase its biological value. In addition, legumes calories source, iron, phosphorous, magnesium and potassium. Black beans, Phaseolus vulgaris are also a good source of calcium. In this study, the content of protein, fat, ash, dietetic fi [...] bre, both soluble and insoluble, and the minerals Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn and Mn, were determined in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis, Tuy and Orituco varieties. Legumes were germinated at 25 ± 2 °C, in natural light and 78 ± 4% relative humidity. Proximal composition was determined according to official methods. An Induced Coupling of Plasma (ICP) equipment was used for the determination of the minerals. For comparison purpuses, non-germinated grains were used. It was observed that germination increases the content of proteins in about 7% in both legumes and 2% of soluble fibre in Vigna sinensis var. Tuy. Fat content also decreased 25% in black beans and more than 50% in Vigna sinensis. Germination affects the mineral content of both legumes, without a definite trend. It was demonstrated that germination varies the composition of both legumes.

Mercedes, Ramos de Vega; Elba, Sangronis.

2006-12-01

121

Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of C...

José Albersio de Araujo Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do Nascimento; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão

2012-01-01

122

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

123

STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.)}  

OpenAIRE

Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus sp...

PHIL DOBIE; RENNIE ROESLI

1991-01-01

124

Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

OpenAIRE

Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage l...

Akande, M. O.; Oluwatoyinbo, F. I.; Kayode, C. O.; Olowokere, F. A.

2006-01-01

125

Response of Maize (Zea mays and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP amended with cow dung (CD manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05 affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1, okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1 and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1 in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande

2006-03-01

126

Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips  

OpenAIRE

The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercro...

Ampong-nyarko, K.; Nyang Or, Ra; Saxena, Kn; Seshu Reddy, Kv

1994-01-01

127

Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

2009-07-15

128

Characterization and mapping of Striga resistance in cowpea  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp., is an important grain legume grown for its protein in the tropical and subtropical regions, primarily Africa. Although, it is an extremely resilient crop, cowpea faces severe biotic and abiotic production constraints including insect pests, diseases, nematodes, low soil fertility, heat, drought and parasitic weeds. The parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides [Wild.] Vatke is one of the most important limitations to cowpea production. Host plant resistance is ...

Boukar, Ousmane

2002-01-01

129

Eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma spp. em diferentes cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no cerrado (Savana Brasileira) / Efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobia and Trichoderma spp. in different cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the “cerrado” (Brazilian savanna)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Foram utilizadas três cultivares de feijão-caupi, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ e ‘Sempre Verde’. O ensaio foi conduzido no campo com delineamento experimental em blocos [...] ao acaso e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados consistiram em inoculações simples e combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma na semente e no solo, no plantio e aos 15 dias após o plantio (DAP). Foram também incluídos um controle adubado com azoto e uma testemunha sem inoculação. Foram inoculadas estirpes de Bradyrhizobium sp., e para os tratamentos com a utilização de Trichoderma, foi utilizado o inoculante comercial Trichoplus JCO em pó. Foram avaliadas à biomassa, nodulação, produtividade, eficiência simbiótica e teor de azoto e fósforo. A aplicação de Trichoderma aos 15 DAP, tanto na semente quanto no solo, apresentou os melhores resultados na maioria das cultivares analisadas, superando os demais tratamentos. A cultivar ‘Corujinha’ apresentou os melhores resultados para produção de biomassa. A aplicação de Trichoderma não prejudicou o processo de nodulação, sendo que os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando o fungo foi inoculado com rizóbio. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of combined inoculation of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Three cultivars of cowpea, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ and ‘Sempre Verde’ were assayed. The experiment was conducted in a field in a randomized block design with four replication [...] s. The treatments used were simple and combined inoculations of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in the seed and in the soil, at planting and 15 days after planting (DAP). It was also included a control over fertilized with nitrogen and a non-inoculated control. Strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. were used for inoculation. Trichoplus JCO inoculant powder was used for treatments with Trichoderma. The parameters evaluated were biomass, nodulation, productivity, efficiency and symbiotic nitrogen content and phosphorus. The application of Trichoderma at 15 DAP in both the seed and in the soil showed the best results in most of the cultivars analyzed, overcoming the other treatments. Cultivar ‘Corujinha’ showed the best results for biomass production. The application of Trichoderma did not inhibit the nodulation process, and the best results were obtained when the fungus was inoculated with Rhizobia.

Aloisio F. Chagas, Junior; Ariádila G., Oliveira; Higor B., Reis; Gil R., Santos; Lillian F. B., Chagas; Luciane O., Miller.

2014-03-01

130

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com ci [...] nco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, duri [...] ng seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Nivânia P. da, Costa; Arlindo L., Boiça Júnior.

2004-02-01

131

Storage Time: Influence of Nano-ZnO and Soft-Sterilization on Biophysical and Quality Attributes of Canned Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, TN 5-78  

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Full Text Available Cowpea seeds can be cooked in the dried form, sprouted, or ground into flour. This study is to investigate effect of soft-sterilization and nano-ZnO treatment on canned cowpea (TN 5-78 biophysical and quality attributes during 10 months of storage. Cowpea was blanched, ultrasonicated with nano-ZnO solution 0.025% (w/v added prior to canning at 110 ºC for 15 min and analyzed every 2 months up to 10 month at ambient storage. Total mold and yeast count were below the limits of detection for nano-ZnO treated samples and control over the storage period though, some colonies of mesophilic bacteria were observed in the untreated samples at the 8th and 10th month of storage. There are significant differences (P < 0.05 between the treated samples and untreated one at the 10th month of storage for the pea’s firmness. No significant differences was noticed between the samples from the initial analysis to the end of storage time for the leached solids percentage (P < 0.05. Moreover, slight change in protein content and pH values were also found. The overall acceptability score of nano-ZnO treated samples remained in a good range up to 10th month of storage whereas, untreated samples was under acceptation level. Therefore, ZnO nanoparticules combined with heat can be a possible alternative approach to can foods that the quality attributes are altered by conventional thermal sterilization.

Moutaleb Oumarou Hama

2014-03-01

132

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) haulms as supplements to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stover : intake, digestibility and optimum feeding levels  

OpenAIRE

Two feeding trials were conducted to study the combined effects of (i) varying degrees of selective consumption and (ii) supplementation with cowpea (Trail 1) or groundnut haulms (Trial 2), on intake of organic matter (IOM) from sorghum stover, and total intake of digestible organic matter (IDOM). In both trials, 36 rams were allocated to 36 different treatments: six levels of feeding sorghum stover (25, 40, 60, 90, 120 and 160 g organic matter (OM) kg-0.75 per day) combined with six levels o...

Savadogo, M.; Zemmelink, G.; Nianogo, A. J.; Keulen, H.

2000-01-01

133

INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON EMERGENCE, GROWTH OF WEEDS, YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.)  

OpenAIRE

The effects of cropping system and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, weed biomass production and yield of maize and cowpea were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna (9°29' N, 4°35' E and 307 m ASL) of Nigeria. Weed emergence occurred throughout the 3-15 weeks after planting (WAP). Forty-three weed species belonging to 38 genera within 20 families were encountered. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudet, Tridax procumbens L and Eleusine indica Gaertn were the most pr...

Felix Ogar Takim; Omosuyi Fadayomi; Friday Ekeleme

2014-01-01

134

Effects of Different Rates of Indole-3-Acitic Acid on Root Formation of Detached Leaves of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

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Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the dry season (February-April, 2004 at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand to investigate the effect of different rates of indole-3-acitic acid (IAA growth regulator in inducing root formation of detached leaves of MSU1, KVC#7 and IT84E-1-108 cowpea cultivars under tunnel conditions. The experiment was laid in a strip plot design with four replications and each replication was duplicated four times for four sampling periods. IAA levels used were 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg L-1 of distilled water, thus the experiment consisted of 21 treatments. The results showed that root length, number of both roots and root hairs were highly affected by IAA treatments and the best IAA level was found with level 3 (500 mg L-1. The effects due to IAA levels and cultivars were highly significant and the effects due to an interaction between factors A (cultivars and B (IAA levels, in most cases, were highly significant. Detached leaf technique with the use of IAA growth regulator could be considered as one of the most appropriate techniques for the preparation of plant samples for the test on disease resistance of cowpea cultivars.

N. Sinsiri

2007-01-01

135

Effects of different rates of indole-3-acitic acid on root formation of detached leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp).  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was carried out in the dry season (February-April, 2004) at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand to investigate the effect of different rates of indole-3-acitic acid (IAA) growth regulator in inducing root formation of detached leaves of MSU1, KVC#7 and IT84E-1-108 cowpea cultivars under tunnel conditions. The experiment was laid in a strip plot design with four replications and each replication was duplicated four times for four sampling periods. IAA levels used were 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg L(-1) of distilled water, thus the experiment consisted of 21 treatments. The results showed that root length, number of both roots and root hairs were highly affected by IAA treatments and the best IAA level was found with level 3 (500 mg L(-1)). The effects due to IAA levels and cultivars were highly significant and the effects due to an interaction between factors A (cultivars) and B (IAA levels), in most cases, were highly significant. Detached leaf technique with the use of IAA growth regulator could be considered as one of the most appropriate techniques for the preparation of plant samples for the test on disease resistance of cowpea cultivars. PMID:19069987

Sinsiri, N; Laohasiriwong, S

2007-01-01

136

Evaluación de altura de plantas y componentes del rendimiento de seis genotipos del género Vigna en dos localidades de Venezuela / Plant height and yield components of six genotypes of the genus Vigna in two locations of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el fin de caracterizar el comportamiento agronómico, los componentes del rendimiento y su correlación con el rendimiento en genotipos del género Vigna, identificados como JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016, MS-01-00-09 y la variedad comercial `Tuy', se llevaron a cabo ensayos e [...] n las localidades de Samán Mocho, estado Carabobo y en Maracay, estado Aragua, entre los meses de noviembre de 2001 y febrero 2002. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En este trabajo se describen brevemente los genotipos y se evalua la altura de las plantas, en cinco estadios fenológicos durante el ciclo del cultivo; así como también el rendimiento y sus componentes, al momento de la cosecha. El genotipo que alcanzó mayor altura de planta en ambas localidades fue MEM-02-00-19, por su hábito de crecimiento indeterminado trepador. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de medias de Duncan detectaron diferencias significativas para el rendimiento en Maracay. Los materiales con mayor rendimiento fueron de la especie Vigna unguiculata: MS-01-00-09 (2114,1 kg/ha) y JA-01-00-05 (1605,6 kg/ha). Las vainas de mayor longitud y total de semillas por vainas se observaron en MS-01-00-09, con 14,2 cm de longitud y 10,9 semillas/vainas. En el genotipo de Vigna umbellata, MEM- 02-00-19 se obtuvo el mayor número de vainas por planta con 17,5. El rendimiento se correlacionó positivamente con la longitud de vaina y número de semillas por vaina. Los genotipos: JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MS-01-00-09, Vigna unguiculata, y AM-02-00-016, Vigna radiata, fueron de mejor manejo en campo; no así el genotipo MEM-02-00-19, Vigna umbellata, cuyo uso es más para cultivos asociados, por su hábito de crecimiento trepador. Abstract in english With the purpose of characterizing agronomic behaviour, yield components and their correlations with yield for six genotypes of Vigna identified as JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016 and MS-01-00-09, and a commercial variety, `Tuy', experiments were conducted in Saman Mocho, Carabo [...] bo State and Maracay, Aragua state, during the period November 2001 to February 2002. The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. In this paper, genotypes are briefly described, plant height is measured at five phenological stages during growth cycle, and yield and its components are evaluated at harvest. For both sites, MEM-02-00-19 had the tallest plants due to its indeterminate climbing growth habit. Results of the variance analysis and Duncan´s Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences for yield in Maracay. Treatments with highest yields, belonging to the species Vigna unguiculata, were MS-01-00-09 (2114.1 kg/ha) and JA-01-00-05 (1605.6 kg/ha). MS-01-00-09 (Vigna unguiculata) also had longest pods (14.2 cm) and greatest number of seeds per pod (10.9 seeds/pod). The genetic material belonging to the species Vigna umbellata, MEM-02-00-19, exhibited the greatest number of pods per plant (17.5 pods/plant). Yield was positively correlated with pod length and number of seeds per pod. Because of differences in growth habits, genotypes belonging to species Vigna unguiculata (JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05 and MS-01-00-09) and species Vigna radiata (AM-02-00-016) were easier to handle in field conditions than Vigna umbellata, which had a climbing behaviour and is better suited for mixed cropping systems.

C.M, Flores M; P.M, Madriz I; R, Warnock de Parra; A, Trujillo de Leal.

2005-10-01

137

Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela / Identification of seed borne viruses in growing areas of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose [...] los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de estabilidad en savia, se estudió la transmisión a través de insectos, se estudió el rango de hospedantes, microscopía electrónica y se realizaron pruebas serológicas con los antisueros disponibles. En tres aislamientos virales de caraota se identificó, el virus del mosaico sureño de la caraota (BSMV) en muestra del Valle de Tucutunemo, estado Aragua, en un material procedente de Colombia colectado en Sanare, estado Lara, se detectó infección viral simple con el BSMV y doble el BSMV y el virus del mosaico común de la caraota (BCMV) . En fríjol se identificó el virus del mosaico severo del frijol (CpSMV) a partir de semilla de los estados Portuguesa y Falcón. Con este estudio se ratifica la necesidad del control fitosanitario para la exclusión de materiales nacionales o importados no aptos para la siembra y se corrobora la importancia de la certificación de semillas. Abstract in english With the purpose of knowing the incidence of seed borne viruses in production areas of beans and cowpea, 53 materials used as seed were evaluated. Viral isolations coming from seeds sowed in shelter protected against insects; being identified the beans isolations like: "Colombian 1", "Colombian 2" a [...] nd "Tucutunemo"; and those of cowpea like "Black Eye", were selected. Material was multiplied, stability test in sap were carried out, vector transmission was studied, the hosts range was determined, serological tests with the available antibody were carried out. In three viral isolations of beans, the bean southern mosaic virus (BSMV) was identified in a sample of Tucutunemo Valley, Aragua state. In the material coming from Colombia collected in Sanare, Lara state, it was detected simple viral infection BSMV and double infection BSMV and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). In cowpea, it was identified the cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) from seed of Portuguese and Falcon states. Through this essay was corroborated the necessity of establishing a phytopathological control, for the exclusion of national or imported seed materials not suitable for sows, and also the importance of seed certification.

Z, Peña; G, Trujillo.

2007-01-01

138

Functional and physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated cowpea flours and pastes  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important potential source of protein in many parts of Africa. However, cowpea use is confined primarily to boiled whole seeds or traditional food preparations such as akara and moi-moi prepared from cowpea flours or pastes. By creating variety in the foods made from cowpeas, its utilization may be enhanced. The functional properties of cowpeas are mainly responsible for the quality of cowpea foods such as akara and moi-moi and are derived mostly from ...

Abu, Joseph Oneh

2005-01-01

139

Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] / Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.), é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegeta [...] l vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer) e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos. Abstract in english The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to co [...] ntrol it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer) and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde"). These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes, Pereira; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa, Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da, Câmara.

2008-06-01

140

Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to control it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde". These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

2008-06-01

141

Integrated Effects of Bio and Mineral Fertilizers and Humic Substances on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Contents of Fertigated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Grown on Sandy Soils  

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Full Text Available A bio-fertigation trial was conducted at the experimental farm of National Research Centre, Noubaria, Egypt during May to August of 2010 to study the relative efficacy of bio-fertigation of liquid formulation of N-fixer (Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. and P-solubilizer (Basillus megatheriumion with bio fertigation and humic substances gave rather equal yield. Injection of 50% recommended dose NPK as drip fertigation in combination with biofertigation of liquid formulation and humic substances was better and comparable way than the other treatments. Bio fertigation of microbial inoculums and humic substances could be used as a complementary for mineral fertilizers to improve yield and quality of cowpea under sandy soil conditions which protect the environment chemical pollution and its harmful effect on human and animal health.

E.M. Selim

2011-01-01

142

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

OpenAIRE

Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy") analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed the highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3%) compared to "Unary" (27.1%). The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (...

Omar Eduardo García; Benito Infante; Carlos Julio Rivera

2010-01-01

143

INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON EMERGENCE, GROWTH OF WEEDS, YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea mays L. AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.  

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Full Text Available The effects of cropping system and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, weed biomass production and yield of maize and cowpea were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna (9°29' N, 4°35' E and 307 m ASL of Nigeria. Weed emergence occurred throughout the 3-15 weeks after planting (WAP. Forty-three weed species belonging to 38 genera within 20 families were encountered. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudet, Tridax procumbens L and Eleusine indica Gaertn were the most prevalent weed species. Cropping system and weed management practice significantly affected weed emergence. Significantly (p?0.05 lower number of weeds emerged in the intercropped and herbicide treated plots while higher weed densities and weed biomass were recorded in the uncropped and unweeded control plots than in the other plots. While aggregate crop yields were significantly higher in the intercropped than in the sole plots, component crop yields were higher under the sole cropping than in the intercrop. The implication of the results on weed management is discussed.

Felix Ogar Takim

2014-06-01

144

Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. PMID:25466917

Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

2014-11-01

145

Identificação de genótipos de caupi Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. resistentes a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Identification of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. genotypes resistant to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar fontes de resistência em 30 genótipos de caupi, provenientes da Embrapa - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Norte, ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). Em teste sem chance de escolha, confinaram-se dois casais em 30 grãos de cada genótipo, [...] efetuando-se cinco repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Para verificar a resistência avaliaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: número de ovos/fêmea, viabilidade de ovos, duração e viabilidade da fase imatura, taxa de aumento da população e índice de resistência. Foram classificados como moderadamente resistentes os genótipos IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 e BR17-Gurguéia; como suscetíveis CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E e TE87-98-9G-2, e como altamente suscetíveis Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F, TE90-180-13E. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e CNCx 955-1F apresentaram não-preferência para oviposição, sendo o primeiro classificado como resistente, devido à menor taxa de aumento da população, menor viabilidade e maior duração da fase imatura, indicando a ocorrência de antibiose. Abstract in english The present work aimed to identify sources of resistance in 30 cowpea genotypes, from EMBRAPA Meio-Norte, to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). In a no choice test, two pairs of the insect were confined in 30 grains of each genotype, in a completely randomized design with five repli [...] cations. To evaluate the resistance of the genotypes, the parameters: number of eggs/female, viability of eggs, duration and viability of the immature phase, natural rate of population increase, and resistance index were used. By this index the genotypes IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 and BR17-Gurguéia were classified as moderately resistant; CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E and TE87-98-9G-2 as susceptible, and Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F and TE90-180-13E as highly susceptible. The genotypes IT89KD-245 and CNCx 955-1F showed non-preference for oviposition. The genotype IT89KD-245 was the only one classified as resistant, showing the least natural rate of population increase, the smallest viability and the largest duration of the immature phase, expressing antibiosis.

MARCILEYNE P. L. DE, LIMA; JOSÉ V, OLIVEIRA; REGINALDO, BARROS; JORGE B., TORRES.

2001-06-01

146

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium  

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Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer to other rhizobia, revealed that it is necessary, in view of possibility of deliberate release of a variety of recombinant rhizobia into the environment for such agricultural purposes as improving nitrogen fixation. New recombinants revealed higher amounts of indole compounds from tryptophan above the mid-parents in two out of six transconjugants resulted from the cross between P1 x P3. Significant number of nodules were developed on the root system of V2-variety in M4 generation treated with 20 krad in response to inoculation with the parental strains (P2 and P3 and also in response to inoculation with triparental transconjugants (Tr4 and Tr5, above that developed on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. The results revealed the success of rhizobial strains and their recombinants to colonize and infect roots of cowpea, because of significant dry weight of nodules per plant which can be obtained in V1-variety treated with 20 krad in M4 generation inoculated with the parental strain (P3, above that on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. Total chlorophyll formation in V1-variety inoculated with di-parental transconjugants (DPM-Tr2 and DPM-Tr3 at all doses of gamma irradiation was significantly increase above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose and the mid-parents, with the exception at 30 krad if compared with the mid-parents. Significant increase was resulted in fresh weight of pods developed per plant above the mid-parents in M3 generation of V1-variety at doses zero and 10 krad, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugant, DPM-Tr2. While, the same trend was also achieved above the full dose in M3 generation at 10 krad in response to inoculation with DPM-Tr2, DPM-Tr3, TPM-Tr4 and TPM-Tr5. The highest nitrogen content was appeared in the shoots of V1-variety at all doses of gamma irradiation in response to inoculation with diparental transconjugant (DPM-Tr2. However, V2-variety had the lowest nitrogen content in relation to the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen and to the mid-parents of rhizobial transconjugants. The genetic variability of grain-protein content appeared that V2-variety treated with 10 krad had significant increase in protein content above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N among M3 and M4 generations, in response to inoculation with parental strains and most of their transconjugants. The same trend was also shown in M4 generation of V1-variety treated with 20 and 30 krad above the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugants. All biochemical traits studied were more affected by biofertilization than the doses of gamma rays and the interaction between biofertilization x doses. This indicated that the significance of treatments was mainly due to inoculation and particularly to gamma irradiation and the interaction between both of them.

Zaied K.A.

2005-01-01

147

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) / Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espéc [...] ies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable [...] species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C., Almeida; Silvana A. de, Almeida; Nilene R. dos, Santos; Josivanda P., Gomes; Maria E. R., Araújo.

2005-12-01

148

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C. Almeida

2005-12-01

149

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação / Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC), avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo) e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina). [...] Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%), dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente). Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável. Abstract in english This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll) with cowpea flour (CF) to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). Three fo [...] rmulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4%) among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves, Frota; Marcelo Antonio, Morgano; Marta Gomes da, Silva; Marcos Antonio da Mota, Araújo; Regilda Saraiva dos Reis, Moreira-Araújo.

2010-05-01

150

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4% among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively. All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

2010-05-01

151

A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species  

OpenAIRE

Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic map...

Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

2011-01-01

152

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS / COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy") analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutr [...] o (FDN) produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3%) en relación a "Unare" (27,1%). El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5%) y "Unare", (21,7%) eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI) (15,4%) y fibra dietética total (16,1%) de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF. Abstract in english Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy") analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed the [...] highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3%) compared to "Unary" (27.1%). The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (15.5%) and "Unare" (21.7%) were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) (15.4%) and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF) (16.1%) higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.

Omar Eduardo, García; Benito, Infante; Carlos Julio, Rivera.

2010-12-01

153

Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) Seeds  

OpenAIRE

Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans) parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole), C. elegans (sole), a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and ...

Umoetok S. B. A.; Ukeh D. A.; Udo I. A.; Ekanem M.; Iloba B. N

2012-01-01

154

Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID with the difference methods (DM for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

2009-08-01

155

Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna / Análisis químico y evaluación nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composición próximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascorbico), proteína y perfil de amino ácidos, perfil de ácidos graso [...] s y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de proteína cruda que los fríjoles de consumo común en la India. Los frijoles analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos ácidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino ácidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptófano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontró un contenido relativamente alto de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolénico. Se analizó para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, ácido fítico, ácido cianhidríco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of [...] lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses appeared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

Pious, Tresina Soris; Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan.

2011-08-01

156

Effect of Native Soap on Insect Pests and Grain Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Asaba and Abraka during the Late Cropping Season in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of native soap against cowpea insect pests during the late cowpea cropping season in two agro-ecological zones-Asaba and Abraka, Delta State. Four major insect pests, namely the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, the legume flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb, the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fab and pod sucking bugs were studied. The experiment was made up of five treatments-1, 2 and 3 percent concentrations of native soap, cypermethrin (as conventional chemical and check and a control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was arranged into a randomised complete block design (RCBD. The results showed that all the major insect pests occurred in the study areas but were more at Asaba compared to Abraka. Native soap was effective against A. craccivora and flower bud thrips population at Asaba. Maruca vitrata was not affected by soap application. Grain yield was high at Abraka and significantly (P<0.05 higher than Asaba. The use of native soap as non-conventional insecticide in cowpea insect pests management appears promising, more so as it is not expensive and safe to handle. Farmers may prefer it to synthetic chemical pesticides with their associated dangers.

E. O. Egho

2012-06-01

157

Cowpea Crude Protein as Affected by Cropping System, Site and Nitrogen Fertilization  

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Full Text Available High protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. is considered as major advantage for its use in nutritional components. In this way, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cropping system, site, and nitrogen fertilization on cowpea crude protein. The study comprised of three cropping systems (Maize-cowpea rotation, monocropping cowpea and intercropped cowpea, three sites (Potchefstroom, Taung, and Rustenburg, South Africa and two rates of nitrogen fertilizers applied in kg ha-1 at each site (0 and 20 at Potchefstroom, 0 and 17 at Rustenburg, 0 and 23 at Taung. Moreover, a factorial experiment randomized in complete block design with three replications was conducted during 2011/12 and 2012/13 planting seasons. The protein content was determined from green leaves harvested before flowering, immature green pods and seeds during reproductive stage and maturity. Results showed that cropping system had significant effect on cowpea leaf protein content (P < 0.05. Intercropped cowpea significantly gave higher leaf protein (26.7% more content than rotational cowpea. Cowpea planted at Taung had significantly higher leaf protein (30.1% more content as compared to cowpea planted at other sites. Application of nitrogen fertilizer contributed to higher protein content of immature pods. Moreover, cowpea protein content differs among the different locations due to different soil types and climatic conditions.

E. T. Sebetha

2014-12-01

158

Evidence for Orthologous Seed Weight Genes in Cowpea and Mung Bean Based on RFLP Mapping  

OpenAIRE

A well saturated genomic map is a necessity for a breeding program based on marker assisted selection. To this end, we are developing genomic maps for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 2N=22) and mung bean (Vigna radiata 2N=22) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Using these maps, we have located major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed weight in both species. Two unlinked genomic regions in cowpea contained QTLs accounting for 52.7% of the variation for seed weight...

Fatokun, C. A.; Menancio-hautea, D. I.; Danesh, D.; Young, N. D.

1992-01-01

159

Genetic Architecture of Delayed Senescence, Biomass, and Grain Yield under Drought Stress in Cowpea  

OpenAIRE

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line popul...

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye N.; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J.; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.

2013-01-01

160

Fumonisin production by and biological control of Fusarium species associated with cowpea seed  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. is an important edible legume crop gaining recognition in the world generally and in Africa particular. The seed is a very good source of vegetable protein for millions of people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Cowpea seed are susceptible to global post-harvest losses caused by insect damage, microbial deterioration and other factors especially when stored at high ambient temperatures and relative humidities. The detection of Fusarium species and fumonisins ...

Lodama, Kafua Emlo

2011-01-01

161

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

OpenAIRE

O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido re...

Assunc?a?o, Iraildes P.; -filho, Liliane R. M.; Resende, Luciane V.; Barros, Ma?rcia C. S.; Lima, Gaus S. A.; Coelho, Rildo Sartori B.; Lima, J. Albe?rsio A.

2005-01-01

162

Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

163

Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp  

OpenAIRE

Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthosceli...

Gakuru, S.; Buledi, Mk

1995-01-01

164

Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp par rapport au maïs (Zea mays L. sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé  

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Full Text Available Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Relative to Maize (Zea mays L. on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yield of cowpea. Simultaneous planting generally showed a yield advantage (LER> 1 of the cowpea/ maize intercropping systems irrespective of the cowpea varieties used, but LER declined when time of introducing cowpea into maize was delayed being as low as 0.76 when cowpea was planted four weeks after planting maize. The reduction in the growth and yield of cowpea was due to increased shading from the maize plants especially when cowpea was introduced at the fourth week. Therefore, to achieve yield benefit simultaneous planting of maize and cowpea recommended.

Osiru, DSO.

2002-01-01

165

Resposta do feijão-caupi à doses e formas de aplicação de fósforo em Latossolo Amarelo do Estado de Roraima / Response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to phosphorus fertilization levels and application forms in Yellow Latosol of Roraima State/Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adubação fosfatada e as formas de aplicação de fertilizantes fosfatados são fatores importantes no manejo das culturas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de fósforo e formas de aplicação de fertilizante fosfatado na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp [...] ) em solo de cerrado do Estado de Roraima. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Latossolo Amarelo distrocoeso, no Campus do Cauamé da Universidade Federal de Roraima. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, com as parcelas principais organizadas em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas formas de aplicação do fertilizante fosfatado: a) Lanço - L; b) Sulco simples - SS e c) Sulco duplo - SD. As subparcelas corresponderam às doses da adubação fosfatada: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada para adubação de manutenção do feijão-caupi. Houve efeito das doses de fósforo sobre o crescimento e absorção de fósforo pelas plantas. O maior crescimento, produção de vagem por planta, de grãos e absorção de fósforo ocorreu com a aplicação do fertilizante fosfatado aplicado em sulcos duplos. Abstract in english Phosphorus fertilization and ways of phosphate fertilizers application are important factors considering crop management. This study aimed at assessing the effect of phosphorus rates and phosphate fertilizers application forms on growth and phosphorus uptake of cowpea plants cropped on cerrado soil [...] in the State of Roraima, Brazil. An experiment took place under field conditions, on a Yellow Latosol, at Cauamé Campus of Roraima's Federal University, located in the municipality of Boa Vista/RR. The experimental design was split-plot, in a completely randomized blocks, with three replicates. The plots consisted of the following phosphoric fertilizers application forms: a) broadcasting; b) single furrow and c) double furrow. Sub-plots corresponded to phosphorus doses: 0, 0,5; 1,0; 1,5, and 2,0 times the recommended dose for cowpea maintenance fertilization (60 kg ha-1 of P2O5). There was a significant effect of P rates over plant growth and plant uptake. Application of fertilizer in double furrows promoted higher plant growth, grain yield, and plant phosphorous uptake.

Armando José da, Silva; Sandra Cátia Pereira, Uchôa; José Maria Arcanjo, Alves; Antônio César Silva, Lima; Célida Socorro Vieira dos, Santos; Jane Maria Franco de, Oliveira; Valdinar Ferreira, Melo.

2010-03-01

166

Resposta do feijão-caupi à doses e formas de aplicação de fósforo em Latossolo Amarelo do Estado de Roraima Response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to phosphorus fertilization levels and application forms in Yellow Latosol of Roraima State/Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adubação fosfatada e as formas de aplicação de fertilizantes fosfatados são fatores importantes no manejo das culturas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de fósforo e formas de aplicação de fertilizante fosfatado na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp em solo de cerrado do Estado de Roraima. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Latossolo Amarelo distrocoeso, no Campus do Cauamé da Universidade Federal de Roraima. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, com as parcelas principais organizadas em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas formas de aplicação do fertilizante fosfatado: a Lanço - L; b Sulco simples - SS e c Sulco duplo - SD. As subparcelas corresponderam às doses da adubação fosfatada: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada para adubação de manutenção do feijão-caupi. Houve efeito das doses de fósforo sobre o crescimento e absorção de fósforo pelas plantas. O maior crescimento, produção de vagem por planta, de grãos e absorção de fósforo ocorreu com a aplicação do fertilizante fosfatado aplicado em sulcos duplos.Phosphorus fertilization and ways of phosphate fertilizers application are important factors considering crop management. This study aimed at assessing the effect of phosphorus rates and phosphate fertilizers application forms on growth and phosphorus uptake of cowpea plants cropped on cerrado soil in the State of Roraima, Brazil. An experiment took place under field conditions, on a Yellow Latosol, at Cauamé Campus of Roraima's Federal University, located in the municipality of Boa Vista/RR. The experimental design was split-plot, in a completely randomized blocks, with three replicates. The plots consisted of the following phosphoric fertilizers application forms: a broadcasting; b single furrow and c double furrow. Sub-plots corresponded to phosphorus doses: 0, 0,5; 1,0; 1,5, and 2,0 times the recommended dose for cowpea maintenance fertilization (60 kg ha-1 of P2O5. There was a significant effect of P rates over plant growth and plant uptake. Application of fertilizer in double furrows promoted higher plant growth, grain yield, and plant phosphorous uptake.

Armando José da Silva

2010-03-01

167

Water use efficiency of dryland cowpea, sorghum and sunflower under reduced tillage  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought-adapted, early maturing crops combined with reduced tillage systems have the potential to stabilize and increase dryland crop yields in the Southern High Plains. The objective of this study was to evaluate dryland grain yield response and soil water use for cowpea [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Wal...

168

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

OpenAIRE

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to af...

Mota Antônio Chagas; Fernandes Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales Maurício Pereira; Flores Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho José

2002-01-01

169

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.  

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Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

Umesh P. Mogle1 and

2012-06-01

170

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

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Full Text Available The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w concentration. The ability of the plant powders to protect cowpea seeds was assessed in terms of mortality rates after 24 - 96 hours post treatment, oviposition and adult emergence, percentage weight loss and damage after the first filial generation (F1. All the tested plant part powders significantly (P<0.05 reduce the longevity of adult C. maculatus on treated cowpea seeds. From the study, the plant powders could be ranked in order of effectiveness thus; stem bark > leaf > root. Alstonia boonei can be used as biopesticide against C. maculatus and its incorporation into traditional storage pest management is strongly recommended.

K. D. Ileke

2012-03-01

171

Determinação da difusividade e da energia de ativação para feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde, com base no comportamento da secagem / Determination of diffusivity and activation energy for cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), alwaysgreen variety, based on its drying behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, teve-se o objetivo de determinar curvas de secagem em camada fina para grãos de feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde. Visou-se, também, à determinação da difusividade efetiva da água no interior do produto, bem como a energia de ativação. Para tal, foram utilizadas amostras com 150 [...] g de feijão com teor inicial de água de 37% (bu), nas temperaturas de 40; 50 e 60 ºC. A velocidade do ar do secador convectivo foi mantida em 1,0 m s-1 e, durante todo o processo, os valores médios da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar ambiente foram, respectivamente, 29 ºC e 58%. A difusividade efetiva da água no produto foi determinada, em cada temperatura, por meio da lei de Fick, pressupondo um modelo esférico para os grãos. Uma expressão para a difusividade efetiva da água em função da temperatura foi determinada por meio do ajuste da equação de Arrhenius aos dados obtidos. A análise dos resultados possibilita concluir que a equação de Page representa, de forma satisfatória, o processo de secagem em todas as condições estudadas. O modelo esférico estabelecido para os grãos é satisfatório, resultando em difusividade efetiva que variou de 7,13x10-11 até 14,0x10-11 m²s-1, e em energia de ativação igual a 26,9 kJ mol-1. Foi observado que, para a temperatura do ar de secagem mantida em 60 ºC, houve a formação de fissuras em quantidade significativa de grãos. Abstract in english In this paper it was determined the thin layer drying curves for cowpea grains, always-green variety. It was also determined the effective water diffusivity inside the product and its activation energy. For these purposes, 150 g samples of cowpea grains dried at temperatures of 40; 50 and 60 ºC were [...] used. The drying air velocity was maintained constantly at 1.0 m s-1 during the drying process. The drying air temperature and relative humidity were 29 ºC and 58%, respectively. The effective water diffusivity inside the product was determined, for each drying temperature, by using Fick’s equation assuming a spherical shape for the grains. A mathematical expression for the effective water diffusivity inside the product as a function of temperature was determined by fitting Arrhenius’s equation to the observed data. According to the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that the Page equation can be used to satisfactorily represent the cowpea grains drying process for the conditions of this research. The assumption of a spherical shape for the grains was satisfactory, resulting in a water effective diffusivity varying from 7.13x10-11 to 14.00x10-11 m²s-1 and activation energy equal to 26.9 kJ mol-1. It was also observed that for a drying air temperature of 60 ºC a significant amount of grains presented fissures.

Wilton P. da, Silva; Mário E. R. M. C., Mata; Cleiton D. P. S. e, Silva; Manoel A., Guedes; Antonio G. B., Lima.

2008-06-01

172

Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea  

OpenAIRE

The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptible varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. All beetle strains were assayed in a no-choice and a two-choice test. No major differences were found between the beetle strains. In a no-choice...

Boeke, S. J.; Loon, J. J. A.; Huis, A.; Dicke, M.

2004-01-01

173

Bioefficacy of plant derivatives on the repellency, damage assessment and progeny production of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

OpenAIRE

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of different plant derivatives that affect the development of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus fed on cowpea, Vigna unigulculata seeds. The leaf extracts of the aromatic plant, Anisomeles malabarica and Azadirachta indica (neem) were evaluated for their repellency, damage assessment and progeny production of C. maculatus. The results revealed that the extracts of the two plant species caused a considerable reduction ...

Murugan K

2010-01-01

174

Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation  

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Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN, são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas.Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

Rogério Melloni

2006-04-01

175

Incidência de fungos e germinação de sementes de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) tratadas com óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) / Incidence of fungi and germination of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) treated with neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito do óleo de nim no controle de fungos associados às sementes de feijão caupi e a influência deste produto na germinação de três cultivares (Serrinha, BR 17, e Maranhão). Foram preparadas diluições de 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0 g dm 3-do óleo de nim em água destilada e teste [...] munha, só com água. Os fungos foram identificados pelo método do papel de filtro e a germinação das sementes foi avaliada considerando as informações das Regras para Análise de Sementes. Foram utilizadas sementes de três cultivares de feijão-caupi: a cultivar Serrinha, proveniente da cidade de Timon-MA, a cultivar Maranhão, da cidade de Viana - MA, e a cultivar BR 17, obtida junto à Embrapa Meio Norte, na cidade de Teresina-PI. O crescimento de Fusarium sp. nas cultivares Maranhão e Serrinha foi reduzido em 52 e 53%, respectivamente e o índice de redução de Aspergillus sp. foi de 14 e 20% nas mesmas cultivares. Em relação aos fungos M. phaseolina e Phoma sp., observa-se que não foram inibidos em nenhuma das três cultivares. No que se refere à germinação das sementes nota-se que na cultivar Maranhão houve aumento no índice da germinação de 13 e 17,5% em relação à testemunha e, na cultivar Serrinha, somente a concentração 0,5% diferiu da testemunha com redução no índice de germinação de 6,49%. Conclui-se que o óleo de nim reduz a incidência de Fusarium sp. e Aspergillus sp. e é indiferente na redução de M. phaseolina e Phoma sp. O índice de germinação aumentou na cultivar Maranhão e diminuiu na cultivar Serrinha. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of neem oil on germination and fungi incidence on the seeds of three cowpea cultivars (Serrinha, BR 17 and Maranhão). Dilutions of 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, 4.0 g dm-3 of neem oil were prepared in water. The fungi incidence was evaluated by the filter paper test, and the [...] germination was evaluated according to the Rules for Seeds Testing ("Regras para Análise de Sementes," in Portuguese). Seeds of three cowpea cultivars were used: Serrinha and Maranhão, from the cities of Timon and Viana, respectively, state of Maranhão, Brazil, and BR 17, from Embrapa Meio Norte (Terezina, state of Piaí, Brazil). The growth of Fusarium sp. on the seed of the Maranhão and Serrinha cultivars was reduced in 52 and 53%, respectively, and the reduction rate of Aspergillus sp. was 14 and 20%, on the same cultivars. However, the neem oil did not inhibit the growth of the fungi Macrophomina phaseolina and Phoma sp. in any of the three cultivars. With regard to the seed germination, an increase of 13 and 17.5% was observed in the Maranhão cultivar compared to control, while for the Serrinha cultivar, only the 0.5% concentration differed from the control, reducing the germination rate by 6.49%. We conclude that the neem oil was effective in controlling Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. On the other hand, it was ineffective against Phoma sp. and M. phaseolina. The germination increased in the Maranhão cultivar and decreased in the Serrinha cultivar.

G.C., Silva; C.C., Santos; D.P, Gomes.

2014-12-01

176

Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação / Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fi [...] xam N2 (BNLFN), são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas. Abstract in english Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, [...] nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB) are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

Rogério, Melloni; Fátima Maria de Sousa, Moreira; Rafaela Simão Abrahão, Nóbrega; José Oswaldo de, Siqueira.

2006-04-01

177

Correlations and path analysis of yield components in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obtaining correlations and direct and indirect effects of yield components is important for the selection of promising parental and segregating populations. The objective of this research was to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and to analyze the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield in 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 20 treatments and 4 replications. The character showed low to moderate possibility of gain from indirect selection, with greater possibility for success when joining multiple character and a genotype of better performance.

Adriano dos Santos

2014-07-01

178

The effect of plant extracts on anthracnose of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp  

OpenAIRE

Anthracnose is one of the serious diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the Colletotrichum fungi. The disease is prevalent is small holder farmers’ fields due to the scarcity and high cost of the synthetic fungicides. This study was conducted with the main aim of improving food security and income of the smallholder farmers by increasing legumes, P. vulgaris and V. unguiculata thereby increasing production and improve food security ...

Masangwa, Johnny Isaac Gregorio

2012-01-01

179

Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

2009-02-01

180

Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds  

OpenAIRE

The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the presence of directional light from the top, parasitoids moved faster through columns filled with pods than through columns (either filled with pods or seeds) in darkness. The different habitats, s...

Alebeek, F. A. N.; Antwi, K. K.; Huis, A.; Lenteren, J. C.

2007-01-01

181

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

OpenAIRE

Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin we...

Rose, T. L.; Gomes, V. M.; Da Cunha, M.; Fernandes, K. V. S.; Xavier-filho, J.

2003-01-01

182

Ent-2'-epi-Orobanchol and its acetate, as germination stimulants for Striga gesnerioides seeds isolated from cowpea and red clover.  

Science.gov (United States)

Striga gesnerioides is a root parasitic weed of economic significance to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) crops in Western Africa. Seeds of the parasite germinate in response to cowpea root exudates. Germination stimulants for the seeds were isolated from the hydroponic culture filtrate of cowpea, and their structures were unambiguously determined as (-)-(3aR,4R,8bR,2'R)-ent-2'-epi-orobanchol and (+)-(3aR,4R,8bR,2'R)-ent-2'-epi-orobanchyl acetate, on the basis of mass, CD, and (1)H NMR spectra; optical rotatory power; and chromatographic behavior on HPLC. The alcohol was first isolated and identified from the cowpea root exudates, and the acetate may be the same compound that had been previously isolated from the exudates and designated as alectrol. Identity of the stimulants produced by cowpea to those produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense) was confirmed. PMID:21899364

Ueno, Kotomi; Nomura, Saki; Muranaka, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

2011-10-12

183

18F used as tracer to study water uptake and transport imaging of a cowpea plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water uptake ability of cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) which has been regarded as one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops is presented. It has been suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. It was confirmed by neutron radiography that in this tissue, water amount was high compared to the other stems. Then the water uptake manner was measured by positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) using 18F labeled water produced by a cyclotron. Comparing the water uptake manner of cowpea plant with that of common bean, cowpea plant was found to maintain high water uptake activity after drying treatment, suggesting the high drought resistant character. (author)

184

Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

2014-10-01

185

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

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Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV, família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV, family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Iraildes P. Assunção

2005-06-01

186

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

2005-06-01

187

Impact of cowpea adition on the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score and other protein quality parameters of traditional African foods made from non-tannin and tannin sorghum  

OpenAIRE

Protein malnutrition is a problem in Africa where sorghum is a staple foodstuff. Improvement in the protein quality of traditional African sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) foods through the addition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), an indigenous African legume, was investigated. Two sorghum cultivars, a red, tannin-type (NS 5511) and a white tan-plant, non-tannin type (Orbit) were complemented with cowpea (70:30 ratio). Ugali (thick porridge), uji (fermented thin porridge...

Anyango, Joseph Ochieng; Kock, Henrietta Letitia; Taylor, J. R. N.

2011-01-01

188

Cloning of cDNAs and expression of putative insecticidal proteins from Albizzia procera active against cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, is an important crop in West Africa and in north-east South America where it is a major source of dietary protein. Upon storage, severe damage to the seeds often occurs due to the infestation by the larvae of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). As a result, these seeds can no longer be used for planting and for human consumption. Fumigants are used to control the bruchid beetle (cowpea weevils), but their use is limited due to costs. Further...

Samson, Maria Teresa Dominguez

2000-01-01

189

Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijã [...] o-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Sérgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

2013-06-01

190

Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%, which classifies the wild cowpea breeding system as primarily selfing, though rare outcrossing events were detected in each population studied. Furthermore, the analyses of both the genetic structure of populations and the relationships between the wild and domesticated groups suggest possibilities of gene flow that are corroborated by field observations. Conclusions As expected in a predominantly inbred breeding system, wild cowpea shows high levels of genetic differentiation and low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Gene flow from domesticated to wild cowpea does occur, although the lack of strong genetic swamping and modified seed morphology in the wild populations suggest that these introgressions should be rare.

Kouam Eric B

2012-07-01

191

Resistance of Cowpea Genotypes to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae  

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Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. when stored is mainly attacked by bruchid Coleopterans. The control of these pests is done primarily through chemicals, however, with problems related to the selection of resistant insects, alternative forms of control are searched. Seeking an alternative control, the objective this work was to evaluate the resistance of cowpea genotypes to the attack of Z. subfasciatus. In the first selection of genotypes were evaluated 35 cowpea genotypes, being observed the variables: number of eggs, number of insects emerged and weight loss (%. In this first selection of cowpea were selected 10 genotypes. In the second selection of genotypes, the 10 most resistant from the first selection were used, but with eight repetitions per genotype, besides evaluating the egg viability (% and instantaneous rate of population growth. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for resistance to attack by Z. subfasciatus. The most resistant to Z. subfasciatus were BRS Tracuateua, 31 MNC03-720C-20, 26 MNC00-553D-8-1-2-2 and 37 MNC05-832B-234-5. 

Aline Viana Kloss Toledo

2013-04-01

192

Biocontrol in store : Spatial and behavioural aspects of foraging by Uscana lariophaga, egg parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea  

OpenAIRE

 Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers), an important crop for West African subsistence farmers, is often infested in storage by the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) is responsible for substantial mortality of C. maculatus eggs and might therefore be used in a conservation strategy of biological control. This thesis focuses on foraging behaviour of U. lariophaga females in a spatial context. In s...

Stolk, C.

2002-01-01

193

Radiation induced promising mutants in Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crop of the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa and America. Breeding objectives in recent years have been to combine high yields with upright growth habit, bushy dwarf determinate plant type, early maturity and large seed size in addition to resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. With a view to achieving these objectives and creating additional - variability, the seeds of an elite variety V-130 were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma rays, and a number of morphological mutants were isolated. The mutants with desirable characters like erect growth habit, dwarf, large seed size, and high pod number were isolated in the M2 generation and studied further in subsequent generations for their yield potential and other characteristics. The dwarf plant mutant TCM 77-4, characterised by reduced plant height, bushy growth, large seed size and absence of tendril bred true when grown in rabi seasons, but behaved like parent in respect of growth habit in kharif season. It was far superior to the parent in respect of seed size in all the seasons. The mutant is envisaged to be the most suitable for rice fallows. Among the several promising mutants with large seed size, the mutant TCM 13-5 showed a test weight of 16.8 g against 8.8 g of the parent. A mutant with large pod number designated as TCM 121-8 showed promise with its very high yield, when grown in summer albeit with delayed maturity. Several mutants wi with delayed maturity. Several mutants with maturity similar to that of the parent have shown higher seed yield. The variability generated through the radiation- induced mutation is being utilised for creating novel high yielding early maturing varieties of cowpea. (author)

194

Soil N balance studies of cowpea in symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium in southwest Nigeria as influenced by host cultivar, inoculum strain and growth stage, using the 15N dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 15N isotope dilution technique was used in field studies in southwest Nigeria to quantify the yield and nitrogen fixed in three cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and to partition the sources of nitrogen in the different plant parts at various growth stages. The plants were either uninoculated or inoculated with one of two Bradyrhizobium strains. 1 ref., 2 tabs

195

Screening and secretomic analysis of enthomopatogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an important self-sustained crop in Latin America and Africa, is severely affected by damage by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. The presence of a single larva in stored seeds can lead to losses of almost 40%. Control of C. maculatus currently relies on the inefficient use of chemical insecticides and post-harvest treatments. The use of entomopathogenic fungus became a reliable alternative for coleopteran pest control and has been extensively investigated. Among them, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were widely evaluated in order to measure their virulence toward many insects. In this report, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of ten strains of B. bassiana and the most lethal fungi strains were analyzed for proteinaceous secretions by two dimensional electrophoresis and for enzyme activities, including chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities. This study could, in the near future, help to establish novel biotechnological tools to use for cowpea weevil control. PMID:17350346

Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Mehta, Angela; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L

2007-04-01

196

Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

197

Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca  

OpenAIRE

The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after inoculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp) in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as refere...

Ligiane Aparecida Florentino; Pedro Martins de Sousa; Jacqueline Savana Silva; Karina Barroso Silva; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

2010-01-01

198

Barrières pré-zygotiques chez les hybrides entre formes sauvages du niébé, Vigna unguilata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Hybrids pre-zygotic barriers between wild forms of cowpea. The wild forms of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, constitute an important gene pool insufficiently exploited for the improvement of the cultivated form. In order to promote the use of these wild forms in the genetic improvement programmes, we undertook to understand the various incompatibility reactions which appear in the crosses between wild forms. Efforts were concentrated to understand the incompatibility barriers in the hybridizations between subsp. baoulensis NI 933 and the other wild forms of V. unguiculata. Thanks to the use of the aniline blue fluorescence, we observed a high frequency of pre-zygotic barriers. They appear in three sites, i.e. the higher and lower third of the style, and within the ovary. However, these incompatibility barriers are not absolute. Indeed, in our hybridizations, more than 4% of the ovules were fertilized in the various studied combinations.

Baudoin JP.

2006-01-01

199

Impact of saline water stress on nutrient uptake and growth of cowpea  

OpenAIRE

Soil salinity is a major limitation to crops production in many areas of the world. The present study reports the impact of salt stress on seeds germination, plant growth parameters and leaf ions accumulation in three cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Indian cultivars: Akshay102, Gomti vu-89 and Pusa Falguni. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil was 0.75 dS m?1 and the NaCl treatments increased it to 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m?1. Germination percentage was recorded 10 days af...

Patel, Prakash R.; Kajal, Sushil S.; Patel, Vinay R.; Patel, Vimal J.; Khristi, Sunil M.

2010-01-01

200

Molecular modeling and inhibitory activity of cowpea cystatin against bean bruchid pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cystatins show great potential as tools to genetically engineer resistance of crop plants against pests. Two important potential targets are the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, which display major activities of digestive cysteine proteinases in midguts. In this study a cowpea cystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor found in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with a Ni-NTA agarose column. It strongly inhibited papain and proteinases from midguts of both A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus bruchids, as seen by in vitro assays. When the protein was incorporated into artificial seeds at concentrations as low as 0.025%, and seeds were consumed by the bruchids larva, dramatic reductions in larval weight, and increases in insect mortality were observed. Molecular modeling studies of cowpea cystatin in complex with papain revealed that five N-terminal residues responsible for a large proportion of the hydrophobic interactions involved in the stabilization of the enzyme-inhibitor complex are absent in the partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing of soybean cystatin. We suggest that this structural difference could be the reason for the much higher effectiveness of cowpea cystatin when compared to that previously tested phytocystatin. The application of this knowledge in plant protein mutation programs aiming at enhancement of plant defenses to pests is discussed. PMID:16470583

Aguiar, Juliana M; Franco, Octávio L; Rigden, Daniel J; Bloch, Carlos; Monteiro, Ana C S; Flores, Victor M Q; Jacinto, Tânia; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antonia E A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Fernandes, Kátia V S

2006-05-15

201

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

202

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes. PMID:14977138

Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

2003-12-01

203

Phylogeny of bradyrhizobia from Chinese cowpea miscellany inferred from 16S rRNA, atpD, glnII, and 16S-23S intergenic spacer sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) belong to a group of plants known as the "cowpea miscellany" plants, which are widely cultivated throughout the tropic and subtropical zones of Africa and Asia. However, the phylogeny of the rhizobial strains that nodulate these plants is poorly understood. Previous studies have isolated a diversity of rhizobial strains from cowpea miscellany hosts and have suggested that, phylogenetically, they are from different species. In this work, the phylogeny of 42 slow-growing rhizobial strains, isolated from root nodules of cowpea, peanut, and mung bean from different geographical regions of China, was investigated using sequences from the 16S rRNA, atpD and glnII genes, and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer. The indigenous rhizobial strains from the cowpea miscellany could all be placed in the genus Bradyrhizobium , and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense were the main species. Phylogenies derived from housekeeping genes were consistent with phylogenies generated from the ribosomal gene. Mung bean rhizobia clustered only into B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense and were phylogenetically less diverse than cowpea and peanut rhizobia. Geographical origin was significantly reflected in the phylogeny of mung bean rhizobia. Most cowpea rhizobia were more closely related to the 3 major groups B. liaoningense, B. yuanmingense, and Bradyrhizobium elkanii than to the minor groups Bradyrhizobium japonicum or Bradyrhizobium canariense . However, most peanut rhizobia were more closely related to the 2 major groups B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense than to the minor group B. elkanii. PMID:21491983

Zhang, Sufang; Xie, Fuli; Yang, Jiangke; Li, Youguo

2011-04-01

204

Emission of methane and nitrous oxide from Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes in India during the dry cropping seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se hicieron estimaciones de la emisión de metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O) de las legumbres Vigna mungo y Vigna radiata. Para evaluar estas emisiones se estudió el potencial de óxido reducción (redox) y la temperatura del suelo. El CH4 fue negativo y el N2O positivo para Vigna mungo a lo largo de [...] casi todo el período de cultivo. El potencial redox fue de más de +100 mV durante todo el período de cultivo con un flujo máximo de N2O de 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. El incremento de la temperatura del suelo y del potencial redox durante la cosecha incrementó aún más el flujo de N2O a 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. El flujo integrado estacional E(SIF) de CH4 y N2O para Vigna mungo se calculó en -4.06 g m-2 y 3.38 mg m-2, respectivamente. De manera simmilar los valores E(SIF) estimados para Vigna radiata durante la estación de cultivo fueron de 0.009 g m-2 y -7.6 mg m-2, mientras que para el período post cosecha fueron de 0.02 g m-2 y 4.06 mg m-2 para CH4 y N2O, respectivamente. Durante la estación de cultivo se evaluaron los parámetros del suelo carbón orgánico y nutrimentos como el amonio, nitratos y nitritos. La emisión de gases de efecto invernadero también se correlacionó con varios parámetros fisicoquímicos del suelo. Abstract in english Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates were made for Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes. The affecting soil parameters like redox potential, soil temperature were studied to evaluate CH4 and N2O emissions. The CH4 was negative and N2O was positive for Vigna mungo, almost through [...] out the cropping period. The redox potential was more than +100 mV during the entire cropping period with a maximum N2O flux of 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. The raise in soil temperature and the redox potential during harvest further increased the N2O flux to 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. The seasonally integrated flux E(SIF) for CH4 and N2O for Vigna mungo was calculated to be -4.06 g.m-2 and 3.38 mg m-2 respectively. Similarly E(SIF) values estimated for Vigna radiata cropping season were 0.009 g m-2 and -7.6 mg m-2, whereas for the post harvesting period the fluxes were 0.02 g m-2 and 4.06 mg m-2 for CH4 and N2O respectively. The soil parameters like organic carbon and nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite during the cropping season were evaluated. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) was also correlated to various physico-chemical parameters of soil.

Y. V., Swamy; G. N., Nikhil; R., Venkanna; S. N., Das; G., Roy Chaudhury.

2012-01-01

205

Efectividad de cepas rizobianas de frijol bajo diferentes regímenes de fósforo / Effectiveness of cowpea rhizobial strains under different phosphorus regimes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, el frijol representa una alternativa a la proteína animal, debido a su alto consumo y valor nutritivo, por ello se ha estimulado la implementación de programas para reactivar la economía de los pequeños y medianos productores, a fin de incrementar su producción y así tener mayor dispon [...] ibilidad de proteína de alta calidad a bajo costo; de manera que, los estudios encaminados a mejorar su cultivo, son acertados. Se evaluó la efectividad de cepas rizobianas de crecimiento lento (cl) y rápido (cr) en frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivar TC9-6 en varios regímenes de fósforo (0, 20, 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial. Las plantas se cultivaron en 4 kg de suelo de sabana 45 días y las cepas en caldo de levadura y manitol: 5 (cr: JV91) y 10 (cl: JV94) días. La inoculación (2 ml cada vez) fue aplicada a la siembra y 6 días más tarde. La utilización de fósforo (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) incrementó la nodulación (número, peso seco total e individual de nódulos) y favoreció la aparición de nódulos rojos; así mismo, acrecentó el peso de la materia seca, la altura, el número de hojas y la concentración de nitrógeno del vástago. Los valores fueron similares con ambos tipos de cepas (efectividad similar) y para las dos concentraciones (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con las menores estimaciones para 0 y 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . De acuerdo con los resultados las concentraciones de 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 fueron las más favorables para el crecimiento y la nodulación de frijol. Abstract in english In Venezuela, cowpea is an alternative to animal protein due to its high consumption and nutritious value, so it has stimulated the implementation of programs to reactivate the small and medium producers economy, in order to increase its production and to have major high quality protein availability [...] at low cost; so that, the studies carry on to improve its cultivation, are well-aimed. The effectiveness of slow (sg) and fast (fg) growing rhizobial strains was evaluated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) cultivar TC9-6 at various phosphorus regimes (0, 20, 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ): randomized block design with factorial arrangement. Plants were cultivated in 4 kg savannah soil: 45 days, and the strains in yeast and mannitol broth: 5 (fg: JV91) and 10 (sg: JV94) days. The inoculation (2 ml each time) was applied at sowing time and 6 days later. Phosphorus utilization (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) increa- sed nodulation (nodule number, total and individual dry weight) and favoured nodule red colour appearance; also, incremented shoot dry matter weight, height, leaves number and nitrogen concentration. Values were similar with both strain types (similar effectiveness) and to the two doses (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), with lower estimations to 0 and 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . Accordingly with the results, the doses of 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 were the most favourable to cowpea growth and nodulation.

Juliana, Mayz Figueroa.

2011-12-01

206

A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

2011-01-01

207

Use of intrinsic antibiotic resistance for characterisation and identification of rhizobia from nodules of Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp. and Phaseolus vulgaris (L).  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrinsic resistance to low concentrations of antibiotics was used to characterise 83 isolates from nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and field bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Characterisation and differentiation of isolates from cowpea was made difficult by associated fast-growing bacteria inside the nodule tissue. Thus, reliable pure culture was difficult to secure without repeated isolation and even via nodulation of the appropriate homologous host. Although the technique may be satisfactory for differentiation and identification of fast-growing rhizobia, it is rated inferior to serology on aspects of facility, time and accuracy where rhizobia from cowpea nodules are concerned. Fingerprint patterns of isolates revealed considerable heterogeneity amongst the populations even where there was commonality of location and/or host plant. Pure cultures of slow-growing rhizobia from V. unguiculata nodules were generally more resistant to the concentrations of antibiotics used than fast-growing nodule bacteria from P. vulgaris. PMID:2412407

Dakora, F D

1985-01-01

208

Sequence variability in the coat protein gene of Cowpea severe mosaic virus isolates from northeastern Brazil / Variabilidade de sequências do gene da proteína do capsídeo de isolados do Cowpea severe mosaic virus do Nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O comovírus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causa a doença em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) conhecida como mosaico severo, mas, apesar de sua importância, não há estudos de diversidade genética de populações virais. Foram determinadas as sequências nucleotídicas de parte do gene da proteína do [...] capsídeo (CP) de seis isolados brasileiros de CPSMV. Os fragmentos genômicos (521 nucleotídeos) foram amplificados por RT-PCR, clonados e suas sequências foram comparadas entre si e com as sequências de outros comovírus. As comparações de sequências indicaram um elevado grau de conservação para o gene CP, com identidade de 92-100% (nucleotídeos) e 97-100% (aminoácidos) entre os isolados. Não houve correlação entre origem geográfica e identidade de sequência ou filogenia entre os isolados. Abstract in english The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of six Brazilian isolates [...] of CPSMV. Genomic fragments (521 nucleotides) were RT-PCR amplified, cloned, and their sequences were compared with each other and with other comoviruses. Sequence comparisons indicated a high degree of conservation for the CP gene, with 92-100% nucleotide and 97-100% amino acid sequence identity among the isolates. There was no correlation between geographical origin and sequence identity or phylogeny among the isolates.

José Evando A., Beserra Jr.; Eduardo C., Andrade; Rosa F.R. Araújo, Camarço; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; José Albérsio A., Lima.

2011-04-01

209

Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years / Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV) um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminos [...] a no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC: CPSMV-CE - o primeiro isolado do vírus obtido no Ceará; isolados obtidos de feijão-caupi: CPSMV-AL (Alagoas) and CPSMV-PE (Pernambuco); CPSMV-PR - isolado de soja (Glycine max) no Paraná e CPSMV-CROT - isolado de Crotalaria paulinea no Maranhão. Um isolado de CPSMV capaz de infetar o cv. Macaibo, cultivar de ffeijão-caupi imune a todos os demais isolados de CPSMV foi biológica e sorologicamente caracterizado e designado de CPSMV-MC. O CPSMV-MC obtido em janeiro de 1990 vem sendo avaliado através de estudos de gama de hospedeiro e mantido in vivo através de inoculações periódicas em feijão-caupi. Os resultados dessas avaliações revelaram que a integridade biológica e as propriedades sorológicas do CPSMV-MC foram preservadas ao longo dos anos, indicando que a preservação das propriedades genéticas de uma estirpe viral pode acontecer através dos anos. Estudos moleculares adicionais revelaram que a seqüência de nucleotídeos correspondente a parte do gene da capa protéica de cinco isolados de CPSMV, incluindo o CPSMV-MC, possui elevado grau de conservação, com 92-100% da seqüência de nucleotídeos idêntica entre os isolados. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isola [...] tes were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max) in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC). The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP) gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do, Nascimento; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão.

2012-03-01

210

Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui / Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alo [...] cados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocat [...] ed in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and productive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Rafaella Barbosa, Correa; Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki, Inoue; Irani da Silva de, Morais.

2013-04-01

211

Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

Cheung Foo

2008-02-01

212

Effets de Boscia senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur l'évolution des populations de bruches dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnel de niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp en zone sahélienne  

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Full Text Available Effects of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on Bruchids Populations within Storage Traditional System of Cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Sahelian Area. Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic. (Coleoptera- Bruchidae and Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera-Bruchidae are, in Sahelian area, the most important pests of cowpea beans, (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Cowpea infestation by these two species of bruchids starts in the field at the beginning of the plant fruit bearing and continues during storages where damage can be high if no control action is taken. In this study, the impact of several introductions of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae, an insecticidal plant which is usually used by farmers in Niger, on the population dynamics of the two bruchids species in traditional cowpea storage system has been investigated. The results obtained from this study point out that bruchid populations are more important in the standard jars than in the one, which have received regular inputs of B. senegalensis. Thus, preservation action by regular inputs of B. senegalensis seems to be an efficient way to control bruchids in the cowpea traditional storage system.

Doumma, A.

2001-01-01

213

Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Cowpea Using Nitrogen 15-isotope: The Role of Water and Improved Crop Varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by low productivity and is associated with variable and irregular rainfall, infertile soils, and inadequate application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (Fatokun et al., 2002). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) is a major source of dietary protein for the people, and occupies about eight million hectares of agricultural land, a majority being in Niger and Nigeria (Singh et al., 1997). The major uses include (1) food grain, (2) animal feed, and (3) source of organic N fertilizer. In Niger, cowpea production increased from 4 000 tons year-1 in the mid-fifties to a maximum of 775 000 tons year-1 in 1997, and its cultivated area is still increasing. Despite its importance, cowpea yields in Niger are very low (approximately 300 kg ha-1) relative to the production potential of between 1.5-3.0 t ha-1 (Ball et al., 2000). Yield can be substantially increased by using improved cowpea varieties and overcoming water stress. With adequate soil moisture cowpea flowers over a long period produce more seeds and yield loss is limited. On the contrary, under water deficit conditions the flowering period is cut short and the seed matures earlier, reducing yield. Overcoming water stress can also improve nutrient use efficiency of cowpea. This article summarizes the results of a field study carried out in Niger to assess the use of improved cowpea varieties and water management on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of cowpea using stable isotopes of nitrogen-15 (15N). The field experiment was carried out in the Sahelian zone of Sadore located 45 km south of Niamey, capital of Niger. Six varieties of cowpea cultivars including three widely used varieties in Niger (TN3-78, TN5-78 and KVX) improved the variety obtained from IATA, Nigeria (V499). One variety imported from Ghana (Ghana) and a non-fixing variety obtained from ICRISAAT, Niger (IC10), were used in the study. The water application includes: (a) control in which the treatment is irrigated at field capacity (I1), (b) irrigation every three days (I2), (c) irrigation every five days (I3), and (d) irrigation every seven days (I4). Each treatment received a basal application of 10 kg ha-1 as 15N-labelled urea and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 as single superphosphate. Crop yield, N uptake and 15N in plant were measured and fertilizer N use and biological nitrogen fixation were estimated. Results showed that keeping the soil water content at field capacity through regular application of water increased cowpea grain yield in all five varieties

214

Genetic architecture of delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress in cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34< r <0.87) and allele effects (0.07< r <0.86) for delayed senescence and grain yield across three African environments. Three of the five putative stay-green QTLs, Dro-1, 3, and 7 were identified in both RILs and diverse germplasm with resolutions of 3.2 cM or less for each of the three loci, suggesting that these may be valuable targets for marker-assisted breeding in cowpea. Also, the co-location of early vegetative delayed senescence with biomass and grain yield QTLs suggests the possibility of using delayed senescence at the seedling stage as a rapid screening tool for post-flowering drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes. PMID:23936140

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye N; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D

2013-01-01

215

Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

Gakuru, S.

1995-01-01

216

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

OpenAIRE

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by W...

Silva, Luciana B.; Sales, Mauri?cio P.; Oliveira, Anto?nia E. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Fernandes, Ka?tia V. S.; José Xavier-Filho

2004-01-01

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Identification of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Pterodon pubescens with ability to inhibit cowpea weevil digestive enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea seeds (Vigna ungiculata) are widely cultivated by poor farmers in Latin America and Africa and are often severely damaged by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. A proteinaceous inhibitor of cowpea weevil digestive enzymes, PpAI, was purified from white sucupira seeds (Pterodon pubescens) and biochemically characterized in this study. Proteins were extracted from seeds and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 100% saturation. This fraction was applied onto a Red-sepharose CL-6B column, and the retained peak showed 70% inhibitory activity toward larval C. maculatus digestive alpha-amylases. The retained peak was then purified using an analytical reversed-phase HPLC column. Purified PpAI showed 65% inhibitory activity against larval C. maculatus enzymes. Enzymatic assays also showed that the purified P. pubescens inhibitor was unable to reduce the activity of mammalian alpha-amylases, suggesting specificity toward insect enzymes. Moreover, artificial seeds containing PpAI were able to reduce larval weight by 36% and cause 55% mortality. Mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analyses indicated that PpAI showed a molecular mass of approximately 5.0 kDa. This alpha-amylase inhibitor, coming from a native Cerrado plant, could be used to construct a genetically engineered cowpea with enhanced resistance against weevil pests. PMID:17488029

Silva, Diogo P; Casado-Filho, Erivaldo L; Corrêa, Andréa S R; Farias, Luciana R; Bloch, Carlos; de Sa, Maria F Grossi; Mendes, Paulo A M; Quirino, Betania F; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octavio L

2007-05-30

218

Caracterización de cepas de Rhizobium y Bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulación) seleccionados de los cultivos de fríjol caupi (Vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinóculos / Characterization of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiu´s strains (with ability of nodulation) selected from bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultures as a potentials bioinoculants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los suelos de Latinoamérica son ácidos y deficientes en nitrógeno; por esta razón es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulación y fijar el nitrógeno en las plantas [...] leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opción con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analizó la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del fríjol Vigna unguiculata (fríjol caupí) cultivado en el norte del departamento de Bolívar (Colombia). Se identificaron aislados capaces de crecer mejor en ambientes hostiles (los cuales tienen un uso potencial como bioinoculantes). Se describe además un acercamiento a la taxonomía de estas bioespecies. Se caracterizaron 52 cepas de rizobios (basados en sus características morfológicas, requerimientos de cultivo, metabólicas, resistencia a metales y antibióticos y de autenticación). De acuerdo con sus propiedades de crecimiento, el 63,5% fueron de cepas de lento, mientras que el 36,5%, de rápido crecimiento. Prevalecieron las de lento crecimiento con un 63,5% del total sobre un 36,5% de rápido crecimiento. Los aislados fueron caracterizados de acuerdo con sus patrones de asimilación de carbohidratos, y se encontraron microorganismos de los géneros Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium y Mesorhizobium (12 cepas identificadas como potenciales bioinoculantes). Abstract in english Latin America´s soils are acidic and nitrogen-deficient, for this reason is necessary to explore new alternatives in order to modulate in the development of plants, specially the leguminous plants. The use of bacteria´s potential to induce nodulation and to fix nitrogen in leguminous plants has been [...] studied as an option with potential impact. In our study, we analyzed the diversity of rhizobial isolated of the bean Vigna unguiculata (beans cowpea) cultured in the north of Bolivar department (Colombia). We identified strains able of growing in hostile environment (which have a potential use like bioinoculants). Additionally, we described an approach to taxonomy of these biospecies. We reached the characterization of 52 rhizobial strains (based on their morphologic, requires of culture, metabolic, resistance to metals and antibiotics and authentication characteristics). According with their growing properties, 63.5 % were slow growth strains while the 36.5 % were of rapid growth. The isolates were characterized according to their assimilation carbohydrate´s pattern, finding microorganism as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium (12 of which were identified as potential bioinoculants).

Bernarda, Cuadrado; Guillermo, Rubio; Winston, Santos.

2009-01-01

219

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

220

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP) POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP) BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

OpenAIRE

O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791), "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV). Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae), coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus...

Fernando Javier Sanhueza Salas; Maria Mércia Barradas; José Roberto Postali Parra

1999-01-01

221

Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques to trace the amount of deposition and its transfer to associated and subsequent crops. Half of the total cowpea crop N was located below-ground at plant maturity, which exceeded 20 kg?N ha?1 when intercropped with millet. Only 15% of the below-ground cowpea N was recovered in roots, while 85% was found in the rhizodeposited pools. The experiment demonstrated that direct below-ground N transfer occurred from cowpea to millet in intercrop at a rate of 2 kg?N ha?1 over the growing season. Forty percent of the 25 kg below-ground N that the cowpea crop left at harvest were identifiable in the top 0.30 m soil in the beginning of the next planting season 7 months later; a pool still present at the end of that second season. Thus, the subsequent crop of millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) only recovered 2.5 kg?N ha?1 from the below-ground cowpea pre-crop N during this growth season. The role and potential of cowpea as N provider has been underestimated in the past by ignoring the large proportion of N contained in its rhizodeposits. However, information is needed to determine how losses of the rhizodeposited N can be minimized to fully harness the potential of cowpea as N provider in agro-ecosystems of the region.

Laberge, Guillaume; Haussmann, Bettina I.G.

2011-01-01

222

ESTUDIO DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN HUERTOS AGRÍCOLAS URBANOS DE DOS MUNICIPIOS DE CIUDAD DE LA HABANA. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS ACCESIONES DEL GÉNERO VIGNA  

OpenAIRE

Se realizó un estudio de la biodiversidad agrícola en los huertos urbanos de ocho localidades en los municipios Boyeros y Arroyo Naranjo, con el objetivo de inventariar los cultivos agrícolas existentes. Entre los meses de abril a junio de 1997 se realizó la visita a 100 huertos, llevándose el registro de los datos pasaporte a través del formato que existe a nivel internacional, el cual fue ajustado a las condiciones de este trabajo. Finalmente en un género hortícola colectado fue ...

Ortiz, R.; Celia Vera

2001-01-01

223

ESTUDIO DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN HUERTOS AGRÍCOLAS URBANOS DE DOS MUNICIPIOS DE CIUDAD DE LA HABANA. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS ACCESIONES DEL GÉNERO VIGNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de la biodiversidad agrícola en los huertos urbanos de ocho localidades en los municipios Boyeros y Arroyo Naranjo, con el objetivo de inventariar los cultivos agrícolas existentes. Entre los meses de abril a junio de 1997 se realizó la visita a 100 huertos, llevándose el registro de los datos pasaporte a través del formato que existe a nivel internacional, el cual fue ajustado a las condiciones de este trabajo. Finalmente en un género hortícola colectado fue eva- luada la biodiversidad encontrada en superficies del ISPETP durante los meses de abril a julio de 1998. La información obte- nida se analizó estadísticamente por métodos univariados y multivariados. Se determinó que en los huertos estudiados existe una biodiversidad agrícola satisfactoria, localizándose 262 accesiones entre las que predominan las viandas, frutales, hortalizas y leguminosas. Además, muchos de los cultivares se adaptan a sistemas de agricultura de bajos insumos. En los tipos de habichuelas colectadas se encontró diversidad para una gran cantidad de caracteres morfológicos y componentes del rendimiento.

R. Ortiz

2001-01-01

224

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações i [...] soladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were inc [...] orporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Antônio Chagas, Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales, Fernandes; Maurício Pereira, Sales; Victor Martin Quintana, Flores; José, Xavier-Filho.

2002-03-01

225

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

Antônio Chagas Mota

2002-03-01

226

Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

227

Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage. PMID:24322505

Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

2014-07-01

228

Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus / Caracterização da resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a resistência de 50 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a Callosobruchus maculatus. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento (genótipo). Testes de confinamento foram realizados com os 50 genótipos de [...] feijão-caupi, para avaliar a preferência para oviposição e o desenvolvimento do caruncho. Os genótipos IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2 e Sanzi Sambili apresentam resistência do tipo não preferência (oviposição e alimentação). IT81 D-1045 Ereto e IT81 D-1045 Enramador apresentam antibiose contra C. maculatus e descendem de genitores resistentes, o que lhes confere potencial para serem utilizados em futuros cruzamentos, para obtenção de variedades de feijão-caupi com maior nível de resistência. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype) was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the pr [...] eference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding). IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

Maria de Jesus Passos de, Castro; Edson Luiz Lopes, Baldin; Patrícia Leite, Cruz; Camila Moreira de, Souza; Paulo Henrique Soares da, Silva.

1201-12-01

229

Consumers’ Preference for Cowpea in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates consumers’ preference for cowpea reflected in the Nigerian markets through price discounts and premiums that consumers pay for different cowpea characteristics. The price data used for this study were obtained through a market survey. A common data collection protocol was employed. Every month, between October 2009 to December 2010, five cowpea samples per seller were bought from randomly selected sellers in six markets and the prices noted. In the laboratory, the non-price data, such as, 100 grain weight, number of bruchid holes per 100 grains, eye colour and texture of the testa were obtained. A hedonic pricing regression model was used to analyze data collected. Hedonic pricing methods provide a statistical estimate of premiums and discounts. Results indicate that eye colour is the most important determinant of cowpea market prices. Cowpeas with brown colour commands a clear premium in all but one market. The consumers discount prices for insect damage in most markets. In general, this study signals the need for cowpea breeders to identify cost effective ways of breeding for brown coloured cowpea (Ife-brown specie which was noted to attract price premium.

Kalu Ukpai Ifegwu

2014-03-01

230

Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

231

Production of Destruxins from Metarhizium spp. Fungi in Artificial Medium and in Endophytically Colonized Cowpea Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken) cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918) did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2–3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods. PMID:25127450

Golo, Patrícia S.; Gardner, Dale R.; Grilley, Michelle M.; Takemoto, Jon Y.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Pires, Marcus S.; Fernandes, Éverton K. K.; Bittencourt, Vânia R. E. P.; Roberts, Donald W.

2014-01-01

232

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 renefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

233

Phosphorus Response Efficiency in Cowpea Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorus is important for cowpea production and is inherently low in many tropical soils. Selection of cowpea genotypes that produce good yield under low soil P or those with high P response efficiency can be a low input approach in solving this problem. Therefore, the effect of root architecture and P application on the yield of cowpea and its P uptake were investigated. A screen house experiment was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred cowpea genotypes obtained from the germplasm collection Unit of IITA were screened for number of root whorls and total number of roots using a completely randomized design with 12 replicates. Ten cowpea genotypes were further selected from the initial screening to determine the effect of three levels of P (0, 20 and 40 mg P kg-1 soil application on their growth and nutrient uptake. The experiment was replicated three times. Phosphorus application significantly (p<0.05 enhanced shoot and root dry weight, total biomass, number of nodules, nodules dry weight, N and P uptake of the cowpea genotypes investigated. Six cowpea genotypes exhibited increases in nodules dry weight with P application. There was no significant relationship between root architecture and P uptake (r = -0.13. The N and P uptake were enhanced by the application of P in the cowpea genotypes studied. In low P soil, IT97K-414-5 was efficient in P uptake and IT92KD-267-2 was efficient in N uptake. The two genotypes may produce cowpea lines suitable in low P soils when used as breeder lines.

Oladiran Olaleye

2012-01-01

234

Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

Ocaya, Cp; Adipala, E.; Osiru, Dso

2001-01-01

235

Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation  

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Full Text Available Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0 with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contrasting (Al-resistant and Al-susceptible cowpea genotypes, Epace 10 (E10 and Santo Inacio (SI were studied at 0 and 0 ?M Al. Root elongation was followed over the first 96 h of Al treatment and during the initial 48 hours elongation was determined daily. In addition, exudation of carboxylates in apical root zone and modifications of rhizoplane pH by the two genotypes were compared in hydroponics` culture experiments that involved +/-Al treatments at mild (14 days and severe (21 days phosphorus (P limitation stages. Differential genotypic responses were further evaluated in a rhizobox experiment, using an acidic Aerenosol from West Africa (Niger with low expression of Al toxicity. Strong Al-induced inhibition of root growth occurred at 20 ?M Al without genotypic difference, suggesting the need to further test genotypic differences at lower concentrations. Under P limitation, E10 exhibited a stronger expression (relative to SI of root induced chemical changes (increased rhizoplane pH and citrate exudation in apical root zone to counteract Al toxicity. Therefore, genotypic differences in performance of E10 and SI on acid mineral soils may be associated with different expression of Al tolerance mechanisms, particularly under conditions of limited P supply.

E.A. Akinrinde

2006-01-01

236

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae) para la Argentina / Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae) from Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae) y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae) para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transició [...] n jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto. Abstract in english During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae) and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae) for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1) Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná ba [...] sin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2) Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3) Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina) with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

Patricia S., Hoc; Ramón A., Palacios; María P., Mom.

2006-12-01

237

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae para la Argentina Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae from Argentina  

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Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto.During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1 Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná basin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2 Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3 Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

Patricia S. Hoc

2006-12-01

238

Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger  

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Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

Abdoul Habou, Z.

2014-01-01

239

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

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The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management. PMID:14994820

Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

2003-04-01

240

Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment / Metais pesados e produtividade de caupi cultivado sob aplicações de lodo de curtume compostado  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo objetivou avaliar a fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados (Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb) em folhas e grãos, e produtividade em caupi (Vigna unguiculata L) em solo após a adição de lodo de curtume compostado (LCC) por dois anos consecutivos. Os experimentos foram realizados em 2009 e 2010 em solo com adi [...] ção de LCC a doses de 0, 5, 10, 20 e 40 Mg ha-1. A adição de LCC em doses acima de 10 Mg ha-1, por dois anos consecutivos, aumentou a concentração de Cr nas folhas do caupi. Não houve aumento na concentração de metais no grão de caupi após dois anos de aplicação. Em 2009, a aplicação de LCC não aumentou a produtividade da planta. Entretanto, em 2010, o LCC nas doses de 10 e 20 Mg ha-1 aumentou a produtividade do caupi. A aplicação de lodo de curtume compostado aumentou linearmente a concentração de Cr nas folhas do caupi após dois anos. O lodo de curtume compostado promoveu aumento na produtividade de grãos. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS) for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 [...] in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

Iuna Carmo Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Ademir Sergio Ferreira, Araújo; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal, Nunes; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Wanderley José de, Melo.

2014-12-01

241

How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legue found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

242

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

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Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

Silva Luciana B.

2004-01-01

243

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants. PMID:15048195

Silva, Luciana B; Sales, Maurício P; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Machado, Olga L T; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, José

2004-03-01

244

QTL mapping for salt tolerance and domestication-related traits in Vigna marina subsp. oblonga, a halophytic species.  

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QTL mapping in F2 population [V. luteola × V. marina subsp. oblonga] revealed that the salt tolerance in V. marina subsp. oblonga is controlled by a single major QTL. The habitats of beach cowpea (Vigna marina) are sandy beaches in tropical and subtropical regions. As a species that grows closest to the sea, it has potential to be a gene source for breeding salt-tolerant crops. We reported here for the first time, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping for salt tolerance in V. marina. A genetic linkage map was constructed from an F2 population of 120 plants derived from an interspecific cross between V. luteola and V. marina subsp. oblonga. The map comprised 150 SSR markers. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups spanning 777.6 cM in length with a mean distance between the adjacent markers of 5.59 cM. The F2:3 population was evaluated for salt tolerance under hydroponic conditions at the seedling and developmental stages. Segregation analysis indicated that salt tolerance in V. marina is controlled by a few genes. Multiple interval mapping consistently identified one major QTL which can explain about 50% of phenotypic variance. The flanking markers may facilitate transfer of the salt tolerance allele from V. marina subsp. oblonga into related Vigna crops. The QTL for domestication-related traits from V. marina are also discussed. PMID:24370961

Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Naito, Ken; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Kaga, Akito; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

2014-03-01

245

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba / Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. A [...] mostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados. Abstract in english Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms [...] of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de, Freitas; Márcia Aparecida, Cezar; Márcia Michelle de Queiróz, Ambrósio; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; José Albérsio de Araújo, Lima.

2012-08-01

246

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de Freitas

2012-08-01

247

The cowpea RING ubiquitin ligase VuDRIP interacts with transcription factor VuDREB2A for regulating abiotic stress responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important grain legume cultivated in drought-prone parts of the world, having higher tolerance to heat and drought than many other crops. The transcription factor, Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding protein 2A (DREB2A), controls expression of many genes involved in osmotic and heat stress responses of plants. In Arabidopsis, DREB2A-interacting proteins (DRIPs), which function as E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19), regulate the stability of DREB2A by targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation. In this study, we cloned the cowpea ortholog of DRIP (VuDRIP) using PCR based methods. The 1614 bp long VuDRIP mRNA encoded a protein of 433 amino acids having a C3HC4-type Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain in the N-terminus and a C-terminal conserved region, similar to Arabidopsis DRIP1 and DRIP2. We found VuDRIP up-regulation in response to various abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) two-hybrid analysis, VuDRIP was identified as a VuDREB2A-interacting protein. The results indicate negative regulation of VuDREB2A by ubiquitin ligases in cowpea similar to Arabidopsis along with their other unknown roles in stress and hormone signaling pathways. PMID:25090086

Sadhukhan, Ayan; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

2014-10-01

248

Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil / Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz [...] e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias), genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p Abstract in english In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphol [...] ogical traits (mucous production and colony morphology), genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S) and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p

Jerri Édson, Zilli; Romano Roberto, Valisheski; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Maria Cristina Prata, Neves; Norma Gouvêa, Rumjanek.

2004-12-01

249

Phylogenetic diversity of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia from soils in Japan based on sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop and yet its rhizobia have not been well characterized in many areas. In the present study, sequence analysis of the bacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was performed to characterize genetically 76 indigenous cowpea rhizobia from five different geographic regions (Okinawa, Miyazaki, Kyoto, Fukushima and Hokkaido) of Japan. The sequence analysis clustered all isolates in the genus Bradyrhizobium. They were conspecific with B. japonicum, B. yuanmingense, B. elkanii and Bradyrhizobium sp., although none of them grouped with B. liaoningense, B. canariense, B. betae or B. iriomotense. B. yuanmingense was only isolated from the southern region (Okinawa) where it achieved the highest frequency of 69%. B. japonicum was predominant at Miyazaki, Fukushima and Hokkaido with more than 60% of the isolates. B. elkanii was mainly recorded in the southern (Okinawa: 31%, Miyazaki: 33%) and middle (Kyoto: 33%) regions. This species was present at a very low frequency in Fukushima and absent in Hokkaido in the northern area. Bradyrhizobium sp. like-strains were absent in the southern part (Okinawa, Miyazaki) but were concentrated either in the middle regions with 67% of Kyoto isolates and 28% of Fukushima isolates, and in the northern region with 40% of the Hokkaido isolates. This study revealed a geographical distribution of cowpea bradyrhizobia which seemed to be related to the differences in the environmental characteristics (soil type and soil pH, temperature, climate, moisture) of the different regions in Japan. PMID:21498019

Sarr, Papa Saliou; Yamakawa, Takeo; Saeki, Yuichi; Guisse, Aliou

2011-06-01

250

Use of X-ray to evaluate damage caused by weevils in cowpea seeds Utilização de raios X na avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi  

OpenAIRE

In Brazil, the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], is important in the Northeast Region, where it is typically grown on family farms. The importance of the damage caused to the seed quality of this species by stored pests has been described in various studies. Using X-ray, it is possible to see the internal seed structures and identify possible changes and damage. The objective of this study was to identify the damage caused by the weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.)] by analyzing X-ra...

Melo, Roberto A.; Victor Augusto Forti; Cicero, Silvio M.; Dlc, Ana Novembre; Melo, Paulo Ce?sar T.

2010-01-01

251

Multiple forms of cotyledonary b-galactosidases from Vigna unguiculata quiescent seeds  

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Full Text Available Cotyledonary b-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from Pitiúba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. quiescent seeds. The purification steps consisted of precipitation of the crude extract with ammonium sulphate in the range of 20-60% saturation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and Lactosyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. This purification process gave rise to three b-galactosidases-rich fractions: b-gal I, b-gal II and b-gal III, which were purified about 5, 509, and 62 fold, respectively. They reached maximal enzyme activity at different pH ranges: 3.5-4.5 for b-gal I, 3.0-3.5 for b-gal II, and 3.0-4.0 for b-gal III. Their maximal activities were reached when the temperature of the assay medium was 60° C, and preincubation of the enzymes at different temperatures has shown that they were heat-stable up to 50° C. There were no significant differences among the partially purified enzymes as far as their response to the different effectors tested, except for Mn2+ and EDTA, which affected differently b-gal I, b-gal II, and b-gal III. They were slightly affected by Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarate, molybdate, glucose, and lactose, strongly inhibited by Cu2+ and galactose, and inactivated by Hg2+. These chemical and physical properties are similar to the ones found for other plant b-galactosidases. Although through this process of purification three isoforms of this enzyme were obtained, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gel of these enzyme-proteins suggest that cotyledons of Pitiúba cowpea quiescent seeds possess four isoforms of b-galactosidases.

ENÉAS-FILHO JOAQUIM

2000-01-01

252

Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. PMID:24220155

Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

2014-02-01

253

Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

2014-03-01

254

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi / Weed interference in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casuali [...] zados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita). No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI) foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%. Abstract in english This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the fir [...] st group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest). .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP) was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

F.C.L., Freitas; V.F.L.P., Medeiros; L.C., Grangeiro; M.G.O., Silva; P.G.M.L., Nascimento; G.H., Nunes.

2009-06-01

255

Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

F.C.L. Freitas

2009-06-01

256

Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1 present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular masses of the RNases did not significantly differ, averaging 16.3 kDa. Leaf RNase was stable up to 50masculineC while the others were inactivated at this temperature. The maximal inactivation for both stem and roots RNases was reached at 70masculineC while for leaf it occurred at 80masculineC. The addition of KCl to the assay medium caused a shift of optimal pH from 6.0 toward the range of 5.2 - 5.6 for the enzymes extracted from the different tissues. RNase activities were strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+, partially inhibited by Co2+ and Fe2+ and were not affected by EDTA, Ca2+ or Mg2+. In contrast to the leaf RNase, roots and stem enzymes were inactivated by urea and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME. Although there is a great similarity among the enzymes studied, leaf RNase appears to be more stable to heat and to chemical denaturation than root and stem RNases. The results also suggest that the enzymes extracted from different tissues of Pitiúba cowpea seedlings are ribonucleases and not nucleases.

FRANCO OCTÁVIO LUIZ

2001-01-01

257

Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish r [...] elationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen). Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP) and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154) yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9) CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

Bruno Lima, Soares; Paulo Avelar Ademar, Ferreira; Silvia Maria de, Oliveira-Longatti; Leandro Marciano, Marra; Marcia, Rufini; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

2014-06-01

258

Acumulación de S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn y Mn y relación con la materia seca en frijol cultivado bajo labranza mínima y convencional en un mollisol de Venezuela / Accumulation of S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn and their relatioship with dry matter production in cowpea grown under minimum and conventional tillage in a mollisol soil of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela se requiere información sobre la acumulación de nutrimentos por el frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp y su relación con la producción de materia seca (MS) para mejorar la efi ciencia de uso de los fertilizantes y la cantidad de nutrimentos a aplicar. En este estudio se evaluó la acumulac [...] ión de S, Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe y Mn por la variedad frijol Tuy, sembrada bajo labranza mínima (LM) y labranza convencional (LC), en un suelo Mollisol del estado Aragua. La concentración de los nutrimentos evaluados fue similar en LM y LC, excepto S que resultó más elevado en LC. El patrón de acumulación de nutrimentos fue semejante en LM y LC, aunque mayor en LC entre 11-32% del S, Zn, Mg y Fe, de 55-59% del Ca y Mn se acumularon en los primeros 43 días después de la germinación (DDG) y 68-89% del Ca y 45-61% del Mn se acumuló entre los 43 y 58 DDG. La mayor absorción de nutrimentos en LC, está asociado con una menor densidad aparente (Da) entre 0 y 10 cm, mejorando el desarrollo radical. En LM la función cuadrática describe mejor la relación entre MS producida y nutrimento absorbido , al contrario mientras que en LC donde la función lineal está más destacada. En LM otro factor pudo afectar la absorción de nutrimentos, que en el caso de LC la producción de MS se podría incrementar mediante el manejo de la fertilización Abstract in english In Venezuela there is a need for information regarding nutrient accumulation by cowpea, Vigna unguiculta L. Walp and their relationship with dry matter production (DM), to improve the effi ciency of use of fertilizer, and the amount of nutrient to apply. In this study the absortion of S, Zn, Ca, Mg, [...] Fe and Mn by cowpea (Tuy variety), sowed under minimum (MT) and conventional tillage (CT), was evaluated in a Molisol soil of the Aragua State. The concentration of the nutrients evaluated were similar in MT and CT, with the exception of S, which was higher in CT. The pattern of the nutrient accumulation was similar in NT and CT, althought the amount of nutrients taken up was higher in CT. Between 11-32% of the S, Zn, Mg and Fe, and between 55-59% of Ca and Mn were accumulated during the fi rst 43 days after germination (DAG), while between 68-89% of the fi rst, and 45-61% of the latter were accumulated between the 43-58 DAG. Probably in CT the higher accumulation of nutrients was associated to a lower soil bulk density in the soil layers between 0-10 cm, which improve the development of the root system. In MT there was a cuadratic relationship between DM and the amount of nutrient accumulated, which suggest that some other soil factor could affect the nutrient absorption, while in CT there was a lineal relationship, which suggest that the crop production could be increased by improvement of the fertilizer management

Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Lesce, Navarro; María, Paredes.

2010-06-01

259

Physiological response of cowpea seeds to salinity stress Resposta fisiológica de sementes de feijão caupi ao estresse salino  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp seeds submitted to salt stress. Seeds of cultivars 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' and 'Pitiúba' of cowpea, were submitted to germination test in germinator at 25(0C, in "germitest" papers imbibed in distilled water or in 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200mol m-3 NaCl solutions. At the first and second counting of the germination test, normal seedlings were accounted, weighted and dried, obtaining data for vigor, total germination, fresh matter weight and dry matter weight. The seedlings hypocotyls, root and total length were measured total proteins content in cotyledons were obtained from germinating seeds. The presence of salt at concentrations higher than 50mol m-3 NaCl affect the germination, seedlings growth and cotyledons total protein synthesis of all cowpea cultivars. The seeds of cultivar pitiúba were is more tolerant to salinity, than the cultivars Canapu and Epace-10.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de três cultivares de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp ao estresse salino. As sementes das cultivares 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' e 'Pitiúba' foram submetidas ao teste de germinação em germinador a 25(0C, em papel "germitest" embebido em água destilada ou em soluções de NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 10, 50, 100 e 200mol m-3. Na primeira e segunda contagem do teste de germinação, as plântulas normais foram contadas, pesadas e secadas, obtendo-se dados de vigor, germinação, massa de matéria fresca e massa de matéria seca. O comprimento do hipocótilo, raiz e total foram medidos e o teor de proteínas totais nos cotilédones foi obtido em plântulas de 3, 5 e 8 dias. As concentrações de NaCl acima da 50mol m-3 afetam a germinação e o vigor das sementes, crescimento de plântulas, bem como a síntese de proteínas totais. As sementes da cultivar Pitiúba são mais tolerantes à salinidade do que as cultivares Canapu e Epace-10.

Bárbara França Dantas

2005-06-01

260

Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de suelos de la Costa Caribe colombiana en Vigna unguiculata / Infectivity and effectiveness of isolated rhizobia from colombian Caribbean Soils in Vigna unguiculata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es el primer estudio en Colombia que abarca una evaluación de rizobios nativos asociados a frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) en los departamentos del Cesar y la Guajira. En esta investigación, se demostró que la utilización de aislamientos de rizobios nativos aislados a partir de nódulos, me [...] joraron el desarrollo del frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), siendo estas bacterias más eficientes que los tratamientos químicos y absolutos (sin inóculo ni fertilización) y que las cepas inducidas mejorando además, la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y la tasa fotosintética. Como aportes del estudio, se determinó que en condiciones de invernadero la fertilización biológica fue más eficiente que la química y que, de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes variables agronómicas evaluadas, esto podría influir positivamente en los rendimientos nutricionales del cultivo, base alimentaria de los sistemas ganaderos de estas regiones del país y fuente alimenticia de la comunidad indígena y de bajos recursos económicos. Abstract in english This is the first study in Colombia which covers an evaluation of native rhizobium associated to the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in the departaments of Cesar and Guajira. In this research it was demonstrated that the use of native rhizobium isolated from nodes, improved the development o [...] f the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), being this bacteria more efficient than the chemical and absolute treatments (without inoculum and fertilization) also improving the biological nitrogen fixation and the photosynthetic rate. As contribution of the study, it was determined that in greenhouse conditions and according to the results obtained from differents measured agronomic variables, this could influence positively in the nutritional performance of the crop, basis of food of the cattle system of this regions of the country and the food source of the indigenous community of low economic income.

Jonathan Alberto, Mendoza Labrador; Ruth Rebeca, Bonilla Buitrago.

2014-12-01

261

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Co-Fermented Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea Ogi as Infant Complementary Food  

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Full Text Available This study involved formulating nutritionally suitable complementary food mixtures with locally available raw materials. Maize or sorghum was mixed with cowpea, soaked at 25 °C for 72 h, wet-milled and sieved. The sediment was sun dried, milled for analyses. Proximate, functional properties and amino acid were determined in co-fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea. Sorghum/cowpea had higher water absorption capacity, (235% than maize/cowpea (103% sorghum/cowpea and a lower value of oil absorption capacity (47.9% than, maize/cowpea of (67.6%. Oil absorption capacity of (14.7% in sorghum/cowpea was higher than (9.6% in maize/cowpea. The higher foaming capacity of maize/cowpea (40.0% than that of sorghum/cowpea of 20.0% might be due to soluble proteins and higher emulsion capacity of maize/cowpea might make it a better flavour retainer and enhanced mouth-feel. Values of foaming stability, least gelation capacity and bulk density (loose and packed were comparable. Sorghum/cowpea had higher contents of lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, cystine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, total amino acids, total sulphur amino acid, ratio of total essential amino acids/aromatic amino acids but lower values of methionine and total essential amino acids. Thus co-fermented sorghum/cowpea is of better protein quality than maize/cowpea.

M.A. Oyarekua

2009-01-01

262

Acumulación de materia seca, N, P y K en frijol cultivado bajo labranza mínima y convencional en un mollisol de Venezuela / Acumulation of dry matter, N, P and K in cowpea grown under minumum and conventional tillage in a mollisol of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El conocimiento del patrón de acumulación de materia seca (MS), y nutrimentos en frijol, Vigna unguiculta, puede emplearse para mejorar la cantidad y épocas de fertilización y mejorar prácticas de manejo. En este estudio se evaluó la acumulación de MS, N, P, y K en hoja, tallo, grano, vaina, y área [...] foliar (ÁF) a los 15, 29, 43, 58, y 73 días después de germinación (DDG) en fríjol variedad Tuy, cultivado en labranza mínima (LM) y labranza convencional (LC), en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, en un experimento en bloques con tratamientos distribuidos aleatoreamente con 3 repeticiones. En cada unidad experimental se cosecharon 3 plantas por muestreo. El patrón de acumulación de MS, N, P, y K fue similar en LC y LM, y en promedio 69% de la MS, y 92, 79 y 78% del N, P, y del K es acumulado entre 43 y 58 DDG. La MS, N, P, y K en LC fue estadísticamente mayor que en LM a los 15 y 58 DDG para N, a los 58 DDG para P, y 43 y 58 DDG para K. La relación ÁF/MS no presentó diferencias entre LC y LM: decreció, en promedio, desde 412,95 cm2/g MS a los 15 DDG, hasta 72 cm2/g MS a los 58 DDG. El P, K, y N absorbido, de manera individual, explican entre 99 y 94%, 98 y 90%, y 73 y 37% de la variación en MS en LC y LM, respectivamente Abstract in english The knowledge of the pattern of dry matter (DM) production and nutrient uptake by -cowpea, Vigna unguiculta, could be usefull to improve the quantity and application time of fertilizers. We evaluated the acumulation of DM, N, P, and K in leaf, steam, grain, pod, and foliar area (FA) a the 15, 29, 43 [...] , 58, and 73 days after germination (DAG) in cowpea (variety Tuy), sowed under minimun (MT) and conventional tillage (CT), in a Mollisol soil located at Aragua state in Venezuela, in an experiment of Random block desing with three repetitions. In each sampler time three plants were collected in each experimental unit. We found that the patter of DM accumulation and of nutrient uptake were similar between MT and CT, and in average 69% of the DM, and 92, 79 and 78% of the N, P, and K were accumulated in the period between 43 and 58 DAG. The DM, N, P, and K in CT were statisticaly greater than in MT at the 15 and 58 DAG for N, at the 58 DAG for P, and 43 and 58 DAG for K. The ratio FA/DM were similar in CT and MT: in average, it decreased since 412.95 cm2/g DM at the 15 DAG, until 72 cm2/g DM at the 58 DAG. The P, K, and N taken up, individually, explain between 99 and 94%, 98 and 90%, and 73 and 37% of the variation in DM in CT and MT respectivelly

Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Bethsaida, Ortega; Lorenzo, Velásquez.

2009-12-01

263

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

OpenAIRE

greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

2008-01-01

264

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes / Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de [...] Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universid [...] ade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo, Ferreira; Elizita Maria, Teófilo.

1432-14-01

265

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea [...] (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L., Rose; V.M., Gomes; M., Da Cunha; K.V.S., Fernandes; J., Xavier-Filho.

2003-08-01

266

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L. Rose

2003-01-01

267

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea.Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A. Lima

2005-08-01

268

Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 ?mol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Thillo, M. van

269

Multiple forms of cotyledonary b-galactosidases from Vigna unguiculata quiescent seeds / Múltiplas formas de b-galactosidases cotiledonárias de sementes quiescentes de Vigna unguiculata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese b-galactosidases cotiledonárias foram isoladas e purificadas, parcialmente, de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Pitiúba. As etapas de purificação consistiram de precipitação do extrato bruto com sulfato de amônio na faixa de 20-60% de saturação, precipitação áci [...] da, cromatografia de troca-iônica em DEAE-Sephadex e cromatografia de afinidade em Lactosil- Sepharose. Esse processo de purificação deu origem a três frações ricas em b-galactosidases: b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III, as quais foram purificadas cerca de 5, 509 e 62 vezes, respectivamente. Elas atingiram máxima atividade enzimática em diferentes faixas de pH: 3,5-4,5 para b-gal I, 3,0-3,5 para b-gal II e 3,0-4,0 para b-gal III. Suas atividades máximas foram alcançadas quando a temperatura do meio de ensaio era 60° C, e a preincubação das enzimas em diferentes temperaturas mostrou que elas eram termoestáveis até 50° C. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as enzimas parcialmente purificadas no que respeita à resposta dos diferentes efetores testados, exceto para Mn2+ e EDTA, que afetaram, diferentemente, b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III. Elas foram ligeiramente afetadas por Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarato, molibdato, glicose e lactose, fortemente inibidas por Cu2+ e galactose, e inativadas por Hg2+. Essas propriedades químicas e físicas são semelhantes às encontradas para outras b-galactosidases de plantas. Embora, três isoformas dessa enzima tenham sido obtidas através desse processo de purificação, a focalização isoelétrica em placa de gel de poliacrilamida dessas proteinas enzimáticas sugere que cotilédones de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda Pitiúba possuem quatro isoformas de b-galactosidases. Abstract in english Cotyledonary b-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from Pitiúba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) quiescent seeds. The purification steps consisted of precipitation of the crude extract with ammonium sulphate in the range of 20-60% saturation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex io [...] n-exchange chromatography and Lactosyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. This purification process gave rise to three b-galactosidases-rich fractions: b-gal I, b-gal II and b-gal III, which were purified about 5, 509, and 62 fold, respectively. They reached maximal enzyme activity at different pH ranges: 3.5-4.5 for b-gal I, 3.0-3.5 for b-gal II, and 3.0-4.0 for b-gal III. Their maximal activities were reached when the temperature of the assay medium was 60° C, and preincubation of the enzymes at different temperatures has shown that they were heat-stable up to 50° C. There were no significant differences among the partially purified enzymes as far as their response to the different effectors tested, except for Mn2+ and EDTA, which affected differently b-gal I, b-gal II, and b-gal III. They were slightly affected by Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarate, molybdate, glucose, and lactose, strongly inhibited by Cu2+ and galactose, and inactivated by Hg2+. These chemical and physical properties are similar to the ones found for other plant b-galactosidases. Although through this process of purification three isoforms of this enzyme were obtained, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gel of these enzyme-proteins suggest that cotyledons of Pitiúba cowpea quiescent seeds possess four isoforms of b-galactosidases.

JOAQUIM, ENÉAS-FILHO; FABRÍCIO BONFIM, SUDÉRIO; ENÉAS, GOMES-FILHO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO, PRISCO.

2000-03-01

270

The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

A.O. Ogaraku

2007-01-01

271

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

OpenAIRE

The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated ...

Ileke, K. D.; Odeyemi, O. O.; Ashamo, M. O.

2012-01-01

272

Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil / Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à c [...] ultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida. Abstract in english Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in T [...] eresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After screenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

Élison Fabrício Bezerra, Lima; Lúcia da Silva, Fontes; Silvia Marisa Jesien, Pinent; Adriana Saraiva dos, Reis; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Angela Celis de Almeida, Lopes.

2013-03-01

273

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

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Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

274

Toxic Effects of Three Industrial Effluents on Growth and Development of Vigna unguiculata (L Walp (Cultivar it 84 E-124  

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Full Text Available The toxic effects of Paint, Battery and Textile effluents respectively on Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Cultivar It 84 E-124 were evaluated in this study. Viable seeds were planted in 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted effluents. Distilled water was used as control. The Physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Zinc being 35.6 mg L-1 in Paint effluent, copper and lead were 10.5 mg L-1 in Battery effluent were found to be above Federal Environmental Protection Agencys limit suggesting toxic impact on the seedling. Leaf size, stem length and root length were observed to be responsive to the concentration gradient of the effluents. Dry weight declined with a positive response from mean value of 1.18 g for 25% Textile to 0.11 g for 25% Key paint. The test plant indicated high concentration of heavy metals in its biomass, for instance, 75% flash battery with highest fresh weight of 1.75 g except for textile effluent with 1.45 g. Textile effluent was also found to favour chlorophyll formation leading to photosynthesis while the other effluents were found not to be in favour of chlorophyll production. The mean total chlorophyll for control is 56.43 mg g-1, Undiluted Textile being 51.45 mg g-1, while Key paint has 9.11 mg g-1. Howbeit, the severity of toxicity of the industrial effluents follow this trend; key paint higher than flash battery which is higher than textile at the different treatment concentrations of 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted. Suggesting that at very low concentration, Vigna unguiculata thrives better in textile effluents contaminated environment than battery and paint effluents. It is suggested that these parameters in cowpea may constitute methods of environmental monitoring.

T. Yahaya

2011-01-01

275

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

2010-02-01

276

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

2010-02-01

277

Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp. Seeds  

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Full Text Available Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole, C. elegans (sole, a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and the control which received no parasitoids. The introduction of parasitoids was repeated at 3 d interval, and all treatments were replicated 3 times. Result indicated that early introduction of the parasitoids caused significantly (P ? 0.05 higher mortality of C.maculatus than late introduction. Mix culture of both parasitoids was significantly more efficacious than sole culture. The emergence of each parasitoid and the mortality of C. maculatus in sole culture showed a highly significant (P ? 0.01 positive relationship (r = 0.487 between C. maculatus and D. basalis but non-significant (P ? 0.05 though positive association (r = 0.289 with C. elegans. A multiple regression analysis between C. maculatus mortality and the emergence of the two parasitoids in mix culture also indicated a highly positive significant (P ? 0.01 relationship (R = 0.751, R2 = 0.564. Pearson Correlation analysis also showed a significant (P ? 0.05 positive association (r = 0.464, and 0.401 between C. maculatus mortality and emergence of C. elegans and D. basalis in mix culture, respectively. However, a non significant (P ? 0.05 negative relationship (r = -0.336 was observed between the two parasitoids in their emergence in mix culture, but D. basalis contributed more to the mortality of C. maculatus than C. elegans. Data from this study showed that D. basalis and C. elegans have potentials to be deployed as biological control entities in the management of C. maculatus as a part of the integrated pest management strategies of storage pests in the tropics.

Umoetok S. B. A.

2012-08-01

278

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Co-Fermented Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea Ogi as Infant Complementary Food  

OpenAIRE

This study involved formulating nutritionally suitable complementary food mixtures with locally available raw materials. Maize or sorghum was mixed with cowpea, soaked at 25 °C for 72 h, wet-milled and sieved. The sediment was sun dried, milled for analyses. Proximate, functional properties and amino acid were determined in co-fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea. Sorghum/cowpea had higher water absorption capacity, (235%) than maize/cowpea (103%) sorghum/cowpea and a lower valu...

Oyarekua, M. A.; Adeyeye, E. I.

2009-01-01

279

Key factors necessary for the development of a value-added cowpea subsector in West Africa: The case of cowpea flour  

OpenAIRE

The development of new subsector markets in agricultural commodity chains such as cowpea flour markets is of paramount importance for poverty alleviation and economic development in West Africa. While the technical expertise exists, industrial processing of cowpeas remains largely nonexistent in West Africa with newly developed cowpea-based products such as cowpea flour confined to laboratories and rarely reaching the point of commercialization where they might alleviate poverty. ^ Thus, ...

Otoo, Miriam

2011-01-01

280

Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Using Natural Plant Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

2014-12-01

281

Allelopathic effect of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L.  

OpenAIRE

The present study has been carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf leachate of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L. The effects of leachate on germination, radicle length, plumule length, protein content and cell division in root tip meristems of seedlings of Vigna were studied. The seeds of mungbean were soaked with leaf leachate of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations for 4h. Bioassay indicated that there was dose-dependent inhibition of germination and seed...

Deepti Singh; Narsingh Bahadur Singh; Kavita Yadav; Sanjay Kumar; Bihari Lal

2014-01-01

282

Herança da inflorescência composta da cultivar de feijão-caupi cacheado / Inheritance of composite inflorescence of cowpea cacheado cultivar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] apresenta inflorescência simples. Entretanto, foram identificados dois genes mutantes recessivos ci e bp que condicionam a produção de inflorescência composta na espécie. Essa característica também foi constatada na cultivar local Cacheado. Objetiva-se c [...] om este trabalho determinar o controle genético dessa característica. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos Freezergreen x Cacheado e Bettegreen x Cacheado. Os cruzamentos e a obtenção das gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos, com ambos parentais, foram realizados em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento de campo foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi representada por uma fileira de 10,0 m, com espaçamento entre fileiras de 0,80 m e dentro da fileira de 0,50 m, sendo cultivada uma planta por cova. Esse experimento foi conduzido sob irrigação por aspersão convencional, na Embrapa Meio-Norte, em Teresina, Piauí, nos anos 1998/1999. O teste de chi2 foi usado para a análise dos dados. As segregações das gerações F2 se ajustaram à proporção de 3 inflorescências simples: 1 inflorescência composta e as dos retrocruzamentos com o parental Cacheado à proporção de 1 inflorescência simples: 1 inflorescência composta. A partir desses resultados depreende-se que a inflorescência composta presente na cultivar cacheado tem herança monogênica recessiva. Abstract in english Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] presents simple inflorescence. However, two recessive mutant genes ci and bp that produce composite inflorescence were identified in cowpea. This characteristic was also observed in the brazillian local cultivar Cacheado. The aim of this work was to investigate [...] the genetic control of the composite inflorescence of Cacheado Cultivar. Two crosses were performed Freezergreen x Cacheado and Bettegreen x Cacheado. The crosses and the F1, F2 and the backcrosses were obtained in greenhouse. In the field trial the randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Each plot was represented by a row of 10 m long with 20 plants. The spacing between rows was of the 0,80 m. The experiment was carried out in the field, under irrigation by conventional aspersion at Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina city, Piauí Statate, the years of 1998 and 1999. The Qui Square test was used to analyse the data. The segregation pattern in both F2 generations fitted the 3 simple inflorescences: 1 composite inflorescence ratio and the backcrosses to the Cacheado cultivar fitted the 1 simple inflorescence: 1 composite inflorescence ratio. The inheritance study showed that composite inflorescence of the Cacheado cultivar is controlled by a single recessive gene.

Cristina de Fátima, Machado; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Débora Samara Sousa, Costa; Antônia Fernandes de, Amorim.

1347-13-01

283

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho confirmamos a resistência do feijão comum ( Phaseolus vulgaris) ao bruquídeo Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), inseto que preda sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) (L.). A resistência desta semente não está relacionada com a espessura do tegumento nem com os níveis de diverso [...] s compostos como ácido taníco, fenóis e ácido cianídrico conforme demonstram nossos resultados. No entanto, faseolina, detectada no tegumento por ‘‘Western blotting’’ e seqüenciamento N-terminal, é tóxica a C. maculatus. Esses dados estão de acordo com estudos anteriores feitos com duas outras sementes de leguminosas (Canavalia ensiformis e Phaseolus lunatus) e nos levam a sugerir que a presença de proteínas do tipo vicilina no tegumento de sementes de leguminosas tiveram papel importante nos mecanismo de adaptação de bruquídeos a sementes de leguminosas. Abstract in english We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the leve [...] ls of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

Luciana B., Silva; Maurício P., Sales; Antônia E. A., Oliveira; Olga L. T., Machado; Kátia V. S., Fernandes; José, Xavier-Filho.

2004-03-01

284

Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent. PMID:18539053

Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

2008-09-01

285

Efecto del tipo de labranza sobre el suministro del agua y el crecimiento del frijol tuy en un suelo mollisol de Venezuela / Effect of the type of farming on the provision of the water and the growth of kidney bean tuyin a ground mollisol of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp; variedad Tuy, es un cultivo de gran importancia en Venezuela. Se requiere la evaluación de alternativas de labranza que incrementen su producción, mejoren o mantengan las características favorables del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de [...] la labranza mínima (LM) y la labranza convencional (LC) sobre la producción de materia seca (MS) del frijol; variedad Tuy, área foliar (ÁF), rendimiento , humedad del suelo hasta 50 cm de profundidad durante el ciclo del cultivo (CC), densidad aparente (Da), macro y microporosidad e infiltración al momento de madurez, para ello se sembró en el período norte-verano sin aplicación de riego en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, con una densidad aproximada de 400.000 plantas.ha-1 en un diseño en bloques aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones. El análisis de la varianza y prueba de Medias (Tukey a=10%) se realizó mediante el programa del Sistema de Análisis Estadístico (siglas en inglés SAS). Al analizar los resultados no se observó diferencias relevantes en el patrón de acumulación, MS (hojas, tallos), MS total, ÁF y producción de grano entre LM y LC. El ÁF fue significativamente mayor en LC a los 67 días después de emergencia (DDE). En el suelo se notaron cambios en la humedad del horizonte 0-5 cm, en la porosidad total a los 30-40 y 40-50 cm, en Da a los 0-5 y 5-10 cm y en el contenido de humedad a capacidad de campo (HCC) del 0-5 y 10-20 cm. Se detectó una relación entre la lámina de agua faltante y la MS total en LM y LC Abstract in english The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, is an important crop in Venezuela, and is necessary to evaluate different tillage practices to increase its production, and to improve the soil properties. We evaluated the impact of the minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT) in the production of dr [...] y matter (DM), foliar area (FA), and crop production of cowpea, variety Tuy, sowed at 0.5 m between rows and 0.05 m between plants in a Mollisol soil of Aragua State, in a completelly randomized block desing, with four repetitions, and the impact in the soil water content until 50 cm of depth during the crop cycle (CC), the soil bulk density, macro- and micro-porosity, total soil porosity and soil infi ltration. The analisis of variance and means test (Tukey a=10%) was done using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program. There was a not signifi cant difference in the pattern of DM production of leaves, stem, total DM, foliar area, and grain yield between MT and CT. The FA of the CT there was only signifi cat higher than in MT at 67 days after emergency. In the soil, there was signifi cant differences bewteen MT and CT in the soil water of the 0-5 cm soil layer, in the total soil porosity of the 30-40 and 40-50 cm soil layers, in the soil bulk density of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, and in the soil water content at soil capacity in the 0-5 and 10-20 cm soil layers. There was a signifi cant relationship between the water used or missing during the crop cycle and the total DM produced in MT and CT

Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Florencio, Gamez; Lesce, Navarro.

2010-06-01

286

Cowpea cultivars under differents water regimes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the growth of semi-erect and semi-prostrate cowpea cultivars as a function of water irrigation of to soil under climate conditions of Bom Jesus-Piauí. The experiment was conducted in São Luiz Farm, located 3 km far from Bom Jesus - Piauí, from June to August 2011. There were evaluated the number of leaves, dry leaves, dry branches, dry matter of pods and total dry matter of plants rate and photosynthetically active radiation of the BRS Aracê (semi-prostrado and BRS Tumucumaque (semi-erect cowpea cultivars submitted to five irrigation regimes (108.2 mm, 214.7 mm, 287.9 mm, 426.1 mm and 527, 7 mm. The BRS Aracê had a higher number of leaves than BRS Tumucumaque. The BRS Tumucumaque has produced 17.09% more dry matter than BRS Aracê under a water depth of 401.9 mm. The minimum rate of photosynthetically active radiation, which reflects greater soil cover by the canopy, is obtained with BRS Aracê.

Aderson Soares de Andrade Júnior

2014-02-01

287

Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba / Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC), no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíb [...] a. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA), o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba. Abstract in english This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in [...] the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI). The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

João H. B. da C., Campos; Madson T., Silva; Vicente de P. R. da, Silva.

2010-04-01

288

Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose em caupi / Diagrammatic scale for assessment of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora cannescens e Pseudocercospora cruenta, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Brasil. Devido à inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi desenvolvida uma escala diagramática com níveis de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 [...] e 82% de área foliar lesionada. A escala diagramática foi validada por 10 avaliadores, usando 50 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade, mensurados previamente com o programa Assess®. A acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples entre a severidade real e a estimada, com e sem o auxílio da escala. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão das estimativas, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram elevada repetibilidade (94%) e reprodutibilidade (90% em 82,3% dos casos) das estimativas com a utilização da escala. Portanto, a escala diagramática proposta é adequada para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose do caupi. Abstract in english Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora canescens and Pseudocercospora cruenta is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Brazil. Due to the inexistence of standard methods for the assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic scale was developed with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 82% of d [...] iseased leaf area. The diagrammatic scale was validated by 10 raters using 50 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software Assess®. The accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimative of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual and estimated severity, with and without the use of the scale. With the scale raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrating around 10%. Raters showed high repeatability (94%) and reproducibility ( 90% in 82.3% of the cases) of the estimates by using the scale. The proposed diagrammatic key is suitable for the evaluation of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea.

Igor Corrêa Lima, Albert; Marissônia de Araújo, Noronha; Ricardo Brainer, Martins; Sami Jorge, Michereff.

2029-20-01

289

Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC, no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA, o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba.This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI. The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

João H. B. da C. Campos

2010-04-01

290

Cowpea Germplasm Evaluation for Virus Resistance under Greenhouse Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to identify sources of resistance in cowpea against blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BLCMV, two hundred cowpea germplasm accessions were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Ten to 15 plants of each accession were artificially inoculated by sap prepared from virus-infected plants. Disease severity on each line was recorded at 15 days interval. The symptomless plants were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to separate the resistant plants from susceptible ones. Only two accessions (27168 and 27192 out of 134 of local origin were found resistant to BlCMV, whereas 23 (34.8% were resistant out of 66 exotic lines. Twenty genotypes expressed segregation pattern towards disease reaction and the others were susceptible. In this study some new sources of resistance have identified which can be used to breed to breed virus-resistant cowpea cultivars.

Muhammad Bashir

2002-01-01

291

Impact of saline water stress on nutrient uptake and growth of cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major limitation to crops production in many areas of the world. The present study reports the impact of salt stress on seeds germination, plant growth parameters and leaf ions accumulation in three cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Indian cultivars: Akshay102, Gomti vu-89 and Pusa Falguni. The electrical conductivity (EC of the soil was 0.75 dS m?1 and the NaCl treatments increased it to 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m?1. Germination percentage was recorded 10 days after sowing, while shoot and root dry weights were measured in 45 days old plants. Leaf ion concentrations for Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl? and proline content were determined. The results showed that the germination percentage of seeds was highly affected by salinity in all cultivars in all salinity levels from 2 to 10 dS m?1. On the other hand, height and weight of all cultivars were less affected by the salt stress. Only at 10 dS m?1 EC, significant reduction in plant height and root length could be found for all three cultivars. Salinity induced a significant increase in Na+, Cl? and proline concentrations, while reduced the accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ in leaves of all the cultivars. Moreover, the tolerance difference between the cultivars was better observed at the lowest levels of salt stress, as reveled in the measurements of K+/Na+ ratio and proline content. In conclusion, this study characterizes Akshay102 as the most tolerant cultivar and establishes the measurements of germination capacity, K+/Na+ ratio and proline accumulation as an important features to be explored in programs for selection and/or development of tolerant cultivars which make possible the utilization of waste saline water as well as the cultivation of vast areas of the tropical world affected by salinity.

Prakash R. Patel

2010-01-01

292

Impact of saline water stress on nutrient uptake and growth of cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Soil salinity is a major limitation to crops production in many areas of the world. The present study reports the impact of salt stress on seeds germination, plant growth parameters and leaf ions accumulation in three cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Indian cultivars: Akshay102, Gomti vu-89 and Pu [...] sa Falguni. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil was 0.75 dS m?1 and the NaCl treatments increased it to 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m?1. Germination percentage was recorded 10 days after sowing, while shoot and root dry weights were measured in 45 days old plants. Leaf ion concentrations for Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl? and proline content were determined. The results showed that the germination percentage of seeds was highly affected by salinity in all cultivars in all salinity levels from 2 to 10 dS m?1. On the other hand, height and weight of all cultivars were less affected by the salt stress. Only at 10 dS m?1 EC, significant reduction in plant height and root length could be found for all three cultivars. Salinity induced a significant increase in Na+, Cl? and proline concentrations, while reduced the accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ in leaves of all the cultivars. Moreover, the tolerance difference between the cultivars was better observed at the lowest levels of salt stress, as reveled in the measurements of K+/Na+ ratio and proline content. In conclusion, this study characterizes Akshay102 as the most tolerant cultivar and establishes the measurements of germination capacity, K+/Na+ ratio and proline accumulation as an important features to be explored in programs for selection and/or development of tolerant cultivars which make possible the utilization of waste saline water as well as the cultivation of vast areas of the tropical world affected by salinity.

Prakash R., Patel; Sushil S., Kajal; Vinay R., Patel; Vimal J., Patel; Sunil M., Khristi.

293

Economics of Insecticides Usage among Cowpea Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study carried out an economics of insecticides usage among cowpea farmers in Kaduna State. Specifically, the study estimated insecticides marginal productivity; the degree of response of demand for insecticides to changes in its prices and the return to cowpea production due to insecticides usage. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 150 cowpea farmers who used insecticides in controlling pest in cowpea production in the study area. Information collected includes those ...

Omolehin, R. A.; Adeola, S. S.; Ahmed, Ben; Ebukiba, E. O.; Adeniji, O. B.

2011-01-01

294

Sinergismo Bacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Paenibacillus na simbiose Bradyrhizobium-caupi / Synergism of Bacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Paenibacillus in the symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium-cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. é a principal cultura de subsistência do semiárido brasileiro, sendo fonte de proteínas de baixo custo, notadamente, para populações carentes. A produção dessa cultura no Nordeste é baixa devido à não utilização de insumos agrícolas - entre eles, o fertili [...] zante nitrogenado. Por outro lado, bactérias promotoras de crescimento em plantas (BPCPs) vêm sendo estudadas, de forma a maximizar a fixação de N2, disponibilizar nutrientes como P ou fito-hormônios e inibir doenças. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a viabilidade da coinoculação das sementes de feijão-caupi usando Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Bacillus e Bradyrhizobium-caupi; caracterizar as estirpes quanto à produção de ácido indol acético (AIA) e solubilização de fosfato; e avaliar o sinergismo entre os microrganismos como alternativa para otimizar a FBN. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA), utilizando o feijão-caupi cv. "IPA - 206". As estirpes utilizadas foram: Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 e ANBE 31; B. cereus - 440; B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 e 459; B. pumilus - 444, 445 e 448; B. megaterium - 462; Brevibacillus brevis - 447; Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 e 177; P. graminis - MC 04.21, MC 22.13 e BR 60106; P. polymyxa - S21; e P. durus - RBN4. Os microrganismos não apresentaram capacidade para produzir AIA nem solubilizar fosfato. Ocorreu sinergismo das estirpes de Bacillus sp. (449) e Bacillus pumilus (444) coinoculadas com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267) no feijão-caupi. Abstract in english Cowpea Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. is the main subsistence crop of the semi-arid region and a low-cost protein source, especially for poorer populations. The production of this crop in the Northeast is low due to the lack of agricultural inputs, among them, nitrogen fertilizer. Plant-growth promoti [...] ng bacteria (BGPB) are being studied to maximize N2 fixation, provide nutrients such as P or phytohormones and inhibit diseases. The objectives of this study were to verify the viability of co- inoculation of cowpea seeds with Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Bacillus together with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea; characterize the strains for the production of indol acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization, as well as to evaluate the synergism among microorganisms as an alternative to optimize biological nitrogen fixation. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory and a greenhouse of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA), with cowpea cv. "IPA - 206" and the strains Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 and ANBE 31, B. cereus - 440, B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 and 459, B. pumilus - 444, 445 and 448, B. megaterium - 462 and Brevibacillus brevis - 447, Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 and 177, P. graminis - 04.21 MC, MC 22:13 and 60,106 BR, P. polymyxa - S21 and P. durus - RBN4. No capacity to produce IAA or solubilize phosphate was observed in the microorganisms. Synergism was observed between the strains of Bacillus sp. (449) and Bacillus pumilus (444) co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea.

André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Maria do Carmo Silva, Barreto; Janete Magali, Araújo; Lucy, Seldin; Hélio Almeida, Burity; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

2011-06-01

295

Sinergismo Bacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Paenibacillus na simbiose Bradyrhizobium-caupi Synergism of Bacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Paenibacillus in the symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium-cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O feijão-caupi Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. é a principal cultura de subsistência do semiárido brasileiro, sendo fonte de proteínas de baixo custo, notadamente, para populações carentes. A produção dessa cultura no Nordeste é baixa devido à não utilização de insumos agrícolas - entre eles, o fertilizante nitrogenado. Por outro lado, bactérias promotoras de crescimento em plantas (BPCPs vêm sendo estudadas, de forma a maximizar a fixação de N2, disponibilizar nutrientes como P ou fito-hormônios e inibir doenças. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a viabilidade da coinoculação das sementes de feijão-caupi usando Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Bacillus e Bradyrhizobium-caupi; caracterizar as estirpes quanto à produção de ácido indol acético (AIA e solubilização de fosfato; e avaliar o sinergismo entre os microrganismos como alternativa para otimizar a FBN. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA, utilizando o feijão-caupi cv. "IPA - 206". As estirpes utilizadas foram: Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 e ANBE 31; B. cereus - 440; B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 e 459; B. pumilus - 444, 445 e 448; B. megaterium - 462; Brevibacillus brevis - 447; Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 e 177; P. graminis - MC 04.21, MC 22.13 e BR 60106; P. polymyxa - S21; e P. durus - RBN4. Os microrganismos não apresentaram capacidade para produzir AIA nem solubilizar fosfato. Ocorreu sinergismo das estirpes de Bacillus sp. (449 e Bacillus pumilus (444 coinoculadas com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 no feijão-caupi.Cowpea Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. is the main subsistence crop of the semi-arid region and a low-cost protein source, especially for poorer populations. The production of this crop in the Northeast is low due to the lack of agricultural inputs, among them, nitrogen fertilizer. Plant-growth promoting bacteria (BGPB are being studied to maximize N2 fixation, provide nutrients such as P or phytohormones and inhibit diseases. The objectives of this study were to verify the viability of co- inoculation of cowpea seeds with Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Bacillus together with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea; characterize the strains for the production of indol acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilization, as well as to evaluate the synergism among microorganisms as an alternative to optimize biological nitrogen fixation. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory and a greenhouse of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA, with cowpea cv. "IPA - 206" and the strains Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 and ANBE 31, B. cereus - 440, B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 and 459, B. pumilus - 444, 445 and 448, B. megaterium - 462 and Brevibacillus brevis - 447, Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 and 177, P. graminis - 04.21 MC, MC 22:13 and 60,106 BR, P. polymyxa - S21 and P. durus - RBN4. No capacity to produce IAA or solubilize phosphate was observed in the microorganisms. Synergism was observed between the strains of Bacillus sp. (449 and Bacillus pumilus (444 co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima

2011-06-01

296

Alternative hosts of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in sesame (Sesamum indicum) crops grown in Paraguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production in Paraguay has been severely affected by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), which causes a disease known locally as ka'are. Because very little is known about the epidemiology of this disease, a survey was performed in fields surrounding a [...] ffected sesame plantations to identify CABMV-infected plants that may be acting as sources of inoculum. Samples from 48 plant species (symptomatic or asymptomatic, mostly spontaneous and a few cultivated) belonging to 17 families were evaluated by biological and serological assays. In a few select cases, confirmation of the infection was achieved by RT-PCR. The following species were found to be naturally infected by CABMV: Amaranthus hybridus, Arachis hypogaea, Crotalaria incana, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata. The absence of resistant/tolerant sesame cultivars along with the ineffectiveness of disease control through the chemical control of aphid vectors indicates that the only alternative available for disease management at present is the elimination and/or reduction of the sources of inoculum immediately before starting new plantations.

Luis R., González-Segnana; Arnaldo, Esquivel Fariña; Diego D., González; Ana Paula O. A., Mello; Jorge A. M., Rezende; Elliot W., Kitajima.

2013-12-01

297

Examination of the distribution of arsenic in hydrated and fresh cowpea roots using two- and three-dimensional techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic (As) is considered to be the environmental contaminant of greatest concern due to its potential accumulation in the food chain and in humans. Using novel synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence techniques (including sequential computed tomography), short-term solution culture studies were used to examine the spatial distribution of As in hydrated and fresh roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 'Red Caloona') seedlings exposed to 4 or 20 µm arsenate [As(V)] or 4 or 20 µm arsenite. For plants exposed to As(V), the highest concentrations were observed internally at the root apex (meristem), with As also accumulating in the root border cells and at the endodermis. When exposed to arsenite, the endodermis was again a site of accumulation, although no As was observed in border cells. For As(V), subsequent transfer of seedlings to an As-free solution resulted in a decrease in tissue As concentrations, but growth did not improve. These data suggest that, under our experimental conditions, the accumulation of As causes permanent damage to the meristem. In addition, we suggest that root border cells possibly contribute to the plant's ability to tolerate excess As(V) by accumulating high levels of As and limiting its movement into the root. PMID:22635118

Kopittke, Peter M; de Jonge, Martin D; Menzies, Neal W; Wang, Peng; Donner, Erica; McKenna, Brigid A; Paterson, David; Howard, Daryl L; Lombi, Enzo

2012-07-01

298

PYRAMIDING OF INSECTICIDAL COMPOUNDS FOR CONTROL OF THE COWPEA BRUCHID (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATES F.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchini) is a major pest of stored cowpea grain. With limited technologies for managing the bruchid available, transgenic cowpeas with bruchid resistance genes engineered into them could become the next management tool. We investiga...

299

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

Maisale A B

2012-04-01

300

Effect of household cooking methods on nutritional and anti nutritional factors in green cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) pods  

OpenAIRE

Steam pressure cooking (1 kg/cm2) and boiling (100°C) for 3 standardized time periods were assessed. Prolonged cooking in both pressure cooking and boiling resulted in a significant (p???0.05) loss in Fe and Ca. A significant loss of ascorbic acid and ß-carotene were observed during 2 cooking methods, the greater loss was during boiling. Pressure cooking and boiling resulted in significant (p???0.05) destruction in the anti-nutrients like phytates, tannins and trypsin inhibitor...

Deol, Jasraj K.; Bains, Kiran

2010-01-01

301

RESPONSE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L.) GENOTYPES TO NATIVE SOIL RHIZOBIA FOR NODULATION, YIELD AND SOIL PROPERTIES  

OpenAIRE

A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil, on comparision of both the check varieties, COCP-702 performed significantly better than RC-101 in most of the characters under study. The highest soil microbial biomass carbon, i.e., 234.70 ?g g-1, soil available N, i.e., 256.56 kg ha-1 and K, i.e., 205.00 kg ha-1 was shown by check variety COCP-702. PGCP-4 recorded significantly more number of nodules plant-1, i.e., 74.33, N concentration in grain, i.e., 4.76%. PGCP-6 gave si...

SONAM BINJOLA; NARENDRA KUMAR

2013-01-01

302

Restriction site polymorphism-based candidate gene mapping for seedling drought tolerance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

OpenAIRE

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies provide insight into the complexity of drought tolerance mechanisms. Molecular markers used in these studies also allow for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs, enabling transfer of genetic factors between breeding lines without complete knowledge of their exact nature. However, potential for recombination between markers and target genes limit the utility of MAS-based strategies. Candidate gene mapping offers an alternative solution to i...

Muchero, Wellington; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Roberts, Philip A.

2009-01-01

303

Effect of physical mutagen on expression of characters in arid legume pulse cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on physical induced mutagenesis, gamma rays were performed by exposing the healthy and dry seeds of cowpeavariety CO 4 to gamma rays 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 kR. The study was to evolve economically important mutants withvaried seed coat colour as against dark grey coloured seed coat of CO 4. The LD50 value was found at 50kR for 60 Cogamma rays. Under field conditions, germination, seedling survival, plant height on 30th day, pollen fertility, seed fertility,pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and single plant yield was reduced as compared to the control. InM2 generation, viable macro mutants like dwarf mutant, spreading type, late mutant, semi sterile type, single and tricotyledonary leaf mutant, basal branching, multiple leaf mutant, white flower mutant, chimeric mutant and seed coat colourmutant were observed. Gamma rays induced higher proportion of chlorophyll mutations. Single type and multiple typemutations occurred more frequently. Economically important macro mutants such as brownish white seed coat colourmutants were observed in M2 generation.

V.Ashok kumar, R.Usha kumari, N.Vairam and R.Amutha

2010-07-01

304

Studies on hybrid vigour and combining ability for seed yield and contributing characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combining ability aids in better selection of parents besides elucidating the nature and magnitude of gene action. Heterosisand combining ability analysis were carried out in line x tester model using five lines viz., Kanakamany, Subadra, TC 49-1,Lola and Sarika and five testers viz., CO2, CO4, CO6, CO (CP 7 and VBN 1. The results reveled that TC 49-1, Lola, Sarika,VBN1, CO2 and CO (CP7 were found to be good general combiners for seed yield. Among the parents, TC 49-1, Lola andVBN1 were found good general combiners for days to 50% flowering, plant height, cluster / plant, pods, / plant, length of podand number of seeds / plant. The crosses Lola x VBN 1, Sarika x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO (CP 7 were the best specificcombination for grain yield. The two crosses Lola x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO 4 showed significant heterosis over the standardlatest variety CO (CP7 for seed / pod, cluster / plant, pods / plant and 50% flowering. The crosses TC 49-1 x CO 2 showedhigh heterosis over standard variety for plant height and clusters/plant. Hence, these hybrids can be utilized for commercialcultivation.

R.Ushakumari, N.Vairam, C.R. Anandakumar and N. Malini

2010-07-01

305

Effect of Rhizobium Inoculants on Cowpea under Rainfed Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted under rainfed condition to study the effect of Rhizobium inoculation (with or without chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer ( 0 and 50-30-20 Kg ha -1 P2O5, K2O and S on cowpea. Two sources of biofertilizer were used. Biofertilizer showed significantly higher yield attributes and seed yield of cowpea as compared to control. Biofertilizer of BARI source gave the highest cowpea seed yield (880 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (658 Kg ha -1 was obtained without biofertilizer. No significant difference was found between the two sources of bio-fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer showed better performance than control in case of seed yield and all yield contributing characters of cowpea. Interaction of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer also showed statistically significant difference. PKS with biofertilizer of both BAU and BARI sources gave the highest seed yield (987 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (525 Kg ha -1 was obtained from control treatment. Though the highest average rate of return (4556% was found using biofertilizer of BARI source but on consideration of net return and also soil health, PKS with biofertilizer of BARI source where ARR was the second highest may be suggested for growing cowpea under rainfed condition.

Sarker P. C.

2001-01-01

306

Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

2013-12-01

307

Gene-for-gene resistance in Striga-cowpea associations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven races of Striga gesnerioides parasitic on cowpea, a major food and forage legume in sub-Saharan Africa, have been identified. Race-specific resistance of cowpea to Striga involves a coiled-coil nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat domain resistance protein encoded by the RSG3-301 gene. Knockdown of RSG3-301 expression by virus-induced gene silencing in the multirace-resistant cowpea cultivar B301 results in the failure of RSG3-301-silenced plants to mount a hypersensitive response and promotes parasite necrosis when challenged with Striga race SG3, whereas the resistance response to races SG2 and SG5 is unaltered. Our findings indicate that a gene-for-gene resistance mechanism is operating in these unique plant-plant associations. PMID:19713520

Li, Jianxiong; Timko, Michael P

2009-08-28

308

Nutritional value of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as effected by cooking and supplementation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in spanish Valor nutricional del frijol Mungo (Vigna radiata) suplementado y cocido. Este trabajo se llevó a efecto para mejorar el valor nutricional del frijol Mungo por suplementación con diferentes tipos de carne. Se prepararon dietas con frijol Mungo crudo y cocido suplementado con carne de pollo, carnero [...] y bovino, a 10%, 15% y 20%. El valor nutricional fue determinado por análisis químico y por ensayos con ratas. El frijol Mungo tiene 25% de proteínas y se observaron pérdidas menores durante la cocción así como de algunos aminoácidos. La Relación de Eficiencia Proteínica (PER) de la dieta con frijol Mungo disminuyó significativamente durante la cocción (1,86 vs 1,40). Por el contrario, la cocción provocó un ligero incremento en la Utilización Proteínica Neta (NPU) y en la Digestibilidad Verdadera (DV) de las dietas basadas en Mungo. Un nivel de 20% de las diferentes carnes provocó mejores resultados en términos de PER, NPU y DV. Abstract in english The study was conducted to improve the nutritional value of Mung (Vigna radiata) by supplementation with different kinds of meat. Diets were prepared using raw and cooked Mung and then cooked Mung was supplemented with poultry, mutton and beef at 10, 15, and 20 percent levels. Nutritional value of M [...] ung was determined by chemical analysis as well as by rat assay. Mung had 25 percent protein and minor losses were observed during cooking. It had 1.21 percent lysine which was reduced by 43 percent on cooking. Other amino acids also showed losses during cooking. The Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of diet containing Mung was significantly reduced on cooking (1.86 vs 1.40). On the contrary cooking resulted in some improvement of Net Protein utilization (NPU) and True Digestibility (TD) of the Mung based diets. Twenty percent level of different meats showed better results in terms of PER, NPU and TD.

Nighat, Bhatty; A.H., Gilani; Saeed, Ahmad Nagra.

2000-12-01

309

Early maturing, dwarf mutant of Urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation work on urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] has been taken up to improve the agronomic characteristics. From gamma irradiated M2 populations various types of mutant were isolated including one early maturing, dwarf mutant. The mutant line was evaluated in the M4 and is being reported in this paper. (author)

310

Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic differences in nodulation under conditions of P stress. There were large genotypic variations for P uptake under high P levels but not under low P levels. The study showed that there was significant genotypic variation for root traits during early growth and genotypic differences for soybean and cowpea growth under low P. (author)

311

Resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi ao ataque de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) / Resistance of genotypes of cowpea to the attack of Callosobruchus Maculatus (Fabr.,1775) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de quatro genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775). Os genótipos utilizados foram BR 17-Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, TE96-290-12G e BRS Guariba. Foram realizados testes com e sem chance de escolha, [...] em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, totalizando 4 tratamentos cada um com 5 repetições, avaliando-se número de ovos, número de insetos emergidos, viabilidade de ovos (%) e taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional. Nos testes com e sem chance de escolha, o genótipo TE96-290-12G mostrou-se como o mais resistente. BRS Rouxinol foi o genótipo mais suscetível. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of 4 genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775). The genotypes evaluated were BR 17-Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, TE96-290-12G and BRS Guariba. Tests were conducted with and without possibilit [...] y of choice, in a completely randomized design, totaling 4 treatments each with 5 replicates, evaluating the number of eggs, number of emerged insects, egg viability (%) and instantaneous rate of population growth. In the test with possibility of choice the genotype TE96-290-12G was revealed as the most resistant. BRS Rouxinol was the most susceptible genotype.

A.F, de Melo; L.S, Fontes; D.R.S, Barbosa; A.A.R, Araújo; E.P.S, Sousa; L.L.L, Soares; P.R.R, Silva.

2012-09-01

312

Field Occurrence of Bruchid Pests of Cowpea and Associated Parasitoids in a Sub Humid Zone of Burkina Faso: Importance on the Infestation of Two Cowpea Varieties at Harvest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cowpea is a very important legume for peasant farmers in West Africa but this crop is very sensitive to bruchid attacks during storage. A study was carried out in a sub humid zone of Burkina Faso to determine the relation between the dynamic of bruchid and parasitoid populations in the fields and cowpea infestation at harvest. The variations in insect numbers were weekly estimated by net captures during the growth of an early and a late cowpea variety. Adults of two bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.. and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic appeared early in the fields before cowpea flowering and their population regularly increased over time and from early to late cowpea variety. The Pteromalid Dinarmus basalis Rond was the only larval parasitoid encountered. Its adults appeared later than bruchids and their parasitism activity increased over time. At harvest, 35% of the early cowpea pods and 74.5% of the late cowpea pods were infested by bruchid eggs. 58.5 and 72% of the bruchid eggs laid respectively on the early and the late cowpea variety were parasitized by Uscana sp. The level of cowpea seed infestation by bruchids at the beginning of storage was estimated to be 1 and 2.7% for the early and late cowpea variety respectively. The parasitism rate of bruchid larvae by D. basalis was estimated at this period to be 7.8% for early cowpea variety and 18.2% for the late variety. These results are discussed in view of developing an integrated control method based on the enhancement of the pest natural enemies in the fields and/or into storage systems in combination with beneficial farming practices.

Sanon Antoine

2005-01-01

313

Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India  

OpenAIRE

A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.; Gore, Ramchandra D.; Randive, Sonali D.; Garad, Krushnadeoray U.

2014-01-01

314

Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade / Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl [...] . Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the photosynthetic responses and the accumulation of carbohydrates, salt ions, and proline in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants subjected to salinity. Plants were subjected to four treatments, from 28 to 35 days of age: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl [...] . Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, and leaf concentrations of carbohydrates, Na+, Cl-, and proline were evaluated. Treatments had no effect on potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, but there was a slight reduction in effective quantum efficiency and a higher dissipation of excess excitation energy by non-photochemical processes. The foliar contents of starch decreased, and those of sucrose and proline increased with higher NaCl content. There was Na+ exclusion and Cl-accumulation in leaves, and leaf water relations were little affected by salt stress, except in the most severe treatment. The accumulation of Cl- was related with the reduction of CO2 assimilation, which resulted from the decline in stomatal conductance and in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency. Cowpea plants have physiological characteristics that favor the maintenance of photosynthetic activity under short-term exposure to salinity.

Rogéria Pereira, Souza; Eduardo Caruso, Machado; Joaquim Albenísio Gomes, Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro.

2011-06-01

315

Rendimento produtivo e econômico do feijão-caupi em função de doses de potássio Productive and economic yield of cowpea bean as a function of levels of potassium  

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Full Text Available O feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp], também conhecido como feijão-macassar, feijão-de-corda ou fradinho é uma das principais culturas do Nordeste do Brasil. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da adubação potássica sobre o rendimento produtivo e econômico do feijão-caupi, cultivar Pitiuba. O trabalho foi realizado na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia (PB, em Neossolo Regolítico Psamítico típico, no período de julho a setembro de 2005. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 kg ha-1 de K2O e quatro repetições. Cada parcela continha 40 plantas espaçadas de 0,80 m x 0,40 m. A produção máxima de vagens por planta (285 g de grãos verdes (143 g e de grãos secos (120 g foram obtidas, respectivamente, com 160, 153 e 200 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de 210, 151 e 170 kg ha-1 de K2O, respectivamente, foram responsáveis pelas produtividades máximas de 4,18 t ha-1 de vagens, 3,48 t ha-1 de grãos verdes e de 1,89 t ha-1 de grãos secos. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica para a produtividade de grãos secos foi de 141 kg ha-1 de K2O, com produtividade de 1,87 t ha-1.Cowpea bean [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp] is one the main crops in the Northeast region of Brazil. With the objective of evaluating the effect of potassium fertilization on cowpea bean cv. Pitiúba, an experiment was carried out at Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia (PB, Brazil, on a Quartz Psamment soil, from July to September 2005. The experimental design was the randomized blocks, with six treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg ha-1 K2O, and four replications. Each plot contained 40 plants spaced 0.80 m x 0.40 m. The maximum yield of pods per plant (285 g, green grains (143 g and dry grains (120 g were obtained with 160, 153 and 200 kg ha-1 K2O, respectively. The levels of 210, 151, and 170 kg ha-1 K2O were responsible for the maximum yields of 4.18 t ha-1 of pods, 3.48 t ha-1 of green grains, and 1.89 t ha-1 of dry grains, respectively. The maximum level of economical efficiency for the yield of dry grains was 141 kg ha-1 K2O, with a yield of 1.87 t ha-1.

Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

2009-04-01

316

Distribuição espacial do pulgão preto em feijão de corda e cálculo do número de amostras / Spatial distribution of the cowpea aphid and calculation of the sample size  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a dispersão espacial do pulgão preto (Aphis craccivora Koch), na cultura de feijão de corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e estabelecer o número de amostras necessárias para a estimativa da população da praga para o uso em programas de Manejo Integrado de Prag [...] as. Para isso, foram cultivados dois campos experimentais na Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza. O primeiro campo tinha uma área de 216 m², composta de 15 parcelas. O segundo campo tinha uma área de 576 m² dividida em 25 parcelas. A cultivar utilizada foi a Vita 7 com plantas espaçadas em 0,25 m x 0,8 m. Foram realizadas seis coletas de dados em cada campo onde foram avaliadas dez plantas por parcela. Foi contado o número de colônias de pulgão presentes em toda a planta. Os resultados obtidos nos índices de agregação utilizados indicam que a dispersão do A. craccivora no campo é do tipo agregada o que foi confirmado pelo ajuste dos dados à distribuição de frequência Binomial Negativa. Quarenta e cinco é o número de amostras adequado para a estimativa da população de A. craccivora em campos de V. unguiculata para aplicação em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the spatial dispersion of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and to determine the sample size required to estimate the pest population, for use in Integrated Pest Management programs. In order to do this, two [...] field experiments were carried out at the Federal University of Ceará in Fortaleza, Brazil. The first with an area of 216 m², consisting of 15 plots. The second with an area of 576 m² divided into 25 plots. The cultivar "Vita 7" was used, with plants spaced 0.25 m x 0.8 m apart. Data were collected six times for each experiment, when ten plants per plot were evaluated. The total of aphid colonies present was counted for each plant. The results obtained from the clustering indices which were employed indicate that dispersion of A. craccivora in the field is of the aggregate type, which was confirmed by fitting the data to the negative binomial distribution of frequency. Forty-five is a suitable number of samples in the estimation of the population of A. craccivora in fields planted with V. Unguiculata, for use in integrated pest management programs.

Jefté Ferreira da, Silva; Ervino, Bleicher; Gleidson Vieira, Marques; Valéria, Silva.

2014-09-01

317

Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl. Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade.The objective of this work was to determine the photosynthetic responses and the accumulation of carbohydrates, salt ions, and proline in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants subjected to salinity. Plants were subjected to four treatments, from 28 to 35 days of age: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, and leaf concentrations of carbohydrates, Na+, Cl-, and proline were evaluated. Treatments had no effect on potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, but there was a slight reduction in effective quantum efficiency and a higher dissipation of excess excitation energy by non-photochemical processes. The foliar contents of starch decreased, and those of sucrose and proline increased with higher NaCl content. There was Na+ exclusion and Cl-accumulation in leaves, and leaf water relations were little affected by salt stress, except in the most severe treatment. The accumulation of Cl- was related with the reduction of CO2 assimilation, which resulted from the decline in stomatal conductance and in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency. Cowpea plants have physiological characteristics that favor the maintenance of photosynthetic activity under short-term exposure to salinity.

Rogéria Pereira Souza

2011-06-01

318

Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

Salvador B Torres

2008-12-01

319

Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN / Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de [...] -ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde) foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pin [...] go-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

Salvador B, Torres; Fabrícia N de, Oliveira; Regina C de, Oliveira; João B, Fernandes.

2008-12-01

320

Radiação microondas para o controle de pupas de Callosobruchus maculatus em cultivares de feijão-caupi Microwave radiation to control Callosobruchus maculatus pupae in cowpea cultivars  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho investigar os efeitos da radiação microondas em pupas de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 nas cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata BRS Paraguaçu e BRS Xique-xique. Para a radiação, utilizou-se um forno microondas comercial, com frequência de 2.450 MHz, rendimento de potência de 800 W, em baixa potência (30%, sendo os tempos de exposição à radiação microondas 0, 60, 90, 120 e 150 segundos. Observou-se, para ambas as cultivares, redução no número de insetos emergidos por grão, número de insetos emergidos por tratamento e aumento do período ovo-adulto, com exposição a 60 segundos de radiação. Os tempos de 90, 120 e 150 segundos de exposição à radiação microondas foram letais para 100% das pupas de C. maculatus The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on Callosobruchus maculates (Fabr., 1775 pupae in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivars BRS Paraguaçu and BRS Xique-xique. The irradiation was made using a commercial microwave oven with a 2450 MHz frequency, 800 W power output, in low power (30%, with exposure periods to microwave radiation of 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 seconds. It was observed, for both cultivars, reduction of the number of insects emerged per grain, number of insects emerged per treatment and increase in the egg to adult period, with 60 seconds exposure to microwave radiation. The 90, 120 and 150 seconds exposure periods to microwave radiation were lethal to 100% of the C. maculates pupae.

Lúcia da S. Fontes

2011-12-01

321

Evaluación del riesgo agroambiental de los suelos de las comunidades indígenas del estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela  

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Evaluación del riesgo agroambiental de los suelos de las comunidades indígenas del estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela. Con el propósito de realizar una evaluación del riesgo agroambiental en los suelos de las comunidades indígenas del Estado Anzoátegui Venezuela, se evaluaron cinco unidades de tierra de la zona de interés frente a diez usos agropecuarios; Algodón (Gossypium hirsutum), Fríjol (Vigna sinensis), Maíz (Zea mays), Maní (Arachis hypogea), Melón (Cucumis melo), Ñame...

Lugo-morin, D. R.

2007-01-01

322

Roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio como fuente de fósforo para frijol en dos tipos de suelo / Phosphate rock acidulated with sulfuric acid and ammonium thiosulfate as sources of phosphorus for cowpea in two soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La deficiencia de fósforo en los suelos tropicales es común. Una fuente natural de este nutriente es la roca fosfórica acidulada (RFA) con ácido sulfúrico (AS), aunque una alternativa más económica es la acidulación sustituyendo el 30 % del AS por tiosulfato de amonio (R30T). Para probar la eficienc [...] ia de esta última forma se trabajó con dos experimentos usando un suelo ácido y otro neutro. Se aplicó P en forma de superfosfato triple (SFT), RFA y R30T en dosis de 0, 70, 140 y 210 mg·kg-1. Se usó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, y se sembró frijol (Vigna sinensis) el cual se cosechó a los 35 días para determinar materia seca (MS), longitud radical (LR), P absorbido, y Ca y P residual en el suelo. La MS y el P absorbido en promedio fueron parecidos donde se aplicó SFT, RFA y R30T. La MS dependió altamente de la concentración de P y Ca en ambos suelos, así como de la concentración del P en la planta. La LR mostró un mayor crecimiento con el incremento del P disponible en el suelo ácido, no así en el suelo neutro. Se concluye que la acidulación parcial de la roca fosfórica con tiosulfato de amonio y ácido sulfúrico permite producir un fertilizante tan eficiente como la RFA para el crecimiento del sistema radical tanto en suelo ácido como neutro, y se ratificó su eficiencia en la producción de materia seca y absorción de fósforo por la planta. Abstract in english Phosphorus deficiency in tropical soils is a common constrain. Acidulated phosphate rock with sulfuric acid (RFA) is a natural source of P, but a cheaper alternative is the acidification of phosphate rock by replacing 30% of sulfuric acid with ammonium thiosulfate (R30T). To test the efficiency of t [...] hose fertilizers and superphosphate two experiments were conducted using an acidic soil and a neutral one. The doses of P applied were 0, 70, 140 and 210 mg·kg-1. A completely randomized design was used with four replications, and cowpea plants were grown. Plants were harvested at 35 days old and dry matter (DM), P uptake, residual P and Ca in soil, and root length (RL) were determined. When RFA was applied, DM and P uptake were similar to those in R30T and SFT. DM was highly related to soil P and Ca contents as well as to P concentration in the plant. RL increased as available P was higher in the acidic soil, but not in neutral soil. It is concluded that partial acidulation of phosphate rock with ammonium thiosulfate and sulfuric acid produces a fertilizer as efficient as the RFA for growth of the root system in both acid and neutral soil, and confirmed its efficiency in the production of dry matter and phosphorus uptake by the plant.

Omaira, Sequera; Ricardo, Ramírez.

2013-04-01

323

Simulation of growth and development of irrigated cowpea in Piauí State by CROPGRO model Simulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi irrigado no Estado do Piauí pelo modelo CROPGRO  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adapt the CROPGRO model, which is part of the DSSAT system, for simulating the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata growth and development under soil and climate conditions of the Baixo Parnaíba region, Piauí State, Brazil. In the CROPGRO, only input parameters that define crop species, cultivars, and ecotype were changed in order to characterize the cowpea crop. Soil and climate files were created for the considered site. Field experiments without water deficit were used to calibrate the model. In these experiments, dry matter (DM, leaf area index (LAI, yield components and grain yield of cowpea (cv. BR 14 Mulato were evaluated. The results showed good fit for DM and LAI estimates. The medium values of R² and medium absolute error (MAE were, respectively, 0.95 and 264.9 kg ha-1 for DM, and 0.97 and 0.22 for LAI. The difference between observed and simulated values of plant phenology varied from 0 to 3 days. The model also presented good performance for yield components simulation, excluding 100-grain weight, for which the error ranged from 20.9% to 34.3%. Considering the medium values of crop yield in two years, the model presented an error from 5.6%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar o modelo CROPGRO, o qual faz parte do sistema DSSAT, para simular o crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi (Vigna unguiculata nas condições de solo e clima do Baixo Parnaíba, Piauí. No CROPGRO, foram modificados apenas parâmetros que definem os arquivos de espécie, de cultivar e de ecótipo, visando caracterizar a cultura do caupi. Foram criados arquivos contendo as características de solo e de clima do referido local. Na calibração do modelo, foram utilizados experimentos de campo sem restrições hídricas nos quais foram avaliados a matéria seca (MS, o índice de área foliar (IAF, os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos da cultivar BR 14 Mulato. Os valores médios dos R² e do erro absoluto médio (EAM foram, respectivamente, 0,95 e 264,9 kg ha-1 quanto à MS, e 0,97 e 0,22 quanto ao IAF. A diferença entre os valores observados e simulados da fenologia da planta variaram entre 0 e 3 dias. O modelo também apresentou bom desempenho nas simulações dos componentes de produção, exceto quanto ao peso de 100 grãos, cujos erros de estimativa variaram de 20,9% a 34,3%. Considerando os valores médios de produtividade de grãos de dois anos, o modelo apresentou erro de 5,6%.

Edson Alves Bastos

2002-10-01

324

Simulation of growth and development of irrigated cowpea in Piauí State by CROPGRO model / Simulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi irrigado no Estado do Piauí pelo modelo CROPGRO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar o modelo CROPGRO, o qual faz parte do sistema DSSAT, para simular o crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi (Vigna unguiculata) nas condições de solo e clima do Baixo Parnaíba, Piauí. No CROPGRO, foram modificados apenas parâmetros que definem os arquivos de espé [...] cie, de cultivar e de ecótipo, visando caracterizar a cultura do caupi. Foram criados arquivos contendo as características de solo e de clima do referido local. Na calibração do modelo, foram utilizados experimentos de campo sem restrições hídricas nos quais foram avaliados a matéria seca (MS), o índice de área foliar (IAF), os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos da cultivar BR 14 Mulato. Os valores médios dos R² e do erro absoluto médio (EAM) foram, respectivamente, 0,95 e 264,9 kg ha-1 quanto à MS, e 0,97 e 0,22 quanto ao IAF. A diferença entre os valores observados e simulados da fenologia da planta variaram entre 0 e 3 dias. O modelo também apresentou bom desempenho nas simulações dos componentes de produção, exceto quanto ao peso de 100 grãos, cujos erros de estimativa variaram de 20,9% a 34,3%. Considerando os valores médios de produtividade de grãos de dois anos, o modelo apresentou erro de 5,6%. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to adapt the CROPGRO model, which is part of the DSSAT system, for simulating the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) growth and development under soil and climate conditions of the Baixo Parnaíba region, Piauí State, Brazil. In the CROPGRO, only input parameters that define cr [...] op species, cultivars, and ecotype were changed in order to characterize the cowpea crop. Soil and climate files were created for the considered site. Field experiments without water deficit were used to calibrate the model. In these experiments, dry matter (DM), leaf area index (LAI), yield components and grain yield of cowpea (cv. BR 14 Mulato) were evaluated. The results showed good fit for DM and LAI estimates. The medium values of R² and medium absolute error (MAE) were, respectively, 0.95 and 264.9 kg ha-1 for DM, and 0.97 and 0.22 for LAI. The difference between observed and simulated values of plant phenology varied from 0 to 3 days. The model also presented good performance for yield components simulation, excluding 100-grain weight, for which the error ranged from 20.9% to 34.3%. Considering the medium values of crop yield in two years, the model presented an error from 5.6%.

Edson Alves, Bastos; Marcos Vinícius, Folegatti; Rogério Teixeira de, Faria; Aderson Soares de, Andrade Júnior; Milton José, Cardoso.

1381-13-01

325

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP) POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO / TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP) BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791), "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV). Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de [...] Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae), coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus. Visando fornecer subsídios a uma melhor compreensão do processo de transmissão do fitovírus isolado de V. luteola (CpSMV-SP), foram feitas tentativas de transmissão por diferentes artrópodos, incluindo sete espécies de insetos e uma de ácaro. Determinaram-se altas taxas de transmissão (46,6, 50,0 e 70,0%) do CpSMV-SP em plantas de feijão, por adultos de C. arcuata. O vírus foi transmitido ainda por larvas de 1° ínstar, com taxas de 10,0% (caupi) e 40,0% (feijoeiro). Ausência de transmissão foi constatada nos ensaios por artrópodos pertencentes a outras ordens (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) e outras espécies de coleópteros (Diabrotica bivittula, D. speciosa e Epicauta atomaria). Abstract in english The beetle Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791) is a vector of the cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus (CpSMV) and of several leguminous viruses in Brazil. In 1991, an isolate of CpSMV, later designed as CpSMV-SP, was found on plants of Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae) from the region of Praia Grande, in the S [...] outh coastal area of the São Paulo State, Brazil. In order to obtain a better understanding of the CpSMV-SP transmission, different arthropod species, including seven insects species and one mite, species were studied as vectors. The transmission rates by adults of C. arcuata were high (46.6, 50.0 and 70.0%) on bean and by 1st instar larvae were 40.0% on bean and 10.0% on cowpea. Transmission by other arthropod orders (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and by other Coleoptera species failed.

Fernando Javier Sanhueza, Salas; Maria Mércia, Barradas; José Roberto Postali, Parra.

326

Eficiência agronômica de rizóbios selecionados e diversidade de populações nativas nodulíferas em perdões (MG): I - caupi / Agronomic efficiency of selected rhizobia strains and diversity of native nodulating populations in Perdões (MG - Brazil): I - cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.) é de grande importância nutricional, social, econômica e estratégica, principalmente para as regiões Norte e Nordeste, e vem ultrapassando as barreiras regionais, com amplas perspectivas no agronegócio brasileiro. A interação do caupi com bactérias fixadoras de N atmos [...] férico pode aumentar a produtividade e diminuir os custos de produção. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se no campo a eficiência agronômica de estirpes previamente selecionadas de rizóbio em simbiose com o caupi, comparadas à estirpe recomendada até 2004, para a produção de inoculantes comerciais (BR 2001). Posteriormente, a diversidade fenotípica das populações nativas foi avaliada pela análise das características culturais e pela análise de proteína total por eletroforese em gel poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE). Verificou-se que a inoculação no campo com as estirpes UFLA 03-84 e INPA 03-11B contribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento no rendimento de grãos, sendo semelhante ao da testemunha, com 70 kg ha-1 de N, e superior ao da estirpe BR 2001. A população nativa apresentou alta diversidade fenotípica cultural e de padrões protéicos. As estirpes inoculadas foram bastante distintas fenotipicamente de estirpes que compõem a população nativa. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is one of the main food crops in the north and northeast of Brazil nowadays, being planted on large areas in other Brazilian regions as well, with bright prospects in the Brazilian agribusiness. Symbiosis of cowpea and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) can raise yields and [...] decrease yield costs. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of previously selected rhizobia strains compared to the strain recommended until 2004 (BR 2001). The phenotypic diversity of native rhizobia populations was evaluated by cultural characteristics and analysis of total protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In field inoculations with strains UFLA 03-84 and INPA 03-11B grain yields increased similarly as in the control treatment with 70 kg ha-1 N-urea and outmatched the treatment with BR 2001 inoculation. Native cowpea-nodulating populations have a high phenotypic diversity and do not resemble the strains introduced as inoculants.

André Luis de Lima, Soares; João Paulo Andrade Resende, Pereira; Paulo Ademar Avelar, Ferreira; Helson Mário Martins do, Vale; Adriana Silva, Lima; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fátima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

2006-10-01

327

[Numerical taxonomy and 16S rDNA PCR-rFLP analysis of rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of cowpea and mung bean grown in different regions of China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-nine rhizobial strains, isolated from root nodules of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) and mung bean (Vigna radiata ) grown in different regions of China, were studied by a fuzzy cluster analysis of 128 phenotypic characteristics. The phenotypic characterization of these strains showed that most of these strains had high stress resistance. For instance, most of them could grow from pH 5.0 to pH 11.0. Over 85% of these strains could grow well on YMA plate at 37 degrees C and several of them even could grow after a 45 minutes hot shock at 60 degrees C. Some strains had a tolerance to high concentration of Bacitracin (400 microg/mL) . The result of the fuzzy cluster analysis showed that all the strains were clustered into 2 groups, slow growers and fast growers, at the similarity level of 63.5% . At the similarity level of 79 %, there were 7 subgroups further separated. Based upon the result of the numerical taxonomy, these strains together with 22 reference stains were analyzed by the 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP. Thirty-four genotype profiles were obtained from the fingerprinting of the 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP. These strains were analyzed by GelCompare II software and clustered into 7 groups at the similarity level of 91% , which were consonant with the 7 subgroups clustered at the similarity level of 79% in numerical taxonomy. The results of numerical taxonomy and 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis showed that all of the seventy-nine rhizobial Bradyrhizobium, strains isolated from root nodules of cowpea and mung bean were clustered into four genera: Agrobacterium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium, respectively. An individual clade without any reference stains, which was composed of CCBAU 45071, CCBAU 45111-1 and CCBAU 45248, might be a new species of Rhizobium. Overall, the study results demonstrated a high phenotypic and phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial strains nodulating cowpea and mung bean grown in different geographic regions of China. PMID:17302144

Zhang, Yong-fa; Wang, Feng-qin; Chen, Wen-xin

2006-12-01

328

Eficiência agronômica de rizóbios selecionados e diversidade de populações nativas nodulíferas em perdões (MG: I - caupi Agronomic efficiency of selected rhizobia strains and diversity of native nodulating populations in Perdões (MG - Brazil: I - cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. é de grande importância nutricional, social, econômica e estratégica, principalmente para as regiões Norte e Nordeste, e vem ultrapassando as barreiras regionais, com amplas perspectivas no agronegócio brasileiro. A interação do caupi com bactérias fixadoras de N atmosférico pode aumentar a produtividade e diminuir os custos de produção. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se no campo a eficiência agronômica de estirpes previamente selecionadas de rizóbio em simbiose com o caupi, comparadas à estirpe recomendada até 2004, para a produção de inoculantes comerciais (BR 2001. Posteriormente, a diversidade fenotípica das populações nativas foi avaliada pela análise das características culturais e pela análise de proteína total por eletroforese em gel poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Verificou-se que a inoculação no campo com as estirpes UFLA 03-84 e INPA 03-11B contribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento no rendimento de grãos, sendo semelhante ao da testemunha, com 70 kg ha-1 de N, e superior ao da estirpe BR 2001. A população nativa apresentou alta diversidade fenotípica cultural e de padrões protéicos. As estirpes inoculadas foram bastante distintas fenotipicamente de estirpes que compõem a população nativa.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is one of the main food crops in the north and northeast of Brazil nowadays, being planted on large areas in other Brazilian regions as well, with bright prospects in the Brazilian agribusiness. Symbiosis of cowpea and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB can raise yields and decrease yield costs. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of previously selected rhizobia strains compared to the strain recommended until 2004 (BR 2001. The phenotypic diversity of native rhizobia populations was evaluated by cultural characteristics and analysis of total protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. In field inoculations with strains UFLA 03-84 and INPA 03-11B grain yields increased similarly as in the control treatment with 70 kg ha-1 N-urea and outmatched the treatment with BR 2001 inoculation. Native cowpea-nodulating populations have a high phenotypic diversity and do not resemble the strains introduced as inoculants.

André Luis de Lima Soares

2006-10-01

329

Use of X-ray to evaluate damage caused by weevils in cowpea seeds Utilização de raios X na avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi  

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Full Text Available In Brazil, the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], is important in the Northeast Region, where it is typically grown on family farms. The importance of the damage caused to the seed quality of this species by stored pests has been described in various studies. Using X-ray, it is possible to see the internal seed structures and identify possible changes and damage. The objective of this study was to identify the damage caused by the weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.] by analyzing X-ray and evaluate its relationship to the physiological quality of the cowpea seed. Three cultivars were used (IPA-206, BRS-Pajeu and BRS-Potengi and two lines (L 281.005 and L ESP 10. The samples were exposed to X-ray and germination test to determine the cause-effect relationship between weevil damage and seed germination. X-ray images were evaluated to determine damage severity and location in the seed. Seed damage classified as severe, located in the embryonic axis or in the cotyledons, resulted in abnormal seedlings or dead seeds. The X-ray test, therefore, is efficient for evaluating weevil damage in cowpea seeds and the damage caused to be associated with any resulting adverse germination effects.No Brasil, o feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], tem destaque na Região Nordeste, sendo uma cultura típica da agricultura familiar. A importância dos danos causados por pragas de armazenamento em sementes da referida espécie, em relação à sua qualidade, tem sido evidenciada em vários trabalhos. Através de imagens de raios X é possível visualizar as estruturas internas da semente, identificando possíveis alterações e danificações. Dessa forma, esse trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar os danos causados por caruncho (Callosobruchus maculatus e sua relação com a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão-caupi, por intermédio da análise de raios X. Foram utilizadas três cultivares (IPA-206, BRS-Pajeu e BRS-Potengi e duas linhagens (L 281.005 e L ESP 10. As amostras foram submetidas ao teste de raios X e ao teste de germinação, a fim de determinar a relação de causa e efeito entre os danos provocados pelo caruncho e a germinação das sementes. Nas avaliações das imagens de raios X foi considerada a severidade e a localização dos danos na semente. Para os danos classificados como severos, localizados no eixo embrionário e, ou nos cotilédones, as sementes originaram plântulas anormais ou as sementes estavam mortas. Portanto, o teste de raios X é eficiente para a avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi, permitindo relacionar os eventuais danos com os prejuízos causados à germinação.

Roberto de A Melo

2010-12-01

330

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791, "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV. Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae, coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus. Visando fornecer subsídios a uma melhor compreensão do processo de transmissão do fitovírus isolado de V. luteola (CpSMV-SP, foram feitas tentativas de transmissão por diferentes artrópodos, incluindo sete espécies de insetos e uma de ácaro. Determinaram-se altas taxas de transmissão (46,6, 50,0 e 70,0% do CpSMV-SP em plantas de feijão, por adultos de C. arcuata. O vírus foi transmitido ainda por larvas de 1° ínstar, com taxas de 10,0% (caupi e 40,0% (feijoeiro. Ausência de transmissão foi constatada nos ensaios por artrópodos pertencentes a outras ordens (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae e outras espécies de coleópteros (Diabrotica bivittula, D. speciosa e Epicauta atomaria.The beetle Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791 is a vector of the cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus (CpSMV and of several leguminous viruses in Brazil. In 1991, an isolate of CpSMV, later designed as CpSMV-SP, was found on plants of Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae from the region of Praia Grande, in the South coastal area of the São Paulo State, Brazil. In order to obtain a better understanding of the CpSMV-SP transmission, different arthropod species, including seven insects species and one mite, species were studied as vectors. The transmission rates by adults of C. arcuata were high (46.6, 50.0 and 70.0% on bean and by 1st instar larvae were 40.0% on bean and 10.0% on cowpea. Transmission by other arthropod orders (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae and by other Coleoptera species failed.

Fernando Javier Sanhueza Salas

1999-01-01

331

Resistência de genótipos de caupi ao caruncho / Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the Callosobruchus maculatus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de resistência genética ao ataque de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) tem sido alvo de investigação científica, especialmente no que diz respeito à identificação de fontes de resistência. O presente trabalho objetivou incorporar, ao grupo de caracteres desejáveis para o cultivo de caupi [...] (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), resistência genética ao caruncho (C. maculatus). Foram realizadas hibridações dos genótipos IT81D-1045 e IT81D-1064 (portadores de resistência ao inseto) com CNCx 252-1E/FB, CNCx 187-22D-1 e BR 1-Poty (capazes de transferir resistência a viroses, tolerância à seca, formação de grãos com padrão comercial, elevado potencial de produção e adaptabilidade a diferentes condições ambientais). Populações segregantes obtidas destes cruzamentos foram conduzidas pelo método SPD (descendência de uma única vagem), e na geração F5 foram realizadas seleções individuais. As linhagens obtidas foram avaliadas em conjunto com materiais de origens diferentes, utilizando-se parâmetros associados à infestação da praga. Foi constatado que os genótipos avaliados apresentaram variabilidade quanto à preferência à postura, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas; as linhas EVx 37-15E e EVx 37-2E foram as que sofreram menor dano causado pelo caruncho; as variáveis número de ovos, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas mostraram-se positiva e significativamente correlacionadas entre si; o grupo das linhagens que descendem de genitores resistentes apresenta valores significativamente inferiores aos obtidos pelas demais, o que indica que a resistência ao inseto se transmite geneticamente. Abstract in english The use of genetic resistance to the weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.)) has been investigated to identify sources of resistance. The main purpose of the present work was to incorporate the genetic resistance to this insect into cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with other already d [...] esirable. Hybridization was carried out among the genotypes IT81D-1045 and IT81D-1064 (identified in International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, as resistant to the insect) and CNCx 252-1E/FB, CNCx 187-22D-1 and BR 1-Poty, all of them able to transfer resistance to viruses, drought tolerance, desirable commercial quality of grains, high production potential and adaptability to different environments. Segregating populations were obtained from these crossings and so driven by the SPD method (single pod descendent) with individual selections being made in the F5 generation. The obtained lineages were assessed together with materials of different origins, using associated parameters to the pest infestation. Results revealed that the genotypes showed differences concerned to the eggs number laid by, number of insects hatched and the number of damaged seeds; these variables were positive by and significantly correlated among them; the EVx 37-15E and EVx 37-2E lineages were the less damaged by the weevil; the lineages group that descends from the resistant parents presented values significantly inferior to those obtained by the others, indicating that the resistance to the insect is genetically transmitted.

PAULO DIÓGENES, BARRETO; MARY ANN WEYNE, QUINDERÉ.

2000-04-01

332

Herança da resistência genética do caupi à cercosporiose / Inheritance of cowpea resistance to Cercospora leaf spot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cercosporiose do caupi (Vigna unguiculata), causada por Cercospora cruenta, constitui importante problema sanitário para a cultura e o seu controle é mais eficiente com o uso da resistência genética. Portanto, o conhecimento do tipo de herança é essencial para o melhoramento visando resistência a [...] esta doença. O trabalho foi realizado em condições de campo, utilizando-se a linhagem resistente L101000-1 e a cultivar suscetível IPA 206. A hibridação foi efetuada entre plantas dos dois genótipos e através da técnica de emasculação de flores, foram obtidas as populações F1, F2 e F3. As gerações paternais e segregantes foram plantadas e inoculadas três vezes, as inoculações foram realizadas aos 20, 27 e 34 dias do plantio. A suspensão contendo 4x10³ con/ml do fungo foi preparada a partir da coleta de conídios em lesões de folhas infetadas. A avaliação dos sintomas, em plantas individuais, foi realizado aos 75 dias após o plantio, com base na reação de resistência ou suscetibilidade. As plantas da linhagem L101000-1 e a população F1 comportaram-se como resistentes, enquanto que as da cultivar IPA 206 apresentaram sintomas típicos da cercosporiose. Na geração F2, das 132 plantas observadas, 105 foram resistentes e 27 suscetíveis e na geração F3, das 90 plantas avaliadas, 70 foram resistentes e 20 suscetíveis. Estes resultados foram analisados pelo teste do Qui-quadrado e sugerem que a herança da resistência a C. cruenta, na cultivar L101000-1, é do tipo monogênica e dominante. Abstract in english Cercospora leaf spot, caused by Cercospora cruenta, is an important phytopathological problem of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) crop, which genetic resistance provides the most effective control. Thus, knowing the inherintance type is essential to the improvement of resistance for this disease. This [...] work was carried out under field conditions, utilizing the L101000-1 line and the cultivar IPA 206 as parents, the two being considered resistant and susceptible, respectively. Parent plants were crossed using the flower emasculation technique to obtain F1, F2 and F3 populations. Parent plants and segregate generations were inoculated, at 20, 27 and 34 days after planting. A conidial suspension 4x10³ spores/ml was prepared from typical lesions of the disease on leaf surfaces. An evaluation of the symptoms, based on susceptible or resistance reactions was perfomed on individual plants 75 days after planting. The plants of the L101000-1 line and F1 populations showed resistance while the cultivar IPA 206 showed typical symptoms of Cercospora leaf spot. In the F2 generation, from the 132 plants observed, 105 were resistant and 27 susceptible; in the F3 generation, from the 90 plants evaliated, 70 were resistant and 20 susceptible. These results were analyzed by the Chi-square test and suggest that the inheritance of resistance to Cercospora cruenta, in the L101000-1 line, is the monogenic and dominant type.

Neilza R., Castro; Gerson C., Menezes; Rildo S. B., Coêlho.

2003-10-01

333

Evaluation of fungicide seed treatments to control seedling diseases of cowpea  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea is an important food crop and is increasingly being cultivated by small-scale farmers in South Africa. Cowpea is susceptible to a wide range of seedborne diseases, which causes damage to the crop at all stages. Seedling diseases caused by pathogens like Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn), Pythium ultimum (Trow) and Fusarium solani (Mart) App. and Wol attack cowpea, and result in low yields especially in rural areas where little or no control measures are taken against th...

Khumalo, Daniel Mkhathazi

2007-01-01

334

Effect of Spatial Arrangement on the Performance of Cowpea /Maize Intercrop in Derived Savannah of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Promising varieties of cowpea were found to be adaptable in the derived savannah; however, their performances in intercropping systems have not been investigated. Therefore, there is the need to investigate the effect of spatial arrangement of maize/cowpea on the performance of maize and cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 5 factorial in randomized complete block design. A field experiment was conducted at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria during the late cropping season...

Adigbo, S. O.; Iyasere, E.; Fabunmi, T. O.; Olowe, V. I. O.; Adejuyigbe, C. O.

2013-01-01

335

EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA  

OpenAIRE

The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus ro...

Mogle, Umesh P.

2013-01-01

336

Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphological traits (mucous production and colony morphology, genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias, genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p < 0,05 do índice de diversidade de Shannon-Waver com o número de cultivos de leguminosas (caupi e soja. Os dados de ARDRA mostraram que no Cerrado nativo somente foram observados isolados de Bradyrhizobium elkanii, corroborando com dados da literatura. Nas áreas onde haviam sido cultivadas leguminosas ocorreram dois fatos distintos; onde somente cultivou-se soja houve maior proporção de B. japonicum e onde cultivou-se soja e caupi, ocorreu maior proporção de B. elkanii. A análise de resistência a antibióticos mostrou cinco diferentes perfis de resistência. Maior resistência de Bradyrhizobium spp. foi encontrada em áreas cultivadas há mais tempo, e menor na área nativa e/ou áreas com poucos cultivos. De forma geral, pode-se observar uma relação inversa entre a diversidade de rizóbios e a resistência a antibióticos. Como a menor diversidade foi observada em áreas com maior número de cultivos de leguminosas, sugere-se que a presença da leguminosa pode favorecer condições ecológicas específicas, nas quais determinados grupos de rizóbios adquirem características competitivas importantes para seu estabelecimento.

Jerri Édson Zilli

2004-12-01

337

Induced variation in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of three cultivars of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 40 kR of 60Co gamma radiation. The irradiation exposures generally had a depressing effect on all the characters studied. The magnitude of broad sense heritability estimates for plant height appeared to be related to the radiation exposure and were usually of a high order indicating the possibility of effective selection in M2 generation. (author)

338

Genistein from Vigna angularis Extends Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans  

OpenAIRE

The seed of Vigna angularis has long been cultivated as a food or a folk medicine in East Asia. Genistein (4?,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), a dietary phytoestrogen present in this plant, has been known to possess various biological properties. In this study, we investigated the possible lifespan-extending effects of genistein using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. We found that the lifespan of nematode was significantly prolonged in the presence of genistein under normal culture condition....

Lee, Eun Byeol; Ahn, Dalrae; Kim, Ban Ji; Lee, So Yeon; Seo, Hyun Won; Cha, Youn-soo; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Cha, Dong Seok; Kim, Dae Keun

2015-01-01

339

Influência da intensidade da murcha-de-fusário no rendimento do caupi / Influence of Fusarium wilt intensity on cowpea yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A murcha-de-fusário, causada por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Nordeste brasileiro. Foi conduzido um experimento em microparcelas para avaliar a influência da intensidade da murcha-de-fusário nas reduções de rendimento do caupi. O sol [...] o acondicionado nas microparcelas foi infestado com a mistura do inóculo de dois isolados do patógeno, obtendo-se diferentes gradiente de densidade, variando de 1,2 x 10² a 5,3 x 10(4) ufc/g. Cinco dias após a infestação, foram plantadas as cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, classificadas como altamente e moderadamente suscetíveis a F. oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, respectivamente. Na fase de colheita, o rendimento de cada cultivar foi determinado por microparcela, obtendo-se o número de vagens por planta, o peso total de sementes por planta e o peso de 100 sementes. Após a colheita, a severidade da murcha-de-fusário foi avaliada em todas as plantas com o auxílio de uma escala descritiva, sendo calculado o índice de intensidade da doença. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas (P=0,05) na intensidade de doença e na taxa de redução de rendimento entre as duas cultivares. As reduções no rendimento de sementes variaram de 9,11 a 80,30% e de 8,30 a 86,51% nas cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, respectivamente. O modelo de regressão linear simples, sem a transformação dos dados, possibilitou o ajuste adequado aos dados na análise da relação entre a intensidade da murcha-de-fusário e as reduções de rendimento das duas cultivares. Abstract in english Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Northeastern Brazil. An experiment was carried out in field microplots to evaluate the influence of Fusarium wilt intensity on cowpea yield losses. The soil in microplots was inf [...] ested with a mixture of two pathogen isolates. A crescent gradient was obtained by adding 1.2 x 10² to 5.3 x 10(4) cfu/g of pathogen-colonized substrate. Five days after the infestation, two cultivars were planted: 'BR-17 Gurguéia' and 'IPA-206', classified as highly and moderately susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, respectively. At harvest, the yield of the cultivars per microplot was determined through the number of pods per plant, total weight of seeds per plant, and the weight of one hundred of seeds. After harvest, the severity of Fusarium wilt was evaluated in all plants using a descriptive scale and calculating the disease intensity index. Significant differences (P=0,05) were not observed in either disease intensity or yield losses between the two cultivars. Losses in seed yield ranged from 9.11 to 80.30% and from 8.30 to 86.51% in the cultivars BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206, respectively. The model of simple linear regression, without data transformation, fitted the data in relation to Fusarium wilt intensity and yield losses of both cultivars.

Iraíldes P., Assunção; Sami. J., Michereff; Eduardo.S.G., Mizubuti; Sérgio H., Brommonschenkel.

2003-12-01

340

Reduction of the nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Coloeptera: bruchidae)  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to study the food nutrients such as the Free Fatty Acids and some other nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus invitro. 400g of uninfested cowpea was divided into two parts of 200g each. The first 200g was left to be infested by Callosobruchus maculatus for 100 days. The remaining 200g was preserved in a Kilner jar in the laboratory. The mean moisture content of the infested cowpea was 21.10 while that of the uninfested cowpea was 32.70....

Oke and Akintunde

2013-01-01

341

Contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio, fertilizante nitrogenado e nitrogênio do solo no desenvolvimento de feijão e caupi / Contribuition of nitrogen from biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilizer and soil nitrogen on the growth of the common bean and cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN) constitui-se em uma valiosa fonte deste nutriente para o feijão comum e, sobretudo, para o feijão-caupi, tendo sua magnitude influenciada pela disponibilidade de N mineral na solução do solo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar os efeitos de doses de ni [...] trogênio, na forma de uréia, sobre a fixação simbiótica de N2 em feijão comum e caupi, pela técnica isotópica, e quantificar as contribuições relativas das fontes N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-uréia no desenvolvimento do feijão comum e caupi, usando como controle a soja não nodulante. O estudo foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra, coletada de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5x3x2 e três repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam cinco doses de N, na forma de uréia: 2, 15, 30, 45 e 60 mg kg-1 de N; três épocas de amostragens de plantas: 23, 40 e 76 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão comum e feijão caupi. A FBN decresceu com o incremento da dose de N, variando de 81,5% a 55,6% para o caupi e de 71,9% a 55,1% para o feijão comum. A FBN em caupi submetido à inoculação pode substituir totalmente a adubação nitrogenada, inclusive a dose de arranque. A absorção do N do solo não é influenciada pela dose de fertilizante nitrogenado. O aproveitamento do N do fertilizante, aos 76 DAS, foi, em média, de 60,7% pelo feijão comum e 57,1% pelo caupi. O feijão comum necessita de dose de arranque (40 kg ha-1 de N) para a obtenção de produtividade economicamente aceitável. Abstract in english Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) constitutes a valuable source of this nutrient for the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., being its avaibility affected by mineral N in the soil solution. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of nitrogen r [...] ate, as urea, on symbiotic fixation of N2 in common bean and cowpea plants, using the isotopic technique, and quantifying the relative contributions of N sources symbiotic N2 fixation, soil native nitrogen and urea N on the growth of the common bean and cowpea. Non nodulating soybean plants were used as standard. The research was carried out in greenhouse, using pots with 5 kg of soil from a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol). The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 30 treatments and three replications, arranged in 5x3x2 factorial outline. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 2, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg N kg-1 soil; three sampling times: 23, 40 and 76 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. The BNF decreased with increase N rates, varying from 81.5% to 55.6% for cowpea, and from 71.9% to 55.1% for common bean. The symbiotic N2 fixation in cowpea can substitute totally the nitrogen fertilization. The nitrogen absorption from soil is not affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. The N recovery from fertilizer at 76 DAS was of 60.7% by common bean, and 57.1% by cowpea. The symbiotic association in common bean needs the application of a starting dose (40 kg N ha-1) for economically acceptable yields.

Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

342

Métodos para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão vigna / Methods for evaluation of physiological quality of vigna bean seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando comparar diferentes testes de vigor quanto à avaliação da qualidade fisiológica, quatro lotes de sementes de feijão vigna (Vigna unguiculata W.) de duas cultivares ('EPACE-10' e 'IPA-206') foram armazenados por 180 dias (novembro/94 a maio/95), em condições normais de ambiente em Pelotas, RS [...] . Bimestralmente, foram conduzidos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, frio sem solo, emergência de plântulas em campo e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea das plântulas. A análise e a interpretação dos resultados indicaram que a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão vigna deve ser fundamentada no conjunto das informações fornecidas por diferentes testes de vigor. O teste de frio sem solo, dentre os testes estudados, é o que apresenta melhor relação com a emergência das plântulas em campo. O peso de matéria seca da parte aérea das plântulas não é eficiente na separação de lotes de sementes de feijão vigna em diferentes níveis de vigor. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to compare vigor tests for seed quality evaluation. Four seed lots of vigna bean (Vigna unguiculata W.) of two cultivares (EPACE-10 and IPA-206), were stored for six months (november/94 to may/95) at natural environmen conditions of Pelotas, RS, Brazil and evaluated at t [...] wo month intervals, throught the following tests: germination, accelerated aging, cold test without soil, electrical condutivity, seedling dry weight and field emergence tests. The analysis and interpretation of the results showed that the evaluation of the physiological quality of vigna bean seeds needs to be based on different vigor tests. Among the tests, the cold test without soil was the best related with seedling field emergence. The seedling dry weight was not effective to separate vigna bean seed lots in different vigor levels.

Antonieta Laurinda Francisco, Bias; Maria Ângela André, Tillmann; Francisco Amaral, Villela; Gilberto Jaime, Zimmer.

1999-07-01

343

Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via in...

Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Plummer, Emily M.; Trauger, Sunia A.; Siuzdak, Gary; Manchester, Marianne

2009-01-01

344

Expression and silencing of cowpea mosaic virus transgenes.  

OpenAIRE

Plant viruses are interesting pathogens because they can not exist without their hosts and exploit the plant machinery for their multiplication. Fundamental knowledge on viral processes is of great importance to understand, prevent and control virus infections which can cause drastic losses in crops. In this thesis, cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) was studied. This virus consists of two, icosahedral particles that each carry a distinct single stranded RNA molecule of positive polarity. Several yea...

Sijen, T.

1997-01-01

345

Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

346

Evaluation of Sorghum-Cowpea Intercrop Productivity in Savanna Agro-ecology using Competition Indices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The competitive behaviour of sorghum-cowpea intercrops at different planting patterns were studied at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching and Research farm, Bauchi in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The treatments comprised of three row arrangements of sorghum/cowpea mixtures; one row of sorghum for one row of cowpea (1S:1C, two rows of sorghum for one row of cowpea (2S:1C and one row of sorghum for two rows of cowpea (1S:2C, respectively. Sole crops of sorghum and cowpea were included as check to compare yields of intercropped mixtures. Results indicated that grain and straw yields of both sorghum and cowpea were higher in sole cropping than in the intercropping mixtures. However, the 2S:1C planting arrangement exhibited higher LER, competitive indices values, SPI and MAI (N7857.11 compared to the other planting arrangements and the sole crops. From this study, it is inferred that intercropping of sorghum with cowpea at 2S:1C planting pattern will give higher income, better land use efficiency and thus enhancing sustainability of crop production than sole culture of each crop species.   

Tajudeen Olusegun Oseni

2010-08-01

347

Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects were investigated. Results showed that at rates of 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml/ 20 g of cowpea seeds, A. boonei latex evoked 100% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid after 4 days of post treatment. This is followed by C. procera and J. curcas which caused 100% mortality of cowpea bruchid at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds while the least effective plant Argemone mexicana latex. There was no adult emergence in seeds treated with A. boonei latex at tested concentrations and C. procera and J. curcas at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds compared with untreated that had 87.75% adults emergence. The results obtained from this study revealed that Alstonia boonei, Calotropis procera and J. curcas latex were effective in controlling of C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored cowpeas against bruchids.

K. D. ILEKE

2013-12-01