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Sample records for del cowpea vigna

  1. Uso del cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) en mezclas con fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) en el desarrollo de nuevos productos alimenticios / Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Maritza, López Guerra; Ricardo, Bressani.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar el cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) como sustituto parcial del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) como pasta o como harina. El grado de sustitución sería aquel en el cual no se detecte el sabor del frijol cowpea alterando el sabor del frijol común. Para la [...] ejecución del estudio se utilizó la variedad Peruchin Negro del frijol cowpea y el ICTA Ligero del frijol común con un contenido de proteína de 24.4% y 18.7% respectivamente. No hubo diferencias significativas en otros nutrientes. Se postulo que el sabor característico a tierra del cowpea era debido al contenido de polifenoles, la cual se redujo con tratamientos de remojo, cocción y descascarado. Se estableció que los niveles de polifenoles logrados con 9 horas de remojo y 30 minutos de cocción eran iguales a los obtenidos con el descascarado. Con estos procedimientos previos en el cowpea se prepararon 2 pastas de frijol frito a base de una mezcla de frijol negro/cowpea (con y sin cáscara) en la relación 70/30 las cuales fueron enlatadas y una mezcla de harina precocida en las mismas proporciones. Estas pastas se sometieron a pruebas sensoriales de tipo triangular y de perfil descriptivo. En el perfil descriptivo se evaluó: color, textura, punto de sal y sabor, en una escala de 10 puntos. Las evaluaciones sensoriales de las 2 mezclas de frijol no mostraron diferencia significativa respecto al sabor del frijol común. El contenido de proteína en las mezclas fue más alto debido a la mayor concentración de este nutriente en el cowpea. Aunque las mezclas de frijol común con cowpea entero y sin cáscara dieron mayor valor proteico (NPR) que el de frijol solo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was develop [...] ed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant.

  2. Uso de la leguminosa (Vigna sinensis) como complemento del pollo en una fórmula infantil / Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marisa, Guerra Modernell; Marisela, Granito; Mariangel, Paolini; Cristina, Olaizola.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas mundialmente representan una fuente proteica importante. En Venezuela generalmente se preparan en el hogar y son consumidas por los adultos como sopa o guiso, mientras que los niños las consumen muy poco. A los fines de incorporar leguminosas en la alimentación de niños se realizó el [...] presente trabajo utilizando fríjol (Vigna sinensis), como complemento del pollo en una fórmula nutricionalmente adaptada a los requerimientos de niños. Se desarrollaron varias formulas y en base a su aceptabilidad se seleccionaron tres. La primera constituida principalmente por pollo como fuente proteica, en la segunda se sustituyó parcialmente el pollo por frijol, y en la tercera solo se usó frijol. Otros ingredientes fueron: arroz, auyama (Cucurbita máxima), zanahoria, y algunos condimentos. Se realizó el análisis proximal, calidad proteica (relación de eficiencia proteica y digestibilidad) y evaluación sensorial (escala hedónica de 7 puntos). La composición proximal fue similar en las tres fórmulas: proteína (3,5%), grasa (1,3%) y carbohidratos (19,7%), con una buena distribución del aporte energético (98,9 kal o 413,8 kJ por 100g). La calidad de la proteína en la fórmula pollo-frijol fue superior a la de frijol, al igual que la digestibilidad. La aceptabilidad con las madres fue mayor en la fórmula pollo-frijol que en la de frijol. La aceptabilidad de la formula pollo-frijol con los niños fue de 77% (escala hedónica facial) y 92% (midiendo consumo). La fórmula pollo-frijol por su alta aceptabilidad y buena calidad proteica; podría ser incluida en los almuerzos de los hogares de cuidado de niños institucionalizados. Abstract in english Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children’s diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vign [...] a sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98,9 kcal/100g or 413,8 kJ/100g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  3. Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.G.C., Odeigah; A.O., Osanyinpeju; G.O., Myers.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth t [...] ests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

  4. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Xavier Filho

    1991-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) r...

  5. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Xavier Filho.

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  7. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xavier Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  8. Floral Biology and Pollination Ecology of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    O.E. Ige; Olotuah, O.F; Akerele, V.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the floral biology and pollination ecology of three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were carried out. The varieties studied were Var. Oloyin, Var. Sokoto, and Var. Drum. Cowpea is a self pollinated crop which is encouraged by the arrangements of the floral parts. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:30am and closes between 11:30am...

  9. Early defence responses of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) induced by non-pathogenic rust fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Werner; Haug, M; Deising, Holger; Mendgen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    In cowpea (Vigna s&ensis L.) leaves the pathogenic rust fungus Uromyces vignae and the non-pathogens U. appendiculatus and U. viciae-fabae developed similarly to give rise to more than 80% haustorial mother cells. Whereas U. vignae was able to sporulate, the nonpathogens were stopped either after formation of some haustoria (U. appendiculatus) or immediately after formation of haustorial mother cells (U. viciae-fabae). Approximately 30% of the cells in contact with haustorial mother cells of ...

  10. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Moray; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers...

  11. Efecto del consumo de dietas con frijol blanco (Vigna unguiculata) con y sin cáscara sobre los lípidos plasmáticos en ratas hipercolesterolémicas / Effect of consumption of diets with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with and without hull on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mirla C, Morón T; Ana V, Ávila A; Pablo I, Hernández R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas constituyen un componente importante de la dieta regular del venezolano. Algunos estudios han demostrado que los granos de varias leguminosas tienen un efecto hipocolesterolémico. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del consumo de frijol blanco Vigna unguiculata con y sin cáscara sob [...] re los lípidos plasmáticas en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. Treinta ratas machos adultas, cepa Sprague Dawley, fueron estudiadas en dos etapas. Una primera de tres semanas en la que mediante manipulación dietética, se transformaron ratas normales en hipercolesterolémicas. En la segunda etapa se diseñaron 4 grupos, un control normocolesterolémico sin dieta experimental, un hipercolesterolémico sin dieta experimental, un hipercolesterolémico alimentado con frijol con cáscara y uno hipercolesterolémico alimentado con frijol sin cáscara durante tres semanas. Las dietas con frijol blanco Vigna unguiculata produjeron una disminución significativa de colesterol total y triglicéridos de un 35.01% y 39.48% respectivamente, en comparación con el grupo hipercolesterolémico sin frijol. Para la fracción del colesterol-LDL la disminución fue de 59%, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas entre los grupos alimentados con frijol con y sin cáscara. Un hallazgo interesante fue el incremento significativo del colesterol-HDL de 29.66% en el grupo alimentado con frijol con cáscara, lo cual es un factor de prevención para la aparición de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares. Los resultados de este estudio señalan que el consumo de frijol blanco con o sin cáscara tuvo efecto beneficioso en el perfil lipídico, en este modelo experimental. En estudios futuros podría considerarse su uso en la dietoterapia de las hiperlipidemias. Abstract in english Legumes are important components of Venezuelan diet. Several studies have shown that grains of legumes have a hypocholesterolemic effect. This study evaluated the effect of consumption of white beans Vigna unguiculata with and without hull on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty adult [...] male Sprague-Dawley rats, were studied in two stages. The first of three weeks, by means of dietary manipulation, normal rats became hypercholesterolemic. In the second stage, 4 groups were designed, one normocholesterolemic control without experimental diet, one hypercholesterolemic without experimental diet, one hypercholesterolemic fed with bean with hull and one hypercholesterolemic fed with bean without hull for three weeks. Diets with white beans Vigna unguiculata produced a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides of 35.01% and 39.48% respectively, compared with the hypercholesterolemic group without beans. The fraction of LDL-cholesterol showed a reduction of 59%, without significant differences between the groups fed with beans with and without hull. An interesting finding was the significant increase of HDL-cholesterol of 29.66% in the group fed with bean with hull, which is a preventive factor for cardiovascular diseases. The results of this study indicate that consumption of white beans with or without hull had beneficial effect on lipid profile, in this experimental model. In future studies it could be considered for using in diet therapy of human hyperlipidemia.

  12. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Alessandra; Domont, Gilberto B; Pedrosa, Cristiana; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2003-09-10

    The major storage globulins (vicilins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and a semipurified cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was prepared by isoelectric precipitation. Some of the functional properties of these proteins, including solubility, foaming, and emulsifying capacities, were investigated and compared. The solubility of purified cowpea vicilin was reduced at pH 5.0, increasing markedly below and above this value. Pea vicilin exhibited poor solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, and CPI was little soluble in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. At neutral pH, the emulsifying activity indexes (EAI) of purified pea vicilin and CPI were 194 and 291 m(2)/g, respectively, which compare quite favorably to EAIs of 110 and 133 m(2)/g for casein and albumin, respectively. Remarkably, purified cowpea vicilin exhibited an EAI of 490 m(2)/g, indicating a very high emulsifying activity. Purified cowpea and pea vicilins exhibited lower foaming capacities and foam stablity indexes (FSI) than CPI. FSI values of 80 and 260 min were obtained for purified pea and cowpea vicilin, respectively, whereas a FSI value of 380 min was obtained for CPI. These results are discussed in terms of the possible utilization of purified vicilins or protein isolates from pea and cowpea in the food processing industry. PMID:12952435

  13. Harinas de planta entera de frijol (Vigna unguiculata) y de mazorca de maíz (Zea mays) como suplemento para becerros antes del destete / Flours of whole cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and cob maize (Zea mays) as supplements for suckling calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Canelones; Manuel, Castejon.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas de producción de doble-propósito, el amamantamiento restringido mejora el ingreso por leche vendible, pero es negativo para el crecimiento de los becerros. Sin embargo, un arreglo de alimentación agropastoril la suplementación con cultivos podría mejorar el suministro de nutrientes. [...] Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el consumo de harinas de frijol y de mazorca de maíz, el consumo de leche y el crecimiento de becerros pre-destete. El ensayo tuvo una duración de 217 días y se usaron 30 becerros hijos de vacas mestizas de Brahmán x Holstein x Simmental. Se colocaron  cinco becerros en tres tratamientos ubicados en dos bloques al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: harina de frijol (F), harina de maíz (M) y harina de frijol + harina de maíz (FM) todos a voluntad. Los becerros entraron al experimento entre 30 y 45 días de nacidos y después del ordeño permanecieron 30 minutos con sus madres, para luego ser llevados a potreros de Cynodon nlemfuensis durante 6 horas/día. En la tarde fueron alojados en corrales individuales donde se les ofreció el suplemento. La producción de leche vendible (P0,05) fueron 2,5 2,4 y 2,54 L/d; de suplementos (P0,05) 0,41 0,48 y 0,37 para F, M y FM, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el aporte de la leche para suplir los requerimientos de energía y proteína disminuye, debido a que su consumo permanece constante mientras que los requerimientos aumentan, pero los becerros tienen la capacidad de ajustar el consumo de los componentes de la dieta, cuando encuentran restricciones debidas a cantidad ofrecida, calidad y palatabilidad. Abstract in english In the dual purpose systems, the restricted sukling increases the income due to vendible milk, but in turn it decreases the yearling calf growth if they are not properly supplemented. An agropastoral system with crops for supplementation would improve the calf feeding. This work had as aim to study [...] milk intake, whole cowpea and whole maize cob flours intake and calves growth. The experiment lasted for 217 days and were used 30 calves, from crossbred cows (Brahman x Holstein x Simmental). There were five calves in each of the three treatments in two randomized blocks. Treatments were: cowpea flour (F), maize flour (M), and cowpea plus maize flour (FM) all of them ad libitum. Calves were incorporated to the trial at 30-45 days age. They stayed with their dams about 30 minutes after milking, thereafter were taken to paddocks of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) during 6 h/d. In the afternoon were taken into individual pens where the supplements were offered. The vendible milk (P0.05) were 25, 2.4, and 2.54 L/d; supplement intake (P>0.05) were 0.35, 0.76, and 0.52 kg DM/d, and liveweight gain (P>0.05) were 0.41, 0.48, and 0.37 for F, M, and FM treatments, respectively. It was concluded that the milk contribution to supply the requirements of energy and protein diminishes, because its consumption remains constant whereas the requirements increased, but the yearling calves have the capacity to fit the consumption of the components of the diet, when they find restrictions due to offered amount, quality and palatability.

  14. Respuestas fisiológicas y bioquímicas del fríjol caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) bajo déficit hídrico / Physiological and biochemical responses of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) under a water deficit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Cardona-Ayala; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Araméndiz-Tatis; Maryorik, Peña-Agresott; César, Vergara-Córdoba.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El fríjol caupí contribuye a la alimentación humana y animal en muchas regiones del mundo, especialmente en aquellos lugares donde la sequía restringe la producción agrícola. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar algunas respuestas fisiológicas y bioquímicas de esta especie, bajo condiciones d [...] e estrés hídrico en fase reproductiva. Se experimentó bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado en un arreglo factorial 2x6 (2 niveles de humedad del suelo y 6 genotipos) con tres repeticiones. Se analizó la respuesta de la especie evaluando el rendimiento de la planta mediante la cuantificación del rendimiento de grano/planta, el número de vainas/planta, el número de semillas/vaina, y la longitud de la vaina; se estimó la reducción relativa del rendimiento y la susceptibilidad a la sequía. También se analizó el intercambio gaseoso, la actividad de las enzimas catalasa y ascorbato peroxidasa, así como los contenidos de clorofila, carotenoides, proteínas libres, prolina y malondialdehído. El estrés por sequía causó una disminución en el rendimiento de grano/planta del 57,72%, número de vainas/planta del 49,40% y número de semillas/vaina del 32,07%. A los 17 días de sequía, la fotosíntesis empezó a registrar valores cercanos a cero cuando el contenido de humedad del suelo se redujo alrededor del 40% de la capacidad de campo, lo cual pudo ser ocasionado por limitaciones estomáticas y, posiblemente, por limitaciones no estomáticas. La proporción de clorofila a/clorofila b (Chla/Chlb), fue significativamente más baja, mientras que el contenido de malondialdehído fue significativamente más alto, en plantas bajo estrés hídrico. Abstract in english The cowpea bean contributes to human and animal feed in many regions of the world, especially in places where droughts restrict agricultural production. The aim of this study was to identify some physiological and biochemical responses of this species under drought stress conditions in the reproduct [...] ive phase. We used a completely randomized design with a 2x6 factorial arrangement (2 soil moisture levels and 6 genotypes) and three replicates. The grain yield/plant, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and pod length were analyzed, and the relative yield reduction and drought susceptibility index were estimated. The gas exchange and activity of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes, as well as the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, free protein, and proline, were analyzed. The drought stress caused a decrease in the grain yield/ plant of 57.72%, the number of pods/plant of 49.40% and the number of seeds/pod of 32.07%. At 17 days of drought, the photosynthesis began showing values near zero when the soil moisture content was reduced by about 40% of the field capacity, which could have been caused by stomatal limitations and possibly by biochemical limitations. The ratio of chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b (Chla/Chlb) was significantly lower and the malonaldehyde content was significantly higher in the plants under water stress.

  15. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  16. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: ? We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. ? Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ? Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. ? Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  17. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 ?mol plant-1 week-1. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N2-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N2-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW showing large variation among lines. Most of the tolerance to P deficiency was due to increase in the nodule function rather than conservation of nodule mass. In conclusion, the screening in glasshouse hydroaeroponics made it possible to sort cowpea lines in SNF potential to fix N2, and in tolerance to P deficiency. (author)

  18. Early defence responses of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) induced by non-pathogenic rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, W; Haug, M; Deising, H; Mendgen, K

    1991-09-01

    In cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) leaves the pathogenic rust fungus Uromyces vignae and the non-pathogens U. appendiculatus and U. viciae-fabae developed similarly to give rise to more than 80% haustorial mother cells. Whereas U. vignae was able to sporulate, the non-pathogens were stopped either after formation of some haustoria (U. appendiculatus) or immediately after formation of haustorial mother cells (U. viciae-fabae). Approximately 30% of the cells in contact with haustorial mother cells of the two non-pathogens showed autofluorescence and deposition of phloroglucinol/HCl-positive material. The early defence reactions of V. sinensis include induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and extracellular peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity as early as 10 h and 24 h after inoculation, respectively. Probing Western blots with heterologous monospecific anti-PAL serum showed that pathogenesis-induced increases in enzyme activity are the result of de novo synthesis. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the specific induction of two extracellular acidic POD forms in cowpea inoculated with the non-pathogens. Both PAL and apoplasmic POD activities were highest in U. viciae-fabae-, intermediate in U. appendiculatus- and low in U. vignae-inoculated or talcum-treated control plants. The timing of increasing PAL and extracellular POD activities in relation to deposition of lignin or lignin-like material in mesophyll cell walls indicates the involvement of lignification in the early defence of V. sinensis against biotrophic fungal parasites. Analysis of the substrate specificity of the inducible POD forms, separated and partially purified by chromatofocusing, showed that apoplasmic PODs preferentially oxidize the naturally occurring substrate coniferyl alcohol. These results support the assumption that POD-mediated lignification is involved in the expression of non-host resistance of cowpea to rust fungi. PMID:24186348

  19. [Nutritional and taste properties of canned cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. II. Effect of storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, G M; Guerra, N B; Pessoa, D C

    1992-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of storage on nutritional and sensory properties of canned cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), a batch of 180 cans was stocked at room temperature (22 degrees C to 32 degrees C) for a period of six months. At intervals of 0, 30, 90 and 180 days, 26 samples collected randomly were submitted to physicochemical, sensory and biological analyses. Significant statistical reductions (p Food Efficiency of samples stored for 180 days when compared to those freshly canned on day 0, though values for Net Protein Ratio (NPR) showed no discernible decrease; these data lead to the conclusion that canned cowpeas stored can be consumed without, restrictions, in spite of the slight decrease in biological value caused by the time of storage. PMID:1342166

  20. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  1. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  2. Physiological Characteristics of Cowpea Rhizobia: Evaluation of Symbiotic Efficiency in Vigna unguiculata†

    OpenAIRE

    Zablotowicz, R. M.; Focht, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    One fast-growing and three slow-growing strains of Rhizobium (isolated from cowpeas) were evaluated for symbiotic performance on Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivar California no. 5 blackeyes. Plants inoculated with slow-growing strains 176A22, 176A30, and 176A32 developed a maximum acetylene reduction activity of 24.6, 27.0, and 32 ?mol of ethylene formed per plant per h, respectively, versus 6.4 ?mol per plant per h in plants inoculated with the fast-growing strain 176A28. When inoculated...

  3. Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola, Garzón; Marina, García.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ‘I [...] -484’ (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ‘I-490’ (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ‘I-484’. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ‘I-490’ se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ‘I-484’ (moderate sensibility to sa [...] linity) and ‘I-490’ (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ‘I-484’. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ‘I-490’ the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

  4. Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. after tannery sludge compost amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia Marçal Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with tannery sludge compost (TSC. Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%. Only Cr accumulation was significant (P < 0.05 in the cowpea shoots after 3 yr of TSC amendment; accumulation increased as TSC rates were applied. However, there was no significant Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb accumulation in grains. After 3 yr of consecutive TSC soil amendments, Cr accumulated in the shoots, but it was not translocated to the grains.

  5. Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

  6. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: ? In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ? Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. ? Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. ? Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. ? Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  8. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  9. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments. PMID:21732069

  10. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  12. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS. Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  14. Mineralization of P from 32P labelled plant residue of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the mineralization of P from 32P labelled plant material of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) added to Fatehpur sand (Typic Ustipssament) in absence or presence of applied inorganic phosphorus (20 mg P kg-1 soil). Significantly higher P mineralization occurred in P fertilized (53.7 per cent) than in low P (43.3 per cent) soil system. The half-life of P mineralized from added plant residue was 38.5 and 33 days in low and P fertilized soils, respectively. Plant residue added to soil released inorganic P on mineralization and this factor was considered for better P management practices. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  15. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  16. Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concentration as low as 1 ?M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb2+ activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and at a Pb2+ activity of 0.06 ?M for the roots. The primary site of Pb2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and 0.06 ?M for the roots

  17. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

    2010-09-01

    The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:20605100

  18. BIOLOGÍA DEL ÁFIDO NEGRO (Aphis craccivora: APHIDIDAE SOBRE FRÍJOL CAUPI (Vigna unguiculata, FABACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly DE LA PAVA S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe los parámetros biológicos y poblacionales del pulgón negro, Aphis craccivora Koch, sobre fríjol caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los insectos se criaron sobre plántulas individualizadas a una temperatura promedio de 28 °C, humedad relativa de 70 % y fotoperiodo de 12 horas. Los parámetros medidos fueron periodo ninfal, fecundidad, supervivencia, periodo pre-reproductivo y aspectos relativos a la tasa de crecimiento del áfido. La tasa reproductiva neta R (0 fue 66,00, la tasa intrínseca de crecimiento del áfido (rm fue 0,51, el tiempo de duplicación de la población (TD fue 2,3. Se analizaron las curvas de supervivencia (lx, fecundidad (mx, la duración del período ninfal y reproductivo del áfido. Los resultados difieren de los realizados en otras variedades de fríjol caupí, evidenciándose la susceptibilidad de la variedad criolla usada por los agricultores en la costa Caribe colombiana.Biology of Black Aphid (Aphis Craccivora: Aphididae on Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata, Fabaceae This research describes the population and biological parameters of the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch on cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., under laboratory conditions. The insects were raised on individualized seedlings in an average temperature of 28 °C, at 70 % relative humidity during a photoperiod of 12 hours. The parameters measured were the nymphal period, fecundity, longevity, pre-reproductive period and aspects of aphid growth rate. The net reproductive rate R (0 was 66.00, the intrinsic g rate of increase of the aphid (rm was 0.51, and the population doubling time (TD was 2.3. Survival curves (lx, fecundity (mx, the duration of nymphal and the reproductive period of the aphid were analyzed. The results differ from those found in other varieties of cowpea beans, demonstrating the susceptibility of the native variety used by farmers in the Colombian Caribbean coast.

  19. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as trap plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  20. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu2+ activities as low as 1-2 ?M, the effect of Cu2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu2+. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu2+ activity of 1.0 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu2+ activity of 0.2 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ?0.77 ?M Cu2+, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  1. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  2. Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. SANUSI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (‘Achishiru’, ‘Aloka local’, ‘Borno local’, ‘Danila’, ‘Danmisira’, ‘Danwuri’, ‘Kanannado’ and ‘Yambare’ of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg, phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113, days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301, days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958 and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096. On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011. Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

  3. Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad L. UMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (?Achishiru?, ?Aloka local?, ?Borno local?, ?Danila?, ?Danmisira?, ?Danwuri?, ?Kanannado? and ?Yambare? of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg, phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113, days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301, days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958 and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096. On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011. Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

  4. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.V., Silva; J.L., Simões-Araújo; J.P., Silva Júnior; G.R., Xavier; N.G., Rumjanek.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhi [...] zobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  5. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  6. Studies on the changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in drought stress induced cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akhila S; Abraham, T K; Jaya, D S

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is one of the major vegetable crops cultivated in tropical conditions. Two varieties of cowpea, i.e., Vigna unguiculata L.cv Kanakamony and cv Pusakomal were selected for the present study. The changes in lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid content and activities of enzymatic antioxidants associated with drought stress were determined. A high level of lipid peroxidation was observed in test plants subjected to water stress. The Pusakomal leaves with severe stress showed 2.7 fold increase in TBARS compared to control and 1.2 fold to that of Kanakamony The drought tolerant variety showed significant increase in the activities of peroxidase and catalase on exposure to drought stress. Kanakamony leaves in severe stress possess 1.09 times increase in peroxidase and 1.8 times increase in catalase activity than Pusakomal. The concentration of ascorbic acid in test plants depleted with increased drought stress in both varieties. While the leaves of tolerant variety in severe stress showed 1.13 times higher ascorbic acid content than Pusakomal. Among the two varieties, Kanakamony possess the best antioxidant system to tolerate drought stress. This could limit cellular damage caused by active oxygen species, during waterdeficit. The variety Pusakomal was relatively poor in these adaptations. PMID:19295066

  7. Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) / Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Elisa, Rivas-Vega; Ofelia, Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe, Salazar-García; Josafat Marina, Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto, Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto, Civera-Cerecedo.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata) como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC), de [...] corticado (DC), cocido (CC), germinado (GC) y extruido (EXC). Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g) usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos. Abstract in english The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled [...] (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g) to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.

  8. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-01-01

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

  9. Soil compaction and gamma radiation (60Co) in the development of the cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m-3 - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m-3 - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  10. Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp) as influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed interference in South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Adigun; A. O. Osipitan; Segun Toyosi Lagoke; Raphael Olusegun Adeyemi; Stephen Olaoluwa Afolami

    2014-01-01

    Weed problem appears to be the most deleterious factor causing between 25 and 60% reduction in potential yield of cowpea. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effect of inter-row spacing and period of weed interference on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07° 15'; 03° 25' E) in South Western Nigeria during the early and late wet seasons of 2009. The experiment consisted of...

  11. COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.) / COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús Rafael, Méndez-Natera; Víctor Alejandro, Otahola-Gómez; Rubén E, Pereira-Garantón; José A, Simosa-Mallé; Luis, Tellis; Enrique, Zabala.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP) base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ) para l [...] os caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa) y vega (textura franco-arcillosa). Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a) Sin fertilizante; b) FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c) DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d), con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreció el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF) on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF) for the above characters. Two soil types were used: sa [...] vanna (sand lime texture) and “vega” (lime clay texture). Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a) without fertilizer; b) CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c) WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS), with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor for average number of total germination days and germ

  12. COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP. COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L. WALP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rafael Méndez-Natera

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ para los caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa y vega (textura franco-arcillosa. Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a Sin fertilizante; b FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d, con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreci?? el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF for the above characters. Two soil types were used: savanna (sand lime texture and “vega” (lime clay texture. Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a without fertilizer; b CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS, with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor for average number of total germination days and germination velocity, whit averages of 3.2 and 7.9,

  13. Evaluation of Local Spices as Biopesticides for the Control of Ootheca mutabilis, Shalbera and Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Stal.) on Cultivated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ime O. Udo; Edna A. Akpan

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the impact of aqueous extracts of five local spices as biopesticides for the control of O. mutabilis and C. tomentosicollis on cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). The spices evaluated were Capsicum annum L., Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal), Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, Allium sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The extracts were applied at 3, 4 and 5% concentrations, res...

  14. Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Sales; P.P. Pimenta; N.S. Paes; Grossi-de-Sá, M. F.; Xavier-Filho, J.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vic...

  15. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Ola Salawu; Emmanuel Oluwafemi Ibukun; Oladipupo David; Bukola Bunmi Ola-Salawu

    2014-01-01

    Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested c...

  16. Comparative Protection of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers Against Field Insect Pests Using Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Cypermethrin (Cymbush)

    OpenAIRE

    T.I. Ofuya; Olotuah, O.F

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of ethanolic extract of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) in protecting Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. against field insect pests was ascertained through two field trials at two different planting seasons by comparing with a suitable insecticide, Cymbush 10 EC containing 100 g Cypermethrin per litre of water under natural infestation at Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. The liquid which is viscous and contains Phenolic compounds was first standardized in the screen house using concentrations of...

  17. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15N sources included residual soil 15N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N2 fixed varied with the source of 15N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 15N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y.; Kareem, Kehinde T.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar “White” and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar “White” was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures. PMID:26483824

  19. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  20. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). / Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z.M., Peña P.; G., Trujillo.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluy [...] en pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %). Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral. Abstract in english In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that al [...] low to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%). The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

  1. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Peña P.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %. Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%. The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

  2. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

    2011-01-01

    Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming sig...

  3. Morfología profunda del gineceo en Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) / Gynoecium deep morphology in Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana Inés, Drewes; Cecilia, Gamba.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la morfología del gineceo en especies de Vigna nativas de Argentina, utilizando microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB). En las flores al comienzo de la antesis, el ovario está revestido por dos tipos de tricomas, posee un disco nectarífero basal y el estilo rostrado o no, puede ser ape [...] nas curvo, con curvatura sigmoidea o con hasta cinco vueltas completas de espiralización, presenta un cepillo estilar en la porción apical introrsa, y termina en un estigma húmedo, que puede estar rodeado por tricomas. En las especies examinadas se encontraron variaciones en cuanto a: tipos de tricomas del indumento del ovario; forma del disco nectarífero basal; largo y curvatura del estilo; presencia, forma y posición del rostro; ubicación del cepillo estilar; esculturación de los tricomas del cepillo estilar; posición y forma del estigma; forma y ubicación del anillo peristigmático y disposición, longitud y esculturación de los tricomas del anillo peristigmático. Se brinda la descripción comparativa de los estados de carácter que presenta el gineceo en cada una de las especies, siendo ésta la primera observación de la esculturación de los tricomas en el género Vigna. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos con respecto a algunos aspectos de la biología floral de las especies estudiadas. Abstract in english The deep morphology of gynoecium in species of Vigna from Argentina was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the beginning of anthesis, the ovary presents two types of trichomes; has a basal nectar disc; and the style beaked or not, can appear scarcely curved, sigmoid or curved up to [...] five complete turns of spiraling; presents a distal stylar brush, and an apical wet stigma, which can be surrounded by trichomes. Among the species examined, variation was found in: types of trichomes of ovary indumentum; nectar disc shape; length and curvature of the style; presence, shape and position of the stylar beak; location of the stylar brush; sculpturing of the stylar brush trichomes; position and form of the stigma; form and location of the peristigmatic ring and disposition and length of its trichomes. Based on the variations in these characters, a comparative description of the gineceum of each species is provided. This is the first description of the sculptured trichomes in Vigna. The results are discussed in relation to some aspects of the floral biology of the species.

  4. Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea from Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Y. Abubakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%, seedling weight change (1.52 g, shoot length (25.81 cm, root length (23.12 cm was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

  5. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

  6. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Ikram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

  7. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ndor; N.S. Dauda; E.O. Abimuku; D.E. Azagaku; H. Anzaku

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined...

  8. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados / Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Marcus M., Correa.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. [...] Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil). Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais) com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna. Abstract in english Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress [...] on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil). The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition) with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  9. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  10. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F.) and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Darfour; F.C.K. Ocloo; D.D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infeste...

  11. Determination of Selected Engineering Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Related to Design of Processing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Musliu Olushola Sunmonu; Ogbonnaya Chukwu,

    2010-01-01

    In this study, some selected engineering properties of two improved varieties of cowpea (Sampea 7 and Tvx 3236) grown in Nigeria were determined. The properties of Sampea 7 are: Length (9.48 ± 1.46 mm),width (6.75 ± 0.66 mm), thickness (5.35 ± 0.73 mm), roundness (2.38 ± 0.28), sphericity (3.64 ± 0.46), mass (48.0 ± 10.0 g), volume (1.04 ± 0.26 mm3), density (1.00 ± 0.28 kg/m3), surface area (10.74 ± 1.78 cm2), angle of internal friction (11.05 ± 2.07°), angle of repose (20.50± 2.38º) and moi...

  12. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Bayala, Jules

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside the...

  13. Determination of Selected Engineering Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Related to Design of Processing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musliu Olushola Sunmonu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some selected engineering properties of two improved varieties of cowpea (Sampea 7 and Tvx 3236 grown in Nigeria were determined. The properties of Sampea 7 are: Length (9.48 ± 1.46 mm,width (6.75 ± 0.66 mm, thickness (5.35 ± 0.73 mm, roundness (2.38 ± 0.28, sphericity (3.64 ± 0.46, mass (48.0 ± 10.0 g, volume (1.04 ± 0.26 mm3, density (1.00 ± 0.28 kg/m3, surface area (10.74 ± 1.78 cm2, angle of internal friction (11.05 ± 2.07°, angle of repose (20.50± 2.38º and moisture content (7.01 ± 0.05% db. The compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive strength, shear trength and torsion strength of Sampea 7 are 66.25 ±16.12 N, 65.53±15.51 N, 64.55 ±14.55 N, 65.20 ±15.50 N and 65.00 ±16.10 N, respectively while its hardness is 7.98 ± 0.03 kg. The properties of Tvx 3236 are: Length (7.76 ± 0.56 mm, width (5.25 ± 0.14 mm, thickness (4.11 ± 0.42 mm, roundness (1.42 ± 0.14, sphericity(5.12 ± 1.00, mass (32.0 ± 8.0 g, volume (0.70 ± 0.10 mm3, density (0.48 ± 0.20 kg/m3, surface area (8.80 ± 1.02 cm2, angle of nternal friction (9.23 ± 1.58°, angle of repose (21.05± 1.26º and moisture content (6.7± 0.22%db. The compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive strength, shear strength and torsion strength for Tvx 3236 are 93.65 ±13.62 N, 93.55 ±13.71 N, 92.56 ±13.70 N, 93.50 ±13.60 N and 92.75 ±13.65 N, respectively while its hardness is11.96 ± 3.57 kg. Statistical tests on the properties showed that dimensions, compressive strength, tensile strength, hardness, abrasive strength, shear strength and torsion strength of the two cowpea varieties are highly significant at 5% level; roundness, sphericity, volume, surface area and angle of internal friction are significant at 5% level; while mass, density, angle of repose and moisture content are not significant at 5% level.

  14. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Ola Salawu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested cowpeas commonly consumed in Nigeria. The result revealed that infestation brings about an increase in the evaluated anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and alkaloids and a marked reduction in protein, carbohydrate content, whereas a marked increase was recorded for the fibre content. The result of the antioxidant activities revealed a significant reduction for total phenol, total flavonoids and reducing power and a slight reduction was recorded for the inhibitory action against lipid oxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and 1, 1-diphenyly-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities after infestation. The present investigations revealed that Callosobruchus maculatus infestation do not only affect the nutrient composition of the studied cowpeas by reducing the nutritional value, but would also have an adverse effect on their potential to prevent free radical mediated diseases.

  15. Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walison Fabio Rogério

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp, grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed coats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1. These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

  16. Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walison Fabio, Rogério; Ralf, Greiner; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Sabrina, Feitosa; Dalva Maria da Nóbrega, Furtunato; Deusdélia Teixeira de, Almeida.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed c [...] oats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

  17. Mecanismos de adaptación a sequía en caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Una revisión / Drought adaptation mechanisms in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.). A review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CARLOS, CARDONA-AYALA; ALFREDO, JARMA-OROZCO; HERMES, ARAMÉNDIZ-TATIS.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de adaptación a sequía observados en fríjol caupí, mostrando las respuestas morfológicas, las relaciones hídricas e intercambio gaseoso, el ajuste osmótico, el sistema antioxidante y la actividad molecular. Se describen algunos indicadores que pe [...] rmiten la aproximación a un diagnóstico del nivel de estrés de las plantas tales como la relación raíz/parte aérea, densidad y profundidad de raíces, materia seca radical, área foliar específica, número de hojas y flores, senescencia foliar y abscisión foliar, componentes del rendimiento, conductancia estomática, transpiración, eficiencia en el uso del agua, contenido de osmolitos: prolina, glicina betaína y azucares; actividad de enzimas antioxidantes involucradas en procesos de detoxificación de las especies reactivas de oxígeno: catalasa, ascorbato peroxidasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión reductasa, así como la visualización de la frontera del conocimiento en este aspecto de gran importancia para el mejoramiento de la especie y los avances en biología molecular. Abstract in english This article presents a review of the drought adaptation mechanisms observed in the cowpea bean, providing the morphological responses, water and gas exchange ratios, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant system and molecular activity. Furthermore, the indicators that allow for the diagnosis of the plant [...] stress level are described, such as the root / shoot ratio, density and root depth, root dry-matter, specific leaf area, number of leaves and flowers, leaf senescence and abscission, yield components, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water-use efficiency, contents of the osmolytes: proline, glycine-betaine and sugars; activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification processes of the oxygen-reactive species: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, as well as the visualization of the knowledge-frontiers in this area that are of great importance to the improvement of the species and advances in molecular biology.

  18. Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidase and Color Degradation of African Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis M; Njoroge, Charles K; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea leaves form an important part of the diet for many Kenyans, and they are normally consumed after a lengthy cooking process leading to the inactivation of peroxidase (POD) that could be used as an indicator for the potential shelf life of the vegetables. However, color degradation can simultaneously occur, leading to poor consumer acceptance of the product. The kinetics of POD in situ thermal (for thermal treatments in the range of 75 to 100 °C/120 min) inactivation showed a biphasic first-order model, with Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constant. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (Tref ) of 80 °C were determined for both the heat-labile phase (kref = 11.52 ± 0.95 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 109.67 ± 6.20 kJ/mol) and the heat-stable isoenzyme fraction (kref = 0.29 ± 0.07 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 256.93 ± 15.27 kJ/mol). Color degradation (L*, a*, and b* value) during thermal treatment was investigated, in particular as the "a*" value (the value of green color). Thermal degradation (thermal treatments between 55 and 80 °C per 90 min) of the green color of the leaves followed a fractional conversion model and the temperature dependence of the inactivation rate constant can be described using the Arrhenius law. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (TrefC = 70 °C) were determined as krefC = 13.53 ± 0.01 × 10(-2) min(-1) and EaC = 88.78 ± 3.21 kJ/mol. The results indicate that severe inactivation of POD (as an indicator for improved shelf life of the cooked vegetables) is accompanied by severe color degradation and that conventional cooking methods (typically 10 min/100 °C) lead to a high residual POD activity suggesting a limited shelf life of the cooked vegetables. PMID:26642260

  19. Physiological, biochemical and agromorphological responses of five cowpea genotypes (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to water deficit under glasshouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndèye N. Diop

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, Bambey 21, Gorom local, KVX61-1, Mouride and TN88-63, grown in pots under glasshouse conditions, were submitted to water deficit by withholding irrigation at vegetative stage (T1 for 14 days, and at flowering stage (T2 for 12 days. Effect of this stress on leaf water potential, gas exchanges, foliar proline, total protein and starch contents, maximal quantum yield of photochemistry (fp0, root volume and yield components was determined. Leaf water potential decreased significantly only for Mouride and TN88-63 (from -0.55 to -0.92 MPa on average at T2 while root volume, gas exchanges and foliar starch content decreased for the five genotypes under water stress conditions at T1 and T2. fp0 was not affected during water deficit at T1. Significant decrease of fp0 was observed at T2 on the 6th day after stress induction (Dasi for Gorom, KVX61-1 and TN88-63 and the 10th Dasi for Bambey 21 and Mouride. Proline was significantly accumulated during water stress at the 2 stages, Mouride and TN88-63 showed the highest contents in the case of T2 (2.88 and 3.3 mg.g-1 DM respectively. Water deficit did not affect significantly the total proteins contents for the 5 varieties at T1 and T2. Our results showed that the 5 varieties involved drought avoidance mechanism by decreasing stomatal conductance and transpiration at the 2 stages. Proline accumulation, maintenance of total protein content and starch decrease under stress conditions at T1 and T2 could probably contribute in turgor maintenance. In addition, these solutes contributed probably in the protection of photosynthetic apparatus (PSII against denaturation notably during water stress at flowering stage. At the two stages water stress reduced significantly seed number per pod and seed number per plant but the genotypic variation observed revealed that Bambey 21 was less affected than Gorom, TN88-63 and Mouride whereas KVX61-1 was most affected. Bambey 21 proved to be tolerant to water stress at the two stages, Gorom, Mouride and TN88-63 were intermediate and KVX61-1 sensitive.

  20. Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) Grains using Botanicals

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia O.W.M. Reuben; Minza Masunga; Rhodes Makundi; Robert N. Misangu; Bukheti Kilonzo; Maulid Mwatawala; Herman F. Lyimo; Christine G. Ishengoma; Dastun G. Msuya; Loth S. Mulungu

    2006-01-01

    An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no prot...

  1. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  2. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  3. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  4. Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.P., Sales; P.P., Pimenta; N.S., Paes; M.F., Grossi-de-Sá; J., Xavier-Filho.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicil [...] ins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  5. Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Sales

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  6. Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Janaína da Silva, Morais; Ivano Alessandro, Devilla; Daiane Assis, Ferreira; Itamar Rosa, Teixeira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de [...] feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains [...] were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

  7. Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Janaína da Silva Morais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1.This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

  8. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Darfour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

  9. Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250?m and stored at 4 oC for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p oC. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any clear pattern with increase in the radiation dose, there was significant (p < 0.05) effect on some proximate parameters (protein, fat, moisture and mineral), functional and pasting properties. The radiation did not affect sensory qualities and acceptability of the cowpea seeds. For cowpea insects disinfestation a radiation dose of 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial. (au)

  10. Transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 confer resistance to storage pests, bruchid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2008-12-01

    Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays. PMID:18784925

  11. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  12. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Damme

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

  13. AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME COWPEA ECOTYPES (VIGNA UNGUILATA L. GROWN IN TURKEY; VEGETATION TIME, SEED AND POD CHARACTERISTICS

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    H. VURAL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to observe the yield and yield components of cowpea cultivars available and cowpea lines, which are grown in nine local areas in Turkey. The study including two cultivars and nine ecotypes, was carried out with randomizes block design with three replications in 1996-1997. Significant differences were observed between the cultivars as in the seed yield, biological yield and vegetation time, according to the two years' combined results. The data indicate great variation within the cowpea, regarding all characters. Factor analysis based principal component (PCA showed two factors, representing 99.13 % of the total variation. PC1 explaining 98.69 % of the total variance is highly correlated with seed and pod size factors. PC2 may be considered as the time of vegetation time and yield per plant. Eleven examined cultivars were separated in two groups by factor analysis and cluster analysis.

  14. The effects of sun-drying surfaces and packaging materials on the storability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogba, S S; Ugwu, F M; Abu, J D

    1999-01-01

    The effects of sun-drying cowpea seeds for three hours on cement (CS), wood (WS), and corrugated iron sheet (CIS) surfaces and packaging separately in polyethene and jute bags were studied. Moisture-gain, and resistance to insect and mold damage were monitored monthly for six months, while proximate analyses on day zero and at the 6th month were conducted. Results showed that the three-hour sun-drying of cowpea seeds on reflective surfaces (CIS and CS) enhanced the rate of moisture-reabsorption during storage and consequently, the degree of mold and insect damage irrespective of the packaging material employed. Crude fat, fiber and ash contents, unlike protein and moisture contents, remained virtually constant (p < or = 0.05). In this study, the wood surface and polyethene bag were the most preferred treatments to store sun-dried cowpea seeds for about 5.7 months. PMID:10472788

  15. Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp under inoculation and cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleópatra Saraiva do Nascimento

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp. recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N.A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under study were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

  16. Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação / Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under inoculation and cover crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleópatra Saraiva do, Nascimento; Mario Andrade, Lira Junior; Newton Pereira, Stamford; Maria Betânia Galvão Santos, Freire; Clayton Albuquerque, Sousa.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdi [...] vididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp.) recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N. Abstract in english A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four rep [...] licates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under study were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

  17. Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

  18. Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Gutemberg Leite, Moraes; Ervino, Bleicher.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch). Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC). A [...] s cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora. Abstract in english This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch). The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC) cam [...] pus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

  19. USING A SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM TO MEASURE CROP COEFFICIENTS AND WATER USE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop coefficients and water use by CB46 cowpea were measured using the same field and the same "slope" procedure developed and published for cotton, using a highly-efficient subsurface drip irrigation system on sandy soil at the University of California Shafter Research and Extension Center, near Sh...

  20. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  1. Effect of De Cortication and Roasting on Trypsin Inhibitors and Tannin Contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasara Gumaa Balail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9 , for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73, for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52 for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32 for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60 for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value.

  2. MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM

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    Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

  3. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. Conclusion Effective sources of host resistance were identified in this study. QTL mapping and synteny analysis identified genomic loci harboring resistance factors and revealed candidate genes with potential for further functional genomics analysis.

  4. Determination of Genotypical Differences for Leaf Characteristics in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Erkut Peksen; Cengiz Artik; Burcu Palabiyik

    2005-01-01

    Leaf characteristics of ten cowpea genotypes, including registered Cv. Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, from diverse locations in Turkey and relationships among leaf characteristics such as length of leaf, petiole, petiolule and terminal leaflet, terminal leaflet width and leaf area were determined. Significant differences were found among genotypes in terms of leaf and petiole length while highly significant differences found for petiolule length. There were no significant differences among genotype...

  5. Assessment of average exposure to organochlorine pesticides in southern Togo from water, maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawussi, G; Sanda, K; Merlina, G; Pinelli, E

    2009-03-01

    Drinking water, cowpea and maize grains were sampled in some potentially exposed agro-ecological areas in Togo and analysed for their contamination by some common organochlorine pesticides. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides were investigated in ten subsamples of maize, ten subsamples of cowpea and nine subsamples of drinking water. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues and their subsequent quantification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of pesticides were also determined. Pesticides residues in drinking water (0.04-0.40 microg l(-1)) were higher than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.03 microg l(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan levels (13.16-98.79 microg kg(-1)) in cowpea grains exceeded MRLs applied in France (10-50 microg kg(-1)). Contaminants' levels in maize grains (0.53-65.70 microg kg(-1)) were below the MRLs (20-100 microg kg(-1)) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the WHO. EDIs of the tested pesticides ranged from 0.02% to 162.07% of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). Population exposure levels of dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide were higher than the FAO/WHO standards. A comprehensive national monitoring programme on organochlorine pesticides should be undertaken to include such other relevant sources like meat, fish, eggs and milk. PMID:19680908

  6. Varietal Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to Striga gesnerioides (Willd. Vatke Race SG5 Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste NOUBISSIE TCHIAGAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic plant Striga gesnerioides (Willd Vatke is becoming a serious threat to cowpea production in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 7 races of S. gesnerioides exhibiting specific virulence have been identified. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 spreads in northern Cameroon and to study the inheritance of the resistance. Twelve accessions of cowpea, IT98K-205-8, IT98K-503-1, IT98K-1092-1, IT99K-216-1-1, IT98K-494-6, IT99K-529-4, IT99K-573-1-1, IT99K-573-2-1, IT00K-1207, IT03K-378-4, IT04K-227-4 and VYA were assessed in field trials for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 in Maroua, northern Cameroon and the genetics of the resistance from two sources was elucidated in artificially infested pots. Data on resistant and susceptible cowpea plants were analyzed using the chi-square test to ascertain the goodness of fit to different genetic ratios. Tests of resistance using field screening techniques showed that among these varieties, four were susceptible, four tolerant, two partially resistant while IT99K-573-1-1 and IT98K-205-8 appeared completely resistant to Striga race SG5. On susceptible varieties, the mean number of emerged S. gesnerioides plants 9 weeks after sowing was 1.8 to 2.4 per cowpea plant, while completely resistant lines carried none. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for percentage of infected plants, the decimation rates and Striga height. On susceptible genotypes, the seeds yield losses due to Striga infestation varied from 28.4 to 36.6% while for the fodder yield these losses ranged between 23.63 to 41.03%. The analysis of F1 and F2 populations resulting from crossings between resistant varieties and the susceptible tester VYA demonstrated that resistance is was controlled by two factor inheritance with duplicate dominant genes (Rsg5a and Rsg5b for IT99K-573-1-1 and a single dominant gene (Rsg5 for IT98K-205-8. These two varieties provide newly additional sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides and can be used in programmes of genetic improvement of this legume.

  7. Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.Ajayi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

  8. Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, cultivar BRS-Milênio Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, BRS-Milênio cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando-se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1: 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1: ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra. O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados.Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1: 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1 were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample. The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

  9. Resistance of ?AI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Dry grain legume seeds possessing ?AI-1, an ?-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing ?AI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to ?AI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The ?AI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control ?AI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to ?AI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures. PMID:23458831

  10. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), coletados em Roraima / Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata) blight in Roraima, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kátia L., Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris) é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com si [...] ntoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata) e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado). Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani. Abstract in english The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris) is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected i [...] n two ecosystems (savannah and forest) in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG) and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates) and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates). Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

  11. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, coletados em Roraima Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata blight in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia L. Nechet

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com sintoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado. Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani.The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected in two ecosystems (savannah and forest in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates. Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

  12. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%. These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain. The weevils rearing and some biological tests were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results showed that these extracts have anti-oviposition activity and ovicidal dose-dependent. Doses 25 and 50% of Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum have completely inhibited the spawning activity of C. maculatus 24 h after treatment. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between oviposition due to the positive control (Stargrain and that due to dose 50% of the three extracts. Compared to the negative control (ethanol 95%, all these plant extracts have significantly reduced (p<0.05 oviposition of C. maculatus female (38 eggs per 100 seeds after 4 days. The dose 10% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum showed no weevil emergency. It have been also noticed a reduction in seeds depreciation and rate attack in all the treated settings compared to the control. So the rate attack and the mass loss were proportional to the doses of B. aegyptiaca leaves extract but conversely proportional to doses of Melia azedarach and O. gratissimum leaves extracts. No depreciation of seeds was recorded at doses 10 and 15% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum. The different treatments did not affect the germination of seeds; the highest germination rate (93.67% was recorded with seeds treated with the dose 50% of O. gratissimum against only 65% with those treated with the positive control. These ethanolic extracts have shown insecticidal effect against C. maculatus and can alternatively use for the cowpea seeds preservation.

  13. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Márquez; T, Córdova; L, Castejón; A, Higuera.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  14. Nutritional evaluation of a high-temperature dried soft wheat pasta supplemented with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, C J; Gualberto, D G; Weber, C W

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional quality of the pasta described above. The work was unique in the following aspects: 1) the drying process was a nonconventional method, consisting of a high-temperature short-time (HTST) process; 2) the nutritional quality of the wheat pasta was improved by the cowpea supplementation. Cowpea was especially chosen due to it being a staple food in the diet of the people in Northeast Brazil. Benefits attributed to the HTST drying process include a reduction in bacterial counts, shorter processing time and less energy consumption. In addition, there are reports in the literature of improved pasta firmness, color intensity, and cooking characteristics, when non Triticum durum materials plus drying are used. The pasta produced in this work was made using 100% soft wheat flour (SP), and soft wheat flour (SF) mixed supplemented with 10, 20 and 30% dehulled cowpea meal (CM); referred to as 10, 20 and 30% SP, respectively. The methods utilized in this project included: AACC methods for proximate analyses and trypsin inhibitor activity determination, atomic absorption spectrophotometry for mineral determination, a dye binding procedure for measuring available lysine, HPLC for amino acid quantification., FAO/WHO amino acid scoring patterns for chemical scores and AOAC for protein digestibility. The protein content of the past as supplemented with CM ranged from 11.3 to 14.2%, while the 100% SF pasta (SP) contained 10.9%. CM supplementation resulted in 52 to 113% more total lysine, and 26 to 82% more available lysine in the CM pasta compared to the SP. Chemical scores for SP were 45 and 59% for preschool and school-age children, respectively. Adding 30% CM to SP improved the above chemical scores to 89 and 100+, respectively. However, the addition of CM compromised the in vitro protein digestibility of SP from 4 to 6%. The addition fo 30% CM provided the SP with greater calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu): 44, 49, 91 and 402% respectively. Cooking the CM pasta resulted in a 50 to 90% retention of mineral content, with the greatest loss being for Cu. In the cooked 30% CM pasta, the contents of Fe, Zn and Ca were, respectively, 50, 67 and 243% greater than their content in the cooked SP. Of the cooked pasta, the only one displaying trypsin inhibitor activity was the 30% CM pasta, which had 0.8 TIU. PMID:9239294

  15. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  16. Valor nutricional del grano de caupì (vigna unguiculata) para cerdos en crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    López Castro, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Se realizaron varios ensayos para la valoración nutricional del grano de caupí (Vigna unguiculata) variedad CIAT-4555 para cerdos. La composición química del caupí (crudo y cocido) mostró valores de proteína bruta del 24.6 y 24.8%, valores bajos de extracto etéreo del 1.1 y 1.4%, de cenizas del 4.6 y 4.5%, y de fibra detergente ácida del 6.5% y 7.4%, respectivamente. Para la prueba de consumo, se utilizó un diseño experimental Cuadrado Latino, que incluía siete dietas o tratamientos, siete...

  17. Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Methods: The samples were cooked in both regular pans and pressure cookers with and without previous soaking. Mineral analyses were carried out by Spectrometry of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Results: The results showed high contents of iron and zinc in raw samples as well as in cooked ones, with the use of regular pan resulting in greater percentage of iron retention and the use of pressure cooker ensuring higher retention of zinc. Conclusions: The best retention of iron was found in the BRS Aracê cultivar prepared in a regular pan with previous soaking. This cultivar may be indicated for cultivation and human consumption. The best retention of zinc was found for the BRS Tumucumaque cultivar prepared in a pressure cooker without previous soaking.

  18. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.; Kpodo, K.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed...... of toxin are often detected in naturally infected samples, the current results indicate that cowpea is less susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. A low susceptibility could be due to the presence in cowpea of substances that inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis. Further investigations are underway to...

  19. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.; Kpodo, K.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed...

  20. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  1. Storage Time: Influence of Nano-ZnO and Soft-Sterilization on Biophysical and Quality Attributes of Canned Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, TN 5-78)

    OpenAIRE

    Moutaleb Oumarou Hama; Issoufou Amadou; Tidjani Amza; Cheikna Daou; Min Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Cowpea seeds can be cooked in the dried form, sprouted, or ground into flour. This study is to investigate effect of soft-sterilization and nano-ZnO treatment on canned cowpea (TN 5-78) biophysical and quality attributes during 10 months of storage. Cowpea was blanched, ultrasonicated with nano-ZnO solution 0.025% (w/v) added prior to canning at 110 ºC for 15 min and analyzed every 2 months up to 10 month at ambient storage. Total mold and yeast count were below the limits of detection for na...

  2. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  3. Screening of plant extracts for antifungal activities against Colletotrichum species of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    Masangwa, J.I.G.; Aveiling, Terry A.S.; Kritzinger, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antifungal activities of plant extracts which can be used to control bean and cowpea anthracnose. Acetone, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Ipomoea batatas, Carica papaya, Allium sativum, Syzygium cordatum, Chlorophytum comosum and Agapanthus caulescens were screened in vitro for their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum dematium of common bean and cowpea using the agar disc infu...

  4. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under water deficit / Intercambio gaseoso y distribución de biomasa de caupí (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) bajo déficit hídrico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cardona-Ayala, Carlos Enrique; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Araméndiz-Tatis; Marvin, Perneth-Montaño; César Augusto, Vergara-Córdoba.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La tolerancia a sequía es importante para la supervivencia y productividad de las plantas en ambientes con aumentos de sequía, como resultado de la variabilidad climática por causas naturales y, el cambio climático por actividades humanas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las dinámicas de fot [...] osíntesis (A), conductancia estomática (gs) y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA=A/gs) en función del contenido de humedad del suelo durante un periodo de sequía, y la recuperación pos-estrés en 14 genotipos de caupí. Los genotipos estudiados toleraron tensiones de humedad del suelo cercanas a -2 Mpa, sin presentar marchitamiento permanente. A partir de potencial hídrico del suelo de -0,7 Mpa, fueron evidentes las disminuciones en A y gs, así como el aumento en A/gs, las cuales variaron con el genotipo; sus estimaciones con modelos de regresión permitieron discriminar grados de tolerancia a sequía entre cultivares. A los 4 días después de reasumir la hidratación, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medias de tales parámetros. Los genotipos L-047 y L-034 conservaron entre 4 y 6 hojas, se mostraron como los de mayor retraso en senescencia foliar durante la sequía y presentaron mayor biomasa a los 16 días de recuperación post-stress Abstract in english Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of [...] photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

  5. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHIL DOBIE

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

  6. NEW METHOD FOR SCREENING COWPEA GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Germplasm line, GC-86L-98, a greenhouse screening method was developed to find potential sources of CMV resistance in the USDA cowpea germplasm collection. GC-86L-98, the first CMV-resistant cowpea germplasm line, was released by ARS in August 2001. A...

  7. Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

  8. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu; Anita Ehi Owoeye

    2013-01-01

    Aim/Background: Colletotrichum destructivum is one of the most important causes of anthracnose disease of cowpea leading to a great reduction in their production and yield potentials. The constant application of chemicals to control these phytopathogens poses potential threats to human health and the environment. Potential non-chemical control strategy such as the use of botanicals would be a better alternative. Botanicals are readily available, safe, efficacious and eco-friendly. This study ...

  9. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.)}

    OpenAIRE

    PHIL DOBIE; RENNIE ROESLI

    1991-01-01

    Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp...

  10. Effect of Osmopriming Duration on Germination, Emergence, and Early Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Singh1; Rabi Dahiru; Mukhtar Musa; Bello Sani Haliru

    2014-01-01

    Seed osmopriming could be a sustainable method to increase crop establishment, uniform emergence, and growth of plant on the field. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in 2010 cropping season at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the effect of seed osmopriming duration on the germination, emergence, and growth of cowpea seeds. Treatments consisted of three osmopriming duration (soaking in 1% KNO3 salt for 6, 8, and 10?hrs), one hydroprimed control (10?hr), and an unprimed...

  11. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. PMID:26228563

  12. Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes and PR-proteins in compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J T A; Andrade, N C; Martins-Miranda, A S; Soares, A A; Gondim, D M F; Araújo-Filho, J H; Freire-Filho, F R; Vasconcelos, I M

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluated the resistance and susceptibility of 10 cowpea cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita in field studies and to analyze the kinetics of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanases and cystein proteinase inhibitors in the root system of two contrasting cowpea cultivars after inoculation with M. incognita. The cultivars CE-31 and Frade Preto were highly resistant; CE-28, CE-01, CE-315, CE-237, were very resistant; CE-70 and CE-216 were moderately resistant, whereas Vita-3 and CE-109 were slightly resistant. In the roots of the highly resistant cultivar CE-31 the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase increased and catalase decreased and those of the pathogenesis-related proteins chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase and cystein proteinase inhibitor increased in comparison with the root system of the slightly resistant CE-109, during the course of M. incognita infestation. Thus the changes in the activities of these enzymes might be related to the smaller final population of M. incognita in CE-31 and may contribute to the high resistance of this cowpea cultivar against infection and colonization by this nematode species. PMID:22153251

  13. Induced mutations for the improvement of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea (L.) Thou.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation breeding programme to produce mutants with resistance to weevil damage in cowpea, high yield in bambara groundnut and erect growth habit in winged bean was started in 1985. Dry seeds were irradiated using a 60Co source of gamma rays at doses of 350, 250 and 0-350 Gy for cowpea, winged bean, and bambara, respectively. The highest percentage of germination and greatest variability in pods per plant and seed yield per plant occurred at the 150 Gy dose, while vegetative mutants were more frequent at higher doses in bambara groundnut. Several forms of abnormal stem and leaf characteristics occurring within the first to sixth leaf stages of growth were observed in M1 winged bean plants. Seeds with lighter testa colour which showed some resistance to weevil damage were observed in the M1 seed lot of the cowpea variety TVX 1843-1C. Single plant selection for the desirable agronomic traits will be done in the M2 generation for the three crop species. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  15. Eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma spp. em diferentes cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no cerrado (Savana Brasileira) / Efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobia and Trichoderma spp. in different cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the “cerrado” (Brazilian savanna)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aloisio F. Chagas, Junior; Ariádila G., Oliveira; Higor B., Reis; Gil R., Santos; Lillian F. B., Chagas; Luciane O., Miller.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Foram utilizadas três cultivares de feijão-caupi, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ e ‘Sempre Verde’. O ensaio foi conduzido no campo com delineamento experimental em blocos [...] ao acaso e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados consistiram em inoculações simples e combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma na semente e no solo, no plantio e aos 15 dias após o plantio (DAP). Foram também incluídos um controle adubado com azoto e uma testemunha sem inoculação. Foram inoculadas estirpes de Bradyrhizobium sp., e para os tratamentos com a utilização de Trichoderma, foi utilizado o inoculante comercial Trichoplus JCO em pó. Foram avaliadas à biomassa, nodulação, produtividade, eficiência simbiótica e teor de azoto e fósforo. A aplicação de Trichoderma aos 15 DAP, tanto na semente quanto no solo, apresentou os melhores resultados na maioria das cultivares analisadas, superando os demais tratamentos. A cultivar ‘Corujinha’ apresentou os melhores resultados para produção de biomassa. A aplicação de Trichoderma não prejudicou o processo de nodulação, sendo que os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando o fungo foi inoculado com rizóbio. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of combined inoculation of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Three cultivars of cowpea, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ and ‘Sempre Verde’ were assayed. The experiment was conducted in a field in a randomized block design with four replication [...] s. The treatments used were simple and combined inoculations of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in the seed and in the soil, at planting and 15 days after planting (DAP). It was also included a control over fertilized with nitrogen and a non-inoculated control. Strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. were used for inoculation. Trichoplus JCO inoculant powder was used for treatments with Trichoderma. The parameters evaluated were biomass, nodulation, productivity, efficiency and symbiotic nitrogen content and phosphorus. The application of Trichoderma at 15 DAP in both the seed and in the soil showed the best results in most of the cultivars analyzed, overcoming the other treatments. Cultivar ‘Corujinha’ showed the best results for biomass production. The application of Trichoderma did not inhibit the nodulation process, and the best results were obtained when the fungus was inoculated with Rhizobia.

  16. Atuação de rizóbios com rizobactéria promotora de crescimento em plantas na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. = Rhizobias performance with rhizobacteria growth promoter in plants in the cowpea crop (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nogueira da Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a potencialidade da colonização conjunta em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. por Paenibacillus e Bradyrhizobium em diferentes métodos de inoculação que proporcionam crescimento visando a uma agricultura sustentável. Os trabalhos foram realizados na Empresa Pernambucana de PesquisaAgropecuária (IPA, com Argissolo Amarelo (Itapirema, Estado de Pernambuico, dois modos de inoculação (semente e solo em cultivar de caupi (IPA-205. Foi determinado: número e matéria seca dos nódulos; matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA e raiz (MSR; relação MSPA/MSR; Nitrogênio acumulado na MSPA; altura da planta. As estirpes de rizóbios apresentaram comportamento instável nos diferentes métodos de inoculação. A eficiência simbiótica da colonização conjunta do sistema radicular por Paenibacillus e as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium nos diferentes métodos de inoculação apresentou-se variável. Os benefícios têm sido aqui evidentes e os fatos informados na literatura podem direcionar futuros estudos que ajudem a explicar os comportamentos acima relatados sobre diferentes mecanismos de ação de cada célula bacteriana.The aim of this work was to verify the cocolonization potential in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. for Paenibacillus andBradyrhizobium, using different inoculation methods to provide growth, seeking a maintainable agriculture. The study was carried out at Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária, in Yellow Argisol (Itapirema, Pernambuco State. Two methods of inoculation (seed and soil in cowpea crop (IPA-205 was used. The following aspects wereevaluated: number and dry matter nodule; shoot dry matter (SDM and root (RDM; relation SDM/RDM; nitrogen accumulated in the SDM and plant height. The rhizobial strains showed low stability in the different inoculation methods. The symbiotic efficiency of the cocolonization for Paenibacillus and the Bradyrhizobium strains in the different inoculation methods were variable. Results showed that the benefits here are evident. And, this literature review can address future studies aiming to explain the behaviors mentioned above under different mechanisms of action of each bacterial cell.

  17. Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nivânia P. da, Costa; Arlindo L., Boiça Júnior.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com ci [...] nco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, duri [...] ng seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

  18. EFFECT OF EFFLUENT WATER ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COWPEA APHID, APHIS CRACCIVORA KOCH (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE), ON COWPEA PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. Tshwenyane; NKETSO T.H.; TIROESELE B.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) is an important legume grown in Botswana and the main yield losses incurred are from cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch). Agriculture in Botswana is hampered by limitation in water resources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of effluent water on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth. This was randomized completely block design pot experiment conducted under net shade environment. Four treatments of 100%, 60%, 30% of effluent di...

  19. Supplementation of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein with cereal proteins - supplementation of soup with a protein blend of appropriate nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the cowpea bean protein was improved through supplementations with flours from beans exposed to microwave oven treated with cereal proteins such as wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum. Biological assays results with these blends showed that the casein exceeded the other diets concerning digestibility only; however, in parameters such as biological value, net protein utilization (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutritional efficiency ratio (NER), no significant differences occurred. Among all elaborated blends, the one with irradiated beans submitted to microwave oven for 30 minutes (65%) + rice (35%) presented the best results. The soup elaborated with the best supplemented blend was satisfactory concerning color, odor, flavor and texture

  20. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] / Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes, Pereira; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa, Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da, Câmara.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.), é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegeta [...] l vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer) e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos. Abstract in english The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to co [...] ntrol it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer) and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde"). These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

  1. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to control it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde". These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

  2. INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON EMERGENCE, GROWTH OF WEEDS, YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea mays L. AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ogar Takim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cropping system and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, weed biomass production and yield of maize and cowpea were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna (9°29' N, 4°35' E and 307 m ASL of Nigeria. Weed emergence occurred throughout the 3-15 weeks after planting (WAP. Forty-three weed species belonging to 38 genera within 20 families were encountered. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudet, Tridax procumbens L and Eleusine indica Gaertn were the most prevalent weed species. Cropping system and weed management practice significantly affected weed emergence. Significantly (p?0.05 lower number of weeds emerged in the intercropped and herbicide treated plots while higher weed densities and weed biomass were recorded in the uncropped and unweeded control plots than in the other plots. While aggregate crop yields were significantly higher in the intercropped than in the sole plots, component crop yields were higher under the sole cropping than in the intercrop. The implication of the results on weed management is discussed.

  3. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. PMID:25466917

  4. Identificação de genótipos de caupi Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. resistentes a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Identification of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. genotypes resistant to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCILEYNE P. L. DE, LIMA; JOSÉ V, OLIVEIRA; REGINALDO, BARROS; JORGE B., TORRES.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar fontes de resistência em 30 genótipos de caupi, provenientes da Embrapa - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Norte, ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). Em teste sem chance de escolha, confinaram-se dois casais em 30 grãos de cada genótipo, [...] efetuando-se cinco repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Para verificar a resistência avaliaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: número de ovos/fêmea, viabilidade de ovos, duração e viabilidade da fase imatura, taxa de aumento da população e índice de resistência. Foram classificados como moderadamente resistentes os genótipos IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 e BR17-Gurguéia; como suscetíveis CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E e TE87-98-9G-2, e como altamente suscetíveis Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F, TE90-180-13E. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e CNCx 955-1F apresentaram não-preferência para oviposição, sendo o primeiro classificado como resistente, devido à menor taxa de aumento da população, menor viabilidade e maior duração da fase imatura, indicando a ocorrência de antibiose. Abstract in english The present work aimed to identify sources of resistance in 30 cowpea genotypes, from EMBRAPA Meio-Norte, to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). In a no choice test, two pairs of the insect were confined in 30 grains of each genotype, in a completely randomized design with five repli [...] cations. To evaluate the resistance of the genotypes, the parameters: number of eggs/female, viability of eggs, duration and viability of the immature phase, natural rate of population increase, and resistance index were used. By this index the genotypes IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 and BR17-Gurguéia were classified as moderately resistant; CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E and TE87-98-9G-2 as susceptible, and Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F and TE90-180-13E as highly susceptible. The genotypes IT89KD-245 and CNCx 955-1F showed non-preference for oviposition. The genotype IT89KD-245 was the only one classified as resistant, showing the least natural rate of population increase, the smallest viability and the largest duration of the immature phase, expressing antibiosis.

  5. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaied K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer to other rhizobia, revealed that it is necessary, in view of possibility of deliberate release of a variety of recombinant rhizobia into the environment for such agricultural purposes as improving nitrogen fixation. New recombinants revealed higher amounts of indole compounds from tryptophan above the mid-parents in two out of six transconjugants resulted from the cross between P1 x P3. Significant number of nodules were developed on the root system of V2-variety in M4 generation treated with 20 krad in response to inoculation with the parental strains (P2 and P3 and also in response to inoculation with triparental transconjugants (Tr4 and Tr5, above that developed on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. The results revealed the success of rhizobial strains and their recombinants to colonize and infect roots of cowpea, because of significant dry weight of nodules per plant which can be obtained in V1-variety treated with 20 krad in M4 generation inoculated with the parental strain (P3, above that on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. Total chlorophyll formation in V1-variety inoculated with di-parental transconjugants (DPM-Tr2 and DPM-Tr3 at all doses of gamma irradiation was significantly increase above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose and the mid-parents, with the exception at 30 krad if compared with the mid-parents. Significant increase was resulted in fresh weight of pods developed per plant above the mid-parents in M3 generation of V1-variety at doses zero and 10 krad, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugant, DPM-Tr2. While, the same trend was also achieved above the full dose in M3 generation at 10 krad in response to inoculation with DPM-Tr2, DPM-Tr3, TPM-Tr4 and TPM-Tr5. The highest nitrogen content was appeared in the shoots of V1-variety at all doses of gamma irradiation in response to inoculation with diparental transconjugant (DPM-Tr2. However, V2-variety had the lowest nitrogen content in relation to the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen and to the mid-parents of rhizobial transconjugants. The genetic variability of grain-protein content appeared that V2-variety treated with 10 krad had significant increase in protein content above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N among M3 and M4 generations, in response to inoculation with parental strains and most of their transconjugants. The same trend was also shown in M4 generation of V1-variety treated with 20 and 30 krad above the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugants. All biochemical traits studied were more affected by biofertilization than the doses of gamma rays and the interaction between biofertilization x doses. This indicated that the significance of treatments was mainly due to inoculation and particularly to gamma irradiation and the interaction between both of them.

  6. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) / Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco de A. C., Almeida; Silvana A. de, Almeida; Nilene R. dos, Santos; Josivanda P., Gomes; Maria E. R., Araújo.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espéc [...] ies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable [...] species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  7. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  8. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação / Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves, Frota; Marcelo Antonio, Morgano; Marta Gomes da, Silva; Marcos Antonio da Mota, Araújo; Regilda Saraiva dos Reis, Moreira-Araújo.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC), avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo) e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina). [...] Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%), dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente). Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável. Abstract in english This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll) with cowpea flour (CF) to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). Three fo [...] rmulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4%) among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

  9. Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F) Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olonisakin; M.O. Oladimeji; L. LAJIDE

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus) infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate) admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto te...

  10. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung Foo; Chipumuro Edmond; Bokowiec Marta T; Laudeman Thomas W; Rushton Paul J; Timko Michael P; Town Christopher D; Chen Xianfeng

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major...

  11. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp, Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare.

    Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta.

  12. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariaceae) sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nacoulma OG.; Ouedraogo AP.; Kiendrebeogo M.

    2006-01-01

    Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariacecae) on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleptera Bruchidae). This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) (Scrophulariaceae) in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L.) Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain) exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emer...

  13. Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. ILEKE; Odeyemi, O. O.; M. O. Ashamo

    2012-01-01

    The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control) 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w) concentration. The ability of the plant powders to p...

  14. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID with the difference methods (DM for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

  15. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de 15N / Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como planta [...] s-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante) no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI) com o método da diferença (MD) para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2) compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS), o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas. Abstract in english Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, throug [...] h the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

  16. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: Report of the deliberations of an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation -...

  17. Evaluación de la composición nutricional y digestibilidad aparente e ileal en porcinos del frijol mungo (Vigna radiata o Phaseolus aureus) con y sin tratamiento térmico

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rubio, María del Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó digestibilidad ileal y fecal del frijol mungo (Vigna radiata) con y sin tratamiento térmico en cerdos, su efecto en desempeño animal, parámetros de la canal y evaluación económica. Para digestibilidad se emplearon 3 cerdos canulados y alimento marcado (Cr2O3). Dietas, colectas y excretas fueron evaluadas bromatológicamente. Se uso un diseño factorial con 3 tratamientos (crudo, cocido y tostado), 4 niveles de frijol mungo (0, 10, 20 y 30%) y 3 repeticiones. En desempeño animal se emp...

  18. Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna / Análisis químico y evaluación nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pious, Tresina Soris; Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composición próximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascorbico), proteína y perfil de amino ácidos, perfil de ácidos graso [...] s y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de proteína cruda que los fríjoles de consumo común en la India. Los frijoles analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos ácidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino ácidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptófano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontró un contenido relativamente alto de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolénico. Se analizó para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, ácido fítico, ácido cianhidríco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of [...] lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses appeared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

  19. Proteomics changes during the incompatible interaction between cowpea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Hudson Fernando N; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Silva, Fredy D A; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moura, Arlindo A; Costa, José H; Oliveira, José Tadeu A

    2014-03-01

    Anthracnose represents an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] caused by the hemibiothrophic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that drastically reduces cowpea field production. In this study we investigated some biochemical aspects underlying the incompatible interaction between a resistant cowpea genotype and C. gloeosporioides using a proteomic approach. Analyses of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns and protein identification indicate C. gloeosporioides infection-dependent cowpea leaf proteome changes associated with metabolism, photosynthesis, response to stress, oxidative burst and scavenging, defense signaling, and pathogenesis-related proteins. Moreover the C. gloeosporioides responsive proteins interaction network in cowpea revealed the interconnected modulation of key cellular processes involving particularly antioxidants proteins, photosynthetic apparatus forming proteins and proteins of the energetic metabolism that interact with each other suggesting that their expression changes are also important for resistance of cowpea to C. gloeosporioides. PMID:24467908

  20. Antennal Electrophysiological Responses of Three Parasitic Wasps to Caterpillar-Induced Volatiles from Maize (Zea mays mays), Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Gouinguené, Sandrine; Pickett, John A.; Wadhams, Lester J.; Birkett, Michael A.; Ted C. J. Turlings

    2006-01-01

    Many parasitic wasps are attracted to volatiles that are released by plants when attacked by potential hosts. The attractiveness of these semiochemicals from damaged plants has been demonstrated in many tritrophic systems, but the physiological mechanisms underlying the insect responses are poorly understood. We recorded the antennal perception by three parasitoids (Cotesia marginiventris, Microplitis rufiventris, and Campoletis sonorensis) to volatiles emitted by maize, cowpea, and cotton pl...

  1. Effects of P on Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 and Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano symbiosis in the field of a rubber tree plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sungthongwises, K.; Poss, R.; Drevon, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of P addition and NP addition on nodulation and N fixation this study examines the nodulation of Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 (cowpea) and Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano in fertilized and unfertilized conditions in NE Thailand. Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 was studied in a NPK subtractive experiment. One year later, Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 and S. hamata cv. Verano were studied for their adaptation to low P on the top of the toposequence. The ...

  2. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Akinrinde; L. Iroh; G.O. Obigbesan; Hilger, T; Neumann, G; V. Romheld

    2006-01-01

    Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al) toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0) with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contras...

  3. Extracellular accumulation of high specific-activity peroxidase by cell suspension cultures of cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, O A; Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Nolasco, H

    1990-07-01

    Cell suspension cultures of cowpea (Vigna sp.) were able to produce extracellular peroxidase. Different growth regulator concentrations induced different peroxidase activity in callus. The crude extracellular medium after four weeks of culture showed higher (6 times) specific peroxidase activity and higher thermo stability than commercial horse-radish peroxidase. The commercial production of peroxidase enzyme from cowpea by utilizing plant cell cultures is discussed. PMID:24226600

  4. Elevated Concentrations of Dietarily-Important Trace Elements and Macronutrients in Edible Leaves and Grain of 27 Cowpea (<i>Vigna unguiculata</i> L. Walp.) Genotypes: Implications for Human Nutrition and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonsus K. Belane; Dakora, Felix D

    2012-01-01

    Legumes are a good source of calories, protein and mineral nutrients for human nutrition and health. In this study, the edible leaves and grain of 27 field-grown cowpea genotypes were assessed for trace elements and macronutrient den-sity at Manga in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Ghana in 2005 and 2006, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The genotypes differed markedly in their accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in edible leaves and grain. Except for P, the conc...

  5. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp

    OpenAIRE

    Gakuru, S.; Buledi, MK.

    1995-01-01

    Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthosceli...

  6. Identification and comparative analysis of drought-associated microRNAs in two cowpea genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts Philip A; Ehlers Jeffrey D; Wu Zhigang; Diop Ndeye N; Gao Lei; Barrera-Figueroa Blanca E; Close Timothy J; Zhu Jian-Kang; Liu Renyi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop in arid and semi-arid regions and is a good model for studying drought tolerance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in plant stress responses, but drought-associated miRNAs have not been identified in cowpea. In addition, it is not understood how miRNAs might contribute to different capacities of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes. Results We generated deep sequencing small RNA reads from two co...

  7. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  8. Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp par rapport au maïs (Zea mays L. sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiru, DSO.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Relative to Maize (Zea mays L. on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yield of cowpea. Simultaneous planting generally showed a yield advantage (LER> 1 of the cowpea/ maize intercropping systems irrespective of the cowpea varieties used, but LER declined when time of introducing cowpea into maize was delayed being as low as 0.76 when cowpea was planted four weeks after planting maize. The reduction in the growth and yield of cowpea was due to increased shading from the maize plants especially when cowpea was introduced at the fourth week. Therefore, to achieve yield benefit simultaneous planting of maize and cowpea recommended.

  9. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COWPEA COVER CROP ON PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES, WEEDS, AND PEPPER YIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field experiments with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ‘Wizard X3R’ were established (May 2003, 2004) in Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. The objective was to compare yields, nematode populations, and weeds as impacted by six soil management treatments: cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.) summer co...

  10. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  11. Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Umoetok S. B. A.; Ukeh D. A.; Udo I. A.; Ekanem M.; Iloba B. N

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans) parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole), C. elegans (sole), a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and the control which received no parasitoids. The introduction of parasitoids ...

  12. Characterization of leaf apoplastic peroxidases and metabolites in Vigna unguiculata in response to toxic manganese supply and silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Fuehrs, H.; Goetze, S; A Specht; Erban, A.; Gallien, S.; Heintz, D.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Kopka, J.; Braun, H; Horst, W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggested that the apoplastic phenol composition and its interaction with apoplastic class III peroxidases (PODs) are decisive in the development or avoidance of manganese (Mn) toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). This study characterizes apoplastic PODs with particular emphasis on the activities of specific isoenzymes and their modulation by phenols in the Mn-sensitive cowpea cultivar TVu 91 as affected by Mn and silicon (Si) supply. Si reduced Mn-induced toxicity symptom...

  13. Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada / Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) culture under the chopped secondary forest system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.J.P., Marques; M.R.M., Silva; M.S., Araújo; G.S., Lopes; M.J.P., Corrêa; A.C.R., Freitas; F.H., Muniz.

    Full Text Available O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio diret [...] o na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m) lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância). Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) e Rubiaceae (4). No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo. Abstract in english The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon. Since weed management is an essential part of the production process, this study aimed to survey the flora in no-tillage areas of a chopped [...] secondary forest cultivated with cowpea. This work was conducted in a rural farming area in the municipality of Zé Doca, MA in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. The preparation of the area was carried out with a wheel tractor using the implement ahwi FM600. The area was originally planted with maize followed by BRS Guariba cowpea for two years.Weed evaluation was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m), launched 30 times. Evaluation was performed every time, with the aerial parts of the weeds being harvested for counting, identification, and drying, to obtain the phytosociological indices (frequency, density, dominance index, and importance value). The families with the most weed species were Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) and Rubiaceae (4). In the agricultural years 2006/2007, the species with the highest IVI were: Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata and Cyperus sp. In the agricultural years 2007/2008, the main species were: Digitaria horizontalis, followed by C. diffusus, Pavonia cancellata and F. dichotoma. The secondary forest plants originated from sprouting presented the highest IVIs in the agricultural year 2006/2007 and suffered a drastic reduction in 2007/2008. Thus, it can be concluded that progressive cultivation reduces secondary forest plant sprouting and increases the herbaceous extract.

  14. Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata culture under the chopped secondary forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.P. Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio direto na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância. Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7, Fabaceae (7, Poaceae (6, Malvaceae (5 e Rubiaceae (4. No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo.The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon. Since weed management is an essential part of the production process, this study aimed to survey the flora in no-tillage areas of a chopped secondary forest cultivated with cowpea. This work was conducted in a rural farming area in the municipality of Zé Doca, MA in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. The preparation of the area was carried out with a wheel tractor using the implement ahwi FM600. The area was originally planted with maize followed by BRS Guariba cowpea for two years.Weed evaluation was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m, launched 30 times. Evaluation was performed every time, with the aerial parts of the weeds being harvested for counting, identification, and drying, to obtain the phytosociological indices (frequency, density, dominance index, and importance value. The families with the most weed species were Cyperaceae (7, Fabaceae (7, Poaceae (6, Malvaceae (5 and Rubiaceae (4. In the agricultural years 2006/2007, the species with the highest IVI were: Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata and Cyperus sp. In the agricultural years 2007/2008, the main species were: Digitaria horizontalis, followed by C. diffusus, Pavonia cancellata and F. dichotoma. The secondary forest plants originated from sprouting presented the highest IVIs in the agricultural year 2006/2007 and suffered a drastic reduction in 2007/2008. Thus, it can be concluded that progressive cultivation reduces secondary forest plant sprouting and increases the herbaceous extract.

  15. Irradiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds to control southern cowpea beetle Callosbruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using gamma radiation as an alternative to fumigation or direct chemical applications for the control of stored-products insects was investigated in the laboratory and in a warehouse in Cairo, Egypt. Polyethylene bags of the type used in local markets were filled with cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata] Callosobruchus maculatus and irradiated at 400, 600 or 800 Gy [4, 6 or 8 krad]. All the treatments were effective, and no living adults infested by were found in the bags until 3 months later, when adults from outside penetrated the bags with their mandibles. It is therefore recommended that 4 krad should be administered for initial control, but that treated cowpeas should be stored in polypropylene rather than polyethylene bags in order to prevent reinfestation

  16. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Oelofse Dean; Gazendam Inge; Coetzer Nanette; Berger Dave K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the p...

  17. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Antônio Chagas; Fernandes Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales Maurício Pereira; Flores Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho José

    2002-01-01

    Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to af...

  18. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    OpenAIRE

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexi...

  19. Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA FILHO JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

  20. Determinação da difusividade e da energia de ativação para feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., variedade sempre-verde, com base no comportamento da secagem Determination of diffusivity and activation energy for cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., alwaysgreen variety, based on its drying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton P. da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, teve-se o objetivo de determinar curvas de secagem em camada fina para grãos de feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde. Visou-se, também, à determinação da difusividade efetiva da água no interior do produto, bem como a energia de ativação. Para tal, foram utilizadas amostras com 150 g de feijão com teor inicial de água de 37% (bu, nas temperaturas de 40; 50 e 60 ºC. A velocidade do ar do secador convectivo foi mantida em 1,0 m s-1 e, durante todo o processo, os valores médios da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar ambiente foram, respectivamente, 29 ºC e 58%. A difusividade efetiva da água no produto foi determinada, em cada temperatura, por meio da lei de Fick, pressupondo um modelo esférico para os grãos. Uma expressão para a difusividade efetiva da água em função da temperatura foi determinada por meio do ajuste da equação de Arrhenius aos dados obtidos. A análise dos resultados possibilita concluir que a equação de Page representa, de forma satisfatória, o processo de secagem em todas as condições estudadas. O modelo esférico estabelecido para os grãos é satisfatório, resultando em difusividade efetiva que variou de 7,13x10-11 até 14,0x10-11 m²s-1, e em energia de ativação igual a 26,9 kJ mol-1. Foi observado que, para a temperatura do ar de secagem mantida em 60 ºC, houve a formação de fissuras em quantidade significativa de grãos.In this paper it was determined the thin layer drying curves for cowpea grains, always-green variety. It was also determined the effective water diffusivity inside the product and its activation energy. For these purposes, 150 g samples of cowpea grains dried at temperatures of 40; 50 and 60 ºC were used. The drying air velocity was maintained constantly at 1.0 m s-1 during the drying process. The drying air temperature and relative humidity were 29 ºC and 58%, respectively. The effective water diffusivity inside the product was determined, for each drying temperature, by using Fick’s equation assuming a spherical shape for the grains. A mathematical expression for the effective water diffusivity inside the product as a function of temperature was determined by fitting Arrhenius’s equation to the observed data. According to the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that the Page equation can be used to satisfactorily represent the cowpea grains drying process for the conditions of this research. The assumption of a spherical shape for the grains was satisfactory, resulting in a water effective diffusivity varying from 7.13x10-11 to 14.00x10-11 m²s-1 and activation energy equal to 26.9 kJ mol-1. It was also observed that for a drying air temperature of 60 ºC a significant amount of grains presented fissures.

  1. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  2. Foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga towards biological control of bruchid pests in stored cowpea in West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Alebeek, F.A.N., van

    1996-01-01

    Seed beetles cause considerable losses in traditionally stored cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walp.) under subsistence farming conditions in West Africa. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae) is evaluated as a candidate for a conservation strategy of biological control against the major pest Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae). Different aspects of U. lariophaga 's searching efficiency, such as host habitat location, host cluste...

  3. Effect of Exogenous Application of Silicon with Drought Stress on Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Edible Beans (Vigna radiate & Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the impact of silicon application with different concentrations (20, 40, 60 ppm, on selected physiological characteristics of the leaves of mungbean (Vignaradiata and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata under different 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% soil moisture regimes. Stock solution (100 ppm of silicon was prepared by MgSi3 salt but apply as 20, 40, 60 ppm solution in both treated and control plants. Results showed that silicon application significantly increases total carbohydrate & protein contents in treated samples as compare to control plants. In present study we concluded that silicon promoted growth in the drought susceptible species to greater extent & it’s more beneficial for carbohydrates and protein metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as compare to mungbean (Vignaradiata plants.

  4. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding. PMID:22242703

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga vignae Strain BR 3299T, a Novel Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Alphaproteobacterium Isolated from a Brazilian Semiarid Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson Zilli, Jerri; Ribeiro Passos, Samuel; Leite, Jakson; Ribeiro Xavier, Gustavo; Gouvea Rumjaneck, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Microvirga vignae is a recently described species of root-nodule bacteria isolated from cowpeas grown in a Brazilian semiarid region. We report here the 6.4-Mb draft genome sequence and annotation of M. vignae type strain BR 3299. This genome information may help to understand the mechanisms underlying the ability of the organism to grow under drought and high-temperatures conditions. PMID:26159523

  6. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação / Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério, Melloni; Fátima Maria de Sousa, Moreira; Rafaela Simão Abrahão, Nóbrega; José Oswaldo de, Siqueira.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fi [...] xam N2 (BNLFN), são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas. Abstract in english Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, [...] nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB) are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  7. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN, são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas.Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  8. Incidência de fungos e germinação de sementes de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) tratadas com óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) / Incidence of fungi and germination of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) treated with neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.C., Silva; C.C., Santos; D.P, Gomes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito do óleo de nim no controle de fungos associados às sementes de feijão caupi e a influência deste produto na germinação de três cultivares (Serrinha, BR 17, e Maranhão). Foram preparadas diluições de 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0 g dm 3-do óleo de nim em água destilada e teste [...] munha, só com água. Os fungos foram identificados pelo método do papel de filtro e a germinação das sementes foi avaliada considerando as informações das Regras para Análise de Sementes. Foram utilizadas sementes de três cultivares de feijão-caupi: a cultivar Serrinha, proveniente da cidade de Timon-MA, a cultivar Maranhão, da cidade de Viana - MA, e a cultivar BR 17, obtida junto à Embrapa Meio Norte, na cidade de Teresina-PI. O crescimento de Fusarium sp. nas cultivares Maranhão e Serrinha foi reduzido em 52 e 53%, respectivamente e o índice de redução de Aspergillus sp. foi de 14 e 20% nas mesmas cultivares. Em relação aos fungos M. phaseolina e Phoma sp., observa-se que não foram inibidos em nenhuma das três cultivares. No que se refere à germinação das sementes nota-se que na cultivar Maranhão houve aumento no índice da germinação de 13 e 17,5% em relação à testemunha e, na cultivar Serrinha, somente a concentração 0,5% diferiu da testemunha com redução no índice de germinação de 6,49%. Conclui-se que o óleo de nim reduz a incidência de Fusarium sp. e Aspergillus sp. e é indiferente na redução de M. phaseolina e Phoma sp. O índice de germinação aumentou na cultivar Maranhão e diminuiu na cultivar Serrinha. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of neem oil on germination and fungi incidence on the seeds of three cowpea cultivars (Serrinha, BR 17 and Maranhão). Dilutions of 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, 4.0 g dm-3 of neem oil were prepared in water. The fungi incidence was evaluated by the filter paper test, and the [...] germination was evaluated according to the Rules for Seeds Testing ("Regras para Análise de Sementes," in Portuguese). Seeds of three cowpea cultivars were used: Serrinha and Maranhão, from the cities of Timon and Viana, respectively, state of Maranhão, Brazil, and BR 17, from Embrapa Meio Norte (Terezina, state of Piaí, Brazil). The growth of Fusarium sp. on the seed of the Maranhão and Serrinha cultivars was reduced in 52 and 53%, respectively, and the reduction rate of Aspergillus sp. was 14 and 20%, on the same cultivars. However, the neem oil did not inhibit the growth of the fungi Macrophomina phaseolina and Phoma sp. in any of the three cultivars. With regard to the seed germination, an increase of 13 and 17.5% was observed in the Maranhão cultivar compared to control, while for the Serrinha cultivar, only the 0.5% concentration differed from the control, reducing the germination rate by 6.49%. We conclude that the neem oil was effective in controlling Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. On the other hand, it was ineffective against Phoma sp. and M. phaseolina. The germination increased in the Maranhão cultivar and decreased in the Serrinha cultivar.

  9. Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olonisakin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = < 0.1 mg/10 g seed > Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed. Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

  10. Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, S.J.; Loon, J.J.A., van; Huis, A; Dicke, M

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptible varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. All beetle strains were assayed in a no-choice and a two-choice test. No major differences were found between the beetle strains. In a no-choice...

  11. Socio-economic, agronomic and molecular analysis of yam and cowpea diversity in the Guinea-Sudan transition zone of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Zannou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp.),yam ( Dioscorea spp. ), agro-biodiversity, farmer perception, market and consumer preferences, socio-cultural preferences, human and social capitals, genotype by environment interaction, socio-technical knowledge, domestication, inter-(trans)disciplinarity / Beta-gamma science.Management and use of yam and cowpea genetic resources analysed in this thesis are important to realize agricultural development inBenin, both on the short and long run. I...

  12. Radiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds contaminated by Callosobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) can be prevented by sterilization of the adult forms and destruction of the eggs, larvae and pupae using an ionizing treatment at doses less than 100 Gy, without causing unfavorable nutritional consequences. Storage of these cowpea seeds in polyethylene bags of a thickness greater than 100 micrometer avoids all recontamination by this weevil. Economically, the irradiation of such a foodstuff would certainly be worthwhile in Senegal on the condition that the ionizing treatment would also be profitable for other foodstuffs harvested locally, so as to attain a satisfactory utilization rate for the industrial plant which would be set up in this country

  13. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) / Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes, Pereira; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa, Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da, Câmara.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia graci [...] llis Shau) e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum) e 67,5% (G. max). Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento. Abstract in english The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau) and fixed oils (Helianthus a [...] nnus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum) to 67,5% (G. max). With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

  14. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

  15. Exploring Possibilities to Enhance Food Sovereignty within the Cowpea Production-Consumption Network in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, W.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years an important focus in the combat of hunger and malnutrition,particularly in Africa has been food security. This article explores possibilities for enhancing food sovereignty, as an alternative concept to food security and an alternative strategy for reversing hunger and malnutrition trends in developing countries. A combination of literature review, participatory appraisal and conventional survey methodologies are used to investigate the relevance of local cowpea (Vigna un...

  16. Studies on some cowpea cultivars: II - suitability for aspergillus flavus growth and Aflatoxin production

    OpenAIRE

    Zohri, A. A. [??? ?????? ???? ????

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen mycotoxin-free seed cultivar samples of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were inoculated with spores* of Aspergillus flavus Link (IMI 89717) to determine varietal differences in terms of aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analyses of chloroform extracts of the colonized seeds revealed that three cultivars were highly resistant and not shown aflatoxin accumulation while 8 cultivars showed partial resistance. The remaining 5 samples were highly susceptible to the esta...

  17. Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCO OCTÁVIO LUIZ; GONDIM LORRANCE ABREU; BEZERRA KÁTIA REGINA; GUERRA MARIA ELANE DE CARVALHO; LIMA CARMEM ROGÉLIA FARIAS MACHADO; ENÉAS-FILHO JOAQUIM; PRISCO JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO; GOMES-FILHO ENÉAS

    2001-01-01

    Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1) present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose) resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular mas...

  18. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  19. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  20. Respuesta fisiológica del Frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp) a la coinoculación de bacterias Diazotróficas de los géneros Azotobacter y Rhizobium en suelos del Departamento del Cesar

    OpenAIRE

    Obando Castellanos , Dolly Melissa

    2012-01-01

    El sector agropecuario ha sido uno de los principales motores del desarrollo económico del país (Proexport, 2011), con una superficie total agropecuaria estimada en 50'900.000 hectáreas, ocupando el renglón pecuario 39'100.000 hectáreas en su mayoría dedicadas a la ganadería, contribuyendo con 51% del PIB pecuario (Fedegan, 2010). En el contexto nacional, la región Caribe reviste un papel importante en el sector, con un inventario de 6,9 millones de cabezas, que generan el 38,7% de la leche y...

  1. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4?mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. PMID:26463703

  2. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, R.; T Córdova; L Castejón; A. Higuera

    2003-01-01

    A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos...

  3. Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

  4. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

  5. Effect of Water and Pests Stresses on Cowpea Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abedi Koupai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of pest and water stresses on different growing stages of cowpea (Vigna sinensis and pest occurrence, an experiment was conducted in Khazaneh Research station of Isfahan University of Technology. The experiment was carried out in a factorial complete randomized block design, in two different farms, with and without insecticide application. The treatments included severe water stress (50% water requirement, moderate water stress (75% water requirement in four stages of cowpea growth, the first stage (from seed germination until flower in, second stage (from flowering until pod-filling, third stage (from pod-filling until harvesting and the whole period of cowpea growth, in three replications. There was a control treatment in each farm with no stress in the whole period of cowpea growth, in three replications. The results showed that water stress had no significant effect on percentage of protein and mineral material. Result also showed that water stress had a significant effect (P? 0.01 on population of insects. Water stress significantly (P? 0.01 reduced the population of nymphs and adults of Empoasca decipiens Paoli and leaf minor damages, but water stress increased population of Thrips tabaci Lind. Considering the duration of first stage of growth (63 days, it is concluded that this stage had less sensitivity to water stress than the other stages. In regions, where farmers encounter water shortage for cowpea planting, the best performance can be obtained when moderate water stress (75% water requirement is applied at the first stage of growth.

  6. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Sérgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijã [...] o-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

  7. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Variation in the nod gene RFLPs, nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes, Nod factors, and nodulation abilities of Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Thai Vigna plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadashi; Tomooka, Norihiko; Okabayashi, Masanori; Kaga, Akito; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Vaughan, Duncan A

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of nod genes and 16S rRNA gene regions, Nod factors, and nodulation abilities of Brady rhizobium strains isolated from tropical Thai Vigna species is reported. A total of 55 Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from two cultivated and six wild Vigna species growing in central and northern Thailand were evaluated. Thai Vigna spp. Bradyrhizobium strains showed higher levels of nod gene RFLP diversity compared with Thai soybean Brady rhizobium strains or temperate strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene region using selected strains also suggests a high genetic diversity of the Thai Vigna-Bradyrhizobium association. Based on thin-layer chromatography analysis, Nod factors produced by tropical Thai Vigna spp. Brady rhizobium strains are more diverse than temperate Japanese and US strains of B. japonicum and B. elkanii. Thai Vigna spp. Bradyrhizobium strains showed variation in nodulation ability and affinity, estimated by the number of normal nodules versus green nodules in an inoculation study. There are some Bradyrhizobium-host combinations that could not form any nodules, suggesting that some genetic differentiation has evolved in their host range. However, most of the Thai Vigna spp. Bradyrhizobium strains formed nodules on the cultigens soybean (Glycine max), mungbean (Vigna radiata), azuki bean (Vigna angularis), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). This is the first study on Bradyrhizobium strains associated with a range of cultivated and wild Vigna and reveals that these Bradyrhizobium strains are diverse and may provide novel sources of useful variation for the improvement of symbiotic systems. PMID:16541157

  9. COMPORTAMIENTO AGRONÓMICO DE LÍNEAS PROMISORIAS DE FRÍJOL CAUPÍ Vigna unguiculata L. Walp EN EL VALLE DEL SINÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Aramendiz Tatis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el comportamiento agronómico de 12 líneas promisorias de fríjol caupí y la población original con el fin de seleccionar genotipos superiores en atributos agronómicos teniendo en cuenta las condiciones agroecológicas del Valle del Sinú, departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. El diseño de bloques completos al azar con 13 tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones fue aplicado. Las variables de respuesta fueron el rendimiento de grano y sus componentes. La siembra se realizó en el área experimental de la Universidad de Córdoba localizada en Montería - Colombia, en el año 2009. El análisis de varianza detectó diferencias significativas (P ? 0,05 para el número de vainas por planta, vainas por metro lineal, número de semillas por vaina y rendimiento de grano, mientras que para el peso de semilla se presentaron diferencias altamente significativa (P ?0,01. Caso contrario ocurrió para la precocidad donde el análisis acusó ausencia de significancia. La variabilidad genética presente en las líneas endogámicas posibilita seleccionar cultivares con buenos atributos agronómicos y excelentes rendimientos de grano que mejoren los niveles de producción de los agricultores en el Valle del Sinú.

  10. Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, Guillaume; Haussmann, Bettina I.G.; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques to trace the amount of deposition and its transfer to associated and subsequent crops. Half of the total cowpea crop N was located below-ground at plant maturity, which exceeded 20 kg?N ha?1 when inte...

  11. Morphometric Analysis of some Species in the Genus Vigna (L. Walp: Implication for Utilization for Genetic Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Popoola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vigna (L. Walp is a large cosmopolitan leguminous genus comprising both cultivated and wild species. Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Cowpea is an important food legume that is widely cultivated in the tropics, but its production and storage are hampered by insect pests. The present study evaluated the intra-and inter-specific morphological variabilities among 20 accessions of six Vigna species, comprising wild and cultivated species. The species are Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, V. vexillata (A. Richard, V. oblongifolia (A. Richard, V. ambacensis (Baker, V. luteola (Jacq. (Bentham and V. racemosa (G. Don (Hutch and Dalziel. Thirty-one morphological characters involving qualitative and quantitative vegetative and reproductive traits were used for the evaluation. Multivariate analysis such as Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Cluster Analysis (CA were employed to evaluate the intra and inter specific variabilities. The paired-sample T test indicated significant differences among the 20 accessions (p?0.000, df = 19 in their morphometric traits. The relative significant correlation observed among some traits such as pod length, number of locules per pod and number of seeds per pod indicated their closeness and potential for genetic improvement of cowpea. The PCA showed that reproductive traits such as days to 50% flowering (0.984, days to 50% ripe pod (0.993, number of pods per peduncle (0.340 and 100-seed weight (0.132 are the major traits that accounted for the variations among the species. The UPGMA using the average (between groups segregated the 20 accessions into two main clusters, cluster I (comprising mainly wild Vigna species and cluster II (comprising both wild and cultivated species. The taxonomic affinities and genetic diversity among the species are of great importance in the utilization of the species for food and nutrition, fodder for ruminant animals, cover crop for rotational farming and more importantly genetic improvement of cowpea.

  12. Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouam Eric B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%, which classifies the wild cowpea breeding system as primarily selfing, though rare outcrossing events were detected in each population studied. Furthermore, the analyses of both the genetic structure of populations and the relationships between the wild and domesticated groups suggest possibilities of gene flow that are corroborated by field observations. Conclusions As expected in a predominantly inbred breeding system, wild cowpea shows high levels of genetic differentiation and low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Gene flow from domesticated to wild cowpea does occur, although the lack of strong genetic swamping and modified seed morphology in the wild populations suggest that these introgressions should be rare.

  13. Biocontrol in store : Spatial and behavioural aspects of foraging by Uscana lariophaga, egg parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Stolk, C.

    2002-01-01

     Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers), an important crop for West African subsistence farmers, is often infested in storage by the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) is responsible for substantial mortality of C. maculatus eggs and might therefore be used in a conservation strategy of biological control. This thesis focuses on foraging behaviour of U. lariophaga females in a spatial context. In st...

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

  15. Screening and secretomic analysis of enthomopatogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Mehta, Angela; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L

    2007-04-01

    The production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an important self-sustained crop in Latin America and Africa, is severely affected by damage by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. The presence of a single larva in stored seeds can lead to losses of almost 40%. Control of C. maculatus currently relies on the inefficient use of chemical insecticides and post-harvest treatments. The use of entomopathogenic fungus became a reliable alternative for coleopteran pest control and has been extensively investigated. Among them, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were widely evaluated in order to measure their virulence toward many insects. In this report, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of ten strains of B. bassiana and the most lethal fungi strains were analyzed for proteinaceous secretions by two dimensional electrophoresis and for enzyme activities, including chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities. This study could, in the near future, help to establish novel biotechnological tools to use for cowpea weevil control. PMID:17350346

  16. Comparison of Shoot Regeneration on Different Concentrations of Thidiazuron from Shoot Tip Explant of Cowpea on Gelrite and Agar Containing Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sebahattin ÖZCAN; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Aasim, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume grown all over the world as grain crop, animal fodder, cover crop, gren manure and vegetable. The present study compares effects of agar and gelrite on micropropagation from shoot tip explant of two Turkish cowpea cultivars Akkiz and Karagoz using 0.15, 0.15, 0.35 mg/l Thidiazuron (TDZ), 3 g/l activated charcoal, 2 mg/l yeast extract with and without 1.25 mg/l Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). To overcome problem of endogenic bacterial conta...

  17. Barrières pré-zygotiques chez les hybrides entre formes sauvages du niébé, Vigna unguilata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids pre-zygotic barriers between wild forms of cowpea. The wild forms of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, constitute an important gene pool insufficiently exploited for the improvement of the cultivated form. In order to promote the use of these wild forms in the genetic improvement programmes, we undertook to understand the various incompatibility reactions which appear in the crosses between wild forms. Efforts were concentrated to understand the incompatibility barriers in the hybridizations between subsp. baoulensis NI 933 and the other wild forms of V. unguiculata. Thanks to the use of the aniline blue fluorescence, we observed a high frequency of pre-zygotic barriers. They appear in three sites, i.e. the higher and lower third of the style, and within the ovary. However, these incompatibility barriers are not absolute. Indeed, in our hybridizations, more than 4% of the ovules were fertilized in the various studied combinations.

  18. biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

  19. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araujo; Wanderley José de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr), which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS). Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m) and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm) at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0,...

  20. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  1. Analysis of radiation-induced genome alterations in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vyver C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Christell van der Vyver1, B Juan Vorster2, Karl J Kunert3, Christopher A Cullis41Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, and 3Department of Plant Science, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Seeds from an inbred Vigna unguiculata (cowpea cultivar were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 180 Gy in order to identify and characterize possible mutations. Three techniques, ie, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellites, and representational difference analysis, were used to characterize possible DNA variation among the mutants and nonirradiated control plants both immediately after irradiation and in subsequent generations. A large portion of putative radiation-induced genome changes had significant similarities to chloroplast sequences. The frequency of mutation at three of these isolated polymorphic regions with chloroplast similarity was further determined by polymerase chain reaction screening using a large number of individual parental, M1, and M2 plants. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the rate at which various regions of the genome is mutated in irradiation experiments differs significantly and also that mutations have variable “repair” rates. Furthermore, regions of the nuclear DNA derived from the chloroplast genome are highly susceptible to modification by radiation treatment. Overall, data have provided detailed information on the effects of gamma irradiation on the cowpea genome and about the ability of the plant to repair these genome changes in subsequent plant generations.Keywords: mutation breeding, gamma radiation, genetic mutations, cowpea, representational difference analysis

  2. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy onwards) had significant negative effect. Dose dependent changes in various biochemical parameters were not observed. No chlorophyll mutation was observed in the M2 generation when seeds were grown in the field. Thus, doses upto 900 Gy are safe for the seed and therefore, can be used for developing the protocols for the management of pulse beetle infesting cowpea. (author)

  3. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r?=?0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r?=?0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China. PMID:26429578

  4. Emission of methane and nitrous oxide from Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes in India during the dry cropping seasons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y. V., Swamy; G. N., Nikhil; R., Venkanna; S. N., Das; G., Roy Chaudhury.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hicieron estimaciones de la emisión de metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O) de las legumbres Vigna mungo y Vigna radiata. Para evaluar estas emisiones se estudió el potencial de óxido reducción (redox) y la temperatura del suelo. El CH4 fue negativo y el N2O positivo para Vigna mungo a lo largo de [...] casi todo el período de cultivo. El potencial redox fue de más de +100 mV durante todo el período de cultivo con un flujo máximo de N2O de 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. El incremento de la temperatura del suelo y del potencial redox durante la cosecha incrementó aún más el flujo de N2O a 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. El flujo integrado estacional E(SIF) de CH4 y N2O para Vigna mungo se calculó en -4.06 g m-2 y 3.38 mg m-2, respectivamente. De manera simmilar los valores E(SIF) estimados para Vigna radiata durante la estación de cultivo fueron de 0.009 g m-2 y -7.6 mg m-2, mientras que para el período post cosecha fueron de 0.02 g m-2 y 4.06 mg m-2 para CH4 y N2O, respectivamente. Durante la estación de cultivo se evaluaron los parámetros del suelo carbón orgánico y nutrimentos como el amonio, nitratos y nitritos. La emisión de gases de efecto invernadero también se correlacionó con varios parámetros fisicoquímicos del suelo. Abstract in english Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates were made for Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes. The affecting soil parameters like redox potential, soil temperature were studied to evaluate CH4 and N2O emissions. The CH4 was negative and N2O was positive for Vigna mungo, almost through [...] out the cropping period. The redox potential was more than +100 mV during the entire cropping period with a maximum N2O flux of 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. The raise in soil temperature and the redox potential during harvest further increased the N2O flux to 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. The seasonally integrated flux E(SIF) for CH4 and N2O for Vigna mungo was calculated to be -4.06 g.m-2 and 3.38 mg m-2 respectively. Similarly E(SIF) values estimated for Vigna radiata cropping season were 0.009 g m-2 and -7.6 mg m-2, whereas for the post harvesting period the fluxes were 0.02 g m-2 and 4.06 mg m-2 for CH4 and N2O respectively. The soil parameters like organic carbon and nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite during the cropping season were evaluated. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) was also correlated to various physico-chemical parameters of soil.

  5. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. PMID:26644460

  6. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Foo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

  7. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Cowpea Using Nitrogen 15-isotope: The Role of Water and Improved Crop Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by low productivity and is associated with variable and irregular rainfall, infertile soils, and inadequate application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (Fatokun et al., 2002). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) is a major source of dietary protein for the people, and occupies about eight million hectares of agricultural land, a majority being in Niger and Nigeria (Singh et al., 1997). The major uses include (1) food grain, (2) animal feed, and (3) source of organic N fertilizer. In Niger, cowpea production increased from 4 000 tons year-1 in the mid-fifties to a maximum of 775 000 tons year-1 in 1997, and its cultivated area is still increasing. Despite its importance, cowpea yields in Niger are very low (approximately 300 kg ha-1) relative to the production potential of between 1.5-3.0 t ha-1 (Ball et al., 2000). Yield can be substantially increased by using improved cowpea varieties and overcoming water stress. With adequate soil moisture cowpea flowers over a long period produce more seeds and yield loss is limited. On the contrary, under water deficit conditions the flowering period is cut short and the seed matures earlier, reducing yield. Overcoming water stress can also improve nutrient use efficiency of cowpea. This article summarizes the results of a field study carried out in Niger to assess the use of improved cowpea varieties and water management on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of cowpea using stable isotopes of nitrogen-15 (15N). The field experiment was carried out in the Sahelian zone of Sadore located 45 km south of Niamey, capital of Niger. Six varieties of cowpea cultivars including three widely used varieties in Niger (TN3-78, TN5-78 and KVX) improved the variety obtained from IATA, Nigeria (V499). One variety imported from Ghana (Ghana) and a non-fixing variety obtained from ICRISAAT, Niger (IC10), were used in the study. The water application includes: (a) control in which the treatment is irrigated at field capacity (I1), (b) irrigation every three days (I2), (c) irrigation every five days (I3), and (d) irrigation every seven days (I4). Each treatment received a basal application of 10 kg ha-1 as 15N-labelled urea and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 as single superphosphate. Crop yield, N uptake and 15N in plant were measured and fertilizer N use and biological nitrogen fixation were estimated. Results showed that keeping the soil water content at field capacity through regular application of water increased cowpea grain yield in all five varieties

  8. Effets de Boscia senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur l'évolution des populations de bruches dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnel de niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp en zone sahélienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumma, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on Bruchids Populations within Storage Traditional System of Cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Sahelian Area. Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic. (Coleoptera- Bruchidae and Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera-Bruchidae are, in Sahelian area, the most important pests of cowpea beans, (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Cowpea infestation by these two species of bruchids starts in the field at the beginning of the plant fruit bearing and continues during storages where damage can be high if no control action is taken. In this study, the impact of several introductions of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae, an insecticidal plant which is usually used by farmers in Niger, on the population dynamics of the two bruchids species in traditional cowpea storage system has been investigated. The results obtained from this study point out that bruchid populations are more important in the standard jars than in the one, which have received regular inputs of B. senegalensis. Thus, preservation action by regular inputs of B. senegalensis seems to be an efficient way to control bruchids in the cowpea traditional storage system.

  9. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment / Metais pesados e produtividade de caupi cultivado sob aplicações de lodo de curtume compostado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Ademir Sergio Ferreira, Araújo; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal, Nunes; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Wanderley José de, Melo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados (Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb) em folhas e grãos, e produtividade em caupi (Vigna unguiculata L) em solo após a adição de lodo de curtume compostado (LCC) por dois anos consecutivos. Os experimentos foram realizados em 2009 e 2010 em solo com adi [...] ção de LCC a doses de 0, 5, 10, 20 e 40 Mg ha-1. A adição de LCC em doses acima de 10 Mg ha-1, por dois anos consecutivos, aumentou a concentração de Cr nas folhas do caupi. Não houve aumento na concentração de metais no grão de caupi após dois anos de aplicação. Em 2009, a aplicação de LCC não aumentou a produtividade da planta. Entretanto, em 2010, o LCC nas doses de 10 e 20 Mg ha-1 aumentou a produtividade do caupi. A aplicação de lodo de curtume compostado aumentou linearmente a concentração de Cr nas folhas do caupi após dois anos. O lodo de curtume compostado promoveu aumento na produtividade de grãos. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS) for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 [...] in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  10. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials. PMID:11234193

  11. Occurrence of a Lysogenic Streptomyces sp. on the Nodule Surface of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)

    OpenAIRE

    Rangarajan, M.; Ravindran, A. David; K.Hariharan

    1984-01-01

    A lysogenic Streptomyces sp., strain NS.A4, which was isolated from the nodule surface of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), was found to inhibit rhizobia of fast-and slow-growing strains of cowpeas and soybeans. It exhibited plaques when there was a change in cultural conditions. Repeated culturing of the organism in nutrient agar and broth confirmed the infection of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 by an actinophage. Addition of the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 to shake...

  12. Mineralization of phosphorus from 32P-labelled cowpea residue added to soil in presence of growing maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to study mineralization of phosphorus from 32P labelled plant residue of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L.) in presence and absence of growing maize (Zea mays L.) plant both in P fertilized and unfertilized Fatehpur sand. The presence of growing maize plant led to a significant increase in net P mineralization from cowpea plant material in unfertilized and P fertilized soil from 10-day onwards. Phosphorus uptake was higher from the incorporated plant residue at each harvest on P fertilized soil than on non P fertilized soil. Net mineralization of P from added plant material after 40 days was 14.2 per cent in the P fertilized soil in presence of maize plant and 0.60 per cent in non P fertilized soil in absence of maize plant. In the absence of growing plant, immobilization of P added through plant residue commenced after initial 20 days of mineralization process. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  14. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana B. Silva; Maurício P. Sales; Antônia E. A. Oliveira; Olga L.T. Machado; Kátia V. S. Fernandes; José Xavier-Filho

    2004-01-01

    We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by W...

  15. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  16. Identification of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Pterodon pubescens with ability to inhibit cowpea weevil digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diogo P; Casado-Filho, Erivaldo L; Corrêa, Andréa S R; Farias, Luciana R; Bloch, Carlos; de Sa, Maria F Grossi; Mendes, Paulo A M; Quirino, Betania F; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octavio L

    2007-05-30

    Cowpea seeds (Vigna ungiculata) are widely cultivated by poor farmers in Latin America and Africa and are often severely damaged by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. A proteinaceous inhibitor of cowpea weevil digestive enzymes, PpAI, was purified from white sucupira seeds (Pterodon pubescens) and biochemically characterized in this study. Proteins were extracted from seeds and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 100% saturation. This fraction was applied onto a Red-sepharose CL-6B column, and the retained peak showed 70% inhibitory activity toward larval C. maculatus digestive alpha-amylases. The retained peak was then purified using an analytical reversed-phase HPLC column. Purified PpAI showed 65% inhibitory activity against larval C. maculatus enzymes. Enzymatic assays also showed that the purified P. pubescens inhibitor was unable to reduce the activity of mammalian alpha-amylases, suggesting specificity toward insect enzymes. Moreover, artificial seeds containing PpAI were able to reduce larval weight by 36% and cause 55% mortality. Mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analyses indicated that PpAI showed a molecular mass of approximately 5.0 kDa. This alpha-amylase inhibitor, coming from a native Cerrado plant, could be used to construct a genetically engineered cowpea with enhanced resistance against weevil pests. PMID:17488029

  17. Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea Purificação parcial e caracterização das ribonucleases de raízes, caule e folhas de feijão-de-corda

    OpenAIRE

    OCTÁVIO LUIZ FRANCO; LORRANCE ABREU GONDIM; KÁTIA REGINA BEZERRA; MARIA ELANE DE CARVALHO GUERRA; CARMEM ROGÉLIA FARIAS MACHADO LIMA; JOAQUIM ENÉAS-FILHO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO PRISCO; ENÉAS GOMES-FILHO

    2001-01-01

    Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1) present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose) resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular mas...

  18. Caracterización de cepas de Rhizobium y Bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulación) seleccionados de los cultivos de fríjol caupi (Vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinóculos / Characterization of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiu´s strains (with ability of nodulation) selected from bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultures as a potentials bioinoculants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernarda, Cuadrado; Guillermo, Rubio; Winston, Santos.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos de Latinoamérica son ácidos y deficientes en nitrógeno; por esta razón es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulación y fijar el nitrógeno en las plantas [...] leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opción con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analizó la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del fríjol Vigna unguiculata (fríjol caupí) cultivado en el norte del departamento de Bolívar (Colombia). Se identificaron aislados capaces de crecer mejor en ambientes hostiles (los cuales tienen un uso potencial como bioinoculantes). Se describe además un acercamiento a la taxonomía de estas bioespecies. Se caracterizaron 52 cepas de rizobios (basados en sus características morfológicas, requerimientos de cultivo, metabólicas, resistencia a metales y antibióticos y de autenticación). De acuerdo con sus propiedades de crecimiento, el 63,5% fueron de cepas de lento, mientras que el 36,5%, de rápido crecimiento. Prevalecieron las de lento crecimiento con un 63,5% del total sobre un 36,5% de rápido crecimiento. Los aislados fueron caracterizados de acuerdo con sus patrones de asimilación de carbohidratos, y se encontraron microorganismos de los géneros Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium y Mesorhizobium (12 cepas identificadas como potenciales bioinoculantes). Abstract in english Latin America´s soils are acidic and nitrogen-deficient, for this reason is necessary to explore new alternatives in order to modulate in the development of plants, specially the leguminous plants. The use of bacteria´s potential to induce nodulation and to fix nitrogen in leguminous plants has been [...] studied as an option with potential impact. In our study, we analyzed the diversity of rhizobial isolated of the bean Vigna unguiculata (beans cowpea) cultured in the north of Bolivar department (Colombia). We identified strains able of growing in hostile environment (which have a potential use like bioinoculants). Additionally, we described an approach to taxonomy of these biospecies. We reached the characterization of 52 rhizobial strains (based on their morphologic, requires of culture, metabolic, resistance to metals and antibiotics and authentication characteristics). According with their growing properties, 63.5 % were slow growth strains while the 36.5 % were of rapid growth. The isolates were characterized according to their assimilation carbohydrate´s pattern, finding microorganism as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium (12 of which were identified as potential bioinoculants).

  19. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas nativas de sabana en Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mayz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effectiveness of savannah native rhizobial strains in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3 Resumen Se estima que la población mundial se incrementará y demandará mayor cantidad de alimentos y uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados. En Venezuela, el frijol es altamente consumido y se cultiva en las sabanas orientales, cuyas características edáficas pueden afectar negativamente la población rizobiana. Estos planteamientos refuerzan la importancia de la evaluación de la flora rizobiana nativa, y enfatizan la necesidad de aumentar la explotación de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. En este contexto, se evaluaron 6 cepas rizobianas en el cultivar C4A-3, aisladas, de frijol cv. Tejero Criollo y previamente catalogadas como efectivas (JV91, JV94 y JV101 e inefectivas (JV99, JV103, y JV104 en el cultivar TC9-6. El experimento se llevó a cabo en umbráculo por 45 días, donde además se incluyeron dos tratamientos control no inoculados. La suspensión de las cepas individualmente cultivadas se usó para inoculación. De acuerdo con la tipología de la nodulación (número de nódulos, peso total y por nódulo, tamaño y color, los valores de los parámetros de crecimiento (peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago y los estimados de la concentración de nitrógeno y nitrógeno total, las cepas JV91, JV99 y JV101, fueron las más efectivas en la fijación de nitrógeno. El nitrógeno total y la concentración de nitrógeno tuvieron una correlación significativa con peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago. Los resultados muestran la existencia de cepas efectivas en los suelos de sabana para este cultivar, y enfatizan la importancia de evaluar las cepas indígenas, antes de proceder a la inoculación con foráneas. Palabras clave: Rhizobium; frijol; fijación de nitrógeno; Venezuela. Abstract It is estimated that world-wide population will increase and demand higher amount of food and use of nitrogen fertilizer. In Venezuela, cowpea is highly consumed and is cultivated in eastern savannahs, whose soil characteristics may negatively affect rhizobial population. These expositions reinforce the importance of the evaluation of the native rhizobial flora and emphasize the necessity to increase the exploitation of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation. In this context, 6 rhizobial strains isolated from cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo non-inoculated and previously catalogued as effectives (JV91, JV94 y JV101 and ineffectives (JV99, JV103, y JV104 in cultivar TC9-6 were evaluated in the cultivar C4A-3. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse by 45 days, where in addition, two non-inoculated control treatments were included. Suspension of individually cultivated strains was used for inoculation. Accordingly with nodulation typology (nodule number, total dry weight and per nodule and colour, growth parameter values (shoot dry weight, height and leaves number and nitrogen concentration and total nitrogen estimates, the strains JV91, JV99 and JV101 were the most effective in nitrogen fixation. Total nitrogen and concentration correlated significantly with dry weight and height of shoots and leaves number. The results show the existence of effective strains in savannah soils for this cultivar, and emphasize the importance of evaluating the indigenous strains, before proceeding to inoculate with foreign strains. Key words: Rhizobium; cowpea; nitrogen fixation; Venezuela.

  20. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  1. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  2. Organisation du pool génique de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : croisements entre les formes sauvages et cultivées du niébé

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    Jean-Pierre Baudoin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization of the genic pool of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : crosses between the wild and cultivated forms of cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. gene pool organization is studied on the basis of intra-specific crossing between cultivated (cv-gr. Unguiculata, cv-gr. Biflora and wild forms of the species (var. spontanea, subsp. alba, subsp. stenophylla, subsp. pawekiae, subsp. baoulensis. The rate of crosses success, the rate of the obtained pods fruitfulness and the pollinic fertility of the hybrids F1 varied according to the wild taxa used. The highest rate of success was obtained for the crossings between cultivated and annual inbred form (40-79,3%. This result confirms that var. spontanea is genetically closer to the cultivated forms than the other wild forms. Crosses between cultivated and wild allo-autogamous forms gave intermediate rates of success (17,8-57,9% and a significant reduction of the pollinic fertility of some hybrids F1. These observations suggest the existence of a genetic divergence between these two groups, however they share the same gene pool. The wild allogamous forms gave the weakest rates of success with the cultivated forms (3,1-40% showing that they are genetically more distant of these last, compared to the other wild groups. The rates of crosses success are particularly weaker when the wild form subsp. baoulensis is crossed with the cultivated forms.

  3. Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Chagas, Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales, Fernandes; Maurício Pereira, Sales; Victor Martin Quintana, Flores; José, Xavier-Filho.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações i [...] soladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were inc [...] orporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

  5. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development

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    Antônio Chagas Mota

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

  6. Phytostabilization of mine waste: growth and physiological responses of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Shruti; Aery, N C

    2007-07-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out for phytoremediation of the Pb/Zn abandoned tailings (pH 3.2 and high metal content) of Rampura-Agucha Mines, Rajasthan. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea) was chosen as a test crop. On unamended tailings, the seeds of the test plant showed no germination. The tailing was amended with lime (3% on weight basis), 3% lime + NPK (diammonium phosphate at 60 kg/ha, muriate of potash at 40 kg/ ha) and 3% lime + FYM at 15 t/ha and used for experiments. Quantification of various parameters viz. shoot-root length, shoot-root dry weight, chlorophyll contents (a', 'b' and total) and peroxidase activity of test crop revealed T+ S + 3% lime + NPK to be the most suitable amelioration followed by FYM. The above treatments helped in improving the growth and productivity of the test plants by providing a favorable environment. PMID:18380090

  7. ESTUDIO DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN HUERTOS AGRÍCOLAS URBANOS DE DOS MUNICIPIOS DE CIUDAD DE LA HABANA. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS ACCESIONES DEL GÉNERO VIGNA

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    R. Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de la biodiversidad agrícola en los huertos urbanos de ocho localidades en los municipios Boyeros y Arroyo Naranjo, con el objetivo de inventariar los cultivos agrícolas existentes. Entre los meses de abril a junio de 1997 se realizó la visita a 100 huertos, llevándose el registro de los datos pasaporte a través del formato que existe a nivel internacional, el cual fue ajustado a las condiciones de este trabajo. Finalmente en un género hortícola colectado fue eva- luada la biodiversidad encontrada en superficies del ISPETP durante los meses de abril a julio de 1998. La información obte- nida se analizó estadísticamente por métodos univariados y multivariados. Se determinó que en los huertos estudiados existe una biodiversidad agrícola satisfactoria, localizándose 262 accesiones entre las que predominan las viandas, frutales, hortalizas y leguminosas. Además, muchos de los cultivares se adaptan a sistemas de agricultura de bajos insumos. En los tipos de habichuelas colectadas se encontró diversidad para una gran cantidad de caracteres morfológicos y componentes del rendimiento.

  8. Induction of an anionic peroxidase in cowpea leaves by exogenous salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cléberson F; Moraes, Vadjah C P; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, José T A

    2006-10-01

    Two isoperoxidases were detected in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves. Treatment of the primary leaves with 10mM salicylic acid increased the total peroxidase activity contributed by the anionic isoform. To isolate both the anionic and cationic peroxidases the leaf crude extract was loaded on a Superose 12 HR 10/30 column followed by chromatography on Mono-Q HR 5/5. Both enzymes were stable in a pH range from 5 to 7. The optimum-temperatures for the cationic and anionic peroxidase isoforms were, respectively, 20-30 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The dependence of guaiacol oxidation rate varying its concentration at constant H(2)O(2) concentration showed, for both enzymes, Michaelis-Menten-type kinetic. Apparent K(m)(s) were 0.8 and 4.8 microM for the cationic and anionic isoperoxidases, respectively. PMID:16971216

  9. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus / Caracterização da resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de, Castro; Edson Luiz Lopes, Baldin; Patrícia Leite, Cruz; Camila Moreira de, Souza; Paulo Henrique Soares da, Silva.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a resistência de 50 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a Callosobruchus maculatus. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento (genótipo). Testes de confinamento foram realizados com os 50 genótipos de [...] feijão-caupi, para avaliar a preferência para oviposição e o desenvolvimento do caruncho. Os genótipos IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2 e Sanzi Sambili apresentam resistência do tipo não preferência (oviposição e alimentação). IT81 D-1045 Ereto e IT81 D-1045 Enramador apresentam antibiose contra C. maculatus e descendem de genitores resistentes, o que lhes confere potencial para serem utilizados em futuros cruzamentos, para obtenção de variedades de feijão-caupi com maior nível de resistência. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype) was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the pr [...] eference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding). IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  10. Ultrastructural alterations into chloroplasts and root nodules of cowpea plants grown under saline stress conditions / Alteraciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos y nódulos de las raíces de plantas de frijol Caupí desarrolladas bajo condiciones de estrés salino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto, Gómez Padilla; Raúl, López Sánchez; Beatriz, Ruiz-Diez; Mercedes, Fernández-Pascual; Susana, Fajardo; Bettina, Eichler-Loebermann.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado el efecto del estrés salino sobre la ultraestructura de los cloroplastos y los nódulos radicales de plantas de frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión TEM. Las plantas se sometieron a 150 y 0,02 mM de NaCl, siendo [...] considerado este último como control. La cepa VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense), aislada de suelos salinos del Valle del Cauto (Cuba), fue inoculada en el momento de la siembra. Cuarenta días después de la germinación se tomaron muestras de hojas y nódulos de la misma posición y edad para realizar observaciones microscópicas. Se han puesto en evidencia modificaciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos, provocadas principalmente por el incremento de tamaño de los gránulos de almidón. Estas modificaciones produjeron alteraciones en la distribución normal de los granos. En la ultraestructura del nódulo se produjo un debilitamiento de la membrana peribacteroidal y se incrementó el número de vesículas de las células infectadas, al ser aplicado el tratamiento salino. Los simbiosomas comenzaron a degradarse al romperse la membrana peribacteroidal. Dentro de las células no infectadas se observó una alta vesiculación y la degradación de algunos orgánulos celulares. Abstract in english The ultrastructure of leaves chloroplast and root nodules from cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, subjected to saline stress was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Plants were exposed at 150 and 0,02 mM of NaCl treatments, considering 0,02 mM salt level [...] as control. Native strain VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense) isolated from saline soils of Cauto Valley (Cuba) was inoculated at sowing. Forty days after germination, samples of the same age and position from leaves and root nodules were taken for microscopy observations. Some ultrastructural modifications were detected by the salt effect in chloroplasts, mainly triggered by the great increase in the size of the starch granules. These modifications produced altered grana distribution. In nodule structure, when saline stress was applied, a weakness of peribacteroid membrane and high number of vesicles into infected cells were noted. Symbiosomes started deteriorating with some broken peribacteroidal membranes. A high vesiculation and degradation of some cellular organelle into uninfected cells were observed.

  11. Use of 15N in determining the influence of fertilizer potassium on nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency in cowpea and finger millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted using 15N enriched fertilizer to determine the impact of potassium (K) on the nitrogen (N) nutrition of two popular annual crops grown in the region. The species used were cowpea (Vigna unguiculata WALP) and finger millet (Elucine coracana L), and the study included two soil moisture regimes. The plant N content, N uptake and efficiency of utilization of fertilizer N were affected by potassium fertilizer and soil moisture. The plant N content of cowpea was greater than that of millet. In contrast, the response of all other parameters were greater in millet at all levels of fertilizer K. Soil moisture also had a significant impact on the measured parameters, and cowpea required greater quantities of fertilizer K to utilize applied N more efficiently under dry conditions. The response of millet in terms of fertilizer N utilization increased up to the highest level of K, irrespective of soil moisture status. In addition, N fertilizer uptake and utilization efficiency was greater than in cowpea at all levels of K. The results are presented in relation to the N fertilizer use patter of these species under low and high soil moisture levels. The study also presents the positive interactions between N and K, and possible implications for fertilizer programmes. (author). 16 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  13. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golo, Patrícia S; Gardner, Dale R; Grilley, Michelle M; Takemoto, Jon Y; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Pires, Marcus S; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken) cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918) did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods. PMID:25127450

  14. Response of Cowpea Plants Grown Under Salinity Stress to PK-Foliar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Shaaban

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre to study the effect of two doses (50 and 100 mg L-1 of PK foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 on leaf nutrient concentrations and growth parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. grown under two diluted Mediterranean seawater levels (3.0, 6.0 dS m-1 in the irrigation water in addition to tap water (0.4 dS m-1 as control. Diluted seawater as irrigation led to significant decreases of macro and micronutrients concentrations in the leaves of cowpea plants. Plant height, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights were also negatively affected with high significance (p0.05 as the plants irrigated with saline water. PK-foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 could increase P, K and other macro- and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves of the salt-stressed plants. The most effective dose was the 100 mg L-1 K2PO3 with the lower salinity level (3.0 dS m-1. Making the plants more tolerant to salinity stress, PK-foliar fertilization could improve plant growth parameters and increase plant heights, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights.

  15. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  16. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  17. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  18. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Akinrinde

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0 with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contrasting (Al-resistant and Al-susceptible cowpea genotypes, Epace 10 (E10 and Santo Inacio (SI were studied at 0 and 0 ?M Al. Root elongation was followed over the first 96 h of Al treatment and during the initial 48 hours elongation was determined daily. In addition, exudation of carboxylates in apical root zone and modifications of rhizoplane pH by the two genotypes were compared in hydroponics` culture experiments that involved +/-Al treatments at mild (14 days and severe (21 days phosphorus (P limitation stages. Differential genotypic responses were further evaluated in a rhizobox experiment, using an acidic Aerenosol from West Africa (Niger with low expression of Al toxicity. Strong Al-induced inhibition of root growth occurred at 20 ?M Al without genotypic difference, suggesting the need to further test genotypic differences at lower concentrations. Under P limitation, E10 exhibited a stronger expression (relative to SI of root induced chemical changes (increased rhizoplane pH and citrate exudation in apical root zone to counteract Al toxicity. Therefore, genotypic differences in performance of E10 and SI on acid mineral soils may be associated with different expression of Al tolerance mechanisms, particularly under conditions of limited P supply.

  19. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  20. Photochemical efficiency in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) during recovery from high temperature stress Eficiência fotoquímica em plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) durante a recuperação do estresse por alta temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Ernany Santos Costa; Ricardo Bressan-Smith; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Eliemar Campostrini; Carlos Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca and cv. Negro Huasteco) and cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Epace 10) were grown in a growth chamber with PPF at leaf level of 200 mumol.m-2.s-1 and air temperature 25 + 1 ºC. The first fully expanded pair of leaves of 12-day-old plants was submitted to high temperature stress (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 48 ºC) for 1.5 h. The photochemical efficiency of PSII during recovery was monitored by means of chlorophyll a fluorescence at six different ...

  1. Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

  2. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  3. Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefté Ferreira da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora. Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto.The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora. Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

  4. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  5. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  6. How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

  7. Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurivan Soares de Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

  8. Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil / Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jerri Édson, Zilli; Romano Roberto, Valisheski; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Maria Cristina Prata, Neves; Norma Gouvêa, Rumjanek.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz [...] e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias), genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p Abstract in english In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphol [...] ogical traits (mucous production and colony morphology), genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S) and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p

  9. Use of X-ray to evaluate damage caused by weevils in cowpea seeds Utilização de raios X na avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto de A Melo; Victor Augusto Forti; Silvio M Cicero; Ana DLC Novembre; Paulo César T. de Melo

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], is important in the Northeast Region, where it is typically grown on family farms. The importance of the damage caused to the seed quality of this species by stored pests has been described in various studies. Using X-ray, it is possible to see the internal seed structures and identify possible changes and damage. The objective of this study was to identify the damage caused by the weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.)] by analyzing X-ra...

  10. Efficacy of wild plant in combination with microbial antagonists for the control of root rot fungi on mungbean and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work was carried out to investigate the efficacy of Aerva javanica in combination with different microbial antagonists namely Rhizobium meliloti, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger. Soil amended with A. javanica stem, leaves, flower powder at the rate1% w/w and seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were coated with microbial antagonists for the control of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn. Infection of M. phaseolina and R. solani were completely suppressed when seeds were coated with P. aeruginosa, T. harzianum, A. niger, R. meliloti and A. javanica leaves powder mixed in soil at the rate 1% w/w. All antagonists showed reduction in combination with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate1% but T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa in combination with A. javanica leaves showed promising results in complete reduction of R. solani and M. phaseolina on both crops. All growth parameters were maximum when soil was amended with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate 1% w/w and seeds were coated with T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa. (author)

  11. Determinação de épocas de semeadura do feijão caupi no Recôncavo Baiano através do modelo CROPGRO / Determining the optimum sowing dates for cowpea based on CROPGRO model in Recôncavo of Bahia - Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aristides F., Lima Filho; Mauricio A., Coelho Filho; Alexandre B., Heinemann.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se simular épocas de semeadura para o feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) em Cruz das Almas, no Recôncavo Baiano, através do modelo CROPGRO-cowpea, calibrado e validado por meio de conjunto de dados provenientes de experimentos de campo. Dois cenários foram elaborados, [...] os quais são: produtividade atingível (com irrigação automática quando requerido) e atual (sequeiro), enquanto para cada cenário foram executadas 12 simulações, sendo uma por mês (início 15 de janeiro e fim em 15 de dezembro), com base nos vinte anos de dados climáticos históricos provenientes da estação automática da Embrapa CNPMF. O modelo simulou satisfatoriamente a produção do feijão caupi nas condições de Cruz das Almas demonstrando sensibilidade às variações climáticas inter e intra-anuais apontando, como mais propícias para a semeadura, as épocas compreendidas entre meados de junho e de julho devido ao fato de apresentarem menor risco de quebra de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to simulate sowing dates for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Cruz das Almas, Recôncavo of Bahia, based on crop model CROPGRO-cowpea. The crop model CROPGRO was calibrated and evaluated based on field experiments data set. Two different scenarios were elaborat [...] ed, attainable yield (automatic irrigation when required) and observed yield (rainfed) and for each scenario 12 simulations were made, one per month (begin January, 15 and end December, 15), considering 20 years of historic daily weather data set from the weather station at Embrapa CNPMF. The model simulated well the yield for Cruz das Almas, showing sensitivity for the climate variation inter and intra years, being July and June the best month for sowing cowpea due to lesser risk for yield loss.

  12. Revisión taxonómica de los géneros Phaseolus y Vigna (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyra, Ángela

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the Cuban species of Phaseolus L. and Vigna Savi. It includes keys, descriptions, illustrations of selected taxa, chromosome numbers, palinology, phenology, ecology, distribution maps, notes on chemical composition and ethnobotany for each of the eleven species known from Cuba. We also present a discussion on the value of the characters used in the taxonomy of the complex.Se hace una revisión taxonómica de las especies de los géneros Phaseolus L. y Vigna Savi presentes en Cuba. Se incluyen claves dicotómicas, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos químicos, cromosomáticos, palinológicos, etnobotánicos, así como la distribución y ecología de las 11 especies de ambos géneros. Se analiza y se hace una estimación del valor de los caracteres que diferencian a cada uno de los géneros y especies.

  13. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. PMID:24220155

  14. Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

  15. Field performance of new cowpea cultivars inoculated with efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains in the Brazilian Semiarid

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    Rita de Cássia Nunes Marinho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains to grain yield of new cowpea cultivars, indicated for cultivation in the Brazilian Semiarid region, in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley. Two experiments were set up at the irrigated perimeters of Mandacaru (Juazeiro, state of Bahia and Bebedouro (Petrolina, state of Pernambuco. The treatments consisted of single inoculation of five rhizobial strains - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp., and BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae -, besides a treatment with nitrogen and a control without inoculation or N application. The following cowpea cultivars were evaluated: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó, and BRS Acauã. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. Inoculated plants showed similar grain yield to the one observed with plants fertilized with 80 kg ha-1 N. The cultivars BRS Tapaihum and BRS Pujante stood out in grain yield and protein contents when inoculated, showing their potential for cultivation in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley.

  16. Impact of Different Salts in Soaking Water on the Cooking Time, Texture and Physical Parameters of Cowpeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Bianca Pio; Santos Dos Santos, Magda; Nicoletti, Angélica Markus; Alves, Gabriela Dutra; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Monks, Jander; Gularte, Márcia Arocha

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of modern life has led consumers to seek convenience and speed in food preparation, but storage, which is often prolonged, can result in grain hardening, leading to higher energy consumption during preparation, grain with increased hardness is often discarded. Due to the increasing global demand for grain, the use of alternative techniques aimed at reducing grain waste is necessary. Therefore, we studied a method that meets consumer demand and results in better use of harvested grain. The beans studied were cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata) of the BRS Guariba cultivar after 1 and 12 months of storage. Sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were added to soaking water at different concentrations as a way to reduce cooking time. These beans were placed in soaking water for 12 h at 3 concentrations (0, 1.0 and 2.5 %). The cowpeas soaked in water containing NaHCO3 presented the highest hydration coefficient, which increased with the salt concentration; these beans also had decreased hardness, chewiness and cooking time. PMID:26249219

  17. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

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    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  18. Organic weed control in Cowpea: Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within the state of Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is primarily handled with preemergence and some postemergence herbicid...

  19. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

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    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  20. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Lima, Soares; Paulo Avelar Ademar, Ferreira; Silvia Maria de, Oliveira-Longatti; Leandro Marciano, Marra; Marcia, Rufini; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish r [...] elationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen). Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP) and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154) yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9) CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  1. Comparison of life history and genetic properties of cowpea bruchid strains and their response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Fox, Charles W; Johnston, J Spencer; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-04-01

    The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) is the most important storage pest of grain legumes and comprises geographically distinct strains. Storage under a modified atmosphere with decreased O2 content represents an alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control of stored grains. In this study, we compared reproduction, development and survival, as well as genome size of bruchid strains from South India (SI), Burkina Faso (BF), Niger (CmNnC) and the United States (OH), reared on mung bean (Vigna radiata). Fecundity and egg-to-adult duration varied significantly among these strains. Notably, strain BF had the highest fecundity, and strain SI displayed the fastest development whereas strain OH was the slowest. Differences in adult lifespan among strains were only detected in unmated but not in the mated group. Genome size of SI females was significantly larger than that of OH females, and for all four strains, the female genomes were larger than those of their corresponding males. Furthermore, we studied effects of exposure to 1% O2+99% N2 on strains SI and BF. Mortality caused by hypoxia was influenced by not only developmental stage but also by insect strain. Eggs were most sensitive, particularly at the early stage, whereas the 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most tolerant and could survive up to 15 days of low O2. Strain SI was slightly more resistant than BF in egg and larval stages. Proteolytic activity prior to, during and after hypoxia treatment revealed remarkable metabolic plasticity of cowpea bruchids in response to modified atmosphere. PMID:25733404

  2. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

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    Bruno Lima Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen. Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154 yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9 CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  3. Roots and leaves display contrasting oxidative response during salt stress and recovery in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Fabio Rossi; Lima, João Paulo Matos Santos; Ferreira-Silva, Sérgio Luiz; Viégas, Ricardo Almeida; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we compare some antioxidative responses of leaves and roots associated to growth reduction in cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata) during short-term salt stress and recovery. The salt treatment was imposed (200 mM NaCl) for six consecutive days and the salt withdrawal after 3 d. The salt treatment caused an almost complete cessation in the relative growth rate of both leaves and roots. Although NaCl withdrawal has induced an intense reduction in the Na(+) content from the leaves and roots, the growth recovery was slight, after 3 d. The leaf lipid peroxidation was increased in salt-stressed plants and slightly reduced in recovered plants after 3 d. Surprisingly, in the salt-stressed roots it decreased markedly after 3 d treatment and in the pre-stressed/recovered roots it was restored to levels near to the control. In leaves, catalase (CAT) activity showed a rapid and prominent decrease after 1 d of NaCl treatment and salt withdrawal had no effect on its recovery. In contrast, the root CAT activity was not changed by effects of both NaCl and salt withdrawal, over time interval. Leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not change in all treatments, whereas in roots it significantly decreased after 3 d of salt treatment and recovered after NaCl withdrawal. Contrasting to the other enzymes, the guaiacol-peroxidase activity increased in leaves and roots, reaching almost 200% of control values and it significantly decreased in both organs from the pre-stressed/recovered plants. In conclusion, cowpea roots and leaves present distinct mechanisms of response to lipid peroxidation and CAT and SOD activities during salt stress and recovery. However, these responses and/or the oxidative damages caused by reactive oxygen species were not related with the growth reduction. PMID:16690169

  4. Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus

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    M.I. Florindo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation, or crude extract from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization. Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

  5. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  6. Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de suelos de la Costa Caribe colombiana en Vigna unguiculata / Infectivity and effectiveness of isolated rhizobia from colombian Caribbean Soils in Vigna unguiculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan Alberto, Mendoza Labrador; Ruth Rebeca, Bonilla Buitrago.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Es el primer estudio en Colombia que abarca una evaluación de rizobios nativos asociados a frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) en los departamentos del Cesar y la Guajira. En esta investigación, se demostró que la utilización de aislamientos de rizobios nativos aislados a partir de nódulos, me [...] joraron el desarrollo del frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), siendo estas bacterias más eficientes que los tratamientos químicos y absolutos (sin inóculo ni fertilización) y que las cepas inducidas mejorando además, la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y la tasa fotosintética. Como aportes del estudio, se determinó que en condiciones de invernadero la fertilización biológica fue más eficiente que la química y que, de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes variables agronómicas evaluadas, esto podría influir positivamente en los rendimientos nutricionales del cultivo, base alimentaria de los sistemas ganaderos de estas regiones del país y fuente alimenticia de la comunidad indígena y de bajos recursos económicos. Abstract in english This is the first study in Colombia which covers an evaluation of native rhizobium associated to the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in the departaments of Cesar and Guajira. In this research it was demonstrated that the use of native rhizobium isolated from nodes, improved the development o [...] f the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), being this bacteria more efficient than the chemical and absolute treatments (without inoculum and fertilization) also improving the biological nitrogen fixation and the photosynthetic rate. As contribution of the study, it was determined that in greenhouse conditions and according to the results obtained from differents measured agronomic variables, this could influence positively in the nutritional performance of the crop, basis of food of the cattle system of this regions of the country and the food source of the indigenous community of low economic income.

  7. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

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    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  8. Effect of manganese toxicity on the proteome of the leaf apoplast in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht-Christoffers, Marion M; Braun, Hans-Peter; Lemaitre-Guillier, Christelle; VanDorsselaer, Alain; Horst, Walter J

    2003-12-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) supply causes formation of visible brown depositions in the cell walls of leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), which consist of oxidized Mn and oxidized phenols. Because oxidation of Mn and phenolic compounds in the leaf apoplast was proposed to be catalyzed by apoplastic peroxidases (PODs), induction of these enzymes by Mn excess was investigated. POD activity increased upon prolonged Mn treatment in the leaf tissue. Simultaneously, a significant increase in the concentration of soluble apoplastic proteins in "apoplastic washing fluid" was observed. The identity of the released proteins was systematically characterized by analysis of the apoplast proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Some of the identified proteins exhibit sequence identity to acidic PODs from other plants. Several other proteins show homologies to pathogenesis-related proteins, e.g. glucanase, chitinase, and thaumatin-like proteins. Because pathogenesis-related-like proteins are known to be induced by various other abiotic and biotic stresses, a specific physiological role of these proteins in response to excess Mn supply remains to be established. The specific role of apoplastic PODs in the response of plants to Mn stress is discussed. PMID:14605229

  9. Effect of salicylic acid on morphological and biochemical attributes in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A; Anand, A; Dubey, A

    2007-04-01

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination, seedling growth, flowering and biochemical activities were studied out in four cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes in control environments. The results revealed that both germination and seedling growth were negatively affected by 0.02%. SA application, however did not affect the size of full expanded buds, time of 50% flowering and date of flower initiation. A maximum increase in peroxidase (EC1.11.1.7) activity was observed in UPC 4200 over other genotypes. No significant change in the content of total soluble and intercellular fluid proteins was observed except in UPC 4200 genotype. SA induced accumulation of total soluble sugars more at flowering stage than at seed setting stage. It is evident from the present study that UPC 4200 genotype was more responsive to salicylic acid both in terms of increased peroxidase activity and less negative effect on morphological attributes, thus suggesting its wider use without negative impact on environment as salicylic acid has been reported in plants. PMID:17915749

  10. Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells

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    T.L. Rose

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

  11. Phenotyping Cowpeas for Adaptation to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnthonyHall

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay and fresh pea production. The strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought that is available, resistance to mid-season drought, escaping terminal drought, the delayed-leaf-senescence trait, water-use-efficiency, deeper rooting and heat tolerance are discussed. Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Use of varietal intercrops and rotations are examined. Breeding and experimental field strategies for enhancing the adaptation to drought of cowpeas are described.

  12. Ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico e potencial osmótico de feijão caupi cultivado em solos salinizados / Physiological permanent wilting point and osmotic potential of cowpea grown in saline soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Edivan R. de, Souza.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico, a umidade foliar e o potencial osmótico no feijoeiro caupi, sob duas condições de estresses (salino e salino + hídrico), foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE [...] , Brasil). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, sendo duas classes texturais de solos (franco-arenoso e franco-argiloso) e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo, equivalentes às condutividades elétricas do extrato de saturação do solo 4, 8 e 12 dS m-1, mais testemunha, com cinco repetições. A cultura teste utilizada foi o feijoeiro caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça. O ponto de murcha permanente do feijoeiro caupi é menor quando determinado pelo método fisiológico do que o determinado na câmara de pressão de Richards; o incremento da salinidade do solo (CEes) até 12 dS m-1 não influencia a umidade foliar, independente da textura do solo; e o potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro caupi diminui com o aumento da salinidade do solo e pode ser usado como variável importante em ambientes salinizados. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the physiological wilting point, the moisture content and leaf osmotic potential in cowpea, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brazil). Two stress conditions were evaluated: salinity and salinity + water st [...] ress. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, composed of two classes of soil texture and four levels of soil salinity (control, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1), with five replications. The species cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça was used as test crop. It was concluded that the permanent wilting point of cowpea is smaller when determined by the physiological method than by Richards chamber method; the increase in soil salinity (CEes) up to 12 dS m-1 does not influence the leaf moisture content, regardless of soil texture; and the leaf osmotic potential of cowpea decreases with the increasing soil salinity, which can be used as an important variable in saline environments.

  13. Período de convivência das plantas daninhas com cultivares de feijão-caupi em várzea no Amazonas / Weed coexistence with cowpea cultivars in the Amazonas floodplain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.M.S., Oliveira; J.F., Silva; J.R.P., Gonçalves; C.S., Klehm.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar o período de convivência das plantas daninhas com três cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) em solo de várzea no Estado do Amazonas. A semeadura do feijão-caupi foi em outubro de 2007 no sistema convencional. O delineamento experimental foi o de [...] blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por 11 períodos de convivência entre o feijão-caupi e as plantas daninhas: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias após sua semeadura; depois desses períodos, as plantas daninhas foram eliminadas semanalmente por capina. Nas subparcelas foram colocados os cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN V69 e BR8 Caldeirão. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijão-caupi reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o peso de mil grãos. A produtividade dos cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 Caldeirão e BR IPEAN V69 foi reduzida em 59,78, 68,18 e 90,18%, respectivamente. O período anterior à interferência foi de 0 a 5 dias após a semeadura para o cultivar BR IPEAN V69, enquanto para os cultivares BR8 Caldeirão e EV x 91-2E-2 foi de até 6 e 7 DAS, respectivamente. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the period of weed coexistence with three cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata) in the lowlands of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Cowpea was sown in October 2007 under the conventional system. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications [...] in split-plots. The plots consisted of eleven periods of weed coexistence with cowpea at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 days after sowing. Following these periods, weeds were manually removed every week. The cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN BR8 V69, and BR8 Caldeirão were located in the split-plots. The interference of the weeds throughout the cowpea life cycle reduced final stand, number of pods per plant, and weight of 1,000 grains. The productivity of cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 BR8 Caldeirão and BR IPEAN V69 was reduced by 59, 78, 68.18 and 90.18%, respectively. The period before interference was from 0 to 5 days after sowing for cultivar BR IPEAN V69, and from 0 to 6 and 71 days for cultivars BR8 Caldeirão and EV x 91-2E-2, respectively.

  14. Período de convivência das plantas daninhas com cultivares de feijão-caupi em várzea no Amazonas Weed coexistence with cowpea cultivars in the Amazonas floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.S. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar o período de convivência das plantas daninhas com três cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata em solo de várzea no Estado do Amazonas. A semeadura do feijão-caupi foi em outubro de 2007 no sistema convencional. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por 11 períodos de convivência entre o feijão-caupi e as plantas daninhas: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias após sua semeadura; depois desses períodos, as plantas daninhas foram eliminadas semanalmente por capina. Nas subparcelas foram colocados os cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN V69 e BR8 Caldeirão. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijão-caupi reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o peso de mil grãos. A produtividade dos cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 Caldeirão e BR IPEAN V69 foi reduzida em 59,78, 68,18 e 90,18%, respectivamente. O período anterior à interferência foi de 0 a 5 dias após a semeadura para o cultivar BR IPEAN V69, enquanto para os cultivares BR8 Caldeirão e EV x 91-2E-2 foi de até 6 e 7 DAS, respectivamente.This study aimed to determine the period of weed coexistence with three cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata in the lowlands of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Cowpea was sown in October 2007 under the conventional system. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications in split-plots. The plots consisted of eleven periods of weed coexistence with cowpea at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 days after sowing. Following these periods, weeds were manually removed every week. The cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN BR8 V69, and BR8 Caldeirão were located in the split-plots. The interference of the weeds throughout the cowpea life cycle reduced final stand, number of pods per plant, and weight of 1,000 grains. The productivity of cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 BR8 Caldeirão and BR IPEAN V69 was reduced by 59, 78, 68.18 and 90.18%, respectively. The period before interference was from 0 to 5 days after sowing for cultivar BR IPEAN V69, and from 0 to 6 and 71 days for cultivars BR8 Caldeirão and EV x 91-2E-2, respectively.

  15. Reação de genótipos de Vigna unguiculata à sarna e efeito da doença sobre componentes de produção Reaction of Vigna unguiculata genotypes to scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO D. BARRETO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Elsinoe phaseoli, agente causal da sarna, tem sido responsável por sérios prejuízos aos produtores de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata, em particular, nos cultivos que se estabelecem em regiões montanhosas e na época das chuvas, no Ceará. O presente trabalho objetivou, além de identificar fontes de resistência à sarna, avaliar os efeitos da doença sobre o rendimento agrícola e seus componentes, a qualidade do grão e o ciclo da cultura. Num ensaio delineado em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, instalado em Tianguá, CE, sob regime de irrigação e em sequeiro, por dois anos: 1995 e 1996, 16 genótipos foram avaliados quanto a variáveis relacionadas ao ciclo, rendimento de grãos e sintomas de sarna. Procederam-se análises quanto à variância, comparações entre médias dos tratamentos, correlação e regressão. Constatou-se que as plantas suscetíveis à sarna sofrem seus efeitos negativos sobre ciclo e produção de grãos; as cultivares e linhagens avaliadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto à reação à doença. A cultivar EPACE V-96, pela produtividade, precocidade e grau de resistência à sarna, é a mais indicada como genitor, visando o melhoramento genético do feijão-de-corda para o ambiente da Ibiapaba, CE.The fungus Elsinoe phaseoli is the scab agent and has been causing serious damages to the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, crop, mainly in the rainy period of Ceara State's mountainous areas. The present work aimed to identify genetic resistance sources and to evaluate the disease effects on the yield and its components, the quality of the grain and the crop cycle. To do this, in 1995 and 1996, 16 genotypes were evaluated in two experiments. One at the rainy period as a rain-fed crop and the other at the dry period as a irrigated crop, in a randomized experimental design with four replications in Tianguá County, State of Ceará. Based on statistical analysis and evaluation of the variances, comparing the treatment averages, the correlation and the regression, it was verified that: in the scab susceptible plants both the cycle and the yield are negatively affected by the disease; all evaluated genotypes have variability in relation to the disease reaction; and the EPACE V-96 cultivar performed better and so can be utilized as parental in a breeding program.

  16. Efectos del Manejo de Suelos de Laderas en Hongos Formadores de Micorrizas Arbusculares y en Bacterias Fijadoras de Nitrógeno en Ultisoles Sujetos a erosión pluvial en la Amazonia Peruana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro O, Ruiz; Charles B, Davey.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un ensayo de vivero se evaluó la colonización con micorrizas arbusculares y la nodulación, en plantas de frejol caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) en suelos de ladera bajo cultivos en callejones (alley-cropping), cultivos continuos con bajos insumos, bosque secundario y suelo sin cobertura, a los [...] 5, 15, 30 y 45 días después de la germinación de la semilla (DDGS). La colonización micorrícica y la nodulación presentaron una gran variación en los estados iniciales del crecimiento de las plantas de caupí a pesar de que ninguno de los sistemas estudiados recibieron fertilización fosfatada. A niveles similares y bajos de disponibilidad de fósforo en el suelo, en suelos diferentes, altos niveles de colonización micorrícica (sistema de cultivos continuos con bajos insumos) pueden ser ventajosos para el crecimiento de la planta y la nodulación. La nodulación estuvo ausente en las plantas de caupí que crecieron en el suelo de bosque secundario probablemente debido al efecto represivo de altos niveles de nitrógeno en el suelo o a la falta de rizobios para esta especie. En el suelo sin cobertura, las plantas de caupí tuvieron niveles muy bajos de colonización micorrícica. La formación de nódulos fue esencialmente nula, probablemente debido a los efectos de la pérdida de suelo por las lluvias. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de reintroducir los microorganismos del suelo como parte de programas de recuperación de suelos y/o revegetación de áreas severamente alteradas como los taludes de carreteras, derechos de vía de gasoductos y oleoductos, áreas expuestas por actividad minera y otras. Abstract in english Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp) plants growing in soils under alley-cropping, low-input continuous cropping, secondary forest, and bare soil on a slope were evaluated at 5, 15, 30 and 45 days after seed germination (DASG) under greenhouse condi [...] tions. Mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpeas differed greatly at their early growth stages in spite that any of the systems studied received phosphorus fertilizers. At similar low levels of soil available phosphorus in different soils, high levels of mycorrhizal colonization (low-input continuous cropping system) may be advantageous for plant growth and nodulation. Nodulation was absent in cowpeas growing in the secondary forest soil probably due to repressing effects of high levels of nitrogen in soil or to the lack of rhizobia for cowpeas. In the bare soil plot, cowpeas had a very low level of mycorrhizal colonization. Nodule formation was essentially zero, probably as effects of soil loss due to rainfall. Results obtained suggest the need for re-introduction of soil microorganisms for revegetation and land reclamation programs in severely disturbed soils like road banks, gas and oil pipelines, mining exposed areas, and others.

  17. The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

  18. Toxic Effects of Three Industrial Effluents on Growth and Development of Vigna unguiculata (L Walp (Cultivar it 84 E-124

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yahaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of Paint, Battery and Textile effluents respectively on Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Cultivar It 84 E-124 were evaluated in this study. Viable seeds were planted in 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted effluents. Distilled water was used as control. The Physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Zinc being 35.6 mg L-1 in Paint effluent, copper and lead were 10.5 mg L-1 in Battery effluent were found to be above Federal Environmental Protection Agencys limit suggesting toxic impact on the seedling. Leaf size, stem length and root length were observed to be responsive to the concentration gradient of the effluents. Dry weight declined with a positive response from mean value of 1.18 g for 25% Textile to 0.11 g for 25% Key paint. The test plant indicated high concentration of heavy metals in its biomass, for instance, 75% flash battery with highest fresh weight of 1.75 g except for textile effluent with 1.45 g. Textile effluent was also found to favour chlorophyll formation leading to photosynthesis while the other effluents were found not to be in favour of chlorophyll production. The mean total chlorophyll for control is 56.43 mg g-1, Undiluted Textile being 51.45 mg g-1, while Key paint has 9.11 mg g-1. Howbeit, the severity of toxicity of the industrial effluents follow this trend; key paint higher than flash battery which is higher than textile at the different treatment concentrations of 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted. Suggesting that at very low concentration, Vigna unguiculata thrives better in textile effluents contaminated environment than battery and paint effluents. It is suggested that these parameters in cowpea may constitute methods of environmental monitoring.

  19. Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author)

  20. Influence de différents traitements de prégermination des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. sur les performances germinatives et la tolérance au stress hydrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucelha, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different pre-germination treatments of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds on germination performance and water stress tolerance. Description of the subject. Priming or hardening is a pregermination treatment. This treatment consists of incorporating an osmotic seed treatment (osmopriming or a hormonal (hormopriming and/or a redehydration (hydropriming treatment. The approach allows the elimination of dormancy, homogenization (synchronization of germination, better growth, earlier flowering and a tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. In this kind of treatment, the seed is soaked and then dehydrated before radicle breakthrough, i.e. during the reversible phase of germination. Thus, the seed can return to its initial stage without any damage. Objectives. In this paper, we aimed to study the consequences of hydropriming and osmopriming (by PEG6000 at 10 and 30% on cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata, on germination performance and on the water stress tolerance of plants from these seeds. Method. Vigna unguiculata seeds were hydroprimed, hydroprimed twice or osmoprimed (with PEG6000 10 and 30%. For each treatment, germination performance (germination capacity, speed and the water stress tolerance of the plants were studied. Results. Results showed that increased hardness of the seed allowed a faster, more uniform germination and better growth of both the radicle and aerial parts. We also demonstrated that a double redehydration was more effective in improving these parameters. Conclusions. Application of these pretreatments, adapted according to the plant species, will has the capacity to improve seed germination and crop yield, as well as tolerance to water deficit.

  1. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped redundant clones together and illustrated that the SSHscreen plots are a useful tool for choosing anonymous clones for sequencing, since redundant clones cluster together on the enrichment ratio plots. Conclusions We developed the SSHscreen-SSHdb software pipeline, which greatly facilitates gene discovery using suppression subtractive hybridization by improving the selection of clones for sequencing after screening the library on a small number of microarrays. Annotation of the sequence information and collaboration was further enhanced through a web-based SSHdb database, and we illustrated this through identification of drought responsive genes from cowpea, which can now be investigated in gene function studies. SSH is a popular and powerful gene discovery tool, and therefore this pipeline will have application for gene discovery in any biological system, particularly non-model organisms. SSHscreen 2.0.1 and a link to SSHdb are available from http://microarray.up.ac.za/SSHscreen.

  2. Characterization of leaf apoplastic peroxidases and metabolites in Vigna unguiculata in response to toxic manganese supply and silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führs, Hendrik; Götze, Stefanie; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Gallien, Sébastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Kopka, Joachim; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggested that the apoplastic phenol composition and its interaction with apoplastic class III peroxidases (PODs) are decisive in the development or avoidance of manganese (Mn) toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). This study characterizes apoplastic PODs with particular emphasis on the activities of specific isoenzymes and their modulation by phenols in the Mn-sensitive cowpea cultivar TVu 91 as affected by Mn and silicon (Si) supply. Si reduced Mn-induced toxicity symptoms without affecting the Mn uptake. Blue Native-PAGE combined with Nano-LC-MS/MS allowed identification of a range of POD isoenzymes in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF). In Si-treated plants Mn-mediated induction of POD activity was delayed. Four POD isoenzymes eluted from the BN gels catalysed both H(2)O(2)-consuming and H(2)O(2)-producing activity with pH optima at 6.5 and 5.5, respectively. Four phenols enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity of these isoenzymes in the presence of Mn(2+) (p-coumaric=vanillic>benzoic>ferulic acid). p-Coumaric acid-enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity was inhibited by ferulic acid (50%) and five other phenols (50-90%). An independent component analysis (ICA) of the total and apoplastic GC-MS-based metabolome profile showed that Mn, Si supply, and the AWF fraction (AWF(H(2)O), AWF(NaCl)) significantly changed the metabolite composition. Extracting non-polar metabolites from the AWF allowed the identification of phenols. Predominantly NADH-peroxidase activity-inhibiting ferulic acid appeared to be down-regulated in Mn-sensitive (+Mn, -Si) and up-regulated in Mn-tolerant (+Si) leaf tissue. The results presented here support the previously hypothesized role of apoplastic NADH-peroxidase and its activity-modulating phenols in Mn toxicity and Si-enhanced Mn tolerance. PMID:19286915

  3. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  4. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  5. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  6. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F? progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils' damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:26463066

  7. Caracterización de cepas de rhizobium y bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulación) seleccionados de los cultivos de fríjol caupi (vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinóculos

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadrado, Bernarda; Rubio, Guillermo; Santos, Winston

    2010-01-01

    Los suelos de Latinoamérica son ácidos y deficientes en nitrógeno; por esta razón es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulación y fijar el nitrógeno en las plantas leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opción con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analizó la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del fríjol Vigna unguiculata (fríjol caupí...

  8. DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756 strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

  9. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana B., Silva; Maurício P., Sales; Antônia E. A., Oliveira; Olga L. T., Machado; Kátia V. S., Fernandes; José, Xavier-Filho.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho confirmamos a resistência do feijão comum ( Phaseolus vulgaris) ao bruquídeo Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), inseto que preda sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) (L.). A resistência desta semente não está relacionada com a espessura do tegumento nem com os níveis de diverso [...] s compostos como ácido taníco, fenóis e ácido cianídrico conforme demonstram nossos resultados. No entanto, faseolina, detectada no tegumento por ‘‘Western blotting’’ e seqüenciamento N-terminal, é tóxica a C. maculatus. Esses dados estão de acordo com estudos anteriores feitos com duas outras sementes de leguminosas (Canavalia ensiformis e Phaseolus lunatus) e nos levam a sugerir que a presença de proteínas do tipo vicilina no tegumento de sementes de leguminosas tiveram papel importante nos mecanismo de adaptação de bruquídeos a sementes de leguminosas. Abstract in english We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the leve [...] ls of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  10. Interspecific hybridization of Vigna radiata x 13 wild Vigna species for developing MYMV donar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandiyan , N.Senthil, N. Ramamoorthi, AR.Muthiah, N.Tomooka V.Duncan and T.Jayaraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek is having a desirable characters like short duration, high protein, less anti nutritionalfactors, nitrogen fixing capacity, suitable for inter cropping, making many kinds of foods for higher human consumption andcosmetics products and some of the undesirable characters like low yield, low test weight.The aim of the study is to checkcrossabil;ity of Vigna radiata with all wild Vigna species and to create variability through wide hybridization and to developsuperior segregants for yield component coupled with pest and disease resistance. The interspecific crosses were attemptedwith thirteen wild relatives of mungbean (V. radiata were employed with V. radiata as male parent. The highest pod set of25 and crossability of 21.92 per cent was recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata and lowest pod set of2.0 per cent recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. dalzelliana in the direct cross combinations. The highest pollengermination 69.72 per cent was recorded by V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata. The estimates of pollen fertility wassufficient enough to recover F2 segregants in all the crosses combination.For all the traits in majority of the crosses, In the F2generation the skewness was positive indicating that predominance of dominant alleles. Among the direct crosses V. radiatax V. mungo var. silvestris exhibited highest value for four characters viz., number of clusters per branch, number of clustersper plant, number of pods per plant and single plant yield. The cross V. umbellata x V. radiata showed better performancefor the characters viz., number of branches and number of clusters in reciprocal direction In advanced generation of Vignaradiata x Vigna umbellata cross combination has expressed virus resistance for nine seasons. The same line was tested byagro inoculation for confirmation of resistance and was resulted found effective resistance. This line can be used MYMVdonar. Conclusion of the studies are mungbean is highly compatible with other wild Vigna species. Donor development fordifferent stress is possible in mungbean.

  11. The role of hydrogen peroxide-producing and hydrogen peroxide-consuming peroxidases in the leaf apoplast of cowpea in manganese tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht-Christoffers, Marion Maria; Führs, Hendrik; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2006-04-01

    The apoplast is considered the leaf compartment decisive for manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Particularly apoplastic peroxidases (PODs) were proposed to be key enzymes in Mn toxicity-induced processes. The presented work focuses on the characterization of the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing (NADH peroxidase) and H2O2-consuming peroxidase (guaiacol POD) in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) of leaves for early stages of Mn toxicity and genotypic differences in Mn tolerance of cowpea. Leaf AWF of the Mn-sensitive cultivar (cv) TVu 91 but not of the Mn-tolerant cv 1987 showed an increase of guaiacol-POD and NADH-peroxidase activities at elevated AWF Mn concentrations. two-dimensional resolutions of AWF proteins revealed that cv TVu 91 expressed more and additional proteins at high Mn treatment, whereas Mn-tolerant cv TVu 1987 remained nearly unaffected. In both cultivars, NADH-peroxidase activity and accompanied H2O2 formation rate in vitro were significantly affected by Mn2+, p-coumaric acid, and metabolites occurring in the AWF. The total phenol concentration in the AWF was indicative of advanced stages of Mn toxicity but was rather unrelated to early stages of Mn toxicity and genotypic differences in Mn tolerance. The NADH oxidation by AWF PODs was significantly delayed or enhanced in the presence of the protein-free AWF from cv TVu 1987 or cv TVu 91, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of AWF indicates the presence of phenols in cv TVu 1987 not observed in cv TVu 91. We conclude from our studies that the H2O2-producing NADH peroxidase and its modulation by stimulating or inhibiting phenolic compounds in the leaf apoplast play a major role for Mn toxicity and Mn tolerance in cowpea. PMID:16489137

  12. Número de repetições para avaliação de caracteres em genótipos de feijão-caupi / Number of replicates for the evaluation of characters in cowpea genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Eduardo, Torres; Edvaldo, Sagrilo; Paulo Eduardo, Teodoro; Larissa Pereira, Ribeiro; Alberto, Cargnelutti Filho.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o número de medições (repetições) necessário para avaliar caracteres de genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Vinte genótipos de feijão-caupi de porte ereto e vinte de porte semiprostrado foram avaliados no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, em seis e qua [...] tro ensaios, respectivamente. Os dez ensaios foram conduzidos no delineamento blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram mensurados os caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade de grãos. Foram verificados os pressupostos do modelo matemático, realizada a análise de variância, estimado o coeficiente de repetibilidade e calculado o número de repetições. Ensaios com quatro repetições identificam genótipos superiores de feijão-caupi em relação aos caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade de grãos, com, respectivamente, 84,57, 75,62, 73,14, 75,25, 81,53 e 79,19% de exatidão no prognóstico de seu valor real. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the number of measurements (replicates) necessary to predict the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. Twenty genotypes of cowpea to growth habit erect and twenty semi-prostrate were carried out in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in six a [...] nd four trials, respectively. It was conducted ten trials in randomized complete blocks design with four replicates. The character length of pod, weight of pod, weight of grains per pod, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred grains and grain yield were measured. Assumptions of the mathematical model were examined, analysis of variance was performed, the repeatability coefficient was estimated and the number of replicates was calculated. Trials with four replicates identify superior cowpea genotypes in relation to length of pod, weight of pod, weight of grains per pod, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred grains and grain yield characters, with, respectively, 84.57, 75.62, 73.14, 75.25, 81.53 and 79.19% accuracy of the true prognostic value.

  13. Reação de cultivares de feijão-caupi à mela (Rhizoctonia solani) em Roraima / Reaction of cowpea cultivars to web blight (Rhizoctonia solani) in Roraima, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kátia de Lima, Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Em Roraima, uma das principais doenças que incidem na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é a mela causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani). Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação a esta doença de dez cultivares de feijão-caupi em área de cerrado em [...] Roraima, em dois anos consecutivos. As cultivares de porte ereto utilizadas foram BRS-Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1), BR02-Bragança, Pitiúba, e as de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho. Os ensaios foram instalados em 2005 e 2006, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se, semanalmente, a porcentagem de área foliar lesionada para a obtenção da área baixo da curva de progresso da doença. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que os genótipos de porte prostrado apresentaram menor severidade do que os de porte ereto, indicando uma relação da arquitetura da planta com a resistência à mela. As cultivares de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho, e as de porte ereto, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba e BR03-Bragança, foram as mais resistentes à mela e podem ser recomendadas para áreas com histórico de incidência da doença. Abstract in english Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) is one of most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the state of Roraima, Brazil. Web blight severity for ten cowpea cultivars was evaluated in Roraima in two consecutive years. The erect cowpea cultivars BRS [...] -Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1), BR02-Bragança and Pitiúba, as well as the prostrate cultivars BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, were used. The experiment was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The percentage of diseased foliage was evaluated once a week and the data were used to calculate the area under the disease progress curve. Disease severity was lower on prostrate cultivars indicating a relationship between plant architecture and web blight resistance. The prostrate cultivars, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, and erect cultivars, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba and BR03-Bragança, were more resistant to web blight and can be recommended for planting in areas where the disease is known to occur.

  14. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba / Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João H. B. da C., Campos; Madson T., Silva; Vicente de P. R. da, Silva.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC), no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíb [...] a. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA), o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba. Abstract in english This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in [...] the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI). The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

  15. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, J.J.A., van; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, A; Dicke, M

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated beans. The volatile oils of Cymbopogon nardus and C. schoenanthus caused the majority of the eggs not to develop...

  16. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado no estudo. As seis populações (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 foram avaliadas num experimento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, em Teresina - PI; o plantio foi realizado em março de 1998. Os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram variâncias fenotípica, genética total, genética aditiva e dos desvios de dominância e devido aos efeitos do ambiente, herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito, grau médio de dominância e número dos genes que controlam o caráter. O modelo aditivo - dominante ajustou-se aos dados do peso de 100 sementes, visto que a média e o efeito gênico aditivo foram os parâmetros genéticos mais importantes na determinação desse caráter. O número dos genes que controlam sua expressão é cinco. A ocorrência de alto valor para a herdabilidade no sentido restrito indicou que a seleção para o tamanho da semente pode ser realizada em gerações segregantes iniciais.

  17. Impact of saline water stress on nutrient uptake and growth of cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Prakash R., Patel; Sushil S., Kajal; Vinay R., Patel; Vimal J., Patel; Sunil M., Khristi.

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major limitation to crops production in many areas of the world. The present study reports the impact of salt stress on seeds germination, plant growth parameters and leaf ions accumulation in three cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Indian cultivars: Akshay102, Gomti vu-89 and Pu [...] sa Falguni. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil was 0.75 dS m?1 and the NaCl treatments increased it to 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m?1. Germination percentage was recorded 10 days after sowing, while shoot and root dry weights were measured in 45 days old plants. Leaf ion concentrations for Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl? and proline content were determined. The results showed that the germination percentage of seeds was highly affected by salinity in all cultivars in all salinity levels from 2 to 10 dS m?1. On the other hand, height and weight of all cultivars were less affected by the salt stress. Only at 10 dS m?1 EC, significant reduction in plant height and root length could be found for all three cultivars. Salinity induced a significant increase in Na+, Cl? and proline concentrations, while reduced the accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ in leaves of all the cultivars. Moreover, the tolerance difference between the cultivars was better observed at the lowest levels of salt stress, as reveled in the measurements of K+/Na+ ratio and proline content. In conclusion, this study characterizes Akshay102 as the most tolerant cultivar and establishes the measurements of germination capacity, K+/Na+ ratio and proline accumulation as an important features to be explored in programs for selection and/or development of tolerant cultivars which make possible the utilization of waste saline water as well as the cultivation of vast areas of the tropical world affected by salinity.

  18. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts

  19. Studies on hybrid vigour and combining ability for seed yield and contributing characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ushakumari, N.Vairam, C.R. Anandakumar and N. Malini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The combining ability aids in better selection of parents besides elucidating the nature and magnitude of gene action. Heterosisand combining ability analysis were carried out in line x tester model using five lines viz., Kanakamany, Subadra, TC 49-1,Lola and Sarika and five testers viz., CO2, CO4, CO6, CO (CP 7 and VBN 1. The results reveled that TC 49-1, Lola, Sarika,VBN1, CO2 and CO (CP7 were found to be good general combiners for seed yield. Among the parents, TC 49-1, Lola andVBN1 were found good general combiners for days to 50% flowering, plant height, cluster / plant, pods, / plant, length of podand number of seeds / plant. The crosses Lola x VBN 1, Sarika x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO (CP 7 were the best specificcombination for grain yield. The two crosses Lola x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO 4 showed significant heterosis over the standardlatest variety CO (CP7 for seed / pod, cluster / plant, pods / plant and 50% flowering. The crosses TC 49-1 x CO 2 showedhigh heterosis over standard variety for plant height and clusters/plant. Hence, these hybrids can be utilized for commercialcultivation.

  20. Effect of physical mutagen on expression of characters in arid legume pulse cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ashok kumar, R.Usha kumari, N.Vairam and R.Amutha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physical induced mutagenesis, gamma rays were performed by exposing the healthy and dry seeds of cowpeavariety CO 4 to gamma rays 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 kR. The study was to evolve economically important mutants withvaried seed coat colour as against dark grey coloured seed coat of CO 4. The LD50 value was found at 50kR for 60 Cogamma rays. Under field conditions, germination, seedling survival, plant height on 30th day, pollen fertility, seed fertility,pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and single plant yield was reduced as compared to the control. InM2 generation, viable macro mutants like dwarf mutant, spreading type, late mutant, semi sterile type, single and tricotyledonary leaf mutant, basal branching, multiple leaf mutant, white flower mutant, chimeric mutant and seed coat colourmutant were observed. Gamma rays induced higher proportion of chlorophyll mutations. Single type and multiple typemutations occurred more frequently. Economically important macro mutants such as brownish white seed coat colourmutants were observed in M2 generation.

  1. Alternative hosts of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in sesame (Sesamum indicum) crops grown in Paraguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis R., González-Segnana; Arnaldo, Esquivel Fariña; Diego D., González; Ana Paula O. A., Mello; Jorge A. M., Rezende; Elliot W., Kitajima.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production in Paraguay has been severely affected by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), which causes a disease known locally as ka'are. Because very little is known about the epidemiology of this disease, a survey was performed in fields surrounding a [...] ffected sesame plantations to identify CABMV-infected plants that may be acting as sources of inoculum. Samples from 48 plant species (symptomatic or asymptomatic, mostly spontaneous and a few cultivated) belonging to 17 families were evaluated by biological and serological assays. In a few select cases, confirmation of the infection was achieved by RT-PCR. The following species were found to be naturally infected by CABMV: Amaranthus hybridus, Arachis hypogaea, Crotalaria incana, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata. The absence of resistant/tolerant sesame cultivars along with the ineffectiveness of disease control through the chemical control of aphid vectors indicates that the only alternative available for disease management at present is the elimination and/or reduction of the sources of inoculum immediately before starting new plantations.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  3. Efecto del tipo de labranza sobre el suministro del agua y el crecimiento del frijol tuy en un suelo mollisol de Venezuela / Effect of the type of farming on the provision of the water and the growth of kidney bean tuyin a ground mollisol of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Florencio, Gamez; Lesce, Navarro.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp; variedad Tuy, es un cultivo de gran importancia en Venezuela. Se requiere la evaluación de alternativas de labranza que incrementen su producción, mejoren o mantengan las características favorables del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de [...] la labranza mínima (LM) y la labranza convencional (LC) sobre la producción de materia seca (MS) del frijol; variedad Tuy, área foliar (ÁF), rendimiento , humedad del suelo hasta 50 cm de profundidad durante el ciclo del cultivo (CC), densidad aparente (Da), macro y microporosidad e infiltración al momento de madurez, para ello se sembró en el período norte-verano sin aplicación de riego en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, con una densidad aproximada de 400.000 plantas.ha-1 en un diseño en bloques aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones. El análisis de la varianza y prueba de Medias (Tukey a=10%) se realizó mediante el programa del Sistema de Análisis Estadístico (siglas en inglés SAS). Al analizar los resultados no se observó diferencias relevantes en el patrón de acumulación, MS (hojas, tallos), MS total, ÁF y producción de grano entre LM y LC. El ÁF fue significativamente mayor en LC a los 67 días después de emergencia (DDE). En el suelo se notaron cambios en la humedad del horizonte 0-5 cm, en la porosidad total a los 30-40 y 40-50 cm, en Da a los 0-5 y 5-10 cm y en el contenido de humedad a capacidad de campo (HCC) del 0-5 y 10-20 cm. Se detectó una relación entre la lámina de agua faltante y la MS total en LM y LC Abstract in english The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, is an important crop in Venezuela, and is necessary to evaluate different tillage practices to increase its production, and to improve the soil properties. We evaluated the impact of the minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT) in the production of dr [...] y matter (DM), foliar area (FA), and crop production of cowpea, variety Tuy, sowed at 0.5 m between rows and 0.05 m between plants in a Mollisol soil of Aragua State, in a completelly randomized block desing, with four repetitions, and the impact in the soil water content until 50 cm of depth during the crop cycle (CC), the soil bulk density, macro- and micro-porosity, total soil porosity and soil infi ltration. The analisis of variance and means test (Tukey a=10%) was done using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program. There was a not signifi cant difference in the pattern of DM production of leaves, stem, total DM, foliar area, and grain yield between MT and CT. The FA of the CT there was only signifi cat higher than in MT at 67 days after emergency. In the soil, there was signifi cant differences bewteen MT and CT in the soil water of the 0-5 cm soil layer, in the total soil porosity of the 30-40 and 40-50 cm soil layers, in the soil bulk density of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, and in the soil water content at soil capacity in the 0-5 and 10-20 cm soil layers. There was a signifi cant relationship between the water used or missing during the crop cycle and the total DM produced in MT and CT

  4. Effect of Rhizobium Inoculants on Cowpea under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker P. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted under rainfed condition to study the effect of Rhizobium inoculation (with or without chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer ( 0 and 50-30-20 Kg ha -1 P2O5, K2O and S on cowpea. Two sources of biofertilizer were used. Biofertilizer showed significantly higher yield attributes and seed yield of cowpea as compared to control. Biofertilizer of BARI source gave the highest cowpea seed yield (880 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (658 Kg ha -1 was obtained without biofertilizer. No significant difference was found between the two sources of bio-fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer showed better performance than control in case of seed yield and all yield contributing characters of cowpea. Interaction of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer also showed statistically significant difference. PKS with biofertilizer of both BAU and BARI sources gave the highest seed yield (987 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (525 Kg ha -1 was obtained from control treatment. Though the highest average rate of return (4556% was found using biofertilizer of BARI source but on consideration of net return and also soil health, PKS with biofertilizer of BARI source where ARR was the second highest may be suggested for growing cowpea under rainfed condition.

  5. Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P2O5/ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A POWERED COWPEA THRESHER

    OpenAIRE

    Umogbai, V. I.; A.U. FULANI; S.E. Obetta

    2014-01-01

    Threshing is one of the major problems associated with production of cowpea in Nigeria and most farmers still employ crude methods of threshing the crop. For this reason a thresher was designed and constructed using locally available materials. The popularly grown variety of cowpea (Kakando) in the middle belt region of Nigeria was used for performance evaluation of the thresher. The Kakando seed has an average length of 10.36 mm, and a thickness of 7.8 mm. Its angle of friction is 30° and a ...

  8. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  9. Resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi ao ataque de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) / Resistance of genotypes of cowpea to the attack of Callosobruchus Maculatus (Fabr.,1775) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F, de Melo; L.S, Fontes; D.R.S, Barbosa; A.A.R, Araújo; E.P.S, Sousa; L.L.L, Soares; P.R.R, Silva.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de quatro genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775). Os genótipos utilizados foram BR 17-Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, TE96-290-12G e BRS Guariba. Foram realizados testes com e sem chance de escolha, [...] em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, totalizando 4 tratamentos cada um com 5 repetições, avaliando-se número de ovos, número de insetos emergidos, viabilidade de ovos (%) e taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional. Nos testes com e sem chance de escolha, o genótipo TE96-290-12G mostrou-se como o mais resistente. BRS Rouxinol foi o genótipo mais suscetível. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of 4 genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775). The genotypes evaluated were BR 17-Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, TE96-290-12G and BRS Guariba. Tests were conducted with and without possibilit [...] y of choice, in a completely randomized design, totaling 4 treatments each with 5 replicates, evaluating the number of eggs, number of emerged insects, egg viability (%) and instantaneous rate of population growth. In the test with possibility of choice the genotype TE96-290-12G was revealed as the most resistant. BRS Rouxinol was the most susceptible genotype.

  10. Caracterización agronómica de 20 cultivares de frijol mungo, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, en tres épocas de siembra, en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela Agronomic characterization of 20 cultivars of mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek during three seasons, in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    P. M Madriz Istúriz; J. F Luciani Marcano

    2004-01-01

    Se probaron 20 cultivares de frijol mungo, Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek, en tres épocas de siembra: época de lluvias (mayo a agosto de 1994) y época de salida de lluvias (octubre 1994 a enero 1995) y época seca (febrero a abril 1995) en el Campo Experimental del Instituto de Agronomía, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, estado Aragua; con la finalidad de evaluar su comportamiento en las diferentes condiciones ambientales. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar,...

  11. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, a new species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayajirao Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  12. Field Occurrence of Bruchid Pests of Cowpea and Associated Parasitoids in a Sub Humid Zone of Burkina Faso: Importance on the Infestation of Two Cowpea Varieties at Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanon Antoine

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea is a very important legume for peasant farmers in West Africa but this crop is very sensitive to bruchid attacks during storage. A study was carried out in a sub humid zone of Burkina Faso to determine the relation between the dynamic of bruchid and parasitoid populations in the fields and cowpea infestation at harvest. The variations in insect numbers were weekly estimated by net captures during the growth of an early and a late cowpea variety. Adults of two bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.. and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic appeared early in the fields before cowpea flowering and their population regularly increased over time and from early to late cowpea variety. The Pteromalid Dinarmus basalis Rond was the only larval parasitoid encountered. Its adults appeared later than bruchids and their parasitism activity increased over time. At harvest, 35% of the early cowpea pods and 74.5% of the late cowpea pods were infested by bruchid eggs. 58.5 and 72% of the bruchid eggs laid respectively on the early and the late cowpea variety were parasitized by Uscana sp. The level of cowpea seed infestation by bruchids at the beginning of storage was estimated to be 1 and 2.7% for the early and late cowpea variety respectively. The parasitism rate of bruchid larvae by D. basalis was estimated at this period to be 7.8% for early cowpea variety and 18.2% for the late variety. These results are discussed in view of developing an integrated control method based on the enhancement of the pest natural enemies in the fields and/or into storage systems in combination with beneficial farming practices.

  13. Changes induced by infestation on some chemical properties of cowpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojimelukwe, P C

    2002-01-01

    Three cowpea varieties were used in the present study, Insect susceptible popular variety, 'Ife-brown' (IFB), an improved variety for insect resistance IT 81D-975 (1975) and a local black cowpea variety with a white hilium adapted to diverse habitats, 'Akidi' (AKD). Cowpea seeds were infested with Callosobruchus maculatus. Crude protein content of infested and uninfested whole cowpea flour and protein concentrate was determined. Prolamin contents of flour and protein concentrates were evaluated. Fat content, free fatty acid and peroxide values of cowpea seeds were also determined. All determinations were carried out in infested and uninfested cowpea seeds in 3 replicates for each determination. Emulsion properties of cowpea seeds stored in 3 containers, plastic cans (PC) and polyethylene bags (white and black WPB/BPB) were monitored on a biweekly basis for 24 weeks. Varietal differences existed in the protein, fat and prolamin contents of cowpeas. Infestation reduced the contents of these nutrients in all cases. Free fatty acid contents and peroxide values were increased by > 100%. Infestation reduced the prolamin content by > 25% in all cases. Varietal differences also existed in emulsion capacities of cowpea flours; IFB and 975 formed better and more stable emulsions than AKD flour. Storage in plastic cans led to better retention of the emulsion properties of the cowpeas. PMID:12049145

  14. Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade / Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogéria Pereira, Souza; Eduardo Caruso, Machado; Joaquim Albenísio Gomes, Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl [...] . Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the photosynthetic responses and the accumulation of carbohydrates, salt ions, and proline in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants subjected to salinity. Plants were subjected to four treatments, from 28 to 35 days of age: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl [...] . Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, and leaf concentrations of carbohydrates, Na+, Cl-, and proline were evaluated. Treatments had no effect on potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, but there was a slight reduction in effective quantum efficiency and a higher dissipation of excess excitation energy by non-photochemical processes. The foliar contents of starch decreased, and those of sucrose and proline increased with higher NaCl content. There was Na+ exclusion and Cl-accumulation in leaves, and leaf water relations were little affected by salt stress, except in the most severe treatment. The accumulation of Cl- was related with the reduction of CO2 assimilation, which resulted from the decline in stomatal conductance and in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency. Cowpea plants have physiological characteristics that favor the maintenance of photosynthetic activity under short-term exposure to salinity.

  15. Distribuição espacial do pulgão preto em feijão de corda e cálculo do número de amostras / Spatial distribution of the cowpea aphid and calculation of the sample size

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefté Ferreira da, Silva; Ervino, Bleicher; Gleidson Vieira, Marques; Valéria, Silva.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a dispersão espacial do pulgão preto (Aphis craccivora Koch), na cultura de feijão de corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e estabelecer o número de amostras necessárias para a estimativa da população da praga para o uso em programas de Manejo Integrado de Prag [...] as. Para isso, foram cultivados dois campos experimentais na Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza. O primeiro campo tinha uma área de 216 m², composta de 15 parcelas. O segundo campo tinha uma área de 576 m² dividida em 25 parcelas. A cultivar utilizada foi a Vita 7 com plantas espaçadas em 0,25 m x 0,8 m. Foram realizadas seis coletas de dados em cada campo onde foram avaliadas dez plantas por parcela. Foi contado o número de colônias de pulgão presentes em toda a planta. Os resultados obtidos nos índices de agregação utilizados indicam que a dispersão do A. craccivora no campo é do tipo agregada o que foi confirmado pelo ajuste dos dados à distribuição de frequência Binomial Negativa. Quarenta e cinco é o número de amostras adequado para a estimativa da população de A. craccivora em campos de V. unguiculata para aplicação em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the spatial dispersion of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and to determine the sample size required to estimate the pest population, for use in Integrated Pest Management programs. In order to do this, two [...] field experiments were carried out at the Federal University of Ceará in Fortaleza, Brazil. The first with an area of 216 m², consisting of 15 plots. The second with an area of 576 m² divided into 25 plots. The cultivar "Vita 7" was used, with plants spaced 0.25 m x 0.8 m apart. Data were collected six times for each experiment, when ten plants per plot were evaluated. The total of aphid colonies present was counted for each plant. The results obtained from the clustering indices which were employed indicate that dispersion of A. craccivora in the field is of the aggregate type, which was confirmed by fitting the data to the negative binomial distribution of frequency. Forty-five is a suitable number of samples in the estimation of the population of A. craccivora in fields planted with V. Unguiculata, for use in integrated pest management programs.

  16. Rendimento produtivo e econômico do feijão-caupi em função de doses de potássio Productive and economic yield of cowpea bean as a function of levels of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp], também conhecido como feijão-macassar, feijão-de-corda ou fradinho é uma das principais culturas do Nordeste do Brasil. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da adubação potássica sobre o rendimento produtivo e econômico do feijão-caupi, cultivar Pitiuba. O trabalho foi realizado na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia (PB, em Neossolo Regolítico Psamítico típico, no período de julho a setembro de 2005. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 kg ha-1 de K2O e quatro repetições. Cada parcela continha 40 plantas espaçadas de 0,80 m x 0,40 m. A produção máxima de vagens por planta (285 g de grãos verdes (143 g e de grãos secos (120 g foram obtidas, respectivamente, com 160, 153 e 200 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de 210, 151 e 170 kg ha-1 de K2O, respectivamente, foram responsáveis pelas produtividades máximas de 4,18 t ha-1 de vagens, 3,48 t ha-1 de grãos verdes e de 1,89 t ha-1 de grãos secos. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica para a produtividade de grãos secos foi de 141 kg ha-1 de K2O, com produtividade de 1,87 t ha-1.Cowpea bean [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp] is one the main crops in the Northeast region of Brazil. With the objective of evaluating the effect of potassium fertilization on cowpea bean cv. Pitiúba, an experiment was carried out at Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia (PB, Brazil, on a Quartz Psamment soil, from July to September 2005. The experimental design was the randomized blocks, with six treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg ha-1 K2O, and four replications. Each plot contained 40 plants spaced 0.80 m x 0.40 m. The maximum yield of pods per plant (285 g, green grains (143 g and dry grains (120 g were obtained with 160, 153 and 200 kg ha-1 K2O, respectively. The levels of 210, 151, and 170 kg ha-1 K2O were responsible for the maximum yields of 4.18 t ha-1 of pods, 3.48 t ha-1 of green grains, and 1.89 t ha-1 of dry grains, respectively. The maximum level of economical efficiency for the yield of dry grains was 141 kg ha-1 K2O, with a yield of 1.87 t ha-1.

  17. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva de feijão-caupi de porte semiprostrado / Yield adaptability and stability of semi-prostrate cowpea genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michel Alves, Barros; Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha; Regina Lucia Ferreira, Gomes; Kaesel Jackson Damasceno e, Silva; Adão Cabral das, Neves.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade produtiva de genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) de porte semiprostrado. Foram avaliados 20 genótipos de feijão-caupi com uso do modelo de efeitos aditivos principais e interação multiplicativa (AMMI) com genótipo e am [...] biente suplementares. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em nove ambientes (Balsas, MA, 2010; Balsas, MA, 2011; Bom Jesus, PI, 2010; Bom Jesus, PI, 2011; São Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2010; São Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2011; São João do Piauí, PI, 2011; Campo Grande do Piauí, PI, 2011; Buriti, MA, 2011), da região Meio-Norte do Brasil, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 20 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os efeitos de genótipos, ambientes e da interação genótipo x ambiente foram significativos. Os genótipos diferiram quanto à adaptabilidade e à estabilidade da produtividade. A linhagem MNC03-736F-2 apresentou genes para adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva. Entre as cultivares avaliadas, BR 17-Gurguéia e Pingo-de-Ouro-1-2 são as mais previsíveis, e a BRS Xiquexique é a mais adaptada. Entre os locais de teste, Balsas, MA, é o mais adequado para a seleção de genótipos superiores em adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield adaptability and stability of semi-prostrate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. Twenty cowpea genotypes were evaluated using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model with supplementary genotype and environment. The [...] trials were carried out in nine environments (Balsas, MA, 2010; Balsas, MA, 2011; Bom Jesus, PI, 2010; Bom Jesus, PI, 2011; São Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2010; São Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2011; São João do Piauí, PI, 2011; Campo Grande do Piauí, PI, 2011; Buriti, MA, 2011) of the Mid-North region of Brazil in a randomized complete block design with 20 treatments and four replicates. The effects of genotypes, environments, and genotype x environment interaction were significant. Genotypes differed as to yield adaptability and stability. The line MNC03-736F-2 presented genes for yield adaptability and stability. Among the evaluated genotypes, BR 17-Gurguéia and Pingo-de-Ouro-1-2 are the most predictable, and BRS Xiquexique is the most adapted. Among the test sites, Balsas, MA is the most appropriate for selection of genotypes superior for yield adaptability and stability.

  18. Estratégias ótimas de irrigação do feijão?caupi para produção de grãos verdes / Optimal irrigation strategies for cowpea green bean production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herbert Moraes Moreira, Ramos; Edson Alves, Bastos; Aderson Soares de, Andrade Júnior; Waldir Aparecido, Marouelli.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar estratégias ótimas de irrigação do feijão?caupi (Vigna unguiculata) para a produção de grãos verdes, com a água como fator limitante da produção e diferentes valores de preço do produto. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Meio?Norte, em Teresina, PI, entr [...] e setembro e novembro de 2009. Foram avaliadas cinco lâminas de irrigação, estabelecidas com base em frações da evapotranspiração de referência (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ETo), e as cultivares BRS Guariba e BRS Paraguaçu de feijão?caupi. Aplicou-se a irrigação por sistema de aspersão convencional fixo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcelas subdivididas (cultivares). As lâminas de irrigação entre 290 e 325 mm (108 e 130% da ETo) (BRS Paraguaçu) e entre 325 e 363 mm (130 e 153% da ETo) (BRS Guariba) maximizam a receita líquida na faixa de variação de preço do produto entre US$ 0,75 e 2,00 kg?1, para a cultivar BRS Paraguaçu, e entre US$ 0,50 e 2,00 kg?1, para a BRS Guariba. A cultivar BRS Guariba apresenta melhor desempenho econômico que a BRS Paraguaçu. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine optimal strategies of irrigation for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) for the production of green bean, with water as the limiting yield factor and different values for the price of the product. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Meio?Norte, in Teresina, [...] PI, Brazil, from September to November 2009. Five irrigation depths, established based on fractions of reference evapotranspiration (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of ETo), and the BRS Guariba and BRS Paraguaçu cowpea cultivars were evaluated. Irrigation was done with a conventional fixed sprinkling system. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates, in a split?plot arrangement (cultivars). The irrigation depths from 290 to 325 mm (108 to 130% of ETo) (BRS Paraguaçu) and from 325 to 363 mm (130 to 153% of ETo) (BRS Guariba) maximize the liquid income, considering the price range of the product from US$ 0.75 to 2.00 kg?1, for the cultivar BRS Paraguaçu, and from US$ 0.50 to 2.00 kg?1, for BRS Guariba. The cultivar BRS Guariba shows better economic performance than BRS Paraguaçu.

  19. Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador B Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

  20. Radiação microondas para o controle de pupas de Callosobruchus maculatus em cultivares de feijão-caupi Microwave radiation to control Callosobruchus maculatus pupae in cowpea cultivars

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    Lúcia da S. Fontes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho investigar os efeitos da radiação microondas em pupas de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 nas cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata BRS Paraguaçu e BRS Xique-xique. Para a radiação, utilizou-se um forno microondas comercial, com frequência de 2.450 MHz, rendimento de potência de 800 W, em baixa potência (30%, sendo os tempos de exposição à radiação microondas 0, 60, 90, 120 e 150 segundos. Observou-se, para ambas as cultivares, redução no número de insetos emergidos por grão, número de insetos emergidos por tratamento e aumento do período ovo-adulto, com exposição a 60 segundos de radiação. Os tempos de 90, 120 e 150 segundos de exposição à radiação microondas foram letais para 100% das pupas de C. maculatus The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on Callosobruchus maculates (Fabr., 1775 pupae in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivars BRS Paraguaçu and BRS Xique-xique. The irradiation was made using a commercial microwave oven with a 2450 MHz frequency, 800 W power output, in low power (30%, with exposure periods to microwave radiation of 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 seconds. It was observed, for both cultivars, reduction of the number of insects emerged per grain, number of insects emerged per treatment and increase in the egg to adult period, with 60 seconds exposure to microwave radiation. The 90, 120 and 150 seconds exposure periods to microwave radiation were lethal to 100% of the C. maculates pupae.

  1. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is with preemergence and some postemergence herbicides, but recently fresh market...

  2. Comparison of Shoot Regeneration on Different Concentrations of Thidiazuron from Shoot Tip Explant of Cowpea on Gelrite and Agar Containing Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AASIM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an important legume grown all over the world as grain crop, animal fodder, cover crop, gren manure and vegetable. The present study compares effects of agar and gelrite on micropropagation from shoot tip explant of two Turkish cowpea cultivars Akkiz and Karagoz using 0.15, 0.15, 0.35 mg/l Thidiazuron (TDZ, 3 g/l activated charcoal, 2 mg/l yeast extract with and without 1.25 mg/l Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. To overcome problem of endogenic bacterial contaminations, all cultures contained 500 mg/l augmentin and incubated at 24 ± 2o C in 16 h light photoperiod for eight weeks. Therafter, all explants were transferred to MS medium for two weeks for shoot regeneration and elongation under same incubation and photoperiod conditions. The results showed that frequency of shoot regeneration increased with increase in TDZ concentrations in both cultivars on both agar and gelrite gelled medium. Both cultivars showed maximum mean number of shoots per explant in gelrite compared to agar gelled medium. Maximum number of 4.72 and 2.86 shoots per explant were recorded on MS medium containing 0.25 mg/l TDZ in cv. Akkiz and cv. Karagoz respectively. Hyperhydricity was recorded on some regenerated shoots, which was more prominant on agar. Agar gelled medium had greater shoot length compared to gelrite medium in both cultivars. Regenerated shoots were rooted easily on MS medium containing 0.50 mg/l IBA with regeneration of mean number of 4 secondary shoots on cv. Akkiz and 3 on cv. Karagoz. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened in the growth chamber and subsequently established in the greenhouse; where they flowered and set seeds. The recorded survival rate of the plants was 100%. Plants looked healthy with no visible detecTab. phenotypic variations.

  3. Caracterización de tres nuevas variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ en Cuba.

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    Yadelys Figueroa Aguila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La investigación se desarrolló sobre un suelo Pardo mullido medianamente lavado con las variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ de reciente introducción en nuestro país. Tiene como principal objetivo caracterizar las variedades (‘IPA 206, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ bajo nuestras condiciones climáticas. Teniendo como principales resultados que se logró incluir en el registro de variedades según la caracterización desarrollada por nuestro instituto utilizando dos épocas de siembra, el hábitos de crecimiento indeterminado con vainas distribuidas por toda la planta se destaca en las variedades ‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’, mientras que en la ‘Guariba’ es determinado encontrándose estas distribuidas por encima de la planta, en cuanto al rendimiento, la variedad ‘IPA 207’ es superiores que la obtenida por la ‘'PA 206’ y ‘Guariba’, el peso de 1000 semillas en las variedades ‘Guariba’ y ‘IPA 206’ son superiores al peso de la ‘IPA 207’, la variedad ‘Guariba’ es económicamente más rentable que las ‘IPA 206’ y ‘IPA 207’ por emplear un número de cosechas muy inferior a las antes mencionadas. Puede sembrarse durante todas las épocas del año, pero lo más aconsejable es en época de frío para la obtención de semilla y el verano para la producción donde es más productiva y puede sustituir al fríjol común. Tolera estrés hídrico y régimen de abundantes lluvias, excepto en el momento de la cosecha y no admite el encharcamiento. Characterization of three new varieties vignas (' IPA 206' and ' IPA 207' y 'Guariba' in Cuba. ABSTRACT The research was conducted on a fairly soft Brown soil washing vignas varieties ('IPA 206', 'IPA 207' and 'Guariba' recently introduced in our country. Its main objective is to characterize varieties ('IPA 206,' IPA 207 'and' Guariba ' under our climatic conditions. Having as main results achieved include in the record as the characterization of varieties developed by our institute using two seasons, the indeterminate growth habit with pods distributed throughout the plant stands in the varieties' IPA 206 'and' IPA 207 ', while the' Guariba 'is determined by finding these distributed over the plant, as regards the yield, the variety' IPA 207 'is higher than that obtained by PA 206''' and 'Guariba', the weight of 1000 seed varieties 'Guariba' and 'IPA 206' are greater than the weight of the 'IPA 207', the variety 'Guariba' is economically more profitable than the 'IPA 206' and 'IPA 207' by employing a number crop much lower than those above. It can be sown during all seasons, but it is best in cold weather to obtain seed and summer to produce where it is more productive and can replace the common bean. Tolerate wate

  4. Resistência de genótipos de caupi ao caruncho / Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the Callosobruchus maculatus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PAULO DIÓGENES, BARRETO; MARY ANN WEYNE, QUINDERÉ.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de resistência genética ao ataque de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) tem sido alvo de investigação científica, especialmente no que diz respeito à identificação de fontes de resistência. O presente trabalho objetivou incorporar, ao grupo de caracteres desejáveis para o cultivo de caupi [...] (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), resistência genética ao caruncho (C. maculatus). Foram realizadas hibridações dos genótipos IT81D-1045 e IT81D-1064 (portadores de resistência ao inseto) com CNCx 252-1E/FB, CNCx 187-22D-1 e BR 1-Poty (capazes de transferir resistência a viroses, tolerância à seca, formação de grãos com padrão comercial, elevado potencial de produção e adaptabilidade a diferentes condições ambientais). Populações segregantes obtidas destes cruzamentos foram conduzidas pelo método SPD (descendência de uma única vagem), e na geração F5 foram realizadas seleções individuais. As linhagens obtidas foram avaliadas em conjunto com materiais de origens diferentes, utilizando-se parâmetros associados à infestação da praga. Foi constatado que os genótipos avaliados apresentaram variabilidade quanto à preferência à postura, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas; as linhas EVx 37-15E e EVx 37-2E foram as que sofreram menor dano causado pelo caruncho; as variáveis número de ovos, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas mostraram-se positiva e significativamente correlacionadas entre si; o grupo das linhagens que descendem de genitores resistentes apresenta valores significativamente inferiores aos obtidos pelas demais, o que indica que a resistência ao inseto se transmite geneticamente. Abstract in english The use of genetic resistance to the weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.)) has been investigated to identify sources of resistance. The main purpose of the present work was to incorporate the genetic resistance to this insect into cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with other already d [...] esirable. Hybridization was carried out among the genotypes IT81D-1045 and IT81D-1064 (identified in International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, as resistant to the insect) and CNCx 252-1E/FB, CNCx 187-22D-1 and BR 1-Poty, all of them able to transfer resistance to viruses, drought tolerance, desirable commercial quality of grains, high production potential and adaptability to different environments. Segregating populations were obtained from these crossings and so driven by the SPD method (single pod descendent) with individual selections being made in the F5 generation. The obtained lineages were assessed together with materials of different origins, using associated parameters to the pest infestation. Results revealed that the genotypes showed differences concerned to the eggs number laid by, number of insects hatched and the number of damaged seeds; these variables were positive by and significantly correlated among them; the EVx 37-15E and EVx 37-2E lineages were the less damaged by the weevil; the lineages group that descends from the resistant parents presented values significantly inferior to those obtained by the others, indicating that the resistance to the insect is genetically transmitted.

  5. Eficiência agronômica de rizóbios selecionados e diversidade de populações nativas nodulíferas em perdões (MG): I - caupi / Agronomic efficiency of selected rhizobia strains and diversity of native nodulating populations in Perdões (MG - Brazil): I - cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis de Lima, Soares; João Paulo Andrade Resende, Pereira; Paulo Ademar Avelar, Ferreira; Helson Mário Martins do, Vale; Adriana Silva, Lima; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fátima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.) é de grande importância nutricional, social, econômica e estratégica, principalmente para as regiões Norte e Nordeste, e vem ultrapassando as barreiras regionais, com amplas perspectivas no agronegócio brasileiro. A interação do caupi com bactérias fixadoras de N atmos [...] férico pode aumentar a produtividade e diminuir os custos de produção. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se no campo a eficiência agronômica de estirpes previamente selecionadas de rizóbio em simbiose com o caupi, comparadas à estirpe recomendada até 2004, para a produção de inoculantes comerciais (BR 2001). Posteriormente, a diversidade fenotípica das populações nativas foi avaliada pela análise das características culturais e pela análise de proteína total por eletroforese em gel poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE). Verificou-se que a inoculação no campo com as estirpes UFLA 03-84 e INPA 03-11B contribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento no rendimento de grãos, sendo semelhante ao da testemunha, com 70 kg ha-1 de N, e superior ao da estirpe BR 2001. A população nativa apresentou alta diversidade fenotípica cultural e de padrões protéicos. As estirpes inoculadas foram bastante distintas fenotipicamente de estirpes que compõem a população nativa. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is one of the main food crops in the north and northeast of Brazil nowadays, being planted on large areas in other Brazilian regions as well, with bright prospects in the Brazilian agribusiness. Symbiosis of cowpea and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) can raise yields and [...] decrease yield costs. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of previously selected rhizobia strains compared to the strain recommended until 2004 (BR 2001). The phenotypic diversity of native rhizobia populations was evaluated by cultural characteristics and analysis of total protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In field inoculations with strains UFLA 03-84 and INPA 03-11B grain yields increased similarly as in the control treatment with 70 kg ha-1 N-urea and outmatched the treatment with BR 2001 inoculation. Native cowpea-nodulating populations have a high phenotypic diversity and do not resemble the strains introduced as inoculants.

  6. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE / CROMIO NA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA DO SOLO E FEIJÃO-CAUPI, APÓS QUATRO APLICAÇÕES ANUAIS CONSECUTIVAS DE LODO DE CURTUME COMPOSTADO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto, Oliveira; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araujo; Wanderley José de, Melo.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O lodo de curtume compostado contém elevadas concentrações de elementos inorgânicos, como o crômio (Cr), que podem levar à poluição ambiental e influenciar na saúde humana. O comportamento envolvendo o Cr nas frações da matéria orgânica e no crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.) foi est [...] udado em solo arenoso, após quatro anos de aplicações anuais consecutivas de lodo de curtume compostado (LCC). Durante quatro anos, o LCC foi aplicado em parcelas permanentes (2 × 5 m) e incorporado no solo (0-20 cm), nas doses de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 10,0 e 20,0 Mg ha-1 (base seca). Esses tratamentos foram repetidos quatro vezes em blocos ao acaso. No quarto ano, o feijão-caupi foi semeado e cresceu por 50 dias, quando se analisaram as concentrações de Cr no solo, nas frações ácidos fúlvicos, ácidos húmicos e humina, nas folhas, nas vagens e nos grãos do feijão-caupi. O LCC promoveu aumento na concentração de Cr no solo. Entre as substâncias húmicas, a maior concentração de Cr foi encontrada na humina. As doses de LCC elevaram o teor de Cr nas folhas e grãos. Abstract in english Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr), which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) was studied in a sandy soil after four consecu [...] tive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS). Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m) and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm) at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis). These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  7. Use of X-ray to evaluate damage caused by weevils in cowpea seeds / Utilização de raios X na avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto de A, Melo; Victor Augusto, Forti; Silvio M, Cicero; Ana DLC, Novembre; Paulo César T de, Melo.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], tem destaque na Região Nordeste, sendo uma cultura típica da agricultura familiar. A importância dos danos causados por pragas de armazenamento em sementes da referida espécie, em relação à sua qualidade, tem sido evidenciada em vários trabalh [...] os. Através de imagens de raios X é possível visualizar as estruturas internas da semente, identificando possíveis alterações e danificações. Dessa forma, esse trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar os danos causados por caruncho (Callosobruchus maculatus) e sua relação com a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão-caupi, por intermédio da análise de raios X. Foram utilizadas três cultivares (IPA-206, BRS-Pajeu e BRS-Potengi) e duas linhagens (L 281.005 e L ESP 10). As amostras foram submetidas ao teste de raios X e ao teste de germinação, a fim de determinar a relação de causa e efeito entre os danos provocados pelo caruncho e a germinação das sementes. Nas avaliações das imagens de raios X foi considerada a severidade e a localização dos danos na semente. Para os danos classificados como severos, localizados no eixo embrionário e, ou nos cotilédones, as sementes originaram plântulas anormais ou as sementes estavam mortas. Portanto, o teste de raios X é eficiente para a avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi, permitindo relacionar os eventuais danos com os prejuízos causados à germinação. Abstract in english In Brazil, the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], is important in the Northeast Region, where it is typically grown on family farms. The importance of the damage caused to the seed quality of this species by stored pests has been described in various studies. Using X-ray, it is possible to see th [...] e internal seed structures and identify possible changes and damage. The objective of this study was to identify the damage caused by the weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.)] by analyzing X-ray and evaluate its relationship to the physiological quality of the cowpea seed. Three cultivars were used (IPA-206, BRS-Pajeu and BRS-Potengi) and two lines (L 281.005 and L ESP 10). The samples were exposed to X-ray and germination test to determine the cause-effect relationship between weevil damage and seed germination. X-ray images were evaluated to determine damage severity and location in the seed. Seed damage classified as severe, located in the embryonic axis or in the cotyledons, resulted in abnormal seedlings or dead seeds. The X-ray test, therefore, is efficient for evaluating weevil damage in cowpea seeds and the damage caused to be associated with any resulting adverse germination effects.

  8. Use of X-ray to evaluate damage caused by weevils in cowpea seeds Utilização de raios X na avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de A Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], is important in the Northeast Region, where it is typically grown on family farms. The importance of the damage caused to the seed quality of this species by stored pests has been described in various studies. Using X-ray, it is possible to see the internal seed structures and identify possible changes and damage. The objective of this study was to identify the damage caused by the weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.] by analyzing X-ray and evaluate its relationship to the physiological quality of the cowpea seed. Three cultivars were used (IPA-206, BRS-Pajeu and BRS-Potengi and two lines (L 281.005 and L ESP 10. The samples were exposed to X-ray and germination test to determine the cause-effect relationship between weevil damage and seed germination. X-ray images were evaluated to determine damage severity and location in the seed. Seed damage classified as severe, located in the embryonic axis or in the cotyledons, resulted in abnormal seedlings or dead seeds. The X-ray test, therefore, is efficient for evaluating weevil damage in cowpea seeds and the damage caused to be associated with any resulting adverse germination effects.No Brasil, o feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], tem destaque na Região Nordeste, sendo uma cultura típica da agricultura familiar. A importância dos danos causados por pragas de armazenamento em sementes da referida espécie, em relação à sua qualidade, tem sido evidenciada em vários trabalhos. Através de imagens de raios X é possível visualizar as estruturas internas da semente, identificando possíveis alterações e danificações. Dessa forma, esse trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar os danos causados por caruncho (Callosobruchus maculatus e sua relação com a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão-caupi, por intermédio da análise de raios X. Foram utilizadas três cultivares (IPA-206, BRS-Pajeu e BRS-Potengi e duas linhagens (L 281.005 e L ESP 10. As amostras foram submetidas ao teste de raios X e ao teste de germinação, a fim de determinar a relação de causa e efeito entre os danos provocados pelo caruncho e a germinação das sementes. Nas avaliações das imagens de raios X foi considerada a severidade e a localização dos danos na semente. Para os danos classificados como severos, localizados no eixo embrionário e, ou nos cotilédones, as sementes originaram plântulas anormais ou as sementes estavam mortas. Portanto, o teste de raios X é eficiente para a avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi, permitindo relacionar os eventuais danos com os prejuízos causados à germinação.

  9. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezezika Obidimma C; Daar Abdallah S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”). Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricu...

  10. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus ro...

  11. Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo MA; Kareem KT

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were s...

  12. Roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio como fuente de fósforo para frijol en dos tipos de suelo / Phosphate rock acidulated with sulfuric acid and ammonium thiosulfate as sources of phosphorus for cowpea in two soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omaira, Sequera; Ricardo, Ramírez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de fósforo en los suelos tropicales es común. Una fuente natural de este nutriente es la roca fosfórica acidulada (RFA) con ácido sulfúrico (AS), aunque una alternativa más económica es la acidulación sustituyendo el 30 % del AS por tiosulfato de amonio (R30T). Para probar la eficienc [...] ia de esta última forma se trabajó con dos experimentos usando un suelo ácido y otro neutro. Se aplicó P en forma de superfosfato triple (SFT), RFA y R30T en dosis de 0, 70, 140 y 210 mg·kg-1. Se usó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, y se sembró frijol (Vigna sinensis) el cual se cosechó a los 35 días para determinar materia seca (MS), longitud radical (LR), P absorbido, y Ca y P residual en el suelo. La MS y el P absorbido en promedio fueron parecidos donde se aplicó SFT, RFA y R30T. La MS dependió altamente de la concentración de P y Ca en ambos suelos, así como de la concentración del P en la planta. La LR mostró un mayor crecimiento con el incremento del P disponible en el suelo ácido, no así en el suelo neutro. Se concluye que la acidulación parcial de la roca fosfórica con tiosulfato de amonio y ácido sulfúrico permite producir un fertilizante tan eficiente como la RFA para el crecimiento del sistema radical tanto en suelo ácido como neutro, y se ratificó su eficiencia en la producción de materia seca y absorción de fósforo por la planta. Abstract in english Phosphorus deficiency in tropical soils is a common constrain. Acidulated phosphate rock with sulfuric acid (RFA) is a natural source of P, but a cheaper alternative is the acidification of phosphate rock by replacing 30% of sulfuric acid with ammonium thiosulfate (R30T). To test the efficiency of t [...] hose fertilizers and superphosphate two experiments were conducted using an acidic soil and a neutral one. The doses of P applied were 0, 70, 140 and 210 mg·kg-1. A completely randomized design was used with four replications, and cowpea plants were grown. Plants were harvested at 35 days old and dry matter (DM), P uptake, residual P and Ca in soil, and root length (RL) were determined. When RFA was applied, DM and P uptake were similar to those in R30T and SFT. DM was highly related to soil P and Ca contents as well as to P concentration in the plant. RL increased as available P was higher in the acidic soil, but not in neutral soil. It is concluded that partial acidulation of phosphate rock with ammonium thiosulfate and sulfuric acid produces a fertilizer as efficient as the RFA for growth of the root system in both acid and neutral soil, and confirmed its efficiency in the production of dry matter and phosphorus uptake by the plant.

  13. The Genetics of Domestication of the Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the bas...

  14. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Acid Phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Omair

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, isolation and purification of Acid Phosphatase (AP from the shoot of Vigna aconitifolia were conducted. The purification processes included the enzyme precipitation by ammonium sulphate and chromatographic adsorption by DEAE-cellulose and sephadex G200. This study showed a purification of AP up to 60 folds with specific activity of 280 U mg-1 protein. The optimal pH value was found to be 5.4. By studying the relationship between log V and pH, it was found that two amino acid residues namely cysteine and histidine are involved in the catalytic activity of AP. This indicate that Vigna aconitifolia AP is an –SH group dependent enzyme. The highest enzyme activity was recorded after 30 min of incubation in the reaction mixture. The optimal temperature for AP activity was 30°C. The activation energy was 0.44 kJ mol-1. After 50°C the Vigna aconitifolia AP activity was decreased continuously by prolongation of incubation period. When fructose-6-phosphate and sodium phytate were used instead of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP, they expressed 44.3 and 67.1%, respectively of the enzyme activity with p-NPP as substrate. Km value for p-NPP was 133 mM and Vmax 27.8 nmol min-1.

  15. Reduction of the nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Coloeptera: bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oke and Akintunde

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to study the food nutrients such as the Free Fatty Acids and some other nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus invitro. 400g of uninfested cowpea was divided into two parts of 200g each. The first 200g was left to be infested by Callosobruchus maculatus for 100 days. The remaining 200g was preserved in a Kilner jar in the laboratory. The mean moisture content of the infested cowpea was 21.10 while that of the uninfested cowpea was 32.70....

  16. Efeito da temperatura na germinação de sementes de vigna, feijoeiro e soja / Effect of temperature on germination of vigna, bean and soybean seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.R.C., Castro; A., Archila; F.F.A., Aguiar; M.de, Almeida.

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em condições controladas, o efeito das temperaturas de 14, 21 e 28°C na germinação de três cultivares de Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris e Glycine max. As sementes foram acondicionadas em placas de Petri com algodão e papel de filtro , mantidos sob alta umidade. Maior germinação foi [...] observada a 21°C em relação as temperaturas de 14 e 28°C, para os cultivares de vigna, feijoeiro e soja. Melhor germinação foi apresentada pelos cultivares de feijoeiro Carioca e Goiano Precoce, seguidos pelo feijoeiro 'Rosinha' , vigna ' EPACE 1' e soja 'Davis' a 21ºC. Os cultivares de vigna, adaptados a altas temperaturas, apresentaram problemas na germinação a 14ºC. Normalmente a velocidade de emergência do hipocólito revelou-se inferior a velocidade de emergência da radícula. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to study the effects of the temperatures of 14, 21 and 28°C on germination of three cultivars of Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max. The seeds where germinated on Petri dishes provided with cotton and filter paper, maintained in incubator with high [...] humidity. The Petri dishes were maintained under controlled temperature conditions. Higher germination was observed at 21°C in relation to temperatures of 14 and 28°C, for Vigna, bean and soybean cultivars. Best germination were showed by 'Carioca' and 'Goiano Precoce' beans,followed by 'Rosinha' bean, 'EPACE 1' Vigna and 'Davis' soybean at 21°C. Vigna cultivars adapted to high temperatures presented problems for germination at 14°C. Normaly velocity of hypocotyl emergence was lower tham velocity of radicle emergence.

  17. Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Plummer, Emily M; Trauger, Sunia A.; Siuzdak, Gary; Manchester, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via in...

  18. Contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio, fertilizante nitrogenado e nitrogênio do solo no desenvolvimento de feijão e caupi / Contribuition of nitrogen from biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilizer and soil nitrogen on the growth of the common bean and cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN) constitui-se em uma valiosa fonte deste nutriente para o feijão comum e, sobretudo, para o feijão-caupi, tendo sua magnitude influenciada pela disponibilidade de N mineral na solução do solo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar os efeitos de doses de ni [...] trogênio, na forma de uréia, sobre a fixação simbiótica de N2 em feijão comum e caupi, pela técnica isotópica, e quantificar as contribuições relativas das fontes N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-uréia no desenvolvimento do feijão comum e caupi, usando como controle a soja não nodulante. O estudo foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra, coletada de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5x3x2 e três repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam cinco doses de N, na forma de uréia: 2, 15, 30, 45 e 60 mg kg-1 de N; três épocas de amostragens de plantas: 23, 40 e 76 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão comum e feijão caupi. A FBN decresceu com o incremento da dose de N, variando de 81,5% a 55,6% para o caupi e de 71,9% a 55,1% para o feijão comum. A FBN em caupi submetido à inoculação pode substituir totalmente a adubação nitrogenada, inclusive a dose de arranque. A absorção do N do solo não é influenciada pela dose de fertilizante nitrogenado. O aproveitamento do N do fertilizante, aos 76 DAS, foi, em média, de 60,7% pelo feijão comum e 57,1% pelo caupi. O feijão comum necessita de dose de arranque (40 kg ha-1 de N) para a obtenção de produtividade economicamente aceitável. Abstract in english Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) constitutes a valuable source of this nutrient for the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., being its avaibility affected by mineral N in the soil solution. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of nitrogen r [...] ate, as urea, on symbiotic fixation of N2 in common bean and cowpea plants, using the isotopic technique, and quantifying the relative contributions of N sources symbiotic N2 fixation, soil native nitrogen and urea N on the growth of the common bean and cowpea. Non nodulating soybean plants were used as standard. The research was carried out in greenhouse, using pots with 5 kg of soil from a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol). The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 30 treatments and three replications, arranged in 5x3x2 factorial outline. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 2, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg N kg-1 soil; three sampling times: 23, 40 and 76 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. The BNF decreased with increase N rates, varying from 81.5% to 55.6% for cowpea, and from 71.9% to 55.1% for common bean. The symbiotic N2 fixation in cowpea can substitute totally the nitrogen fertilization. The nitrogen absorption from soil is not affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. The N recovery from fertilizer at 76 DAS was of 60.7% by common bean, and 57.1% by cowpea. The symbiotic association in common bean needs the application of a starting dose (40 kg N ha-1) for economically acceptable yields.

  19. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1, -70.0 (S2 and <-85.0 KPa (S3. The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15, E2 (15-30, E3 (20-35 and E4 (30-45 days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was <-85.0 and -70.0 KPa respectively. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in more negative matric potential, indicating that this enzyme is sufficiently activitye under water stress.

  20. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  1. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaji; R Vanitharani; A S Karthikeyan; S Anbalagan; K Veluthambi

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5′-TGTATCGGTGT-3′) iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5′-ATCGGTGT-3′) had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMV-Vig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  2. The genetic diversity of the Vigna angularis complex in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xu Xiao; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Wang, Xin Wang; Han, Ouk Kyu; Vaughan, Duncan

    2003-08-01

    A selected set of accessions of components of the azuki bean (Vigna angularis) complex comprising 123 cultivated accessions and 23 wild or weedy accessions from Bhutan, China (including Taiwan), India, Japan, Korea, and Nepal was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methodology. Using 12 AFLP primer pairs, 580 unambiguous bands were generated, 313 (53.9%) of which were polymorphic among azuki bean accessions. All 580 bands were used to assess phenotypic (band) and genetic (nucleotide) diversity among the 146 azuki bean accessions. The results indicate five major groups of azuki bean germplasm primarily associated with geographic origin of accessions and their status: wild, weedy, or cultivated. These five groups are (i) Himalayan wild, (ii) Nepal-Bhutan cultivated, (iii) Chinese wild, (iv) Taiwan wild - Bhutan cultivated, and (v) northeast Asian accessions. Within the northeast Asian accessions, three subgroups are present. These consist of (v1) Japanese complex - Korean cultivated, (v2) Japanese cultivated, and (v3) Chinese cultivated accessions. The results suggest domestication of azuki bean occurred at least twice, once in the Himalayan region of southern Asia and once in northeast Asia. The remarkable diversity of azuki bean germplasm in the Himalayan region compared with other regions suggests this is a rich source of germplasm for plant breeding. The results suggest there are important gaps in the germplasm collections of azuki bean and its close relatives from various parts of Asia and that specific collecting missions for Vigna germplasm related to azuki bean in the highlands of subtropical Asia are needed. PMID:12897872

  3. Allelopathic effect of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf leachate of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L. The effects of leachate on germination, radicle length, plumule length, protein content and cell division in root tip meristems of seedlings of Vigna were studied. The seeds of mungbean were soaked with leaf leachate of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations for 4h. Bioassay indicated that there was dose-dependent inhibition of germination and seedling growth. Protein content was found to be reduced by the leachate of different concentrations as compared with control. The study also revealed that antioxidative enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities increased with the increase in concentration of aqueous leaf leachate. Mitotic activity in root-tip cells of mungbean was found to be reduced and the impact was dose-dependent. However, chromosomal abnormalities, viz. fragment, precocious separation, sticky chromosome, disturbed metaphase and bridge were found to be increased with increasing concentrations of leachate.

  4. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  5. Nodulação e eficiência da fixação do N2 em feijão-caupi por efeito da taxa do inóculo / Nodulation and nitrogen fixation efficiency of cowpea as affected by inoculum rate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fátima da, Silva; Carolina Etienne de Rosália e Silva, Santos; Clayton Albuquerque de, Sousa; Renata de Souza Leão, Araújo; Newton Pereira, Stamford; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) pode adquirir nitrogênio em quantidades adequadas para suprir suas necessidades, por meio do processo de fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN), quando associado com rizóbios específicos e eficientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da apli [...] cação de diferentes taxas de inóculo na nodulação e FBN na cultivar BRS Pujante de feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se vasos plásticos com 2 kg de solo, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco concentrações de células da estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. BR 3267 (células/semente), um tratamento sem inoculação e com adição de fertilizante nitrogenado (controle + N) e um controle sem inoculação e sem adição de fertilizante nitrogenado (controle). Foram avaliados o número e a massa seca de nódulos, a massa seca da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N na parte aérea. À medida que houve aumento da concentração de células na semente, elevaram-se os parâmetros da nodulação e fixação do N2. A aplicação da maior taxa de inóculo, que foi de 6,65 x 10(7) células da estirpe BR 3267/semente, promoveu aumento da massa seca da parte aérea por planta correspondente a 27 % da massa seca da parte aérea do tratamento controle e semelhante ao tratamento controle + N. A inoculação a partir da aplicação de 8 x 10(5) células da estirpe BR 3267/semente forneceu maior quantidade de N para as plantas, em relação à dos tratamentos controle e controle + N. A cultivar BRS Pujante foi beneficiada pela FBN quando inoculada com a estirpe BR 3267, proporcionalmente à taxa de inóculo. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) can obtain sufficient N for its own supply from the atmosphere, by the process of biological nitrogen fixation (FBN), when associated with specific and effective rhizobia bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rhizobia inocul [...] um rates on nodulation and biological N fixation by cowpea (cv. BRS Pujante). A complete randomized block design with seven treatments and four replicates was used. The trial was conducted in a greenhouse using 2 kg of soil as the growth medium. The treatments consisted of five rates of viable cells of Bradyrhizobium sp. (strain BR 3267), a control treatment (without rhizobia and no mineral N) and a treatment without inoculation but with mineral nitrogen (control + 20 kg ha-1 N). Nodulation (nodule number and biomass), shoot biomass and total N uptake were determined. Higher rhizobia inoculum rates (viable cells per seed) increased the nodulation and N fixation values. In the treatment with rhizobia (strain BR 3267) at the highest inoculum rate (6,65x10(7) viable cells per seed), the shoot dry matter was equivalent to the treatment with mineral N application (20 kg ha-1) and promoted an increase of up to 27% compared with the control treatment. The inoculum rate (strain BR 3267) up to 8x10(5) (viable cells seed-1) contributed to accumulate a higher amount of N in cowpea compared to the control and the control + N treatments. Cowpea (cv. BRS Pujante) was benefited by the BNF when inoculated with strain BR 3267, proportionally to the inoculum rate.

  6. Efeito do inóculo, período de molhamento foliar e do estádio fenológico do feijão-caupi no desenvolvimento da mela / Effect of inoculum, leaf wetness period and cowpea phenological states on web blight development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kátia de Lima, Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mela, causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomose 1 IA) é uma das principais doenças do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na região norte. Não há estudos sobre o efeito de parâmetros epidemiológicos no desenvolvimento da doença em condições controlada [...] s. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir efeito do tipo e da concentração de inóculo de R. solani, do(s) estádio(s) do feijão-caupi suscetível(is) e do período de molhamento foliar na severidade da doença em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro experimento testou-se o efeito do tipo de inóculo [fragmentos de micélio (fgm) ou microescleródios]; no segundo experimento testou-se as concentrações de 0,10³,10(4),10(5) e 10(6) fgm.mL-1; no terceiro experimento as plantas foram submetidas aos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de câmara úmida após a inoculação e no quarto experimento inoculou-se plantas nos estádios de folhas primárias, folhas trifoliadas, de floração e de enchimento de vagens. Observou-se que, para desenvolvimento de alta severidade da mela do feijão-caupi as plantas devem ser inoculadas no estádio de flores abertas na concentração de 10(6) fgm.mL-1 e submetidas a seis horas de molhamento foliar. Estes parâmetros podem ser utilizados para definição de uma metodologia de inoculação de R. solani em feijão-caupi em condições controladas. Abstract in english Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA ) is one of the most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the north of Brazil. There is no information about the effect of epidemiological parameters on development of the disease under [...] controlled conditions. The aims of this work were to identify the type and inoculum concentration of R. solani, the susceptible phenological states and the leaf wetness periods for disease development in greenhouse conditions. In the first study we tested the use of mycelia fragments (mf) and sclerotia as source of inoculum; in the second experiment, the effect of different inoculum concentrations (0, 10³, 10(4),10(5) and 10(6) mf.mL-1); in the third experiment, the effect of leaf wetness period was tested by maintaining cowpea plants at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of leaf wetness after the inoculation, and in the last experiment the effect of phenological states was tested by inoculating cowpea plants at the stages of cotyledonal leaf, trifoliate leaves, flowering and pod filling. The highest severity values of disease were observed with the plants inoculated in the flowering phenological state with 10(6) mf.mL-1 and six hours of leaf wetness. These parameters can be utilized to establish an inoculation methodology for R. solani on cowpea plants under controlled conditions.

  7. Efeito do inóculo, período de molhamento foliar e do estádio fenológico do feijão-caupi no desenvolvimento da mela Effect of inoculum, leaf wetness period and cowpea phenological states on web blight development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Lima Nechet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mela, causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomose 1 IA é uma das principais doenças do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata na região norte. Não há estudos sobre o efeito de parâmetros epidemiológicos no desenvolvimento da doença em condições controladas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir efeito do tipo e da concentração de inóculo de R. solani, do(s estádio(s do feijão-caupi suscetível(is e do período de molhamento foliar na severidade da doença em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro experimento testou-se o efeito do tipo de inóculo [fragmentos de micélio (fgm ou microescleródios]; no segundo experimento testou-se as concentrações de 0,10³,10(4,10(5 e 10(6 fgm.mL-1; no terceiro experimento as plantas foram submetidas aos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de câmara úmida após a inoculação e no quarto experimento inoculou-se plantas nos estádios de folhas primárias, folhas trifoliadas, de floração e de enchimento de vagens. Observou-se que, para desenvolvimento de alta severidade da mela do feijão-caupi as plantas devem ser inoculadas no estádio de flores abertas na concentração de 10(6 fgm.mL-1 e submetidas a seis horas de molhamento foliar. Estes parâmetros podem ser utilizados para definição de uma metodologia de inoculação de R. solani em feijão-caupi em condições controladas.Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA is one of the most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in the north of Brazil. There is no information about the effect of epidemiological parameters on development of the disease under controlled conditions. The aims of this work were to identify the type and inoculum concentration of R. solani, the susceptible phenological states and the leaf wetness periods for disease development in greenhouse conditions. In the first study we tested the use of mycelia fragments (mf and sclerotia as source of inoculum; in the second experiment, the effect of different inoculum concentrations (0, 10³, 10(4,10(5 and 10(6 mf.mL-1; in the third experiment, the effect of leaf wetness period was tested by maintaining cowpea plants at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of leaf wetness after the inoculation, and in the last experiment the effect of phenological states was tested by inoculating cowpea plants at the stages of cotyledonal leaf, trifoliate leaves, flowering and pod filling. The highest severity values of disease were observed with the plants inoculated in the flowering phenological state with 10(6 mf.mL-1 and six hours of leaf wetness. These parameters can be utilized to establish an inoculation methodology for R. solani on cowpea plants under controlled conditions.

  8. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  9. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yussef F.B. Braga; Thalles B. Grangeiro; Eder A. Freire; Helano L. Lopes; José N. S. Bezerra; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S. Lima

    2007-01-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to ...

  10. Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species / Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ligiane Aparecida, Florentino; Pedro Martins de, Sousa; Jacqueline Savana, Silva; Karina Barroso, Silva; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dez estirpes de rizóbios, sendo oito isoladas de amostras de solos coletadas próximo ao sistema radicular de Sesbania virgata, no Sul de Minas Gerais, e duas recomendadas como inoculante para o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) usadas como referências, foram avaliadas quanto a: diversidade genéti [...] ca, eficiência simbiótica em caupi, tolerância a altas temperaturas e concentrações salinas, valores extremos de pH e 15 tipos de antibióticos. A análise de diversidade genética utilizando a técnica do Rep-PCR, com o primer BOX, revelou alta diversidade, pois cada estirpe apresentou perfil único de DNA. O teste de eficiência simbiótica conduzido em vasos de Leonard indicou que as estirpes UFLA 03-30 e UFLA 03-38 demonstraram alto potencial em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi, proporcionando resultados de matéria seca da parte aérea e dos nódulos, eficiência relativa e acúmulo de N na parte aérea superiores aos das estirpes recomendadas como inoculantes. Todas as estirpes cresceram em meios com valores de pH variando de 4,0 a 9,0. Em relação à tolerância aos antibióticos, foi observado que as estirpes eficientes em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi foram as que apresentaram tolerância a um maior número desses compostos. No entanto, estas estirpes mostraram comportamentos semelhantes em relação a tolerância a salinidade, constituindo o grupo de maior sensibilidade. Com exceção das estirpes UFLA 03-84 e UFLA 03-37, as demais toleraram até 40 ºC. Embora as estirpes estudadas tenham sido isoladas de solos da mesma região, com exceção das recomendadas para inoculante oriundas da Amazônia, foi observado que elas apresentaram comportamentos distintos quando submetidas aos diferentes testes de diversidade genética, fenotípica e simbiótica, justificando a importância de incluir estes testes no processo de seleção de estirpes simbióticas em caupi. Abstract in english The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after in [...] oculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp) in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as references, were from the Amazon and are currently recommended as cowpea inoculants. Genetic diversity was analyzed by amplifying repetitive DNA elements with the BOX primer, revealing high genetic diversity with each strain presenting a unique band profile. Leonard jar assays showed that the strains UFLA 03-30 and UFLA 03-38 had the highest N2-fixing potentials in symbiosis with cowpea. These strains had more shoot and nodule dry matter, more shoot N accumulation, and a higher relative efficiency than the strains recommended as inoculants. All strains grew in media of pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. The strains with the highest N2-fixing efficiencies in symbiosis with cowpea were also tolerant to the greatest number of antibiotics. However, these strains also had the lowest tolerance to high salt concentrations. All strains, with the exceptions of UFLA 03-84 and UFLA 03-37, tolerated temperatures of up to 40 ºC. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the eight strains isolated from soils of the same region were highly variable, as well as their symbiotic efficiencies, despite their common origin. This variability highlights the importance of including these tests in the selection of cowpea inoculant strains.

  11. Especificidade hospedeira de variantes Bradyrhizobium spp em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu Host specificity of Bradyrhizobium spp mutants in soybean (cultivars peking and clark, cowpea and pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da cultura da soja evidenciou uma alta especificidade hospedeira, requerendo a pesquisa de novas estirpes que apresentassem capacidade de nodular a soja e bom potencial de competição com a população de rizóbios naturalizada nos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a especificidade hospedeira de variantes isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp quanto à nodulação e eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu. O experimento foi realizado sob condições controladas em câmara de crescimento por meio de testes de variantes de B. japonicum e B. elkanii e suas respectivas estirpes originais quanto à habilidade de nodular soja, caupi e guandu. A colheita foi realizada aos 35 dias, sendo avaliada a nodulação (número, peso dos nódulos secos, produção de matéria seca na parte aérea, eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico. Os variantes e estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp nodularam Glycine max (cultivares BR-16, Clark e Peking, Vigna unguiculata e Cajanus cajan, contudo, apenas para Glycine max a interação rizóbio-leguminosa demonstrou eficiência simbiótica significativa.The expansion of the soybean crop has evidenced a high host specificity, indicating the requirement of new strains with capacity of nodulating soybean and competition capacity with the natural soil rhizobial population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the host specificity of mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains in relation to nodulation and relative N2 fixation effectiveness in soybean (cultivars Peking and Clark, cowpea and pigeon pea. The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, where B. japonicum and B. elkanii mutants and the respective original strains were tested for their nodulation ability on soybean, cowpea and pigeon pea. The crop was harvested 35 days after planting and the nodulation (number, dry nodule weight, shoot dry matter production and relative N2 fixation effectiveness were evaluated. The mutants and strains of Bradyrhizobium spp nodulate Glycine max (cultivars BR-16, Clark and Peking, Vigna unguiculata and Cajanus cajan, however the interaction rhizobia-leguminous demonstrated significant symbiotic effectiveness for Glycine max only.

  12. Resposta do feijão-caupi as lâminas de irrigação e as doses de fósforo no cerrado de Roraima / Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela Almeida, Oliveira; Wellington Farias, Araújo; Pablo Lima Souza, Cruz; Washington Luis Manduca da, Silva; Gilvan Barbosa, Ferreira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do feijão-caupi (Vigna ungüiculata (L.) Walp.) cv. BRS Novaera sob quatro lâminas de água (273; 257; 241 e 187 mm) e doses de fósforo (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados na forma de superfosfato triplo), em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento [...] experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas lâminas de água e as sub parcelas pelas doses de fósforo, resultando em 16 tratamentos. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema convencional de aspersão, montado no campo segundo o sistema de "aspersão em linha". As massas seca da parte aérea e de 100 grãos foram influenciadas significativamente pela interação entre lâminas de água e doses de fósforo, enquanto o número de grãos por vagem e o comprimento da vagem foram influenciados somente pelas doses de fósforo. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi de 89,45 kg de P2O5, com produtividade de 1.306 kg ha-1. Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation depth and phosphate fertilizer (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5) on yield and production components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cv. Novaera at the Savanna of Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was arranged in a completely [...] randomized block in split-plot and four replications. Irrigation depths were applied through a sprinkler line source system. The principal treatments constituted on the depths of irrigation and the secondary treatments by the phosphate fertilizer. Significant effects (p

  13. Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds / Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariângela S. S., Diz; André O., Carvalho; Valdirene M., Gomes.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos b [...] ásicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa. Abstract in english Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role [...] in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

  14. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Eficiência da farinha desengordurada de gergelim como complemento protéico da farinha extrudada de caupi1 Efficiency of defatted sesame flour as a proteic supplement of extruded cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Arraes Maia

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi promover uma avaliação nutricional da mistura protéica desengordurada, obtida do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L., com a farinha extrudada do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, utilizando-se métodos físicos, bioquímicos, nutricionais e sensoriais. Usando-se semente integral do gergelim, com 54,08% de óleo e 21,83% de proteína, obteve-se a semente descascada com baixa concentração de oxalatos, que foi usada para a produção de farinha desengordurada de gergelim (FDG contendo 2,81% de óleo e 59,16% de proteína. A principal característica desta farinha foi sua alta concentração de aminoácidos sulfurados (30,88 mg/g proteína. Esta FDG foi usada como complemento da proteína da farinha do caupi obtida pelo processo de cozimento por extrusão (FEC, o que ocasionou a inativação de grande parte dos inibidores de tripsina. A proteína da farinha FEC mostrou uma concentração de 24,29%, um baixo conteúdo de aminoácidos sulfurados (17,22 mg/g proteína e alto teor de lisina (58,47 mg/g proteína. O alimento formulado foi considerado de boa qualidade nutricional.The purpuse of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and organoleptic efficiency of the defatted proteic mixture obtained from gergelim, with extruded flour from cowpea beans, using physical, biochemical, nutritional and sensory methods. Using integral sesame seed, with 54.08% of oil and 21.83% of protein, the dehusked seed with low concentration of oxalates, that was used in the production of defatted sesame flour (FDG with 2.81% of oil and 59.16% of protein was obtained. The main characteristic of the flour was the high concentration of sulphur amino acids (30.88 mg/g protein. The FDG was used as a complement of the protein of the cowpea flour obtained through a extrusion cooking process (FEC which inactivated the major part of the trypsin inhibitors. The protein of the flour (FEC presented a concentration of 24.29%, a low content of sulfur amino acids (17.22 mg/g protein and a high lysin content (58.47 mg/g protein. The formulated food was considered of good nutritional quality.

  16. Eficiência da farinha desengordurada de gergelim como complemento protéico da farinha extrudada de caupi1 / Efficiency of defatted sesame flour as a proteic supplement of extruded cowpea flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geraldo Arraes, Maia; Yanina Madalena de Arruda, Calvete; Francisco José Siqueira, Telles; José Carlos Sabino, Monteiro; Miranice Gonzaga, Sales.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi promover uma avaliação nutricional da mistura protéica desengordurada, obtida do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L.), com a farinha extrudada do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), utilizando-se métodos físicos, bioquímicos, nutricionais e sensoriais. Usando-se semente integra [...] l do gergelim, com 54,08% de óleo e 21,83% de proteína, obteve-se a semente descascada com baixa concentração de oxalatos, que foi usada para a produção de farinha desengordurada de gergelim (FDG) contendo 2,81% de óleo e 59,16% de proteína. A principal característica desta farinha foi sua alta concentração de aminoácidos sulfurados (30,88 mg/g proteína). Esta FDG foi usada como complemento da proteína da farinha do caupi obtida pelo processo de cozimento por extrusão (FEC), o que ocasionou a inativação de grande parte dos inibidores de tripsina. A proteína da farinha FEC mostrou uma concentração de 24,29%, um baixo conteúdo de aminoácidos sulfurados (17,22 mg/g proteína) e alto teor de lisina (58,47 mg/g proteína). O alimento formulado foi considerado de boa qualidade nutricional. Abstract in english The purpuse of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and organoleptic efficiency of the defatted proteic mixture obtained from gergelim, with extruded flour from cowpea beans, using physical, biochemical, nutritional and sensory methods. Using integral sesame seed, with 54.08% of oil and 21.83% [...] of protein, the dehusked seed with low concentration of oxalates, that was used in the production of defatted sesame flour (FDG) with 2.81% of oil and 59.16% of protein was obtained. The main characteristic of the flour was the high concentration of sulphur amino acids (30.88 mg/g protein). The FDG was used as a complement of the protein of the cowpea flour obtained through a extrusion cooking process (FEC) which inactivated the major part of the trypsin inhibitors. The protein of the flour (FEC) presented a concentration of 24.29%, a low content of sulfur amino acids (17.22 mg/g protein) and a high lysin content (58.47 mg/g protein). The formulated food was considered of good nutritional quality.

  17. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2012-05-01

    A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase. PMID:22044136

  18. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.

  19. A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

  20. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoh, F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

  1. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  2. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  3. Productivity and Nodulation Cowpea Inoculated in Function of Phosphorus and Potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Hélcio Canuto Amaral; Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega; Raimundo Nonato Lopes Martins; Alessandro Franco Torres da Silva; Elaine Martins da Costa; Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega; José Ferreira Lustosa Filho; Larissa Castro Diógenes; Leandro Pereira Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    The cowpea represents one of the most important agricultural species of the brazilian Northeast, and proper management of mineral fertilizer that culture becomes essential to their production. The present work aimed to study the effect of the interaction between potassium and phosphorus in the presence of the inoculant INPA 03-11B in the culture of cowpea for Production Pole of Bom Jesus, Piaui, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal University of Piaui, ...

  4. Use of peanut and cowpea in wheat-based products containing composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWatters, K H; Resurreccion, A V; Beuchat, L R; Phillips, R D

    1995-01-01

    Cowpeas and peanuts are legumes of major dietary and economic importance. They are favored worldwide because of their palatability, contribution to nutritional status, and low cost as a protein source compared to animal protein. Flours processed from cowpeas and peanuts have unique physico-chemical and sensory properties when used in composite flour mixtures. Appropriate blends of cowpea and peanut flours to replace wheat flour in Chinese-type noodles, muffins, and tortillas were determined using modelling and optimization procedures. For noodles, 15% peanut flour and 8% cowpea flour supplementation produced an acceptable product with high protein content (21%). For wheat flour replacement in muffins, up to 43% cowpea and up to 44% peanut flours may be used. However, when wheat flour replacement is 50% or greater, cassava flour should comprise 56 to 72% of the blend with a few exceptions. In tortillas, 24% cowpea and 46% peanut flours produced products similar in quality characteristics to those made from 100% wheat flour. The systematic approach used in these studies is more efficient than the traditional substitution method to optimize sensory qualities of wheat-based products containing composite flours. PMID:7784400

  5. Cross species amplification of Adzuki Bean derived microsatellite markers in Asian Vigna species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srimathy and P. Jayamani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vigna is one of the important genus of grain legumes which forms the source of dietary protein and seven species of thisgenus, are domesticated as food crops in Asia. In recent years, molecular marker technology has greatly accelerated breedingprograms for the improvement of various crops. Among the different DNA markers, microsatellite or simple sequencerepeats (SSRs are the markers of choice for various genetic studies due to their co-dominant nature, loci specificity and highreproducibility. To date, only few reports are available on isolation and development of microsatellite markers in some of theVigna species. Therefore, the available SSR markers from other Vigna species should be validated for their transferabilityand utility in those species in which they are unavailable. In the present study, a set of 40 microsatellite primers pairs derivedfrom adzuki bean (Vigna angularis were used to assess the transferability and tested for their ability to amplifymicrosatellite loci in different species of Asian Vigna. The materials for this study included eleven different genotypesbelonging to seven species of Asian Vigna such as V. mungo var silvestris, V. mungo, V.umbellata, V. trilobata, V.aconitifolia, V. radiata var sublobata and V. radiata. All the 40 SSR primer pairs showed cross species amplification andproduced a total of 158 alleles in the genotypes studied. The percentage of amplification varied for each species whichranged from 37.5% (V.trilobata-2 to 100% (V. mungo var silvestris and V.mungo, while others showed more than 50%amplification. Apart from amplification, sufficient levels of polymorphism were also observed between cultivated blackgramand greengram and their progenitors V. mungo var silvestris and V. radiata var sublobata respectively. These findingssuggest that microsatellite markers from adzuki bean could be used in genomic studies of other Vigna species and thus aid intheir improvement.

  6. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi / Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Salgado; N. B., Guerra; S. A. C., Andrade; A.V.S., Livera.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio po [...] r Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas), amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria) e tipificação (difração de raio-X). Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR) tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA. Abstract in english This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, l [...] ipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates by difference, total starch, reductor glícids and non reductor by oxid-reduction in Fehling solution. The isolated starch of the distinct samples was analyzed as to the resistant starch (based in the use of amylolytic enzymes), amylose and amylopectin (by spectrophotometry) and typification (X-ray diffraction). The results obtained showed that the fractions of carbohydrates differed according to the stage of maturation of the grains. The starch of the unripe bean showed a higher content of resistant starch (RS) type 2 in relation to total starch and low content of amylose. Maturation influenced the crystallinity patterns, type C was found for the unripe bean and type A for the ripe bean. The stage of the maturation influenced the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the constituents of the beans. The morphologic aspect of the granules of starch was not influenced by the stage of maturation of the grains. The unripe bean showed a percentage of soluble alimentary fiber compatible with the FDA standards.

  7. Deficiência nutricional em plântulas de feijão-de-corda decorrente da omissão de macro e micronutrientes Nutritional deficiency in cowpea seedlings due to omission of macro and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba é uma importante cultura nos âmbitos econômico e social do Nordeste do Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Ceará, que é considerado o maior produtor desta região. Com a finalidade de caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências nutricionais em plântulas de feijão-de-corda, as sementes foram semeadas em areia exaustivamente lavada e, após um período de cinco dias, as plântulas foram transferidas para uma solução nutritiva completa para o período de aclimatação. Após três dias, as plântulas foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos. O experimento teve os seguintes tratamentos: solução nutritiva completa (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de cada elemento -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B; -Fe, bem como ausência de aeração. Os sintomas das deficiências foram observados, caracterizados e registrados por fotografias. No final do experimento, as medidas de comprimento e os teores de matérias fresca e seca das raízes e parte aérea das plântulas foram analisados. Todos os macros e micronutrientes causaram sintomas de deficiência e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os sintomas foram desenvolvidos primeiramente em plântulas com carência em Fe, Ca e N. A matéria seca total foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com ausência de nutrientes. A ausência de Ca, N e Fe foi responsável por uma maior redução da biomassa. A ordem decrescente de redução foi a seguinte: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeração > B > Completo.The Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba is an important crop in the economic and social contexts in the Northeast of Brazil, especially in the state of Ceará, which is considered the largest producer of this region. With the purpose of characterizing the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in Cowpea seedlings, the seeds were sowed in washed sand and, after a period of five days, the seedlings were transferred for a complete nutrient solution for the period of acclimatization. After three days, the seedlings were submitted to the different treatments. The experiment had the following treatments: complete nutrient solution (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S and micronutrients and individual omission of each element -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B, -Fe and -aeration. The symptoms of the deficiencies were observed, characterized and registered by pictures. In the end of the experiment, the length measures and the fresh and dry matters of the root and shoot of the seedlings were analyzed. All macro and micronutrients caused deficiency symptoms and they affected the development of the seedlings. The symptoms were developed firstly in seedlings with failure in Fe, Ca and N. The total dry matter was reduced in all the treatments with absence of nutrients, but the absence of Ca, N and Fe were responsible for the larger reduction of biomass. The decreasing order of reduction was: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeration > B > Complete.

  8. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Alternância de genótipos de caupi afeta a biologia de Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de, Lima; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Reginaldo, Barros; Jorge Braz, Torres.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) é uma importante praga do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. armazenado, com ampla distribuição em regiões tropical e subtropical. Avaliou-se o efeito da alternância de genótipos de caupi, suscetível (S) e resistente (R), após quatro gerações, na biologia de (C. mac [...] ulatus). Utilizou-se o teste sem chance de escolha, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos, quatro combinações de hospedeiros (RR, RS, SR e SS) e cinco repetições. Cada repetição foi constituída por 30 grãos de cada genótipo infestado com dois casais desta praga. O número de ovos por fêmea não diferiu dentro nem entre as combinações, evidenciando que os genótipos e sua alternância não afetaram a fecundidade de C. maculatus. Já a viabilidade de ovos variou entre os genótipos e entre as combinações. Na combinação RR, constatou-se a maior duração da fase imatura no genótipo IT89KD-245 e a menor sobrevivência desta fase em todos os genótipos, resultando em uma maior mortalidade da praga. O índice de resistência classificou a combinação RR como moderadamente resistente nos genótipos IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato e BR17-Gurguéia, e como S apenas em IT89KD-260, demonstrando que estas combinações foram menos adequadas ao desenvolvimento de C. maculatus, fato verificado pelo melhor desempenho da praga sobre o genótipo na combinação SS e pela redução de seu desempenho quando retornava para os genótipos resistentes. Abstract in english Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S) and resistant (R), on the biology of (C. maculatus) was studied after four [...] generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS) and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S) only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  9. Templated mineralization by charge-modified cowpea mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Evans, David J

    2014-01-01

    Templated mineralization of virus particles provides routes to narrowly dispersed nanoparticles that are not readily prepared by other means. The templated mineralization of metal or metal oxide on the external surface of wild-type cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, is facilitated by increasing the external surface negative charge. This is achieved by the chemical modification of surface lysine groups by succinic anhydride. Hence, for example, treatment of charge-modified CPMV succinamate with a 1:2 mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) salts, followed by raising the pH to 10.2, led to the formation of narrowly dispersed, CPMV-templated, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. PMID:24243242

  10. Development and performance evaluation of a cowpea harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ojomo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A cowpea harvester was designed, constructed and evaluated for its performance. The machine was fabricated with high carbon steel with an output capacity of 120kg/h. The performance of the harvester was evaluated at two crop moisture content 15.17% and 17.47% and two main shaft speeds of 540 rpm and 1000 rpm. At moisture content of 15.17% and machine speed 540rpm, the machine exhibits the highest functional efficiency of 93.75%, quality performance efficiency of 81.21%, field loss of 3.4% and shattered loss of 6.66%. The machine is statically and dynamically stable hence able to withstand vibration.

  11. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    OpenAIRE

    Z.M. Peña P.; G Trujillo

    2006-01-01

    En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta f...

  12. Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders

    OpenAIRE

    F.A. Ajayi; H.U. Wintola

    2006-01-01

    Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP), West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn), clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Percy), Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn.) A. Rich), Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum) and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. Ex G. Donf.) were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1...

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AGRONOMIC PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS TO BLACK-EYED BEAN (BEB COWPEA TYPE (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L. WALP FOR LEAF AND GRAIN UTILIZATION IN ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold B. Mashingaidze

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Black-eyed bean has gained popularity in the Mashonaland East Province of Zimbabwe. It is a crop of considerable importance due to its economic value and export potential. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA was carried out in 2007 -2008 rainy season to find out the production constraints to BEB production in the area. The acceptance of this variety was very impressive due to its favourable advantages over the traditional varieties grown in the area. However, yields were very low as compared to the ones the farmers were informed by the non-governmental organization when the crop was introduced to them. Informal discussions were held with farmers in the villages on the issues regarding major BEB constraints. The major constraints were identified and ranked in their order of importance using a pair-wise ranking tool as: soil fertility, pests and diseases, plant populations and spacing, seed shortage and storage, planting methods and planting dates, changing rainfall patterns, intercropping and weeds. Overally, poor management practices of BEB production causes yield reduction. This information is envisaged to be useful in designing and determining the possible way forward for the development of well-tailored objectives to improve the crop for maximum growth in terms of production and exports markets to obtain foreign currency earning.

  14. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida; Silvana A. de Almeida; Nilene R. dos Santos; Josivanda P. Gomes; Maria E. R. Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquem...

  15. Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Salt stress in cowpea plants on biofertilized soil = Estresse salino em plantas de feijão-caupi em solo com fertilizantes orgânicos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizer from animal waste can mitigate the harmful effects of salinity of irrigation water on the plants. This experiment was performed in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Weather Station (Estação Meteorológica, from September to November 2012, aiming at evaluate the response of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. to salinity levels and biofertilizer types in a greenhouse. The experimental design was that of completely randomized, 5x3 factorialwith five replications. The first factor consisted of electrical conductivity of irrigation water levels, as follows: 0.8 dS m-1; 1.5 dS m-1; 3.0 dS m-1; 4.5 dS m-1 and 6.0 dS m-1; and the second factor comprised three conditions: without biofertilizers (B0, with enriched crabbio fertilizer (B1 and with bovine common biofertilizer (B3. The evaluated variables were: photosynthesis, leaf temperature, transpiration, stomatal conductance, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, and shoot dry mass. The crab enriched biofertilizer more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants with biofertilizer and biofertilizer bovine common. The biofertilizer of crab enriched more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants without biofertilizer and bovine common biofertilizer. = O uso de fertilizantes orgânicos provenientes de resíduos de origem animal pode atenuar os efeitos danosos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre as plantas. Um experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Estação Agrometeorológica da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, no período de setembro a novembro de 2012, objetivando-se avaliar a resposta do feijão-caupi a níveis de salinidade, sem e com dois tipos de biofertilizantes em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x3, com cinco repetições. O primeiro fator consistiu dosníveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação, sendo:0,8 dS m-1; 1,5 dS m-1; 3,0 dS m-1; 4,5 dS m-1 e 6,0 dS m-1; e o segundo fator compreendeu três condições: sem biofertilizante (B0, com biofertilizante de caranguejo enriquecido (B1 e com biofertilizante bovino comum (B3. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: fotossíntese, temperatura da folha, transpiração, condutância estomática, altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar e matéria seca da parte aérea. O biofertilizante de caranguejo enriquecido atenua com mais eficiência o estresse salino sobre a altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, fotossíntese, transpiração e condutância estomática do feijão-caupi cultivar BRS ITAIM em relação às plantas sem biofertilizante e com biofertilizante bovino comum.

  17. Estabilidade da resistência de genótipos de caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) em gerações sucessivas / Stability of the resistance of cowpea genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) in successive generations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de, Lima; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Reginaldo, Barros; Jorge Braz, Torres; Manoel Eneas de Carvalho, Gonçalves.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) é a principal praga do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.) armazenado em condições tropicais e subtropicais. Avaliaram-se a estabilidade da resistência e a capacidade de adaptação de C. maculatus a genótipos de caupi, durante seis gerações. Utilizou- [...] se o teste sem chance de escolha, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com dez tratamentos, seis gerações do inseto e cinco repetições. Cada repetição constou de 30 grãos infestados com dois casais da praga. O número de ovos/fêmea diferiu entre os genótipos de caupi apenas na sexta geração, e entre as gerações em BR14-Mulato, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E e TE87-98-8G. A viabilidade de ovos diferiu entre as gerações em BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato, IT89KD-260 e IT89KD-245, e entre os genótipos nas terceira, quinta e sexta gerações. Os genótipos diferiram entre e dentro das gerações, em relação à duração e a viabilidade da fase imatura. Observou-se redução na emergência, especialmente em IT89KD-245, IT89KD-260, CNC 0434, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-10F e BR14-Mulato, provavelmente devido a substâncias químicas presentes nos grãos que afetaram a sobrevivência dos insetos, ao longo das gerações. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e IT89KD-260 comportaram-se como moderadamente resistentes. Não se observou adaptação de C. maculatus aos genótipos, mantendo-se a resistência estável através das gerações. Abstract in english Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is the most important pest of stored cowpea in tropical and subtropical conditions. This paper evaluates the stability of the resistance and the capacity of adaptation of C. maculatus to cowpea genotypes for six generations. A test without cho [...] ice chance was used, in a factorial, completely randomized design, with ten treatments (n=5) in six generations of the insect. Each replication was represented by 30 grains infested by two pairs of the pest. The number of eggs/female only differed between the cowpea genotypes in the sixth generation, and between generations in BR14-Mulato, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E and TE87-98-8G. Viability of eggs differed between generations for BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato, IT89KD-260 and IT89KD-245, and between the genotypes in the third, fifth and sixth generations. The genotypes differed between and within generations in regard to the duration and viability of the immature phase. A reduction in the emergency, especially on IT89KD-245, IT89KD-260, CNC 0434, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-10F and BR14-Mulato, probably due to chemical substances present in the grains that affected the survival of the insects, was observed throughout generations. Genotypes IT89KD-245 and IT89KD-260 standed as moderately resistant. The adaptation of C. maculatus to the genotypes was not observed, which remained resistance throughout generations.

  18. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi / Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate leaf smut severity in cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sami J., Michereff; Domingos E.G.T., Andrade; Marissônia A., Noronha.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O carvão da folha, causado pelo fungo Entyloma vignae, é uma doença comum do caupi no Nordeste brasileiro. Considerando a inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis 1,5; 3,5; 7,0; 14,5; 27,0 e 45,0% de área foliar lesiona [...] da, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade do carvão da folha com e sem a utilização desta. Na validação da escala diagramática, 48 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCAD®, foram avaliados por 10 pessoas, sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foram determinadas por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real, mensurada eletronicamente, e a estimada pelo avaliador. Sem a escala, a maioria dos avaliadores superestimou a severidade da doença. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram boa repetibilidade (90%) e reprodutibilidade (84%) das estimativas com a utilização da escala. A escala diagramática proposta demonstrou ser adequada para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi. Abstract in english The leaf smut, caused by the fungus Entyloma vignae, is a common disease of cowpea in the Brazilian Northeast. Considering the inexistence of standard methods for assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic key was developed with 1.5, 3.5, 7.0, 14.5, 27.0 and 45.0% of diseased leaf areas and tested f [...] or accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimatives of leaf smut severity with and without using the key. The diagrammatic key was validated by 10 raters, with and without the key, using 48 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software AutoCAD® for Windows. Two evaluations were performed with the diagrammatic key at 7-day interval where different sequences of the same leaves were visually estimated by the same raters. The accuracy and precision of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual, evaluated electronically, and estimated severity. Without the diagrammatic key most of raters overestimated disease severity. With the key raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrated around 10%. Raters showed good repeatability (90%) and reproducibility (84%) of estimative by using the key. The proposed diagrammatic key was suitable for the evaluation of severity of leaf smut on cowpea.

  19. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João H. B. da C. Campos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC, no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA, o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba.This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI. The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

  20. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate leaf smut severity in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J. Michereff

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O carvão da folha, causado pelo fungo Entyloma vignae, é uma doença comum do caupi no Nordeste brasileiro. Considerando a inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis 1,5; 3,5; 7,0; 14,5; 27,0 e 45,0% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade do carvão da folha com e sem a utilização desta. Na validação da escala diagramática, 48 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCAD®, foram avaliados por 10 pessoas, sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foram determinadas por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real, mensurada eletronicamente, e a estimada pelo avaliador. Sem a escala, a maioria dos avaliadores superestimou a severidade da doença. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram boa repetibilidade (90% e reprodutibilidade (84% das estimativas com a utilização da escala. A escala diagramática proposta demonstrou ser adequada para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi.The leaf smut, caused by the fungus Entyloma vignae, is a common disease of cowpea in the Brazilian Northeast. Considering the inexistence of standard methods for assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic key was developed with 1.5, 3.5, 7.0, 14.5, 27.0 and 45.0% of diseased leaf areas and tested for accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimatives of leaf smut severity with and without using the key. The diagrammatic key was validated by 10 raters, with and without the key, using 48 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software AutoCAD® for Windows. Two evaluations were performed with the diagrammatic key at 7-day interval where different sequences of the same leaves were visually estimated by the same raters. The accuracy and precision of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual, evaluated electronically, and estimated severity. Without the diagrammatic key most of raters overestimated disease severity. With the key raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrated around 10%. Raters showed good repeatability (90% and reproducibility (84% of estimative by using the key. The proposed diagrammatic key was suitable for the evaluation of severity of leaf smut on cowpea.

  1. Identificação de Genótipos de Feijão-caupi Tolerantes a Acidez em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Estado de Roraima = Identification of cowpea genotypes sensitivity to acidicy conditions in an Oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cátia Pereira Uchôa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp., tolerantes à acidez. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação localizada no Campus do Cauamé, da Universidade Federal de Roraima, utilizando um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de Boa Vista-RR. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental de Blocos Inteiramente Casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 10 com três repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram de duas formas de localização do calcário (localizada e não-localizada, 5 profundidades (0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15-20; 20-25 cm e 10 genótipos de feijão-caupi(IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM; Apiaú; Hikari Graúdo; Pretinho Precoce 1; IT85D-3428-4-3-HP; USA; UFRR Grão Verde; BRS-Mazagão; Canapum e Sempre Verde. A unidade experimental foi constituída por 2dm3 de solo, dispostos em tubo de PVC com 25cm de altura,10cm de diâmetro e duas plantas de feijão. Os tubos foram confeccionados por meio da junção de 5 anéis com 5 cm cada, sendo que no anel inferior foi colocada uma placa delgada de isopor para permitir a acomodação do solo. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo determinada à produção de matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea. Os genótipos IT85D-3428-4-3-HP e UFRRGRÃO VERDE foram classificados como sendo de baixa tolerância, os genótipos USA, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM e Sempre Verde, medianamente tolerantes e os genótipos Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1 e Canapum, tolerantes à acidez.= This research was carried out objecting to identify the sensibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp genotypes to acidity conditions. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse located at Campus of Cauamé (Universidade Federal de Roraima in an oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil. The experimental design adopted was a completely andomized blocks in a factorial scheme 2 x 5 x 10 with three replicates. The terms of this factorial refers to two forms of lime applying (localized and uniform, five depths of soil (0-5; 5-10; 10-15;15-20; 20-25 cm, and ten genotypes of cowpea (IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM, Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1, IT85D-3428-4-3-HP, USA, UFRR Grão Verde, BRS-Mazagão, Canapum, and Sempre Verde. The experimental unity consisted of 2 dm3 of soil inside PVC tube 25 cm in height and diameter of 10 cm with two cowpea plants. Forty days after the germination, the plants were collected and the dry matter yield was determined. The genotypes IT85D-3428-4-3-HP and UFRR Grão Verde showed high sensibility to acidity, the genotypes USA, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM, and Sempre Verde presented medium sensibility to acidity and the genotypes Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1, and Canapum presented sensibility to acidity.

  2. The genetics of domestication of the azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A

    2008-02-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the basis of the linkage map having a pseudolinkage group and clustering of seed productivity-related QTL with large effect near the presumed breakpoints. In total, 162 QTL were identified for 46 domestication-related traits. Domestication of azuki bean has involved a trade-off between seed number and seed size: fewer but longer pods and fewer but larger seeds on plants with shorter stature in cultivated azuki bean being at the expense of overall seed yield. Genes found related to germination and flowering time in cultivated azuki bean may confer a selective advantage to the hybrid derivatives under some ecological conditions and may explain why azuki bean has evolved as a crop complex in Japan. PMID:18245368

  3. Palynological Studies on Some Nigerian Species of Vigna savi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Mbagwu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological studies on eight species of Vigna namely V. ambacensis, V. gracillis, V. racemosa, V. reticulata, V. subterranea, V. triloba, V. unguiculata and V. vexillata, was carried out. Observations from the investigation showed that the pollen grain is circular and psilate in V. reticulata, circular and echinate in V. unguiculata and V. racemosa, elliptic and monocolpate in V. ambacensis and V. vexillata, circular and polyporate in V. subterranea and circular and dicolpate in V. gracillis and V. triloba. The variation in pollen morphology showed that V. reticulata and V. subterranea can be separated from the rest of the taxa based on the shape and type of their pollen grains. Also V. unguiculata and V. racemosa, can be grouped together just as V. ambacensis and V. vexillata, V. gracillis and V. triloba based on each pair having the same shape and type of pollen grains, respectively. From this study, it is likely that the nature of pollen grains in these taxa could be an evolutionary modification often inherited to determine the mode of pollination and thereby perpetuate a particular group of plants in a given environment.

  4. Estudo do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp minimamente processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURTUNATO Andréa A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando definir tecnologias alternativas de processamento do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp, estudou-se o processo de congelamento do mesmo. Este consistiu na recepção da matéria prima, seleção dos grãos de coloração e tamanho uniformes, seguida de lavagem em água corrente e branqueamento por imersão em água a 90ºC. Os grãos foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos e congelados em freezer doméstico a -18ºC, sendo armazenados a essa temperatura. Foi realizado o estudo de vida de prateleira desse produto por 180 dias, através de análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, preservando-se em boas condições para o consumo. Foi realizado também o teste de aceitação do produto comparando-se com o feijão verde fresco. Embora o nível de aceitação não tenha sido muito alto (71,1% quando comparado com o feijão fresco (96,6%, este resultado poderia ser diferente em regiões que não têm o hábito de consumir esta leguminosa no estádio de maturação verde fresco.

  5. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  6. Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Ângela Celis de Almeida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial genético de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%, e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%. O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73% e da produtividade (19,77%. As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%, e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%. Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados.

  7. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A POWERED COWPEA THRESHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. UMOGBAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Threshing is one of the major problems associated with production of cowpea in Nigeria and most farmers still employ crude methods of threshing the crop. For this reason a thresher was designed and constructed using locally available materials. The popularly grown variety of cowpea (Kakando in the middle belt region of Nigeria was used for performance evaluation of the thresher. The Kakando seed has an average length of 10.36 mm, and a thickness of 7.8 mm. Its angle of friction is 30° and a terminal velocity of 7.01 m/s. The evaluation was carried out at drum speeds of 700, 900 and 1200 rpm and moisture contents of 4.63 %, 6.40 % and 9.01 %. The study was laid in a 2 3 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with a total of 9 treatment combinations replicated three times. The results showed that the percentage unthreshed pods, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, grain damage, blown away seeds, seed loss and threshing recovery were 2.19 %, 97.81 %, 97.02 %, 1.31 %, 0.86 %, 1.36 % and 69.49 % respectively. The grain output was 101.54 kg/hr. The result of regression analysis gave a coefficient R2 of 0.802, which implies that at any of the drum speeds and known moisture content the average grain output is about 80.2 % of the rated output of the thresher. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that the drum speed has no effect on the efficiency of the thresher except for seed damage and feed rate where it is significant at 0.01 and 0.05 for seed damage and feed rate respectively. Moisture content had no effect on cleaning efficiency, blown away seeds and threshing recovery, but showed high significance on performance efficiency at 0.01. The thresher can easily be dismantled for transportation and maintenance. The cost of production was seventy thousand naira (N70,000:00 $483:00.

  9. Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 ?g g-1; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 ?g g-1. These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  10. PRODUCCIÓN Y COMPOSICIÓN BROMATOLÓGICA DE HARINAS DE VIGNA: DE FORRAJES, INTEGRALES Y DE GRANOS Production and bromatological composition of Vigna flour meals: forage, integral, and grain

    OpenAIRE

    María F. Díaz; Padilla, C.; González, A.; Mora, C.

    2002-01-01

    En un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones se evaluó el comportamiento de cinco variedades de Vigna. unguiculata: V. blanca, V. negra, Habana 82, Viñales 144A e INIFAT 93) y una variedad de V. radiata (V. verde) en producción de harinas de granos, harinas de forrajes (floración) y harinas integrales (plantas con vainas en estado lechoso). Se determinó su composición bromatológica y contenido de factores antinutricionales (taninos e inhibidores de tripsina). V. blanca alcanzó l...

  11. Genetic diversity of the Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) as assessed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somta, P; Chankaew, S; Rungnoi, O; Srinives, P

    2011-11-01

    Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an important African legume crop. In this study, a collection consisting of 240 accessions was analyzed using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 166 alleles were detected, with a mean of 7.59 alleles per locus. Allelic and gene diversities were higher in the west African and Cameroon/Nigeria regions with 6.68 and 6.18 alleles per locus, and 0.601 and 0.571, respectively. The genetic distance showed high similarity between west African and Cameroon/Nigeria accessions. Principal coordinate analyses and neighbor-joining analysis consistently revealed that the majority of west African accessions were grouped with Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, but they were differentiated from east African, central African, and southeast Asian accessions. Population structure analysis showed that two subpopulations existed, and most of the east African accessions were restricted to one subpopulation with some Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, whereas most of the west African accessions were associated with most of the Cameroon/Nigeria accessions in the other subpopulation. Comparison with SSR analysis of other Vigna cultigens, i.e., cultivated azuki bean ( Vigna angularis ) and mungbean ( Vigna radiata ), reveals that the mean gene diversity of Bambara groundnut was lower than azuki bean but higher than mungbean. PMID:22017518

  12. Nodulation studies with induced mutants of black gram (Vigna mungo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding has been widely used to generate genetic variability in plants, but reports of mutations affecting the root system are less common. In the present work, black gram (Vigna mungo L. var T9), has been used for studies on the effect of induced mutations on nodulation patterns

  13. Effectiveness and efficiency of different doses of gamma rays in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) were treated with 30-70 KR doses of gamma rays. It was shown that mutagenic effectiveness as well as efficiency were highest at 30 KR as revealed from data on lethality and seed sterility in M1 generation and those on chlorophyll mutation frequencies (M2 segregating progenies) in M2 generation. (auth.)

  14. Translocation of NopP by Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 into Vigna unguiculata Root Nodules?

    OpenAIRE

    Schechter, Lisa M.; Guenther, Jeanette; Olcay, Elizabeth A.; Jang, Sungchan; Hari B. Krishnan

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium fredii is a nitrogen-fixing legume symbiont that stimulates the formation of root nodules. S. fredii nodulation of roots is influenced by Nop proteins, which are secreted through a type III secretion system (T3SS). We demonstrate that S. fredii injects NopP into Vigna unguiculata nodules in a T3SS-dependent manner.

  15. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, M

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal/Niger/rotation/millet/isolate characterization/fonio/compost amendment / bioagent/ Clonostachysrosea /solarizationCowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in theSahelwith nearly 12.5 million hectares per year and is a valuable source of protein for human and animal nutrition. The most limiting factors for crop growth in the Sahelian zone of West Africa are water and nutrient stress. The average cowpea yields in farmers' fields are low (0.2-0.5 ton/ha...

  16. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Joseany Andrade Santos; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José de Melo; Marcia Barreto do Vale Figueiredo; Rajeev Pratap Singh; Antônio Aécio de Carvalho Bezerra; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC) rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emerg...

  17. Differences Among Cowpea Rhizobia in Tolerance to High Temperature and Desiccation in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Osa-Afiana, L. O.; Alexander, Martin

    1982-01-01

    Strains of cowpea rhizobia grew in mannitol-amended, nonsterile soil at 29 to 35°C but not at 40°C. Little decline in numbers of these bacteria occurred in dry, nonsterile soil incubated at 42°C for 7 days. Strains of cowpea rhizobia differed widely in their tolerances to drying at 30°C in nonsterile and sterile soil, and from less than 1 to 50% of the bacteria were still viable after 11 days. No relation was evident between tolerance to desiccation and the degree of aridity of the site from ...

  18. Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. ILEKE; M.O. Oni; O. A. ADELEGAN

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects were investigated. Results showed that at rates of 1...

  19. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  20. Survival of Cowpea Rhizobia in Soil as Affected by Soil Temperature and Moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Weaver, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Successful inoculation of peanuts and cowpeas depends on the survival of rhizobia in soils which fluctuate between wide temperature and moisture extremes. Survival of two cowpea rhizobial strains (TAL309 and 3281) and two peanut rhizobial strains (T-1 and 201) was measured in two soils under three moisture conditions (air-dry, moist (?0.33 bar), and saturated soil) and at two temperatures (25 and 35°C) when soil was not sterilized and at 40°C when soil was sterilized. Populations of rhizobia ...

  1. Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin ?1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin ?1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin ?1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin ?1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin ?1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin ?1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin ?1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

  2. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, R W; Krijt, J.

    1982-01-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

  3. N2O Emission and Mineral N Release in a Tropical Acrisol Incorporated with Mixed Cowpea and Maize Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Kofi Agyarko; David O. Yawson; Kwame A. Frimpong

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm incubation was conducted to study the influence of mixed cowpea-maize residues on N2O emission and N mineralization in a tropical acrisol. The soils were incorporated with different ratios of cowpea:maize mixtures on weight basis: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, and a control treatment in which there was no residue incorporation. The results show that N2O and CO2 emissions were higher in the sole cowpea treatment (100:0) than the sole maize treatment (0:100) and t...

  4. Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. ILEKE; D. S. Bulus

    2012-01-01

    The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L), Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic) dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl. Both were able to cause 100% mortality of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 an...

  5. Efeito da variaç??o de níveis de água disponível no solo sobre o crescimento e produção de feijão caupi, vagens e grãos verdes Effect of different levels of available water in the soil on the growth and production of cowpea bean pods and green grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Nascimento

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da variação de níveis de água disponível no solo, sobre o crescimento e produção de vagens e grãos verdes de feijão caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], cv. IPA 206. A produção de vagens e de grãos verdes desta espécie é uma excelente alternativa de comercialização para os agricultores do Nordeste do Brasil, visto que o seu consumo é bastante significativo na região. Instalou-se o experimento em vasos de 13 kg, em casa de vegetação na UFPB em Areia (PB, de agosto a dezembro de 2000. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 4 tratamentos correspondentes aos níveis de água disponível do solo (40; 60; 80 e 100%, logo após as irrigações, com 6 repetições. Os resultados observados mostraram que o nível crescente de déficit hídrico afetou drasticamente o desempenho desta cultivar em estudo em comparação à testemunha. As maiores reduções estimadas foram constatadas no comprimento da haste principal, 26 e 48%, no número de folha por planta, 23 e 35%, no número de vagens por planta, 32 e 49%, e na massa de vagens por planta, 23 e 30%, respectivamente para os níveis de 60 e 40% de água disponível do solo. Nas condições do experimento a cultivar de feijão caupi IPA 206 não tolera déficit hídrico acentuado.The effect of different levels of available water in the soil was evaluated on the growth and production of green pod and green beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp of cowpea, cv. IPA 206. Both forms of commercialization are excellent alternatives for farmers from the Northeast of Brazil. Plants were cultivated in 13 kg soil pots under green house conditions in Areia, Paraiba State, from August to December/2000. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with six replications and four treatments corresponding to 40; 60; 80 and 100% of available water in the soil, just after irrigations. The production was significantly affected by the deficit of water. Great reduction was observed in the length of the main stem (26 and 48%, in the number of leaves per plant (23 and 35%, in the number of pods per plant (32 and 49% and in the mass of pods per plant (23 and 30%, respectively, for the levels of 60 and 40% of available water in the soil. The production of green pod and green beans of cowpea cv. IPA 206 is greatly affected by deficit of water of 40 and 60%.

  6. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Junzeng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001 and cowpea (2004 crop evapotranspiration (ETc in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the temperature inside the greenhouse and 20-cm pan evaporation outside, reaching its maximum value at the stage when plants’ growth was most active. Differences between the variation of crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation inside the greenhouse were caused by shading of the pan in the later period when the crops were taller than the location where the pan was installed, 70 cm above ground. The ratio of crop evapotranspiration to pan evaporation was not constant as reported in previous studies, and the variation of the inside ratio ?in lagged behind that of the outside ratio ?out. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration based on 20-cm pan evaporation inside the greenhouse is more reasonable than that based on 20-cm pan evaporation outside, although pan evaporation outside is more consistent with ETc than that inside. The value of ?in, calculated based on air temperature, relative humidity, and ground temperature inside, plays a dominant role in the calculation of ETc. As the crop height increases, altering the location of the inside pan and placing it above the canopy, out of the shade, would help to achieve more reasonable values of crop evapotranspiration.

  7. Effect of pesticides applied in cowpea production on rumen microbial fermentation of cowpea haulms as reflected in in vitro gas production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Antwi; E.L.K, Osafo; D.S, Fisher; H.M, Yacout; A, Donkoh; A.A, Hassan; S.M.M, Sobhy; H, Adu-Dapaah; A.Z.M, Salem.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effect of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate residues in cowpea haulm on microbial fermentation using gas syringes as incubators. The lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate were applied at the vegetative, flowering and podding stages of the cowpea [...] at the rate of 2.66 mg/L, 5.14 mg/L and 6.68 mg/L of water, respectively. Dimethoate was detected in the cowpea haulm at the highest concentration of 1.38 mg/kg. The haulm with no pesticide treatment was incubated with media containing rumen fluid, and pesticides were added at concentrations of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg. In vitro gas production was measured at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h to estimate the rate of gas evolution. Gas production in general was influenced by pesticide application. In general, gas evolution was reduced by increasing levels of lambda cyhalothrin up to 80 mg/kg. However, an increase in gas accumulation was observed with increasing levels of dimethoate, while the application of cypermethrin yielded no noticeable change in gas production. The study indicates that pesticide residues may function as toxins at concentrations greater than those encountered in the field or lethal dose (LD50) and may inhibit the growth of rumen microbes.

  8. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseany Andrade Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emergence (DAE was greater in the TSC-amended than in the unamended soil. In the sandy soil, nodule dry weight increased with TSC application 45 DAE. In the clayey soil, 45 DAE, nodule dry weight decreased with TSC amendment levels greater than 7.5 t ha-1 compared to the unamended control. The application of TSC increased N accumulation in the cowpea plants. The results suggest that cowpea responds differently to TSC depending on the amendment rate and initial soil type.

  9. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  10. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  11. Rôle de l'intensité lumineuse sur les capacités parasitaires d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford et d'Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoïdes des Bruchidae ravageurs de graines de niébé (Vigna unguiculata Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndoutoume-Ndong A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of light intensity on parasitic capacities of Eupelmus orientalis Crawford and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoids of Bruchidae pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp. seeds. In tropical Africa, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius is a cowpea pest. After the harvest, the disappearance of one of C. maculatus parasitoids (Eupelmus orientalis Crawford limits the duration of stocks conservation. In this study, we used an experimental model imitating the traditional african granaries taking into account the lack of airtightness and the variability of the internal luminous intensity of the different types of granaries. Three kinds of cages were used: cages with an internal luminous intensity of 380 lux, cages with an internal luminous intensity of 3.5 lux, and some others with an internal luminous intensity of 0.2 lux. Four little holes are pierced on the sides of each cage. Each hole was provided with a trap to catch the insects that escaped. Inside each cage, 20 E. orientalis and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford nymphs were placed. In adult stage, the insects faced a choice of either to escape, or to stay in the cage and then parasitize available hosts. The trapped individuals as well as those remaining in the cage are sorted out by species. Available hosts in the cage which had parasites are also sorted out. The results show that the E. orientalis females born in the cage hardly parasitize available hosts and escape in majority compared to E. vuilleti which stay in the cages. In 380 lux cages, 19% of E. orientalis females escape compared to 6% of E. vuilleti. This percentage of evasion increases with the darkning of the enclosure. Thus, 62% of E. vuilleti females escape from the cages of 3.5 lux and only 11% escape from the cages of 0.2 lux. The majority of E. orientalis individuals escape right from birth, which therefore explains their disappearance from storage. This escape behaviour constitutes a factor limiting the use of this parasitoid as a biological control agent against bruchids.

  12. Compositional evaluation of some cowpea varieties and some under-utilized edible legumes in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A; Aladetimi, O O

    1989-01-01

    The nutritive potentials of some cowpea varieties such as Ife Brown, Ife Bimpe, IT84E-124, K59 and TVX716 and some under-utilized edible legumes grown in Nigeria such as pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), lablab bean (Dolichos lablab), mucuna bean (Mucuna sp.) and Sphenostilis sternocarpa have been evaluated with respect to their proximate chemical composition, mineral content and some endogenous toxic constituents. The cowpea varieties contained on the average 22.5 g crude protein (CP), 2.60 g crude fibre (CF), 5.89 g either extract (EE) and 3.36 g ash/100 g DM while the under-utilized legumes contained 21.7, 6.10, 2.86, and 3.56 g/100 g DM for CP, CF, EE and ash respectively. Distinct varietal differences were observed for EE values as indicated by the coefficients of variation (CV) of 102% for cowpea and 60.8% for the under-utilized legumes. The CF content of the under-utilized legumes were generally higher than those of the cowpea varieties. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in both the cowpea varieties and the under-utilized legumes with mean values of 1.45 and 1.66% respectively, while P was the least abundant with 13.1 and 8.50 ppm, respectively. There were marked intra-varietal differences in the P content as shown by the high CV of 84.0 and 73.9% for the cowpea varieties and the other legumes. The cowpea varieties generally had higher levels of thioglucosides, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and lower haemagglutinating activity (mean values of thioglucosides: 3.86%, of TIA: 13.9 mg/g protein and of haemagglutinating activity: 13.0 HU/mg N respectively), than the under-utilized legumes with mean respective values of 1.22%, 9.84 mg/g protein and 22.7 HU/mg N. The nutritional implications of these anti-nutritional components were discussed and some reasons adduced for the under-utilization of some of these legumes inspite of their apparent similarity in nutritional quality to the more commonly consumed grain legumes. PMID:2561305

  13. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada. As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88 do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas.SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved. The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were used for subcutaneous immunization. The mucosal immune response was detected by the cellular proliferation of the Peyer's patches of mice immunized by oral route with CPSMV. It was demonstrated that CPSMV induces immune response, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies, when administered in the native form by the oral and nasal routes or with two denatured capsid proteins by the subcutaneous route. The use of adjuvants in the oral and nasal immunizations was not necessary. The 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were responsible for the immunogenicity of the virus, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies detected by ELISA test. The cellular proliferation analysis of the Peyer's patches revealed an increase (r=0.88 of leucocytes along 42 days after immunization. The results reinforce the possibility of the use of CPSMV as a safe vector of antigens for human/animal diseases of low immunogenicity for the production of vaccines.

  14. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) / Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Evando Aguiar, Beserra Júnior; Márcia Maria Mendes, Marques; Beatriz Meireles, Barguil; Carlos Alberto Furtado, Lopes Junior; Maria Izabel Florindo, Guedes.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa) e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada). As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua f [...] orma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88) do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas. Abstract in english SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa) and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved). The capsid proteins, in their native form [...] , were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were used for subcutaneous immunization. The mucosal immune response was detected by the cellular proliferation of the Peyer's patches of mice immunized by oral route with CPSMV. It was demonstrated that CPSMV induces immune response, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies, when administered in the native form by the oral and nasal routes or with two denatured capsid proteins by the subcutaneous route. The use of adjuvants in the oral and nasal immunizations was not necessary. The 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were responsible for the immunogenicity of the virus, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies detected by ELISA test. The cellular proliferation analysis of the Peyer's patches revealed an increase (r=0.88) of leucocytes along 42 days after immunization. The results reinforce the possibility of the use of CPSMV as a safe vector of antigens for human/animal diseases of low immunogenicity for the production of vaccines.

  15. Detecção de fungos endofíticos em sementes de caupi provenientes de Serra Talhada e de Caruaru, estado de Pernambuco Detection of endophytic fungi in cowpea seeds from Serra Talhada and Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIA A. C. RODRIGUES

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo detectar e identificar fungos endofíticos em sementes de caupi (Vigna unguiculata, IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205 e IPA-206, procedentes dos municípios de Serra Talhada e Caruaru, bem como verificar a influência desses microrganismos na germinação das sementes. Foram analisadas 400 sementes de cada cultivar, pelo método do papel de filtro, que demonstrou a presença de 71 espécies fúngicas compreendidas em 23 gêneros. Os mais freqüentes foram Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium, correspondendo a 81,44% do total de colônias encontradas. Com relação à qualidade das sementes, as maiores incidências foram observadas nas sementes cultivadas em Serra Talhada, possivelmente pelo tempo de armazenamento. Os fungos afetaram a germinação, principalmente, nas cultivares IPA-201 e IPA-202 de Serra Talhada com percentuais de germinação correspondentes a 53,2 e 65,5%, respectivamente. A presença dos fungos foi observada nas sementes causando necrose nos cotilédones, radícula e folhas primárias, originando plântulas anormais. As sementes da cultivar IPA-206 apresentaram melhor padrão de sanidade e germinação.The purpose of the present work was to investigate and identify endophytic fungi in seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivars, IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205, and IPA-206 from Caruaru and Serra Talhada counties, and evaluate the influence of those microorganisms on germination. Four hundred seeds of each cultivar were analyzed by blotter test method, which revealed the presence of 71 fungus species involving 23 genera. The most prevalent genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, corresponding to 81.44% of all the colonies found. The highest contamination index was observed in the seeds from Serra Talhada, which shows an association between higher numbers of fungal colonies with longer storage time. The influence of microorganisms on germination was observed mainly in IPA-201 and IPA-202 cultivars from Serra Talhada, with a percentage corresponding to 53.25% and 65.50%, respectively. The presence of fungi was observed in the seeds, causing necrosis in cotyledon, root and primitive leaf and generating abnormal seedlings. In the IPA-206 cultivar higher performance was shown in both seed health and viability.

  16. Resposta do feijão-caupi as lâminas de irrigação e as doses de fósforo no cerrado de Roraima Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamen