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Uso del cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) en mezclas con fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) en el desarrollo de nuevos productos alimenticios/ Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar el cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) como sustituto parcial del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) como pasta o como harina. El grado de sustitución sería aquel en el cual no se detecte el sabor del frijol cowpea alterando el sabor del frijol común. Para la ejecución del estudio se utilizó la variedad Peruchin Negro del frijol cowpea y el ICTA Ligero del frijol común con un contenido de proteína de 24.4% y 18.7% respectiv (more) amente. No hubo diferencias significativas en otros nutrientes. Se postulo que el sabor característico a tierra del cowpea era debido al contenido de polifenoles, la cual se redujo con tratamientos de remojo, cocción y descascarado. Se estableció que los niveles de polifenoles logrados con 9 horas de remojo y 30 minutos de cocción eran iguales a los obtenidos con el descascarado. Con estos procedimientos previos en el cowpea se prepararon 2 pastas de frijol frito a base de una mezcla de frijol negro/cowpea (con y sin cáscara) en la relación 70/30 las cuales fueron enlatadas y una mezcla de harina precocida en las mismas proporciones. Estas pastas se sometieron a pruebas sensoriales de tipo triangular y de perfil descriptivo. En el perfil descriptivo se evaluó: color, textura, punto de sal y sabor, en una escala de 10 puntos. Las evaluaciones sensoriales de las 2 mezclas de frijol no mostraron diferencia significativa respecto al sabor del frijol común. El contenido de proteína en las mezclas fue más alto debido a la mayor concentración de este nutriente en el cowpea. Aunque las mezclas de frijol común con cowpea entero y sin cáscara dieron mayor valor proteico (NPR) que el de frijol solo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was developed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples (more) were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant.

López Guerra, Claudia Maritza; Bressani, Ricardo

2008-03-01

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Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)  

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Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth tests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

P.G.C. Odeigah; A.O. Osanyinpeju; G.O. Myers

1998-01-01

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Resistance to cowpea mottle carmovirus in Vigna vexillata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cowpea mottle carmovirus (CPMoV) causes grain yield losses of up to 75% in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.). There is no resistance to this virus among cultivated cowpea lines, but a high level of resistance exists in Vigna vexillata, a wild Vigna species. Fifty-four accessions of V. vexillata germplasm collection at IITA were tested for resistance to CPMoV. Seedlings were mechanically inoculated with the virus and susceptibility or resistance was assessed by visual scoring of disease symptoms and serological analysis using antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). All but three V. vexillata lines belonging to the variety angustifolia were resistant to CPMoV. Crosses were made between two resistant V. vexillata lines and the three susceptible lines. Segregation patterns observed in the F2 and the backcross populations of all the crosses showed that resistance to CPMoV in V. vexillata is controlled by a single dominant gene, and the level of resistance conferred by this gene in V. vexillata is very high.

Ogundiwin EA; Thottappilly G; Aken'Ova ME; Ekpo EJA; Fatokun CA

2002-12-01

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Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

1995-11-03

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J. Xavier Filho

1991-01-01

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

Xavier Filho, J.

1991-01-01

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[Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

Modernell MG; Granito M; Paolini M; Olaizola C

2008-09-01

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Development of transgenic imazapyr-tolerant cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

KEY MESSAGE : Here we present the development of cowpea lines tolerant to a herbicide from imidazoline class (imazapyr). Plants presented tolerance to fourfold the commercial recommended dose for weed control. Cowpea is one of the most important and widely cultivated legumes in many parts of the world. Its cultivation is drastically affected by weeds, causing damages during growth and development of plants, competing for light, nutrients and water. Consequently, weed control is critical, especially using no-tillage farming systems. In tropical regions, no-till farming is much easier with the use of herbicides to control weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of obtaining transgenic cowpea plants resistant to imidazolinone, which would facilitate weed control during the summer season. The biolistic process was used to insert a mutated acetohydroxyacid synthase coding gene (Atahas) which confers tolerance to imazapyr. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Out of ten lines tested for tolerance to 100 g ha(-1) imazapyr, eight presented some tolerance. One line (named 59) revealed high herbicide tolerance and developmental growth comparable to non-transgenic plants. This line was further tested for tolerance to higher herbicide concentrations and presented tolerance to 400 g ha(-1) imazapyr (fourfold the commercial recommended dose) with no visible symptoms. Line 59 will be the foundation for generating imidazolinone-tolerant cowpea varieties, which will facilitate cultivation of this crop in large areas.

Citadin CT; Cruz AR; Aragão FJ

2013-04-01

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Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)/ Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ?I-484? (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ?I-490? (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron (more) a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ?I-484?. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ?I-490? se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ?I-484? (moderate sensibility to salinity) and ?I-490? (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after so (more) wn, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ?I-484?. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ?I-490? the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

Garzón, Paola; García, Marina

2011-12-01

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Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ‘I-484’ (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ‘I-490’ (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ‘I-484’. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ‘I-490’ se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares.The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ‘I-484’ (moderate sensibility to salinity) and ‘I-490’ (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ‘I-484’. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ‘I-490’ the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

Paola Garzón; Marina García

2011-01-01

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Physical properties of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) seed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The physical properties of cowpea seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness were 9.92 mm, 6.87 mm and 6.06 mm, respectively, at 12.01% d.b. moisture content. In the moisture range from 12.01% to 38.90% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted cowpea seed showed that 1000 seed mass increased from 209.23 g to 256.88 g, the projected area from 22.59 to 32.72 mm2, the sphericity from 0.781 to 0.799, the porosity from 50.64% to 51.49% and the terminal velocity from 9.31 m s-1 to 9.61 m s-1. The static coefficient of friction of cowpea seed increased the linearly against surfaces of four structural materials, namely, rubber (0.364-0.394), aluminium (0.212-0.296), stainless steel (0.176-0.238) and galvanised iron (0.324-0.36) as the moisture content increased from 12.01% to 38.90% d.b. The bulk density decreased from 569.9 to 535.6 kg m-3 and the true density from 1154.8 to 1104.1 kg m-3, respectively, with an increase in moisture content from 12.01% to 39.90% d.b.

Yalcin I

2007-03-01

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Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) Grains using Botanicals  

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Full Text Available An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no protectant and standard actellic super dust, making a total of 13 treatments. A split plot experiment in which the two commercial cultivars were the main plots while the 13 protectant treatments comprised the subplots was used as a Randomized Complete Design with four replications. Cultured pest weevils were placed in vials containing cowpea seeds and the respective sub-plot treatments including the two controls; ashes of rice husks, kitchen and cow dung; powders of dried leaves of Tephrosia vogelii, neem, pyrethrum flowers, tobacco snuff, black pepper fruit and their various combinations. Data were recorded after 10 weeks of storage on number of bruchids after treatment, number of holes per seed, numbers of damaged and undamaged seeds. Protectants had varying degrees of effectiveness in controlling the cowpea weevil. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff, actellic super dust and combination of leaf powders of neem and Tephrosia vogelii significantly excelled the control of no protectant in controlling the cowpea weevil. Black pepper powder gave significantly better results than the control in suppressing bruchid survival, higher numbers of undamaged seeds and fewer holes per seed. The cowpea cultivars did not differ significantly on the studied traits. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff and combination of neem and Tephrosia are effective in controlling stored grain of cowpeas. Black pepper powder can as well be used for cowpea grain storage particularly where the aforementioned botanicals are not available.

Shazia O.W.M. Reuben; Minza Masunga; Rhodes Makundi; Robert N. Misangu; Bukheti Kilonzo; Maulid Mwatawala; Herman F. Lyimo; Christine G. Ishengoma; Dastun G. Msuya; Loth S. Mulungu

2006-01-01

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Nucleotide sequence of a genomic clone encoding a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) trypsin inhibitor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A protease inhibitor gene has been isolated from native cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. 130 from lambda-ZAP II genomic library. The nucleotide sequence of this genomic clone shared 86% homology with a cowpea trypsin inhibitor f IV mRNA, and 81% with Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor genes of soybean. The isolated gene had TATA and CAT signals in the 5' upstream region. The longest open reading frame had 504 bases, encoding 167 amino acids from the predicted coding region. (more) The active serine centers of this protein was found between 105-158 amino acid residues, with a 69 amino acids long signal peptide in its N terminal.

Lawrence, Paulraj Kirubakaran; Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Koundal, Kripa Ram

2001-04-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

de Lima AS; Xavier TF; de Lima CE; de Paula Oliveira J; Mergulhão AC; Figueiredo FM

2011-07-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs. PMID:24031707

de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo Márcia do Vale Barreto

2011-09-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments i (more) ncluded inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

Lima, André Suêldo Tavares de; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreira; Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de; Oliveira, José de Paula; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Márcia do Vale Barreto

2011-09-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima; Terezinha Ferreira Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de Lima; José de Paula Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo

2011-01-01

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First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-12-14

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First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Brito M; Fernández-Rodríguez T; Garrido MJ; Mejías A; Romano M; Marys E

2012-12-01

20

First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Miriam Brito; Thaly Fernández-Rodríguez; Mario José Garrido; Alexander Mejías; Mirtha Romano; Edgloris Marys

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

2007-01-01

22

Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) Grains using Botanicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted dur...

Shazia O.W.M. Reuben; Minza Masunga; Rhodes Makundi; Robert N. Misangu; Bukheti Kilonzo; Maulid Mwatawala

23

Improved Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation in Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA1305.1, with a hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) and a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene interrupted with an intron, was used for transformation of Vigna unguiculata cotyledonary node explants. High concentration of acetosyringone (200 ?M) in the Agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium with 1 g L-1 L-cysteine, 250 mg L-1 Na-thiosulphate and 150 mg L-1 dithiothretiol (DTT) proved to be indispensable for successful transformation. Three days old cotyledonary nodes were used for transformation studies. Binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.1 proved to be very efficient for transformation. Stable transformation with 1.61% efficiency was achieved using optimized conditions. Transformed green shoots were rooted on medium containing hygromycin. Transformed shoots tested positive for hpt gene by polymerase chain reaction. GUS activity was detected in cotyledonary nodes and leaves of the putative transformants. Southern analysis of putative transformants showed the integration of hpt into the plant genome.

S. Raveendar; S. Ignacimuthu

2010-01-01

24

Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) to Water Stress and Phosphorus Fertilization  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted in the experimental college of agriculture and forestry, in Maputo-Mozambique, in order to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) to irrigation and phosphorus and test the hypothesis that high levels of phosphorus improves the tolerance of plants to water stress. We used a variety IT 18 of cowpea, short cycle and ended. The experiment was subdivided into building plots complete block design with five repetitions, the irrigation factor was fixed at the main plot with two levels (with irrigation and without irrigation) and phosphorus factor in sub-plots with 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of phosphorus). The fertilization strongly influenced the yield and the number of pods per plant in both irrigation conditions. The effect of fertilizing phosphorus was higher under irrigation. The interaction was significant only for grain yield and number of pods, which means that the effect of phosphorus in these two variables has not been the same for the two levels of irrigation, high levels of phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) have improved the tolerance of cowpea when not irrigated.

V.G. Uarrota

2010-01-01

25

Scab disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) caused by Sphaceloma a species of the fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scab disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculuta) was shown to be caused by Sphaceloma sp. It affects all above ground parts of the plant. The first symptom of the disease, appearing within 3 to 6 days of inoculation, is puckering of the lamina. Spots on mature leaves are white with or without brown margins. Typical scab lesions on petiole, stem, peduncle and pod are white turning dark brown when chlamydospores are formed and are oblong-elongate except for pod lesions that are ovoid. The most destructive phase is scab of the flowering axis which causes flower and, or, pod abortion or completely prevents flower formation. Inoculation of asparagus pea (V. sesquipedalis) with a cowpea isolate of Sphaceloma sp. produced symptoms similar to those on cowpea. Inoculated hyacinth bean (Lablab niger) produced atypical mild lesions. The following legumes were not affected when artificially inoculated with the fungus: black gram (Phaseolus mungo), green gram (P, aureus), French bean (P. vulgaris), Lima bean (P. lunatus), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and soyabean (Glycine max). The characteristics of the fungus on potato dextrose agar are described.

Emechebe AM

1980-09-01

26

CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI), funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace) recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. DESCRIPTION: CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS) isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs) knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource), and UniProtKB-TrEMBL). Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF) program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS). CONCLUSION: CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

Chen X; Laudeman TW; Rushton PJ; Spraggins TA; Timko MP

2007-01-01

27

CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI), funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace) recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS) isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs) knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource), and UniProtKB-TrEMBL). Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF) program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS). Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

Chen Xianfeng; Laudeman Thomas W; Rushton Paul J; Spraggins Thomas A; Timko Michael P

2007-01-01

28

Identification of water storage tissue in the stem of cowpea plant (Vigna unguliculata Walp) by neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) is considered one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops. It was suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. However, such tissue has not been identified yet. In order to identify the water storing tissue in the stem of cowpea plant, the authors performed neutron radiography, which provides a non-destructive image of water distribution pattern in a plant. Common bean plant and soybean plant were used as references. Comparing the neutron radiograph for the stems of the plants, i.e., cowpea, common bean and soybean plants, the parenchymatous tissue with water storing function was distinguished in the intermode between primary leaf and the first trifoliate leaf specifically in cowpea plant. (author)

1999-01-01

29

Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

Zia-Ul-Haq M; Ahmad S; Amarowicz R; De Feo V

2013-01-01

30

Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods. PMID:23385338

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Amarowicz, Ryszard; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-02-05

31

Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq; Shakeel Ahmad; Ryszard Amarowicz; Vincenzo De Feo

2013-01-01

32

SSR Marker Aided Parental Polymorphic Survey for Rust Resistance in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp  

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Full Text Available Nine Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes-six landraces and three cultivated varieties were selected for the study. Polymorphic survey was done by using 36 SSR primers and genetic distances among parental lines were calculated. Primers VM 1, VM 28, VM 36 and VM 68 were found to be polymorphic with two to four alleles per locus. Polymorphism percentage was 11.11. The total number of polymorphic alleles were 11 and number of alleles amplified per locus on an average was 2.75. Five primers produced heterozygous bands. Primer VM 36 produced unique band for GC-3, making it useful for marker assisted introgression studies. Nine genotypes clustered into seven groups, which showed correlation to their geographical origin and distinguished the cultivated varieties from the landraces. Dendrogram consisted of two major clusters diverged at 18.56 per cent dissimilarity level. The genotypes exhibited lower diversity at molecular level and higher diversity at phenotypic level.

M.S.Uma , Asish, I. Edakkalathur,Shailaja Hittalamani, K.P.Viswanatha, Y.M.Somashekhar and T.E.Nagaraja

2011-01-01

33

Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A concentration as low as 1 microM lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb2+ activity of 0.2 microM for the shoots and at a Pb2+ activity of 0.06 microM for the roots. The primary site of Pb2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. PMID:17379363

Kopittke, Peter M; Asher, Colin J; Kopittke, Rosemary A; Menzies, Neal W

2007-03-26

34

Line x tester analysis for yield and rust resistance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

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Full Text Available The combining ability of the parents as well as the hybrids of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) involving three lines andsixteen testers was studied. The parents and their resultant 48 hybrids were evaluated in line x tester mating design andobservations were recorded for nine quantitative and one qualitative trait. The GCA/SCA ratio indicated that all the traitsstudied were found to be predominantly controlled by non additive genes. Based on mean performance and GCA effects, lineV 118 and testers IC 202784, IC 202782 and IC 202778 were found to be the best general combiner for seed yield/plant.The hybrids V 118 x IC 202782 and V 118 X IC 202784 were found to be superior for more than one trait based on per seperformance and standard heterosis. Besides the heterotic potential, the hybrid V 118 x IC 202784 was found to bemoderately resistant to rust.

M.S.Uma and Indrani kalubowila

2010-01-01

35

Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2007-11-15

36

Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A concentration as low as 1 ?M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb2+ activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and at a Pb2+ activity of 0.06 ?M for the roots. The primary site of Pb2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and 0.06 ?M for the roots

2007-01-01

37

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

Singh SK; Kakani VG; Surabhi GK; Reddy KR

2010-09-01

38

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:20605100

Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

2010-06-17

39

Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF) plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.

Chanin Umponstira; Warin Pimpa; Suckaluck Nanegrungsun

2006-01-01

40

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer.

Mota AC; Damatta RA; Lima Filho M; Silva CP; Xavier-Filho J

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer. PMID:16256689

Mota, A C; Damatta, R A; Lima Filho, M; Silva, C P; Xavier-Filho, J

2003-09-01

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and Dd (more) eI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

Silva, F.V.; Simões-Araújo, J.L.; Silva Júnior, J.P.; Xavier, G.R.; Rumjanek, N.G.

2012-06-01

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Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)  

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Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (‘Achishiru’, ‘Aloka local’, ‘Borno local’, ‘Danila’, ‘Danmisira’, ‘Danwuri’, ‘Kanannado’ and ‘Yambare’) of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg), phenotypic (rp) and environmental (re) correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp) and environmental (re) correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113), days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301), days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958) and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096). On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011). Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

Muhammad L. UMAR; Mohammed G. SANUSI; Fagwalawa D. LAWAN

2009-01-01

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Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)  

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Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (?Achishiru?, ?Aloka local?, ?Borno local?, ?Danila?, ?Danmisira?, ?Danwuri?, ?Kanannado? and ?Yambare?) of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg), phenotypic (rp) and environmental (re) correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp) and environmental (re) correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113), days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301), days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958) and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096). On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011). Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

Muhammad L. UMAR; Mohammed G. SANUSI; Fagwalawa D. LAWAN

2010-01-01

45

Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) using a soybean genome array.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food and fodder legume of the semiarid tropics and subtropics worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High density genetic linkage maps are needed for marker assisted breeding but are not available for cowpea. A single feature polymorphism (SFP) is a microarray-based marker which can be used for high throughput genotyping and high density mapping. RESULTS: Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max) genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP) was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.

Das S; Bhat PR; Sudhakar C; Ehlers JD; Wanamaker S; Roberts PA; Cui X; Close TJ

2008-01-01

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone)/ Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata) como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC), decorticado (DC), cocido (CC), germinado (GC) y extruido (EXC). Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. S (more) e elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g) usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos. Abstract in english The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were includ (more) ed at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g) to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.

Rivas-Vega, Martha Elisa; Rouzaud-Sandez, Ofelia; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Goytortúa-Bores, Ernesto; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto

2009-04-01

47

Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

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Full Text Available The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g) to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata) como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC), decorticado (DC), cocido (CC), germinado (GC) y extruido (EXC). Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g) usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos.

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe Salazar-García; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo

2009-01-01

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COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.) COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.)  

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Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP) base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ) para los caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa) y vega (textura franco-arcillosa). Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a) Sin fertilizante; b) FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c) DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d), con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreció el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF) on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF) for the above characters. Two soil types were used: savanna (sand lime texture) and “vega” (lime clay texture). Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a) without fertilizer; b) CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c) WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS), with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor for average number of total germination days and germination velocity, whit averages of

Jesús Rafael Méndez-Natera; Víctor Alejandro Otahola-Gómez; Rubén E Pereira-Garantón; José A Simosa-Mallé; Luis Tellis; Enrique Zabala

2007-01-01

49

Effect of cerium on growth, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activities of cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of various concentrations of cerium provided as cerium nitrate (0.713, 3.568, 17.841, 89.206 and 446.030 ¼ M) on the growth performance, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activity of cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Low concentrations of cerium were observed to be beneficial for the test plants. A positive correlation was observed between a lower level of cerium (0.713-17. (more) 841 ¼ M) and foliar chlorophyll content, relative yield (dry matter) and nitrate reductase activity. Higher levels of cerium (89.206-446.030 ¼ M) significantly increased the proline content and polyphenol oxidase activity of the test plants. Root growth was more adversely affected than shoot growth.

Shyam, R; Aery, N.C

2012-01-01

50

Cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.): traditional and improved cropping methods in northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The present article describes the traditional cowpea cropping system in Dambatta, Kano State, Nigeria. Through a baseline survey it becomes clear that traditionally cowpea is mostly intercropped with cereals, that the importance of land preparation is marginal, that yields are low and that, in general, the technical level of the cowpea grower is low (low inputs of fertilizer and pesticide). In a second part some data are given about a project that introduced à new cowpea variety, T.V.X.-3.236, and improved methods. It is shown that, although better yields are possible, the extension service does not succeed in motivating the farmers enough so that the outcome of the project intervention is uncertain.

F. Pauwels; P. Van Damme; W. Sampers

1986-01-01

51

Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

Mbofung CM; Rigby N; Waldron K

1999-01-01

52

Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).  

Science.gov (United States)

Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used. PMID:10646560

Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

1999-01-01

53

Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).  

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Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %). Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%). The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

Z.M. Peña P.; G. Trujillo

2006-01-01

54

Morfología profunda del gineceo en Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) Gynoecium deep morphology in Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)  

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Full Text Available Se describe la morfología del gineceo en especies de Vigna nativas de Argentina, utilizando microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB). En las flores al comienzo de la antesis, el ovario está revestido por dos tipos de tricomas, posee un disco nectarífero basal y el estilo rostrado o no, puede ser apenas curvo, con curvatura sigmoidea o con hasta cinco vueltas completas de espiralización, presenta un cepillo estilar en la porción apical introrsa, y termina en un estigma húmedo, que puede estar rodeado por tricomas. En las especies examinadas se encontraron variaciones en cuanto a: tipos de tricomas del indumento del ovario; forma del disco nectarífero basal; largo y curvatura del estilo; presencia, forma y posición del rostro; ubicación del cepillo estilar; esculturación de los tricomas del cepillo estilar; posición y forma del estigma; forma y ubicación del anillo peristigmático y disposición, longitud y esculturación de los tricomas del anillo peristigmático. Se brinda la descripción comparativa de los estados de carácter que presenta el gineceo en cada una de las especies, siendo ésta la primera observación de la esculturación de los tricomas en el género Vigna. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos con respecto a algunos aspectos de la biología floral de las especies estudiadas.The deep morphology of gynoecium in species of Vigna from Argentina was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the beginning of anthesis, the ovary presents two types of trichomes; has a basal nectar disc; and the style beaked or not, can appear scarcely curved, sigmoid or curved up to five complete turns of spiraling; presents a distal stylar brush, and an apical wet stigma, which can be surrounded by trichomes. Among the species examined, variation was found in: types of trichomes of ovary indumentum; nectar disc shape; length and curvature of the style; presence, shape and position of the stylar beak; location of the stylar brush; sculpturing of the stylar brush trichomes; position and form of the stigma; form and location of the peristigmatic ring and disposition and length of its trichomes. Based on the variations in these characters, a comparative description of the gineceum of each species is provided. This is the first description of the sculptured trichomes in Vigna. The results are discussed in relation to some aspects of the floral biology of the species.

Susana Inés Drewes; Cecilia Gamba

2011-01-01

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Proanthocyanidin profile of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) reveals catechin-O-glucoside as the dominant compound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proanthocyanidin (PA) profile and content can have important nutritional and health implications on plant foods. Six diverse cowpea phenotypes (black, red, green, white, light-brown and golden-brown) were investigated for PA composition using normal-phase HPLC and reversed-phase UPLC-TQD-MS. Catechin and (epi)afzelechin were the major flavan-3-ol units. Unusual composition was observed in all cowpea phenotypes with significant degrees of glycosylation in the monomers and dimers. The PA content of cowpea (dry basis) ranged between 2.2 and 6.3 mg/g. Monomeric flavan-3-ols were the largest group of PA (36-69%) in cowpea, with catechin-7-O-glucoside accounting for most (about 88%) of the monomers. The oligomers with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-4 ranged from 0.41 to 1.3 mg/g (15-20%), whereas DP>10 polymers accounted for only 13.5% of PA. Future studies that highlight the impact of the unusual cowpea PA profile on nutritional and bioactive properties of this important legume are warranted. PMID:23561075

Ojwang, Leonnard O; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Awika, Joseph

2013-02-10

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Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea)  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v) chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length of seedling in vigna unguiculata . The chlorine water has inhibitory effect on root growth ( radical length and number of rootlets) in Vigna unguiculata . The fresh weight and dry weight goes on decreasing in chlorine water treatment of Vigna unuiculata over control.Chlorine is essential micronutrient in plant vital processes. However, higher concentration of chlorine inhibits the plant vital process during seed germination of Vigna uguiculata. The higher concentration of chlorine affects the seed germination percentage, leaves number, seedling growth, radical length with rootlets, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling

Sharad Phulari

2013-01-01

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Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea) from Northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%), seedling weight change (1.52 g), shoot length (25.81 cm), root length (23.12 cm) was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

B.Y. Wada; B.Y. Abubakar

2013-01-01

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Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and...

Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

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Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)  

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Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

2011-01-01

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Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. RESULTS: Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. CONCLUSIONS: Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts.

Mellor KE; Hoffman AM; Timko MP

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. Results Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. Conclusions Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts.

Mellor Karolina E; Hoffman Ava M; Timko Michael P

2012-01-01

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Determination of some mineral components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some mineral elements in the seeds of the cowpea were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The cowpea cultivars were made up of improved varieties (Soronko, Gbeho, Ayiyi, Asontem, Asontem1, Bengpla, Asetenapa and Adom), farmers' accessions (87/7, 87/1, 87/27, 87/147, 87/34, 87/49, 87/83, 87/157, 87/149, 87/30, 87/153, 96/046, 87/137, 96/129, BTB 96/091, OAA 96/30, BTB 96/054), and experimental materials (IT870-677-2, Caroni, Kaase Market, 1977 and 1239). A total of 14 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Br, Cl, K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ta, Si and In) were detected in the seeds of the 30 cowpea cultivars. Five of the elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) identified are classified as major elements in the human body, while four (Mn, Zn, V, Si) are trace elements. The major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg and Cl were detected in high concentration in cultivars 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34 and 87/49, respectively. The trace elements Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and Al were detected in high concentration in cultivars 87/34, 87/27, 87/34, Bengpla, 87/34 and 87/34, respectively. From the results the following accessions could be selected and incorporated into a cowpea mineral nutritional improvement programme: 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34, 87/49 and 87/27. The presence of the five major elements and the trace elements indicates that cowpea has a rich source of mineral elements and, therefore, can be used to improve the diet of both humans and livestock. (au)

2007-01-01

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Physiological and Biochemical Variations in Seed Germination of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Cultivars  

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Full Text Available Germination, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG), lipid and sugar compositions were determined in whole ungerminated seed of three cowpea cultivars. The cultivars were chosen for biochemical characteristics based on seed germination and coefficient of velocity of germination tests. Texas cream 40 was able to germinate at very high and low temperatures. Black Crowder demonstrated acceptable germination at high temperatures but negatively affected at low temperature. Mississippi Purple obtained low germination percent and CVG at all temperatures studied. The main sugars present in cowpea seed are sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. Sugar contents were affected by cultivar. Sugar compositions were higher in the cultivars with high percent germination and reduced in the cultivar with lower percent germination suggesting the use of sugar for seed germination process. The most abundant fatty acids in cowpea seed were palmitic acid [CH3(CH2)14COOH; (16:0)], palmitoleic acid [CH3(CH2)5CH = CH(CH2)7COOH; (16:1)], stearic acid [CH3(CH2)16COOH; (18:0)], oleic acid [CH3(CH2)7CH = CH(CH2)7COOH; (18:1)], linoleic acid [CH3(CH2)4CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2(CH2)6 COOH; (18:2)], linolenic acid [CH3CH2CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2CH = CH(CH2)7COOH; (18:3)] and arachidic acid [CH3(CH2)18COOH; (20:0)]. The result shows that the long-chain fatty acid appears to be important in the cowpea seed germination process. Thus, the information provided by this research will facilitate future plant physiological and genetic studies of cowpea cultivars.

Shahidul Islam; R. Carvajal R. Carmen; Jr. James O. Garner

2008-01-01

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A high yielding short duration cowpea (Vigna unguiculata.L) variety ‘Hridya’  

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Full Text Available Breeding experiments was conducted at Onattukara Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kayamkulam,Kerala AgriculturalUniversity to evolve a high yielding cowpea variety with synchronized maturity during 2000-09. Local cultivars and releasedvarieties like V-2, CO-3, COVU-358, COVU-8456, V-118 and COVU-623 were used as parents in the programme. A shortduration cowpea variety with synchronized maturity was identified and released as ‘Hridya’ at the state level variety releasecommittee during 2010. This variety was developed by mass selection of the lacal Kuttipayar.The important charecteristics of thevariety are the height is 45 cm, pod colour is green, seed colour is straw, and the 100 seed weight is 4.67g. The productivity ofthe variety is 9.5 q ha-1and the duration is 55 days.

M.R. Bindu*, Sverup John, G. Suja, M.Indira and T.N. Vilasini

2011-01-01

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A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in th (more) e embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein) of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

Venâncio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.; Silva, L.B.; Machado, O.L.T.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.

2003-09-01

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A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)  

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Full Text Available Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein) of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

Venâncio T.M.; Oliveira A.E.A.; Silva L.B.; Machado O.L.T.; Fernandes K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho J.

2003-01-01

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Compositional and nutritional properties of selected newly developed lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositional and nutritional properties of raw, boiled and steamed samples of selected advanced breeding lines of cowpea (IT8ID-699, IT82E-18, IT84S-2246-4 and TVx3236) were investigated. These lines were part of a larger collection developed by the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and evaluated in agronomic field trials in Nigeria. Protein quality was evaluated using weanling albino rats fed diets which were formulated to supply 10% protein using cowpea samples, with casein as a control. Raw seeds contained 20.1-25.8% crude protein, 0.99-1.96 mg polyphenol and 1.15-2.10 mg phytic acid g(-1) seed flour. IT 81D-699 and TVx 3236 possessed higher crude protein contents and lower amounts of phytic acid compared with IT82E-18 and IT84S-2246-4. Boiling was shown to be more effective than steaming for reducing the levels of antinutrients and improving the protein quality of the seeds, as shown by the higher values for weight gain, protein-efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) of the boiled samples. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the values obtained for PER, NPR and TD of diets containing boiled samples of IT8ID-699 and TVx 3236 and casein, indicating the nutritional superiority of these cowpea lines compared with IT82E-18 and IT84S-2246-4.

Giami SY

2005-11-01

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Land race as a source for improving photosynthetic rate and productivity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata W.)  

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Full Text Available Cowpea is an important grain legume of arid and semiarid regions of Asia and Africa. Productivity of cowpea is low and stagnant.Conventional breeding approaches aimed at improvement of yield per se have not been successful so far in breaking the yieldbarrier. Manipulation of physiological processes such as photosynthesis is expected to yield positive results. A land race ‘Goalocal’ with a very high photosynthetic rate was used to improve this trait in selected cultivars, C-152, KM-1 and V-118 withdifferent growth habits. KM-1 x Goa local and C-152 x Goa local F1 hybrids yielded better than the best parent, a land race itself.This improved productivity was mainly associated with the increase in number of pods per plant and seeds per pod as well as testweight. Physiologically, the improved productivity of hybrids could be associated with higher chlorophyll content, photosyntheticrate as well as conductance. Association analysis among biophysical traits and productivity traits indicated significant positiveassociation of photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content with seed yield per plant. Interestingly, the four biophysical traitsshowed significant and positive correlation with seeds per pod and hundred seed weight as well as with pod length (excepttranspiration rate) but, failed to show any association with number of pods per plant. The results indicated the scope of using aland race in improving the productivity in cowpea through manipulation of biophysical traits like chlorophyll content andphotosynthesis.

Suma Biradar, P.M. Salimath and B.C.Patil

2010-01-01

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VALOR NUTRICIONAL DEL ENSILAJE DE MAÍZ CULTIVADO EN ASOCIO CON VIGNA (Vigna radiata)  

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Full Text Available Se cuantificó la fermentabilidad y valor nutricional del ensilaje de maíz cultivado en asocio con vigna (Vigna radiata) mediante la técnica de microsilos. Se trabajó con 2 densidades de siembra de maíz y vigna (70:30 y 60:40), 3 niveles de melaza (0, 2 y 4% p/p) e inóculo bacterial (con o sin). El material se cosechó a 85 días de sembrado. Al material antes de ensilar y ensilado se le determinó materia seca (MS), proteína cruda (PC), extracto etéreo (EE), digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS), cenizas (Ce), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), capacidad buffer (CB), pH, nitrógeno amoniacal (N-NH3.N-total-1) y lignina. Al mejor tratamiento, se le fraccionó la PC y se estimó el contenido energético. La asociación maíz-vigna presentó un contenido de humedad, digestibilidad y Ce alto; PC y EE aceptables y contenidos de FDN y FDA bajos. En el material ensilado, la densidad de siembra fectó la MS, Ce, PC, EE, FDN, FDA, lignina, N-NH3.N-total-1, CB y pH. La melaza modificó la composición nutricional y las características fermentativas de los tratamientos, excepto el pH. El inóculo bacterial afectó la PC, CB y pH del material. La densidad de siembra 70:30, con adición de 2% de melaza y sin inóculo bacterial presentó valores de DIVMS y PC altos, porcentajes de FDN y FDA bajos, N-NH3 bajo y un pH inferior a 4,2. En este ensilaje se estimó un valor de NDT (1X) de 63,9% y de ED, EM, ENm, ENg y ENl de 2,8, 2,3, 1,4, 0,8 y 1,4 Mcal.kg-1 MS, respectivamente. La fracción proteica se separó en A, B1, B2, B3 y C con valores de 2,3, 0,2, 2,6,2,4 y 1,9% PC, respectivamente, donde el 24,4% de la PC es degradable en el rumen, lo cual podría limitar la síntesis de proteína microbial.

Marianela Castillo Jiménez; Augusto Rojas-Bourrillón; Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

2009-01-01

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Determination of Genotypical Differences for Leaf Characteristics in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes  

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Full Text Available Leaf characteristics of ten cowpea genotypes, including registered Cv. Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, from diverse locations in Turkey and relationships among leaf characteristics such as length of leaf, petiole, petiolule and terminal leaflet, terminal leaflet width and leaf area were determined. Significant differences were found among genotypes in terms of leaf and petiole length while highly significant differences found for petiolule length. There were no significant differences among genotypes for width and length of terminal leaflet and leaf area. Terminal leaflet length positively and significantly correlated with petiole and petiolule length. Positive and highly significant correlations were found between the other leaf characteristics.

Erkut Peksen; Cengiz Artik; Burcu Palabiyik

2005-01-01

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Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)  

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Full Text Available Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152) of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi) and mean square deviations (s2di) from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment), environment (linear) weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability analysis, the genotype IL3 was found stable across the seasons fortest weight. Genotypes such as M17, Goa local and Bailhongal local were stable and superior across all the environments for seed yield.

Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

2010-01-01

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Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils  

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Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil). Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais) com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil). The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition) with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

José B. M. Coelho; Maria de F. C. Barros; Egídio Bezerra Neto; Marcus M. Correa

2013-01-01

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EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM COWPEA SEEDS (Vigna unguiculata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15 M NaCl for 30 min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90°C for 10 min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ?8000 kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90°C for 60 min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods.

Wang J; Li X; Xia X; Li H; Liu J; Li QX; Li J; Xu T

2014-01-01

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Efecto del procesamiento sobre las propiedades funcionales de Vigna Sinensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão-de-corda (Vigna sinensis) é uma leguminosa de origem tropical que forma parte dos hábitos alimentícios de muitas regiões latino americanas, onde se consume basicamente em forma de grão integral. Devido seu alto potencial nutricional é importante incrementar seu consumo e diversificar seu uso como ingrediente no desenvolvimento de produtos alimentícios. Para isto é necessário conhecer suas propriedades funcionais, tanto na matéria prima crua, como proce (more) ssada. Neste trabalho se avaliaram propriedades tais como absorção de água e gordura, capacidade emulsificante, espumante e gelificante em farinhas de duas variedades de feijão-de-corda venezuelano. Encontrou-se que o processamento térmico úmido, assim como a fermentação natural, incrementam a capacidade para absorver água e gordura, mas diminuem a capacidade espumante, assim como a estabilidade da espuma. A fermentação natural por 48h a 42ºC não altera a capacidade emulsificante das farinhas cruas. Com base nos resultados se sugere a incorporação de farinhas fermentadas e cozidas de feijão-de-corda para a elaboração de alimentos viscosos tais como sopas, molhos, massas e produtos assados no forno, assim como para produtos emulsionados tais como maioneses, molhos, sobremesas congeladas e embutidos. Também cabe sugerir sua incorporação a produtos fritos tais como empanadas, croquetes ou roscas. Abstract in spanish El frijol (Vigna sinensis) es una leguminosa de origen tropical que forma parte de los hábitos alimenticios de muchas regiones latinoamericanas, donde se consume básicamente en forma de grano integral. Dado su alto potencial nutricional es importante incrementar su consumo y diversificar su uso como ingrediente en el desarrollo de productos alimenticios. Para ello es necesario conocer sus propiedades funcionales, tanto en la materia prima cruda, como procesada. En este (more) trabajo se evaluaron propiedades tales como absorción de agua y grasa, capacidad emulsificante, espumante y gelificante en harinas de dos variedades de frijol venezolano. Se encontró que el procesamiento térmico húmedo, así como la fermentación natural, incrementan la capacidad para absorber agua y grasa, pero disminuyen la capacidad espumante, así como la estabilidad de la espuma. La fermentación natural por 48h a 42ºC no altera la capacidad emulsificante de las harinas crudas. Con base en los resultados se sugiere la incorporación de harinas fermentadas y cocidas de frijol para la elaboración de alimentos viscosos tales como sopas, salsas, masas y productos horneados, así como para productos emulsionados tales como mayonesas, salsas, postres congelados y embutidos. También cabe sugerir su incorporación a productos fritos tales como empanadas, croquetas o donas. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) is a tropical legume that is part of the daily diet of many Latin American regions, where it is mostly consumed as whole grain. Given its nutritional potential, it is important to increase its consumption and diversify its use as an ingredient in foodstuff development. To achieve this, it is important to know the functional properties of the raw material as well as those of the processed one. In this work, properties such as water and fat absorptio (more) n, emulsifying, foaming and jelling capacities of flours of two varieties of a Venezuelan cowpea were evaluated. It was found that wet thermal processing, as well as natural fermentation, increased the capacity to absorb water and fat, but decreased foaming capacity as well as the foam stability. Natural fermentation for 48h at 42ºC does not alter the emulsifying capacity of the raw flours. Based on the results, the incorporation of fermented and cooked bean flours for the manufacture of viscous foodstuffs such as soups, sauces, dough and baked products, as well as emulsified products such as mayonnaise, sauces, frozen desserts and sausages, is suggested. Its use for the manufacture of fried foodstuffs such as patties, croquettes and

Granito, Marisela; Guerra, Marisa; Torres, Alexia; Guinand, Julieta

2004-09-01

75

Inheritance of Time to First Flower in Photo-insensitive Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

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Full Text Available Early maturity is a relatively important agronomic trait and is important in the adaptation of annual crops, including cowpea to any agro ecological zone. This trait was studied using days to first flowering under screen house condition to determine heterotic effects, heritability and inheritance of early heritable (h2ns) was 98.9% while (h2bs) was 68%. The F1 hybrid performed better than the average parent by 8.82 and 23.3% over the superior parent. Transgressive segregation was observed in the F2 population with plants flowering 9 days earlier than the early parent and 37 days later than the late maturing parent. Inheritance of earliness was observed to be controlled by duplicate dominant epistasis with late flowering partially dominant over early flowering.

A.O. Adeyanju; M.F. Ishiyaku; L.O. Omoigui

2007-01-01

76

Effects of Salinity Stress on Growth, Ions Partitioning and Yield of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In this study, twenty one cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were tested for their salt tolerance at different degrees of salinity; 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM of NaCl, in both the laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, Na+, K+, K/Na ratio, plant height, roots dry weights, stems and leaves were investigated. In the field conditions, yield components (weight of 1000 seeds, number of pods per plant, total chlorophyll and grains yield) were determined in harvesting phase. Results showed that K+ concentration, K/Na ratio, seedlings height and total chlorophyll were significantly decreased by salt solutions, especially by 200 mM and the magnitude of reduction varied according to cultivars. Na+ was significantly increased with increasing NaCl concentrations in all plant organs. Roots dry weights as well as stems and leaves decreased significantly in all cultivars with increasing salinity except in organs of Bambey 21 (V11), IT97K-556-4 (V3) and IT04K-332-1 (V10) cultivars. Under field conditions, the weight of 1000 seeds, the number of pods per plant and grains yield were affected by soil salinity at 50 mM of all cultivars except in Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1. The results obtained during vegetative growth and harvesting phase suggested that Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1 cultivars were relatively tolerant to salinity than others. Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1 cultivars could be grown in environments with varying salinity.

Victor Desire Taffouo; Joseph Kemdem Kouamou; Louis Marie Tchiengue Ngalangue; Bop Alain Nandjou Ndjeudji; Amougou Akoa

2009-01-01

77

Determination of Selected Engineering Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Related to Design of Processing Machine  

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Full Text Available In this study, some selected engineering properties of two improved varieties of cowpea (Sampea 7 and Tvx 3236) grown in Nigeria were determined. The properties of Sampea 7 are: Length (9.48 ± 1.46 mm),width (6.75 ± 0.66 mm), thickness (5.35 ± 0.73 mm), roundness (2.38 ± 0.28), sphericity (3.64 ± 0.46), mass (48.0 ± 10.0 g), volume (1.04 ± 0.26 mm3), density (1.00 ± 0.28 kg/m3), surface area (10.74 ± 1.78 cm2), angle of internal friction (11.05 ± 2.07°), angle of repose (20.50± 2.38º) and moisture content (7.01 ± 0.05% db). The compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive strength, shear trength and torsion strength of Sampea 7 are 66.25 ±16.12 N, 65.53±15.51 N, 64.55 ±14.55 N, 65.20 ±15.50 N and 65.00 ±16.10 N, respectively while its hardness is 7.98 ± 0.03 kg. The properties of Tvx 3236 are: Length (7.76 ± 0.56 mm), width (5.25 ± 0.14 mm), thickness (4.11 ± 0.42 mm), roundness (1.42 ± 0.14), sphericity(5.12 ± 1.00), mass (32.0 ± 8.0 g), volume (0.70 ± 0.10 mm3), density (0.48 ± 0.20 kg/m3), surface area (8.80 ± 1.02 cm2), angle of nternal friction (9.23 ± 1.58°), angle of repose (21.05± 1.26º) and moisture content (6.7± 0.22%db). The compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive strength, shear strength and torsion strength for Tvx 3236 are 93.65 ±13.62 N, 93.55 ±13.71 N, 92.56 ±13.70 N, 93.50 ±13.60 N and 92.75 ±13.65 N, respectively while its hardness is11.96 ± 3.57 kg. Statistical tests on the properties showed that dimensions, compressive strength, tensile strength, hardness, abrasive strength, shear strength and torsion strength of the two cowpea varieties are highly significant at 5% level; roundness, sphericity, volume, surface area and angle of internal friction are significant at 5% level; while mass, density, angle of repose and moisture content are not significant at 5% level.

Ogbonnaya Chukwu,; Musliu Olushola Sunmonu

2010-01-01

78

Structurally dissimilar proteins with antiviral and antifungal potency from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evidence is presented for the existence of multiple proteins with antifungal and antiviral potency in cowpea seeds. The two proteins, designated alpha- and beta-antifungal proteins in accordance with their order of elution from the CM-Sepharose column, were capable of inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase and one of the glycohydrolases associated with HIV infection, alpha-glucosidase, but beta-glucuronidase was not repressed. The ability of the proteins in retarding mycelial growth of a variety of fungi was also demonstrated with alpha-antifungal protein being more potent in most of the cases. Beta-antifungal protein was more active in only one instance. Both antifungal proteins had low cell-free translation-inhibitory activity. The proteins were adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel-and CM-Sepharose but could be separated from one another during chromatography on the latter medium by means of a linear NaCl concentration gradient. Different molecular weights were exhibited by the proteins, being 28 kDa and 12 kDa respectively for alpha- and beta- antifungal proteins. Alpha-antifungal protein was characterized by an N-terminal sequence showing close resemblance to sequences of chitinases. Beta-antifungal protein exhibited an N-terminal sequence hitherto unknown in the literature.

Ye XY; Wang HX; Ng TB

2000-11-01

79

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cowpea Mutant (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) as Revealed by RAPD Marker  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study is examine the effect of different doses gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and combination of both gamma rays with EMS on cowpea seeds and to identify DNA polymorphism among the mutants through a RAPD marker analysis. The mutants showing the differences in morphological traits showed DNA polymorphism in PCR profile amplified by RAPD marker. Ten random decamer primers revealed a high DNA polymorphism among the mutant populations like tall, dwarf, leaf; flower and seed mutants were analyzed. Ten primers produced a total of 60 amplified products. Among these 48 were monomorphic with an average of 53.84 per cent polymorphism. Only five primers (PG-04, PG-05, PG-07, OPA-05 and OPA-07) showed highest polymorphism. The primer OPA-02 gave the lowest polymorphism (22.27%). Highest genetic coefficient similarity (0.76) was observed between leaf and tall; whereas least similarity (0.58) was observed between control and leaf. In a Dendrogram constructed based on genetic similarity coefficients, t

rugan Girija,; Seenuvasan Gnanamurthy; Devarajan Dhanavel

2013-01-01

80

Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. RESULTS: Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54?cM to 67.54?cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96?cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes.

Pottorff M; Ehlers JD; Fatokun C; Roberts PA; Close TJ

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Results Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54?cM to 67.54?cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96?cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes.

Pottorff Marti; Ehlers Jeffrey D; Fatokun Christian; Roberts Philip A; Close Timothy J

2012-01-01

82

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) as a green manure to improve the productivity of a menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) intercropping system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field experiment was conducted at Central Institute of Medicinal and aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow, India in a sandy loam soil (entisol) during 2004 and 2005. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) was intercropped with transplanted menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) for green manuring (GM) and for fodder plus green manuring (F+GM) with four levels of urea N (0, 30, 60, 90kgNha?¹). In GM, cowpea was incorporated in the soil 30 days after sowing (DAS), while in F+GM 50% (alternate) cow pea plants were used for fodder at 30 DAS and 50% were incorporated in soil at 35 DAS. No significant differences were found between GM and F+GM with respect to herb and oil yield of menthol mint and succeeding palmarosa crop and nitrogen economy. Fresh biomass yield of menthol mint increased by 23.4% and essential oil yield by 25.2% by cowpea green manure (mean of GM and F+GM) as compared to without GM across all N levels. The contribution of green manure, as a nitrogen source, was equivalent to 30kgNha?¹ when no fertilizer nitrogen was applied in menthol mint. The residual effect of cowpea GM was studied in a succeeding crop of fast growing essential oil yielding palmarosa (Cymbopopogon martinii (Roxb.)Wats. var motia Burk.) over two harvests (July and December). Averaged across N levels green manure resulted in an increase of 18.5% in the fresh biomass and 17.7% in essential oil yield of palmarosa over no green manuring.

Singh Man; Singh A; Singh S; Tripathi RS; Singh AK; Patra DD

2010-03-01

83

Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados/ Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Wa (more) lp.)] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil). Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais) com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna. Abstract in english Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pern (more) ambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil). The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition) with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

Coelho, José B. M.; Barros, Maria de F. C.; Bezerra Neto, Egídio; Correa, Marcus M.

2013-04-01

84

Evaluation of Local Spices as Biopesticides for the Control of Ootheca mutabilis, Shalbera and Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Stal.) on Cultivated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted at the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the impact of aqueous extracts of five local spices as biopesticides for the control of O. mutabilis and C. tomentosicollis on cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). The spices evaluated were Capsicum annum L., Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal), Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, Allium sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The extracts were applied at 3, 4 and 5% concentrations, respectively to study toxicity, repellency, pod and leaf damage as well as grain yield. The experiment was designed as a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. Results obtained showed that the biopesticides significantly (PP. guineense consistently induced greater protection by bringing down the population of insects and promoting grain yield. The promising use of spices as biopesticides is discussed since they are available local resources for poor farmers and are environmentally friendly options for pest control.

Ime O. Udo; Edna A. Akpan

2012-01-01

85

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by (more) immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

Sales, M.P.; Pimenta, P.P.; Paes, N.S.; Grossi-de-Sá, M.F.; Xavier-Filho, J.

2001-01-01

86

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

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Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

M.P. Sales; P.P. Pimenta; N.S. Paes; M.F. Grossi-de-Sá; J. Xavier-Filho

2001-01-01

87

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

Sales MP; Pimenta PP; Paes NS; Grossi-de-Sá MF; Xavier-Filho J

2001-01-01

88

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae. PMID:11151025

Sales, M P; Pimenta, P P; Paes, N S; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Xavier-Filho, J

2001-01-01

89

Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Results Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi)) and late (13 dpi) stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible) interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301 – SG4z), multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Conclusion Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots following successful and unsuccessful attempted parasitism by Striga. Induction of specific defense related genes and pathways defines components of a unique resistance mechanism. Some genes and pathways up-regulated in the host resistance response to SG3 are repressed in the susceptible interactions, suggesting that the parasite is targeting specific components of the host’s defense. These results add to our understanding of plant-parasite interactions and the evolution of resistance to parasitic weeds.

Huang Kan; Mellor Karolina E; Paul Shom N; Lawson Mark J; Mackey Aaron J; Timko Michael P

2012-01-01

90

Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. RESULTS: Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi)) and late (13 dpi) stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible) interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301-SG4z), multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. CONCLUSION: Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots following successful and unsuccessful attempted parasitism by Striga. Induction of specific defense related genes and pathways defines components of a unique resistance mechanism. Some genes and pathways up-regulated in the host resistance response to SG3 are repressed in the susceptible interactions, suggesting that the parasite is targeting specific components of the host's defense. These results add to our understanding of plant-parasite interactions and the evolution of resistance to parasitic weeds.

Huang K; Mellor KE; Paul SN; Lawson MJ; Mackey AJ; Timko MP

2012-01-01

91

Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum ...

Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, A.H.C., van

92

Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)/ Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. R (more) ealizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to (more) adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

Morais, Simone Janaína da Silva; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; Ferreira, Daiane Assis; Teixeira, Itamar Rosa

2013-09-01

93

Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250?m and stored at 4 oC for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p oC. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p

2010-01-01

94

Transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 confer resistance to storage pests, bruchid beetles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays. PMID:18784925

Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

2008-09-11

95

Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação/ Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under inoculation and cover crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenai (more) s, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp.) recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N. Abstract in english A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under s (more) tudy were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

Nascimento, Cleópatra Saraiva do; Lira Junior, Mario Andrade; Stamford, Newton Pereira; Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão Santos; Sousa, Clayton Albuquerque

2008-04-01

96

Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under inoculation and cover crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp.) recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N.A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under study were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

Cleópatra Saraiva do Nascimento; Mario Andrade Lira Junior; Newton Pereira Stamford; Maria Betânia Galvão Santos Freire; Clayton Albuquerque Sousa

2008-01-01

97

Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp/ Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch). Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC). As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento (more) constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora. Abstract in english This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch). The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC) campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five (more) treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

Moraes, João Gutemberg Leite; Bleicher, Ervino

2007-12-01

98

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

2001-04-01

99

Assessment of crop loss in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L). Walp.] caused by Sphaceloma sp., causal agent of scab disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IT 84S-2140 and IT 85F-1517 (cowpea varieties) susceptible to scab disease caused by Sphaceloma sp. were treated with severely infected cowpea plants in 1989 and 1990 field trials. Different levels of disease intensity were generated by treatment with benomyl using two different methods of application: varying the frequency of application from 4- to 35-day intervals resulted in grain losses ranging between 25-70% in 1989 and 35-50% in 1990. When the concentration of benomyl was varied at a 10-day interval. crop losses ranged between 10 and 71% in 1989 and 9-70% in 1990. Grain yield was significantly negatively correlated with leaf, stem, peduncle, flowering cushion and pod scab severities. The linear regression of grain yield on disease was computed using the critical point model. The results indicate that a weekly spray of benomyl at 0.5 kg/400(l-1) will prevent abscission of flowers, reduce heavy scabbing of young pods which in all interact to play an important role in crop loss due to cowpea scab. Cowpea scab can cause up to 71% crop loss in susceptible varieties if uncontrolled.

Mungo CM; Emechebe AM; Cardwell KF

1995-05-01

100

Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). RESULTS: Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs), accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2), were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max) and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. CONCLUSION: Effective sources of host resistance were identified in this study. QTL mapping and synteny analysis identified genomic loci harboring resistance factors and revealed candidate genes with potential for further functional genomics analysis.

Muchero W; Ehlers JD; Close TJ; Roberts PA

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs), accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2), were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max) and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. Conclusion Effective sources of host resistance were identified in this study. QTL mapping and synteny analysis identified genomic loci harboring resistance factors and revealed candidate genes with potential for further functional genomics analysis.

Muchero Wellington; Ehlers Jeffrey D; Close Timothy J; Roberts Philip A

2011-01-01

102

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP), West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn), clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Percy), Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn.) A. Rich), Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum) and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. Ex G. Donf.) were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (pC. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (pClove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

F.A.Ajayi; H.U. Wintola

2006-01-01

103

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8-1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth at a wide range of pH 6-12, optimum at pH 7.0 and tolerates up to 7% (w/v) salt concentration. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the confirmation of isolates to Enterobacter aerogenes sp. (NII-0907 and NII-0929), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae sp. (NII-0931) and Enterobacter asburiae sp. (NII-0934) with which they share >99% sequence similarity. Under in vitro conditions, all the four isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid, P-solubilization and hydrogen cyanide. The P-solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium (pH 7.0-<3.0). The plant growth promotion properties were demonstrated through a cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp) based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in root, shoot and biomass and it stimulated bacterial counts in the rhizosphere. Hence, these isolates can further formulated and used for field application.

Deepa CK; Dastager SG; Pandey A

2010-07-01

104

Successful recovery of transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using the 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new method for obtaining transgenic cowpea was developed using positive selection based on the Escherichia coli 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker and mannose as the selective agent. Only transformed cells were capable of utilizing mannose as a carbon source. Cotyledonary node explants from 4-day-old in vitro-germinated seedlings of cultivar Pusa Komal were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the vector pNOV2819. Regenerating transformed shoots were selected on medium supplemented with a combination of 20 g/l mannose and 5 g/l sucrose as carbon source. The transformed shoots were rooted on medium devoid of mannose. Transformation efficiency based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots was 3.6%. Southern blot analysis on five randomly chosen PCR-positive plants confirmed the integration of the pmi transgene. Qualitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of pmi in T? transgenic plants. Chlorophenol red (CPR) assays confirmed the activity of PMI in transgenic plants, and the gene was transmitted to progeny in a Mendelian fashion. The transformation method presented here for cowpea using mannose selection is efficient and reproducible, and could be used to introduce a desirable gene(s) into cowpea for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.

Bakshi S; Saha B; Roy NK; Mishra S; Panda SK; Sahoo L

2012-06-01

105

Influence of phosphorus on the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) varieties in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Savanna regions of Nigeria are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus, which retard the growth and yield of crops. Therefore, a study was conducted in the wet season of 2006 at the Dry Land Teaching and Research Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto to evaluate the effect of phosphorus on the growth and yield of two cowpea varieties sourced from Republic of Niger. Treatment consisted of four (4) rates of phosphorus (0, 20, 40, 60 kg.ha–1) factorialy combined with (2) varieties of cowpea (kvx303096G and TN5-78) and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three (3) times. Results showed significant response to applied P on pods per plant, grain and stover yield and 100-seed weight with highest response to the application of 60 kg.P.ha–1. From this study it can be concluded that KVX303096G and TN5-78 could both be sown under Sokoto condition to obtain reasonable yield of about 1 t.ha–1 of grain and 1.6 t.ha–1 of stover. Irrespective of the varieties, application of 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 could be recommended for higher yield of cowpea (1.4 t.ha–1) relative to 0 kg.P.ha–1 that yielded 1.0 t.ha–1.

A. Singh; A. L. Baoule; H. G Ahmed; A. U. Dikko; U. Aliyu; M. B. Sokoto; J. Alhassan; M. Musa; B. Haliru

2011-01-01

106

Chemical composition, rumen degradability and crude protein fractionation of some commercial and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) haulm varieties  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal chemical composition, in sacco organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities and CP fractions of haulms of three improved (ITA2, ITA6 and ITA8) and three commercial (Oloyin, Peu and Sokoto) cowpea varieties harvested in wet and dry seasons were evaluated in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Effective degradation of OM and CP was estimated at assumed outflow rates of 2 and 4%?h?1. Commercial haulms (all the other parts of the cowpea minus the grains) had greater (P?cowpea haulms. Interactions between group and season were observed for all but one of the CP fractions. Seasonal differences in the quality of haulms showed that attention must be given to handling of haulms to minimize the amount of leaves lost during the wet season.

Anele UY; Südekum K?; Arigbede OM; Lüttgenau H; Oni AO; Bolaji OJ; Galyean ML

2012-06-01

107

Varietal Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke Race SG5 Infestation  

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Full Text Available The parasitic plant Striga gesnerioides (Willd) Vatke is becoming a serious threat to cowpea production in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 7 races of S. gesnerioides exhibiting specific virulence have been identified. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 spreads in northern Cameroon and to study the inheritance of the resistance. Twelve accessions of cowpea, IT98K-205-8, IT98K-503-1, IT98K-1092-1, IT99K-216-1-1, IT98K-494-6, IT99K-529-4, IT99K-573-1-1, IT99K-573-2-1, IT00K-1207, IT03K-378-4, IT04K-227-4 and VYA were assessed in field trials for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 in Maroua, northern Cameroon and the genetics of the resistance from two sources was elucidated in artificially infested pots. Data on resistant and susceptible cowpea plants were analyzed using the chi-square test to ascertain the goodness of fit to different genetic ratios. Tests of resistance using field screening techniques showed that among these varieties, four were susceptible, four tolerant, two partially resistant while IT99K-573-1-1 and IT98K-205-8 appeared completely resistant to Striga race SG5. On susceptible varieties, the mean number of emerged S. gesnerioides plants 9 weeks after sowing was 1.8 to 2.4 per cowpea plant, while completely resistant lines carried none. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for percentage of infected plants, the decimation rates and Striga height. On susceptible genotypes, the seeds yield losses due to Striga infestation varied from 28.4 to 36.6% while for the fodder yield these losses ranged between 23.63 to 41.03%. The analysis of F1 and F2 populations resulting from crossings between resistant varieties and the susceptible tester VYA demonstrated that resistance is was controlled by two factor inheritance with duplicate dominant genes (Rsg5a and Rsg5b) for IT99K-573-1-1 and a single dominant gene (Rsg5) for IT98K-205-8. These two varieties provide newly additional sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides and can be used in programmes of genetic improvement of this legume.

Jean Baptiste NOUBISSIE TCHIAGAM; Joseph Martin BELL; Sirina GUISSAI BIRWE; Sodea GONNE; Emmanuel YOUMBI

2010-01-01

108

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus.

Raja N; Albert S; Ignacimuthu S; Dorn S

2001-04-01

109

Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds  

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Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

R Márquez; T Córdova; L Castejón; A Higuera

2003-01-01

110

Resistance of ?AI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dry grain legume seeds possessing ?AI-1, an ?-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing ?AI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to ?AI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The ?AI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control ?AI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to ?AI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.

Lüthi C; Alvarez-Alfageme F; Ehlers JD; Higgins TJ; Romeis J

2013-08-01

111

Resistance of ?AI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Dry grain legume seeds possessing ?AI-1, an ?-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing ?AI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to ?AI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The ?AI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control ?AI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to ?AI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures. PMID:23458831

Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg

2013-03-05

112

Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), cultivar BRS-Milênio/ Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), BRS-Milênio cultivar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio) foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando-se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1): 24, (more) 5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1): ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra). O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados. Abstract in english Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio) was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1): 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber an (more) d 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1) were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample). The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

Frota, Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

2008-06-01

113

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), coletados em Roraima Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata) blight in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris) é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com sintoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata) e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado). Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani.The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris) is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected in two ecosystems (savannah and forest) in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG) and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates) and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates). Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

Kátia L. Nechet; Bernardo A. Halfeld-Vieira

2006-01-01

114

Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

2009-01-01

115

Agronomic Efficiency of Cowpea Varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under Varying Phosphorus Rates in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Savanna soils of Nigeria are inherently low in nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) thereby resulting in low yield of crops. To this end, field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of College of Agriculture Lafia in the Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria (08°30'N and 08°30'E, 18 m above sea level) during the rainy seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the yield and agronomic efficiency of cowpea varieties under varying phosphorus application rates. The experiment consisted of four levels of phosphorus in the form of single super phosphate (0, 30 and 60 kg P ha-1) and four varieties (DAN ILA, IAR-48, IT90K-277-1 and IT93K-452-1). The twelve treatment combinations were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results obtained showed that number of pods per plant, pod yield per plant, seed yield per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per hectare were significantly increased by the application of 30 kg P ha-1 in all the years of the experiment. Variety IT90K-277-1 consistently produced significantly, the highest values for all yield and yield characters measured. Agronomically, application of 30 kg P ha-1 was significantly more efficient than 60 kg P ha-1. Application of 30 kg P ha-1 to variety IT90K-277-1 produced significantly, the highest seed yield per hectare and is therefore recommended.

I.M. Haruna; A. Usman

2013-01-01

116

Biochemical, physicochemical and molecular characterization of a genuine 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin purified from cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins have diverse functions in cellular defense-signaling pathways. 2-Cys-peroxiredoxins (2-Cys-Prx) reduce H2O2 and alkyl-hydroperoxide. This study describes the purification and characterization of a genuine 2-Cys-Prx from Vigna unguiculata (Vu-2-Cys-Prx). METHODS: Vu-2-Cys-Prx was purified from leaves by ammonium sulfate fractionation, chitin affinity and ion exchange chromatography. RESULTS: Vu-2-Cys-Prx reduces H2O2 using NADPH and DTT. Vu-2-Cys-Prx is a 44 kDa (SDS-PAGE)/46 kDa (exclusion chromatography) protein that appears as a 22 kDa molecule under reducing conditions, indicating that it is a homodimer linked intermolecularly by disulfide bonds and has a pI range of 4.56–4.72; its NH2-terminal sequence was similar to 2-Cys-Prx from Phaseolus vulgaris (96%) and Populus tricocarpa (96%). Analysis by ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS showed a molecular mass/pI of 28.622 kDa/5.18. Vu-2-Cys-Prx has 8% ?-helix, 39% ?-sheet, 22% of turns and 31% of unordered forms. Vu-2-Cys-Prx was heat stable, has optimal activity at pH 7.0, and prevented plasmid DNA degradation. Atomic force microscopy shows that Vu-2-Cys-Prx oligomerized in decamers which might be associated with its molecular chaperone activity that prevented denaturation of insulin and citrate synthase. Its cDNA analysis showed that the redox-active Cys52 residue and the amino acids Pro45, Thr49 and Arg128 are conserved as in other 2-Cys-Prx. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The biochemical and molecular features of Vu-2-Cys-Prx are similar to other members of 2-Cys-Prx family. To date, only one publication reported on the purification of native 2-Cys-Prx from leaves and the subsequent analysis by N-terminal Edman sequencing, which is crucial for construction of stromal recombinant 2-Cys-Prx proteins.

Silva FD; Vasconcelos IM; Lobo MD; de Castro PG; Magalhães VG; de Freitas CD; Carlini CR; Pinto PM; Beltramini LM; Filho JH; Barros EB; Alencar LM; Grangeiro TB; Oliveira JT

2012-07-01

117

Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside the shade of six randomly selected Parkia biglobosa trees during one season in south-central Burkina Faso. The area under the canopy of each tree was divided into four main plots according to cardinal directions, and sub-divided into three concentric zones. Control plots were established outside the tree canopy. The crops were intercropped in two different proportions using the replacement method and compared to sole crops. Days to flowering were noted and yields were measured, and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) and Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) calculated. Flowering was earlier outside than under the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate that intercropping could improve the system’s productivity, increase the income for farmers, and compensate losses in pearl millet under the canopy.

Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders

2011-01-01

118

Reduced tillage, mulching and rotational effects on maize (Zea mays L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (Walp) L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)) yields under semi-arid conditions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proponents of conservation agriculture (CA) argue that the CA approach offers the greatest opportunity to increase the productivity in smallholder agro-ecosystems. This study was designed to assess (1) first year maize, cowpea and sorghum yield responses to a combination of reduced tillage and mulching and (2) maize yield responses to rotation with cowpea and sorghum in reduced tillage systems. Two conservation tillage methods (ripping and planting basins) combined factorially with seven mulch levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10tha?1) were compared with conventional mouldboard ploughing. The experiment was run for four consecutive growing seasons allowing for a rotation of maize, cowpea, sorghum and maize in some fields used in the study. Crop yields were determined across all tillage and mulch combinations in each year. Tillage system had no significant effect on maize yield while maize grain yield increased with increase in mulch cover in seasons that had below average rainfall. Mulching at 2–4tha?1 gave optimum yields in seasons with below average rainfall. Tillage system and mulching had no significant effect on cowpea yield when soil moisture was not limiting. However, the ripper and basin systems had 142 and 102% more cowpea grain than the conventional system in 2006/2007 because of differences in planting dates used in three systems and poor rainfall distribution. The conventional and ripper systems gave 26 and 38% more sorghum grain than the basin system. Rotating maize with cowpea and sorghum resulted in 114, 123 and 9% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize in the conventional system. In the ripper system, maize–cowpea–sorghum–maize rotation gave 98, 153 and 39% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize rotation. In the basin system, maize–cowpea–sorghum–maize rotation gave 274, 240 and 43% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize rotation. However, long term studies under different soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions still need to be conducted to substantiate the observations made in the reported study.

Mupangwa W; Twomlow S; Walker S

2012-06-01

119

Evaluación de altura de plantas y componentes del rendimiento de seis genotipos del género Vigna en dos localidades de Venezuela Plant height and yield components of six genotypes of the genus Vigna in two locations of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar el comportamiento agronómico, los componentes del rendimiento y su correlación con el rendimiento en genotipos del género Vigna, identificados como JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016, MS-01-00-09 y la variedad comercial `Tuy', se llevaron a cabo ensayos en las localidades de Samán Mocho, estado Carabobo y en Maracay, estado Aragua, entre los meses de noviembre de 2001 y febrero 2002. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En este trabajo se describen brevemente los genotipos y se evalua la altura de las plantas, en cinco estadios fenológicos durante el ciclo del cultivo; así como también el rendimiento y sus componentes, al momento de la cosecha. El genotipo que alcanzó mayor altura de planta en ambas localidades fue MEM-02-00-19, por su hábito de crecimiento indeterminado trepador. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de medias de Duncan detectaron diferencias significativas para el rendimiento en Maracay. Los materiales con mayor rendimiento fueron de la especie Vigna unguiculata: MS-01-00-09 (2114,1 kg/ha) y JA-01-00-05 (1605,6 kg/ha). Las vainas de mayor longitud y total de semillas por vainas se observaron en MS-01-00-09, con 14,2 cm de longitud y 10,9 semillas/vainas. En el genotipo de Vigna umbellata, MEM- 02-00-19 se obtuvo el mayor número de vainas por planta con 17,5. El rendimiento se correlacionó positivamente con la longitud de vaina y número de semillas por vaina. Los genotipos: JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MS-01-00-09, Vigna unguiculata, y AM-02-00-016, Vigna radiata, fueron de mejor manejo en campo; no así el genotipo MEM-02-00-19, Vigna umbellata, cuyo uso es más para cultivos asociados, por su hábito de crecimiento trepador.With the purpose of characterizing agronomic behaviour, yield components and their correlations with yield for six genotypes of Vigna identified as JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016 and MS-01-00-09, and a commercial variety, `Tuy', experiments were conducted in Saman Mocho, Carabobo State and Maracay, Aragua state, during the period November 2001 to February 2002. The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. In this paper, genotypes are briefly described, plant height is measured at five phenological stages during growth cycle, and yield and its components are evaluated at harvest. For both sites, MEM-02-00-19 had the tallest plants due to its indeterminate climbing growth habit. Results of the variance analysis and Duncan´s Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences for yield in Maracay. Treatments with highest yields, belonging to the species Vigna unguiculata, were MS-01-00-09 (2114.1 kg/ha) and JA-01-00-05 (1605.6 kg/ha). MS-01-00-09 (Vigna unguiculata) also had longest pods (14.2 cm) and greatest number of seeds per pod (10.9 seeds/pod). The genetic material belonging to the species Vigna umbellata, MEM-02-00-19, exhibited the greatest number of pods per plant (17.5 pods/plant). Yield was positively correlated with pod length and number of seeds per pod. Because of differences in growth habits, genotypes belonging to species Vigna unguiculata (JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05 and MS-01-00-09) and species Vigna radiata (AM-02-00-016) were easier to handle in field conditions than Vigna umbellata, which had a climbing behaviour and is better suited for mixed cropping systems.

C.M Flores M; P.M Madriz I; R Warnock de Parra; A Trujillo de Leal

2005-01-01

120

STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.)}  

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Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986). The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus) (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984). The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978).

RENNIE ROESLI; PHIL DOBIE

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Preparation and Nutritional Composition of a Weaning Food Formulated from Germinated Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Steamed Cooked Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weaning food was produced from sorghum and cowpea based on a malted technology with a view to determining the amylase activity, nutritional composition/properties and its ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Malted sorghum flour was produced (steeping, germination, drying, toasting, gr...

G.N. Elemo; B.O. Elemo; J.N.C. Okafor

122

In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts  

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Aim/Background: Colletotrichum destructivum is one of the most important causes of anthracnose disease of cowpea leading to a great reduction in their production and yield potentials. The constant application of chemicals to control these phytopathogens poses potential threats to human health and th...

Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu; Anita Ehi Owoeye

123

Evaluation of native and collected Germplasm for earliness Seed traits and resistance to rust, CMV and leaf spot in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].  

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Full Text Available In the present study, 225 germplasm collections of cowpea including local types were evaluated in augmented design alongwith C152 (check) for high test weight, desirable seed and pod features, earliness and resistance to Cowpea rust (Uromycesvignae), Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CMV) and Cercospora leaf spot for two years ( kharif 2008 and kharif 2009) at Dharwad. Theresults of the investigation revealed that fifteen of the accessions showed bold seeds (test weight > 10g). Accession numberIC202932 and IC247435 showed extra bold seeds (test weight >14g) and also bold pods. About 15 germplasm accessions werefound to be highly resistant to rust; 10 accessions displayed HR reaction to CMV and about 5 accessions showed highlyresistant reaction against leafspot. With respect to Multiple Disease Resistance, accession numbers IC201095, IC257406,IC257435 showed highly resistant reaction against leaf spot and CMV and accessions IC257410 and IC214753 showedresistance against rust and leaf spot. Some of the accessions identified against earliness are IC201087, IC201099,IC202707and IC202709 (68-75 days maturity). Such of the superior germplasm lines identified for earliness, multiple diseaseresistance, bold seed (100 seed weight > 12g) and desirable seed features would be further useful in Cowpea breeding programas parents.

K Sanjeev. Deshpand, B.R.Patil, P. M. Salimath , J.M. Nidagundi and S. Karthigeyan

2010-01-01

124

NEW METHOD FOR SCREENING COWPEA GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV)  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Germplasm line, GC-86L-98, a greenhouse screening method was developed to find potential sources of CMV resistance in the USDA cowpea germplasm collection. GC-86L-98, the first CMV-resistant cowpea germplasm line, was released by ARS in August 2001. A...

125

Influencia de la germinación en la composición del Phaseolus vulgaris y Vigna sinensis/ Influence of germination on composition of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las leguminosas son fuente de proteínas que al combinarla con cereales incrementa su valor biológico. Adicionalmente, las leguminosas son fuente de calorías, hierro, fósforo, magnesio y potasio. Las caraotas negras, Phaseolus vulgaris, son además una buena fuente de calcio. En este estudio se determinó el contenido de proteínas, grasas, cenizas, fibra dietética soluble e insoluble y de los minerales Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn y Mn, en caraotas negras y en frijol (more) es, Vigna sinensis, variedad Tuy y Orituco. Las leguminosas fueron germinadas a 25±2 °C, en presencia de luz natural y humedad relativa de 78±4%. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología oficial. Para la determinación de minerales se utilizó un equipo de Plasma de Acoplamiento Inducido (ICP). Con fines comparativos, se utilizaron granos sin germinar. Se observó que la germinación incrementa el contenido de proteína en aproximadamente 7% y de fibra soluble en frijoles Tuy en 2% en frijoles Orituco. También se observó una disminución del contenido de grasa de 25% en las caraotas y en un poco más de 50% en frijoles. La germinación afecta el contenido de minerales en las caraotas y en las dos variedades de frijoles, sin una tendencia definida. Se demostró que la germinación varía la composición de las caraotas negras y frijoles variedad Tuy y Orituco. Abstract in english Legumes are a source of proteins that combined with cereals increase its biological value. In addition, legumes calories source, iron, phosphorous, magnesium and potassium. Black beans, Phaseolus vulgaris are also a good source of calcium. In this study, the content of protein, fat, ash, dietetic fibre, both soluble and insoluble, and the minerals Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn and Mn, were determined in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis, Tuy and Orituco varieties. Legu (more) mes were germinated at 25 ± 2 °C, in natural light and 78 ± 4% relative humidity. Proximal composition was determined according to official methods. An Induced Coupling of Plasma (ICP) equipment was used for the determination of the minerals. For comparison purpuses, non-germinated grains were used. It was observed that germination increases the content of proteins in about 7% in both legumes and 2% of soluble fibre in Vigna sinensis var. Tuy. Fat content also decreased 25% in black beans and more than 50% in Vigna sinensis. Germination affects the mineral content of both legumes, without a definite trend. It was demonstrated that germination varies the composition of both legumes.

Ramos de Vega, Mercedes; Sangronis, Elba

2006-12-01

126

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Var. Moussa-Local  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

127

Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05) affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1), okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1) and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1) in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande; F.I. Oluwatoyinbo; C.O. Kayode; F.A. Olowokere

2006-01-01

128

Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Genotypes to Nitrogen Fertilizer (NPK) Application in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The effects of compound fertilizer (NPK) application on growth and yields of cowpea genotypes were investigated in a field study at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin in the Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The study was designed as a series of factorial experiments in split-plot arrangements with four replications and were carried out in the late cropping seasons (August to December) of 2002 to 2004. Ten cowpea genotypes were evaluated at fertilizer levels ranging from 0 to 300 kg fertilizer (NPK) ha-1 (equivalent to 0-0-0 to 60-30-30 kg N-P-K ha-1). Results show that fertilizer application resulted in significant improvement in plant height, number of leaves per plant and reduced days to flowering, but no significant effect on total number of flowers produced. Application of fertilizer resulted in significant decreases in nodule production. Yield components and grain yield were significantly enhanced by the application of fertilizer at 150 kg ha-1 (i.e., 30 kg N, 15 P2O5 and 15 K2O ha-1), but significant fertilizerxgenotype effect indicated differential genotype responses to fertilizer application which may have significant practical implications for field production. It was therefore concluded that the application of fertilizer to cowpea is beneficial although in small quantity and genotype dependent.

Y.A. Abayomi; T.V. Ajibade; O.F. Sammuel; B.F. Saadudeen

2008-01-01

129

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes and PR-proteins in compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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This study aimed to evaluated the resistance and susceptibility of 10 cowpea cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita in field studies and to analyze the kinetics of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanases and cystein proteinase inhibitors in the root system of two contrasting cowpea cultivars after inoculation with M. incognita. The cultivars CE-31 and Frade Preto were highly resistant; CE-28, CE-01, CE-315, CE-237, were very resistant; CE-70 and CE-216 were moderately resistant, whereas Vita-3 and CE-109 were slightly resistant. In the roots of the highly resistant cultivar CE-31 the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase increased and catalase decreased and those of the pathogenesis-related proteins chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase and cystein proteinase inhibitor increased in comparison with the root system of the slightly resistant CE-109, during the course of M. incognita infestation. Thus the changes in the activities of these enzymes might be related to the smaller final population of M. incognita in CE-31 and may contribute to the high resistance of this cowpea cultivar against infection and colonization by this nematode species.

Oliveira JT; Andrade NC; Martins-Miranda AS; Soares AA; Gondim DM; Araújo-Filho JH; Freire-Filho FR; Vasconcelos IM

2012-02-01

130

Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

2009-07-15

131

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)/ Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com cinco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem d (more) e insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, during seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged (more) insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Costa, Nivânia P. da; Boiça Júnior, Arlindo L.

2004-02-01

132

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com cinco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus.The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, during seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Nivânia P. da Costa; Arlindo L. Boiça Júnior

2004-01-01

133

Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.), é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer) e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to control it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer) and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde"). These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira; José Vargas de Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da Câmara

2008-01-01

134

Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.]/ Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.), é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (R (more) oxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer) e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos. Abstract in english The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to control it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.D (more) C., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer) and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde"). These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

Pereira, Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Gondim Junior, Manoel Guedes Corrêa; Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes da

2008-06-01

135

Identificação de genótipos de caupi Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. resistentes a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Identification of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. genotypes resistant to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar fontes de resistência em 30 genótipos de caupi, provenientes da Embrapa - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Norte, ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). Em teste sem chance de escolha, confinaram-se dois casais em 30 grãos de cada genótipo, efetuando-se cinco repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Para verificar a resistência avaliaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: número de ovos/fêmea, viabilidade de ovos, duração e viabilidade da fase imatura, taxa de aumento da população e índice de resistência. Foram classificados como moderadamente resistentes os genótipos IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 e BR17-Gurguéia; como suscetíveis CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E e TE87-98-9G-2, e como altamente suscetíveis Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F, TE90-180-13E. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e CNCx 955-1F apresentaram não-preferência para oviposição, sendo o primeiro classificado como resistente, devido à menor taxa de aumento da população, menor viabilidade e maior duração da fase imatura, indicando a ocorrência de antibiose.The present work aimed to identify sources of resistance in 30 cowpea genotypes, from EMBRAPA Meio-Norte, to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). In a no choice test, two pairs of the insect were confined in 30 grains of each genotype, in a completely randomized design with five replications. To evaluate the resistance of the genotypes, the parameters: number of eggs/female, viability of eggs, duration and viability of the immature phase, natural rate of population increase, and resistance index were used. By this index the genotypes IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 and BR17-Gurguéia were classified as moderately resistant; CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E and TE87-98-9G-2 as susceptible, and Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F and TE90-180-13E as highly susceptible. The genotypes IT89KD-245 and CNCx 955-1F showed non-preference for oviposition. The genotype IT89KD-245 was the only one classified as resistant, showing the least natural rate of population increase, the smallest viability and the largest duration of the immature phase, expressing antibiosis.

MARCILEYNE P. L. DE LIMA; JOSÉ V OLIVEIRA; REGINALDO BARROS; JORGE B. TORRES

2001-01-01

136

Identificação de genótipos de caupi Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. resistentes a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)/ Identification of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. genotypes resistant to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar fontes de resistência em 30 genótipos de caupi, provenientes da Embrapa - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Norte, ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). Em teste sem chance de escolha, confinaram-se dois casais em 30 grãos de cada genótipo, efetuando-se cinco repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Para verificar a resistência avaliaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: número de ovos (more) /fêmea, viabilidade de ovos, duração e viabilidade da fase imatura, taxa de aumento da população e índice de resistência. Foram classificados como moderadamente resistentes os genótipos IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 e BR17-Gurguéia; como suscetíveis CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E e TE87-98-9G-2, e como altamente suscetíveis Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F, TE90-180-13E. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e CNCx 955-1F apresentaram não-preferência para oviposição, sendo o primeiro classificado como resistente, devido à menor taxa de aumento da população, menor viabilidade e maior duração da fase imatura, indicando a ocorrência de antibiose. Abstract in english The present work aimed to identify sources of resistance in 30 cowpea genotypes, from EMBRAPA Meio-Norte, to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). In a no choice test, two pairs of the insect were confined in 30 grains of each genotype, in a completely randomized design with five replications. To evaluate the resistance of the genotypes, the parameters: number of eggs/female, viability of eggs, duration and viability of the immature phase, natural rate of po (more) pulation increase, and resistance index were used. By this index the genotypes IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 and BR17-Gurguéia were classified as moderately resistant; CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E and TE87-98-9G-2 as susceptible, and Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F and TE90-180-13E as highly susceptible. The genotypes IT89KD-245 and CNCx 955-1F showed non-preference for oviposition. The genotype IT89KD-245 was the only one classified as resistant, showing the least natural rate of population increase, the smallest viability and the largest duration of the immature phase, expressing antibiosis.

LIMA, MARCILEYNE P. L. DE; OLIVEIRA, JOSÉ V; BARROS, REGINALDO; TORRES, JORGE B.

2001-06-01

137

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus)/ Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tra (more) tamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a fac (more) torial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Almeida, Francisco de A. C.; Almeida, Silvana A. de; Santos, Nilene R. dos; Gomes, Josivanda P.; Araújo, Maria E. R.

2005-12-01

138

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

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Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C. Almeida; Silvana A. de Almeida; Nilene R. dos Santos; Josivanda P. Gomes; Maria E. R. Araújo

2005-01-01

139

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação/ Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC), avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo) e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina). Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor (more) protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%), dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente). Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável. Abstract in english This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll) with cowpea flour (CF) to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein conte (more) nts of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4%) among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Frota, Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Silva, Marta Gomes da; Araújo, Marcos Antonio da Mota; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva dos Reis

2010-05-01

140

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC), avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo) e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina). Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%), dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente). Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll) with cowpea flour (CF) to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4%) among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota; Marcelo Antonio Morgano; Marta Gomes da Silva; Marcos Antonio da Mota Araújo; Regilda Saraiva dos Reis Moreira-Araújo

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Occurrence of Phytophthora blight of cowpea in Madhya Pradesh and evaluation of genotypes for field resistance  

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Full Text Available A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) blight disease observed during the rainy season in Madhya Pradesh, India, was identified as Phytophthora vignae. Following identification, 51 cultivars/lines were screened for their reaction to P. vignae at Jabalpur during 1996-97. None of the entries was resistant to the disease and only IFC-9502 was moderately resistant. All the other entries were moderately susceptible (UPC-601, UPC-942 and UPC-5286) or highly susceptible (47).

SUSHMA NEMA and ANITA BABBER

2012-01-01

142

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

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Full Text Available Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy") analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed the highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3%) compared to "Unary" (27.1%). The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (15.5%) and "Unare" (21.7%) were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) (15.4%) and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF) (16.1%) higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy") analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutro (FDN) produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3%) en relación a "Unare" (27,1%). El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5%) y "Unare", (21,7%) eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI) (15,4%) y fibra dietética total (16,1%) de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF.

Omar Eduardo García; Benito Infante; Carlos Julio Rivera

2010-01-01

143

Biocontrol in store : Spatial and behavioural aspects of foraging by Uscana lariophaga, egg parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea  

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 Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers), an important crop for West African subsistence farmers, is often infested in storage by the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) is responsible for substantial mortal...

Stolk, C.

144

Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) Seeds  

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Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans) parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of ...

Umoetok S. B. A.; Ukeh D. A.; Udo I. A.; Ekanem M.; Iloba B. N

145

EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

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Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP) de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF) e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta. A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp), Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare.

Magda Beatriz de Almeida Matteucci; Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

2007-01-01

146

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp), Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP) de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF) e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta.

Magda Beatriz de Almeida Matteucci; Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

2007-01-01

147

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS/ COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy") analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutro (FDN) produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3%) en relación a "Unare" (27,1%). El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de (more) hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5%) y "Unare", (21,7%) eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI) (15,4%) y fibra dietética total (16,1%) de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF. Abstract in english Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy") analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed the highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3%) compared to "Unary" (27.1%). The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for (more) the varieties "Tuy" (15.5%) and "Unare" (21.7%) were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) (15.4%) and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF) (16.1%) higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.

García, Omar Eduardo; Infante, Benito; Rivera, Carlos Julio

2010-12-01

148

EFFECT OF EFFLUENT WATER ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COWPEA APHID, APHIS CRACCIVORA KOCH (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE), ON COWPEA PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) is an important legume grown in Botswana and the main yield losses incurred are from cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch). Agriculture in Botswana is hampered by limitation in water resources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of effluent water on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth. This was randomized completely block design pot experiment conducted under net shade environment. Four treatments of 100%, 60%, 30% of effluent dilution and the control being clean tap water were used. This study revealed that the presence of N and K in the effluent water did not affect the population growth of aphids on cowpea plants. There was no significant difference among the effluent water treatments and the clean tap water. Therefore, effluent water in this study did not show any effect on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth.

TIROESELE B.; NKETSO T.H.; TSHWENYANE S.O.

2013-01-01

149

Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

150

Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de 15N/ Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante) no desenvolvimento do feijão (more) -comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI) com o método da diferença (MD) para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2) compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS), o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas. Abstract in english Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N a (more) nd fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da

2009-08-01

151

Effects of processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) haulms as a feed supplement on voluntary intake, utilization and blood profile of West African dwarf sheep fed a basal diet of Pennisetum purpureum in the dry season  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, digestibility, growth performance and haematological variables of West African dwarf (WAD) sheep fed commercial and improved cowpea haulm diets. Thirty WAD sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 8.9±0.12kg and aged 10±1.3 months were balanced as closely as possible for BW and randomly allotted to one of six dietary treatments. The six dietary treatments consisted of milled haulms from six varieties of cowpea. The haulms were fed as supplements to a basal diet of Pennisetum purpureum. A metabolic study was conducted after 106 days and balances of nutrients were determined. Dry matter intake was higher (P=0.005) in sheep fed improved cowpea haulm diets (467g/day) than those on commercial haulm diets (430g/day), but there was no difference in intake of crude protein (CP) in sheep fed improved versus commercial haulm diets. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected in sheep fed commercial versus improved haulms. Sheep fed commercial cowpea haulm diets gained more (P=0.007) BW and had a lower (P<0.001) feed conversion ratio of 7.1 compared with 30g/day and 9.2 for sheep on improved haulm diets. All sheep were in positive N balance. Results show that cowpea haulms can be utilized as a supplement for livestock production and its inclusion in the diet of sheep had no deleterious effects while improving the haematological and serum biochemical variables.

Anele UY; Arigbede OM; Su?dekum K-H; Ike KA; Oni AO; Olanite JA; Amole GA; Dele PA; Jolaosho AO

2010-07-01

152

Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna/ Análisis químico y evaluación nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composición próximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascorbico), proteína y perfil de amino ácidos, perfil de ácidos grasos y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de proteína cruda que los fríjoles de consumo común en la India. Los frijol (more) es analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos ácidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino ácidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptófano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontró un contenido relativamente alto de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolénico. Se analizó para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, ácido fítico, ácido cianhidríco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses app (more) eared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

Tresina Soris, Pious; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2011-08-01

153

Effect of Native Soap on Insect Pests and Grain Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) in Asaba and Abraka during the Late Cropping Season in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of native soap against cowpea insect pests during the late cowpea cropping season in two agro-ecological zones-Asaba and Abraka, Delta State. Four major insect pests, namely the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, the legume flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb, the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fab and pod sucking bugs were studied. The experiment was made up of five treatments-1, 2 and 3 percent concentrations of native soap, cypermethrin (as conventional chemical and check) and a control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was arranged into a randomised complete block design (RCBD). The results showed that all the major insect pests occurred in the study areas but were more at Asaba compared to Abraka. Native soap was effective against A. craccivora and flower bud thrips population at Asaba. Maruca vitrata was not affected by soap application. Grain yield was high at Abraka and significantly (P

E. O. Egho; E. C. Enujeke

2012-01-01

154

Elevated Concentrations of Dietarily-Important Trace Elements and Macronutrients in Edible Leaves and Grain of 27 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes: Implications for Human Nutrition and Health  

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Full Text Available Legumes are a good source of calories, protein and mineral nutrients for human nutrition and health. In this study, the edible leaves and grain of 27 field-grown cowpea genotypes were assessed for trace elements and macronutrient den-sity at Manga in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Ghana in 2005 and 2006, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The genotypes differed markedly in their accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in edible leaves and grain. Except for P, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S and Na were much higher in edible cowpea leaves than grain in 2005. A similar pattern was observed for Ca, Mg, S, Na in 2006. However, more dramatic variations were found in the micronutrient concentrations between edible cowpea leaves and grain. The levels of the trace elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B were sometimes 2- to 20-fold greater in leaves than grain of cowpea. Furthermore, there were strong genotypic differences in mineral density of cowpea leaves and grain. For the major nutrients, for example, IT93K-2045-29 and IT90K-59 accumulated greater concentrations of P, K, Ca, S and Na in both edible leaves and grain in 2006, while ITH98-46, which showed the least macronutrient density, exhibited the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B in edible leaves, as well as Fe, Cu and Mn in grain. These results have implications for cowpea breeding, as well as for human nutrition and health.

Alphonsus K. Belane; Felix D. Dakora

2012-01-01

155

Elevated Concentrations of Dietarily-Important Trace Elements and Macronutrients in Edible Leaves and Grain of 27 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes: Implications for Human Nutrition and Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Legumes are a good source of calories, protein and mineral nutrients for human nutrition and health. In this study, the edible leaves and grain of 27 field-grown cowpea genotypes were assessed for trace elements and macronutrient den-sity at Manga in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Ghana in 2005 and 2006, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The genotypes differed markedly in their accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in edible leaves and grain. Except for P, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S and Na were much higher in edible cowpea leaves than grain in 2005. A similar pattern was observed for Ca, Mg, S, Na in 2006. However, more dramatic variations were found in the micronutrient concentrations between edible cowpea leaves and grain. The levels of the trace elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B were sometimes 2- to 20-fold greater in leaves than grain of cowpea. Furthermore, there were strong genotypic differences in mineral density of cowpea leaves and grain. For the major nutrients, for example, IT93K-2045-29 and IT90K-59 accumulated greater concentrations of P, K, Ca, S and Na in both edible leaves and grain in 2006, while ITH98-46, which showed the least macronutrient density, exhibited the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B in edible leaves, as well as Fe, Cu and Mn in grain. These results have implications for cowpea breeding, as well as for human nutrition and health.

Alphonsus K. Belane; Felix D. Dakora

2012-01-01

156

An Evaluation on Intensity of Infection of Pseudocercospora Leaf Spot Disease of Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), With Respect to Infector Rows, Dates of Inoculation and Cultivars, Grown Under Field Conditions in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried out at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand to evaluate intensity of infection of Pseudocercospora Leaf Spot disease of cowpea cultivars, grown under field conditions with the use of Yasothon soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experimental design used was a strip split plot design with four replications. The experiment consisted of three factors, i.e., with and without infector rows (Factor A), with and without inoculation and inoculated dates, i.e. none inoculation, inoculated at days 15 and 30 after sowing of seeds in main plots (Factor B) and three cowpea cultivars of KVC7, KKU25 and IT81D-1228-14-1 (Factor C). The results showed that the use of infector rows of cowpea plants (KKU25) being sown at 15 days before sowing seeds of cowpea cultivars in main plots gave a similar intensity of disease as those infector rows being sown at 30 days before sowing seeds of cowpea cultivars in main plots but significantly higher than without infector rows. Pathogenic disease being inoculated to the cowpea plants at 15 days after the sowing of seeds in main plots gave significantly higher intensity of disease than none inoculation. The establishment of infector rows at 15 days ahead of the sowing of seeds in main plots together with an inoculation of the disease at 15 days after the sowing of seeds in main plots gave the best results in evaluating amount of the infected disease. Thus infector rows surrounded the main plots are required whenever trials on disease evaluation are taken place.

N. Sinsiri; S. Laohasiriwong

2008-01-01

157

Field Activity of Three Mixture Levels of Plant Extract Formulations for the Management of Post-Flowering Insect Pests of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp- The Flower Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insecticidal attributes of aqueous extracts of West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn) seeds mixed at three proportional levels (10:10, 10:20, and 20:10% w/v) with neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seeds, African pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich.) pods, garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs and clove (Syzigium aromaticum (L.) Merr. &Perr.) inflorescence, were evaluated against the flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb. in two-year field trials. Compared with the other mixture treatments, the mixtures of West African black pepper with garlic bulb at 10:10% and 20:10% w/v were superior (P < 0.05) in reducing the numbers of M. sjostedti in cowpea flowers during the periods. Pod density was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at these mixture proportions compared with the other P. guineense mixtures and was comparable to cypermethrin1 dimethoate used as synthetic check. All the plant extracts at different mixture proportions were superior to the untreated control in all the parameters considered. This result indicates the potential of incorporating P. guineense extract in mixtures with other plant species in the management of M. sjostedti on cowpea flowers to ensure optimum pod load of cowpea.

Oparaeke AM; Dike MC; Amatobi CI

2006-01-01

158

Fungi associated with stored unprocessed cowpea and groundnut varieties available in Borno State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five stored unprocessed cowpea (Vigna spp) and four groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) varieties available in Borno State were examined for the mould flora. The degree of infestation of the grains ranged from 31% to 100% and 68% to 86% for surface sterilized cowpea and groundnut respectively. The mould flora commonly encountered were species of the genera Aspergillus. Penicillium species, Scopulariopsis species and Trichoderma species were also found. The flora of the cowpea was dominated by Aspergillus niger while Aspergillus flavus was the dominant mould on groundnut.

Collison E; Ohaeri G; Wadul-Mian M; Nkama I; Negbenebor C; Igene J

1992-01-01

159

Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

160

Resposta do feijão-caupi à doses e formas de aplicação de fósforo em Latossolo Amarelo do Estado de Roraima/ Response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to phosphorus fertilization levels and application forms in Yellow Latosol of Roraima State/Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A adubação fosfatada e as formas de aplicação de fertilizantes fosfatados são fatores importantes no manejo das culturas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de fósforo e formas de aplicação de fertilizante fosfatado na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) em solo de cerrado do Estado de Roraima. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Latossolo Amarelo distrocoeso, no Campus do Cauamé da Universidade (more) Federal de Roraima. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, com as parcelas principais organizadas em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas formas de aplicação do fertilizante fosfatado: a) Lanço - L; b) Sulco simples - SS e c) Sulco duplo - SD. As subparcelas corresponderam às doses da adubação fosfatada: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada para adubação de manutenção do feijão-caupi. Houve efeito das doses de fósforo sobre o crescimento e absorção de fósforo pelas plantas. O maior crescimento, produção de vagem por planta, de grãos e absorção de fósforo ocorreu com a aplicação do fertilizante fosfatado aplicado em sulcos duplos. Abstract in english Phosphorus fertilization and ways of phosphate fertilizers application are important factors considering crop management. This study aimed at assessing the effect of phosphorus rates and phosphate fertilizers application forms on growth and phosphorus uptake of cowpea plants cropped on cerrado soil in the State of Roraima, Brazil. An experiment took place under field conditions, on a Yellow Latosol, at Cauamé Campus of Roraima's Federal University, located in the municip (more) ality of Boa Vista/RR. The experimental design was split-plot, in a completely randomized blocks, with three replicates. The plots consisted of the following phosphoric fertilizers application forms: a) broadcasting; b) single furrow and c) double furrow. Sub-plots corresponded to phosphorus doses: 0, 0,5; 1,0; 1,5, and 2,0 times the recommended dose for cowpea maintenance fertilization (60 kg ha-1 of P2O5). There was a significant effect of P rates over plant growth and plant uptake. Application of fertilizer in double furrows promoted higher plant growth, grain yield, and plant phosphorous uptake.

Silva, Armando José da; Uchôa, Sandra Cátia Pereira; Alves, José Maria Arcanjo; Lima, Antônio César Silva; Santos, Célida Socorro Vieira dos; Oliveira, Jane Maria Franco de; Melo, Valdinar Ferreira

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Fases de desarrollo y componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares defríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela/ Phases of development and yield components of three mungbean cultivars (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Bajo las condiciones agroecológicas de Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela, se estudiaron las fases de desarrollo y se evaluaron los componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares de fríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), durante los meses de mayo a julio de 1997. Los cultivares ML 267, Acriollado y VC 1973C, se distribuyeron en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 6 repeticiones. Para la diferenciación de las fases y etapas de desarrollo, se observaron sema (more) nalmente los cambios morfológicos de las plantas en cada parcela. Al momento de la cosecha se obtuvo el promedio por planta de las variables: número de racimos, vainas, semillas por vaina y longitud de las vainas. El rendimiento de granos en kg/ha se midió en base al 12% de humedad. La fase vegetativa tuvo una duración de 28 a 43 días, mientras que la fase reproductiva entre 22 y 30 días. El cultivar más precoz fue ML 267 con 34,87 días para la floración y 61,83 días para la maduración. Hubo diferencias significativas para el número de racimos/planta y vainas/planta donde ML 267 y Acriollado tuvieron los valores más altos. Para el número de semillas/vaina VC 1973C y Acriollado fueron significativamente mayores que ML 267. Acriollado mostró los mayores rendimientos con 1438,33 kg/ha. Abstract in english The development phases and seed yield were evaluated in three cultivars of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), ML 267, Acriollado and VC 1973C under the agroecological conditions of Maracay (Venezuela) (May - July, 1997). The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks (RCB) with six replications. The differentiation of the development phases and stages, and the morphological changes of plants were studied in each plot. The variable totals of pod clusters, numb (more) er of pods per plant, seeds/pods and pods length, were studied too. The seed yield in kg/ha was measured at a humidity of 12%. The vegetative phase was between 28 to 43 days, while the reproductive phase was between 22 and 30 days. The earliest cultivar was ML 267 with 34.87 days to flowering and 61.83 to maturity. There were significant differences for total pod clusters/plant and number of pods/plant, where ML 267 and Acriollado had the highest values. Total seeds/pods VC 1973C and Acriollado were significantly greater then ML 267. Acriollado showed the highest yields with 1438,33 kg/ha.

Infante, N; Madriz, P; González, T

2003-10-01

162

Fases de desarrollo y componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares defríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela Phases of development and yield components of three mungbean cultivars (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bajo las condiciones agroecológicas de Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela, se estudiaron las fases de desarrollo y se evaluaron los componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares de fríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), durante los meses de mayo a julio de 1997. Los cultivares ML 267, Acriollado y VC 1973C, se distribuyeron en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 6 repeticiones. Para la diferenciación de las fases y etapas de desarrollo, se observaron semanalmente los cambios morfológicos de las plantas en cada parcela. Al momento de la cosecha se obtuvo el promedio por planta de las variables: número de racimos, vainas, semillas por vaina y longitud de las vainas. El rendimiento de granos en kg/ha se midió en base al 12% de humedad. La fase vegetativa tuvo una duración de 28 a 43 días, mientras que la fase reproductiva entre 22 y 30 días. El cultivar más precoz fue ML 267 con 34,87 días para la floración y 61,83 días para la maduración. Hubo diferencias significativas para el número de racimos/planta y vainas/planta donde ML 267 y Acriollado tuvieron los valores más altos. Para el número de semillas/vaina VC 1973C y Acriollado fueron significativamente mayores que ML 267. Acriollado mostró los mayores rendimientos con 1438,33 kg/ha.The development phases and seed yield were evaluated in three cultivars of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), ML 267, Acriollado and VC 1973C under the agroecological conditions of Maracay (Venezuela) (May - July, 1997). The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks (RCB) with six replications. The differentiation of the development phases and stages, and the morphological changes of plants were studied in each plot. The variable totals of pod clusters, number of pods per plant, seeds/pods and pods length, were studied too. The seed yield in kg/ha was measured at a humidity of 12%. The vegetative phase was between 28 to 43 days, while the reproductive phase was between 22 and 30 days. The earliest cultivar was ML 267 with 34.87 days to flowering and 61.83 to maturity. There were significant differences for total pod clusters/plant and number of pods/plant, where ML 267 and Acriollado had the highest values. Total seeds/pods VC 1973C and Acriollado were significantly greater then ML 267. Acriollado showed the highest yields with 1438,33 kg/ha.

N Infante; P Madriz; T González

2003-01-01

163

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. GROWTH AND SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS WITH PIGEONPEA AND COWPEA  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is a limiting factor on legume-Bradyrhizobium symbiosis of subtropical plants in the temperate region. Twelve strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp], and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], were evaluated for tolerance to three temperature re...

164

Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al) toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0) with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we te...

E.A. Akinrinde; L. Iroh; G.O. Obigbesan; T. Hilger; G. Neumann; V. Romheld

165

Functional Characterization and Expression of a Cytosolic Iron-Superoxide Dismutase from Cowpea Root Nodules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An iron-superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) with an unusual subcellular localization, VuFeSOD, has been purified from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules and leaves. The enzyme has two identical subunits of 27 kD that are not covalently bound. Comparison of its N-terminal sequence (NVAGINLL) with the cDNA-d...

Morán, José F.; James, E. K.; Rubio Luna, Mari Carmen; Sarath, G.; Klucas, R. V.; Becana Ausejo, Manuel

166

Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) culture under the chopped secondary forest system  

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Full Text Available O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio direto na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m) lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância). Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) e Rubiaceae (4). No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo.The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon. Since weed management is an essential part of the production process, this study aimed to survey the flora in no-tillage areas of a chopped secondary forest cultivated with cowpea. This work was conducted in a rural farming area in the municipality of Zé Doca, MA in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. The preparation of the area was carried out with a wheel tractor using the implement ahwi FM600. The area was originally planted with maize followed by BRS Guariba cowpea for two years.Weed evaluation was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m), launched 30 times. Evaluation was performed every time, with the aerial parts of the weeds being harvested for counting, identification, and drying, to obtain the phytosociological indices (frequency, density, dominance index, and importance value). The families with the most weed species were Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) and Rubiaceae (4). In the agricultural years 2006/2007, the species with the highest IVI were: Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata and Cyperus sp. In the agricultural years 2007/2008, the main species were: Digitaria horizontalis, followed by C. diffusus, Pavonia cancellata and F. dichotoma. The secondary forest plants originated from sprouting presented the highest IVIs in the agricultural year 2006/2007 and suffered a drastic reduction in 2007/2008. Thus, it can be concluded that progressive cultivation reduces secondary forest plant sprouting and increases the herbaceous extract.

L.J.P. Marques; M.R.M. Silva; M.S. Araújo; G.S. Lopes; M.J.P. Corrêa; A.C.R. Freitas; F.H. Muniz

2010-01-01

167

The effect of cropping history and the role of cowpea debris in the epidemiology of cowpea scab.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) debris as a primary source of inoculum for Sphaceloma sp., the pathogen of cowpea scab, was studied in field experiments. Three fields were selected in 1993 and three in 1994, in which cowpea had been grown 1, 2 or 3 years previously as part of a crop rotation. Polyethylene mulch was spread over the soil to prevent soil/debris splash in half of the plots. No scab symptoms were observed on the primary leaves. It took an average of 25 days for primary symptoms to be observed in each field, irrespective of mulching. Mulching had a significant effect on disease severity only in the two sites where cowpeas were last grown a year before the trial (sites 1a and 1b). In both years, interaction between time (days after sowing) and site (fields in which cowpea had been grown 1–3 years earlier) had a significant effect on disease incidence while in 1994, interaction between time, site and mulching was also significant (P < 0.05). Higher disease incidence was observed in 1994 than in 1993. In all fields, there were increases in disease incidence over time. Rain splashing may have contributed to higher disease incidence in plots without mulch. The presence of scab in the mulched plots in fields last sown to cowpea 3 years before the trial suggests that the pathogen may survive on infected cowpea debris, which acts as one of the sources of primary inoculum. Hence longer periods of crop rotation with nonhosts may be required to control the disease.

Mungo CM; Emerchebe AM; Emechebe AM; Florini DA

1998-10-01

168

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v) of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

Umesh P. Mogle1 and; Sanjay R. Maske2

2012-01-01

169

Determinação da difusividade e da energia de ativação para feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde, com base no comportamento da secagem/ Determination of diffusivity and activation energy for cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), alwaysgreen variety, based on its drying behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, teve-se o objetivo de determinar curvas de secagem em camada fina para grãos de feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde. Visou-se, também, à determinação da difusividade efetiva da água no interior do produto, bem como a energia de ativação. Para tal, foram utilizadas amostras com 150 g de feijão com teor inicial de água de 37% (bu), nas temperaturas de 40; 50 e 60 ºC. A velocidade do ar do secador convectivo foi mantida em 1,0 m s-1 e, durante t (more) odo o processo, os valores médios da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar ambiente foram, respectivamente, 29 ºC e 58%. A difusividade efetiva da água no produto foi determinada, em cada temperatura, por meio da lei de Fick, pressupondo um modelo esférico para os grãos. Uma expressão para a difusividade efetiva da água em função da temperatura foi determinada por meio do ajuste da equação de Arrhenius aos dados obtidos. A análise dos resultados possibilita concluir que a equação de Page representa, de forma satisfatória, o processo de secagem em todas as condições estudadas. O modelo esférico estabelecido para os grãos é satisfatório, resultando em difusividade efetiva que variou de 7,13x10-11 até 14,0x10-11 m²s-1, e em energia de ativação igual a 26,9 kJ mol-1. Foi observado que, para a temperatura do ar de secagem mantida em 60 ºC, houve a formação de fissuras em quantidade significativa de grãos. Abstract in english In this paper it was determined the thin layer drying curves for cowpea grains, always-green variety. It was also determined the effective water diffusivity inside the product and its activation energy. For these purposes, 150 g samples of cowpea grains dried at temperatures of 40; 50 and 60 ºC were used. The drying air velocity was maintained constantly at 1.0 m s-1 during the drying process. The drying air temperature and relative humidity were 29 ºC and 58%, respecti (more) vely. The effective water diffusivity inside the product was determined, for each drying temperature, by using Fick?s equation assuming a spherical shape for the grains. A mathematical expression for the effective water diffusivity inside the product as a function of temperature was determined by fitting Arrhenius?s equation to the observed data. According to the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that the Page equation can be used to satisfactorily represent the cowpea grains drying process for the conditions of this research. The assumption of a spherical shape for the grains was satisfactory, resulting in a water effective diffusivity varying from 7.13x10-11 to 14.00x10-11 m²s-1 and activation energy equal to 26.9 kJ mol-1. It was also observed that for a drying air temperature of 60 ºC a significant amount of grains presented fissures.

Silva, Wilton P. da; Mata, Mário E. R. M. C.; Silva, Cleiton D. P. S. e; Guedes, Manoel A.; Lima, Antonio G. B.

2008-06-01

170

Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem no calor latente de vaporização de água em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde Influence of the temperature on the latent heat of vaporization of moisture from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), always-green variety  

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Full Text Available Em cálculos da quantidade de energia requerida em processos de secagem artificial de um produto agrícola, é necessário o conhecimento de uma expressão para a determinação do calor latente de vaporização (H) de água no produto. Normalmente, as expressões para H, encontradas na literatura, são dadas pelo calor latente de vaporização (h) de água livre multiplicado por funções que dependem apenas do teor de água do produto. Isso significa que a relação H/h, para um dado produto, só depende do teor de água, o que é uma simplificação, pois se sabe que tal relação depende também da temperatura. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma expressão para o cálculo de H para feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde, levando em consideração a dependência de H/h com a temperatura. Para tal, foi desenvolvido e utilizado um programa computacional que ajusta, de forma automática, cerca de 500 funções contidas em sua biblioteca, com uma e duas variáveis independentes, a dados experimentais. O programa, que usa regressão não-linear, classifica as melhores funções ajustadas pelo critério do menor qui-quadrado reduzido. O conjunto de testes estatísticos realizados indica que a expressão apresentada neste artigo produz resultados mais precisos na determinação de H para feijão macassar que os de outras equações normalmente encontradas na literatura.In order to determine the energy needed to artificially dry an agricultural product the latent heat of vaporization of moisture in the product, H, must be known. Generally, the expressions for H reported in the literature are of the form H = h(T)f(M), where h(T) is the latent heat of vaporization of free water, and f(M) is a function of the equilibrium moisture content, M, which is a simplification. In this article, a more general expression for the latent heat of vaporization, namely H = g(M,T), is used to determine H for cowpea, always-green variety. For this purpose, a computer program was developed which automatically fits about 500 functions, with one or two independent variables, imbedded in its library to experimental data. The program uses nonlinear regression, and classifies the best functions according to the least reduced chi-squared. A set of executed statistical tests shows that the generalized expression for H used in this work produces better results of H for cowpea than other equations found in literature.

Wilton P. da Silva; Cleide M. D. P. S. e Silva; Jürgen W. Precker; Diogo D. P. S. e Silva

2008-01-01

171

Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem no calor latente de vaporização de água em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde/ Influence of the temperature on the latent heat of vaporization of moisture from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), always-green variety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em cálculos da quantidade de energia requerida em processos de secagem artificial de um produto agrícola, é necessário o conhecimento de uma expressão para a determinação do calor latente de vaporização (H) de água no produto. Normalmente, as expressões para H, encontradas na literatura, são dadas pelo calor latente de vaporização (h) de água livre multiplicado por funções que dependem apenas do teor de água do produto. Isso significa que a relação H/h (more) , para um dado produto, só depende do teor de água, o que é uma simplificação, pois se sabe que tal relação depende também da temperatura. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma expressão para o cálculo de H para feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde, levando em consideração a dependência de H/h com a temperatura. Para tal, foi desenvolvido e utilizado um programa computacional que ajusta, de forma automática, cerca de 500 funções contidas em sua biblioteca, com uma e duas variáveis independentes, a dados experimentais. O programa, que usa regressão não-linear, classifica as melhores funções ajustadas pelo critério do menor qui-quadrado reduzido. O conjunto de testes estatísticos realizados indica que a expressão apresentada neste artigo produz resultados mais precisos na determinação de H para feijão macassar que os de outras equações normalmente encontradas na literatura. Abstract in english In order to determine the energy needed to artificially dry an agricultural product the latent heat of vaporization of moisture in the product, H, must be known. Generally, the expressions for H reported in the literature are of the form H = h(T)f(M), where h(T) is the latent heat of vaporization of free water, and f(M) is a function of the equilibrium moisture content, M, which is a simplification. In this article, a more general expression for the latent heat of vaporiz (more) ation, namely H = g(M,T), is used to determine H for cowpea, always-green variety. For this purpose, a computer program was developed which automatically fits about 500 functions, with one or two independent variables, imbedded in its library to experimental data. The program uses nonlinear regression, and classifies the best functions according to the least reduced chi-squared. A set of executed statistical tests shows that the generalized expression for H used in this work produces better results of H for cowpea than other equations found in literature.

Silva, Wilton P. da; Silva, Cleide M. D. P. S. e; Precker, Jürgen W.; Silva, Diogo D. P. S. e

2008-06-01

172

Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F) Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus) infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate) admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs) treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed) > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed). Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

A. Olonisakin; M.O. Oladimeji; L. Lajide

2006-01-01

173

Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação/ Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN), são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas área (more) s. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas. Abstract in english Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB) are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate (more) the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

Melloni, Rogério; Moreira, Fátima Maria de Sousa; Nóbrega, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; Siqueira, José Oswaldo de

2006-04-01

174

Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN), são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas.Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB) are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

Rogério Melloni; Fátima Maria de Sousa Moreira; Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega; José Oswaldo de Siqueira

2006-01-01

175

The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. METHODS: Two linkage maps were developed from BC(1)F(1) and F(2) populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. KEY RESULTS: Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna.

Kongjaimun A; Kaga A; Tomooka N; Somta P; Vaughan DA; Srinives P

2012-05-01

176

Descomposición de Vigna unguiculata (caupí) en un Argiudol Típico de Colonia Benítez, Chaco  

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Full Text Available ResumenEn los últimos años, esencialmente motivos ambientales han llevado a renovar el interés por el uso de leguminosas herbáceas como abonos verdes, puesto que su empleo supone un ahorro económico importante para el agricultor y por sus efectos benéficos sobre las propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo.Para que los abonos verdes sean considerados una efectiva fuente de nutrientes para los cultivos que se implanten posteriormente, deben estar disponibles en los momentos de mayor demanda del cultivo y para ello se hace necesario conocer la velocidad de descomposición de la biomasa vegetal aportada al suelo y la subsiguiente liberación de nutrientes. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la velocidad de descomposición del caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) y calcular la tasa de liberación de N, P y K, en las condiciones agroecológicas de Colonia Benítez, Chaco. En un Argiudol Típico se realizó la incorporación de caupí a los 74 días después de su siembra, se determinó su tasa de descomposición empleando la técnica de litterbags y cada 30 días se determinaron peso seco y N, P y K foliar. Se calcularon los porcentajes de masa seca remanente (%MSR), la tasa de descomposición y liberación de los nutrientes analizados. La producción promedio de caupí fue de 7603 kg MS ha-1, correspondiendo el 63,9% a las hojas y el 36,1% a tallos. La velocidad de descomposición durante los 30 días iniciales fue rápida con un %MSR = 36; que posteriormente se estabiliza. La tasa de liberación de N, P y K es máxima también durante los primeros 30 días. Para las condiciones edafoclimáticas de Colonia Benítez, es necesario continuar con los ensayos con el fin de establecer una precisa sincronización entre la liberación de los nutrientes del abono verde con la máxima demanda del cultivo.AbastractIn recent years, mainly for environmental reasons has led to renewed interest in the use of herbaceous legumes as green manure, as their employment is a significant cost savings for farmers and for their beneficial effects on physical, chemical and biological soil properties. For green manure are considered an effective source of nutrients for crops that are in place then, should be available in times of increased demand for the crop and it is necessary to know the rate of decomposition of plant biomass to the soil and subsequent release of nutrients.The objective was to determine the rate of decomposition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), and calculate the rate of release of N, P and K in the agroecological conditions of the Colonia Benítez, Chaco. In a Typic Argiudol was the addition of cowpea at 74 days after sowing and determined the rate of decompositionusing litterbags technique, and every 30 days were determined dry weight and N, P and K leaf. We calculated the percentages of mass remaining (%MSR), rate of decomposition and release of nutrients analyzed. The average yield of cowpea was 7603 kg DM ha-1, corresponding to 63,9% and 36,1% leaves to stems. The rateof decomposition during the initial 30 days was quick with a %MSR = 36, which was subsequently stabilized.The release rate of N, P and K was also high during the first 30 days and for the soil and climate of Colonia Benítez, one should proceed with testing for the purpose of establishing a precise synchronization between the release of nutrients from fertilizer full green crop demand.

SHINDOI, M. M. J. F; PRAUSE, J; JOVER, P. L

2012-01-01

177

Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes  

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Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC) were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.

Lopes Francisco Cláudio da Conceição; Gomes Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Freire Filho Francisco Rodrigues

2003-01-01

178

Proximate composition and antinutritional factors in rice bean (Vigna umbellata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirteen promising strains of Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) were analysed for their proximate compositions and antinutritional factors. Protein content in these varieties ranged from 17.50 to 23.10 per cent, ash from 3.06 to 4.48 per cent, ether extract from 2.4 to 3.9 per cent and crude fibre from 1.70 to 4.25 per cent. Trypsin inhibitor activity ranged from 112.63 to 163.98 units/g and polyphenols ranged from 0.58 to 1.19 per cent. Phytohemagglutinating activity was present in all the strains, except one, RB-32. Oligosaccharides, viz., raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, ranged from 0.32 to 0.91, 0.95 to 1.98 and 1.40 to 2.58 per cent, respectively. Attempts have been made to compare the results with a standard variety each of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), moong (Vigna radiata) and mash (Vigna mungo).

Malhotra S; Malik D; Dhindsa KS

1988-01-01

179

Ent-2'-epi-Orobanchol and its acetate, as germination stimulants for Striga gesnerioides seeds isolated from cowpea and red clover.  

Science.gov (United States)

Striga gesnerioides is a root parasitic weed of economic significance to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) crops in Western Africa. Seeds of the parasite germinate in response to cowpea root exudates. Germination stimulants for the seeds were isolated from the hydroponic culture filtrate of cowpea, and their structures were unambiguously determined as (-)-(3aR,4R,8bR,2'R)-ent-2'-epi-orobanchol and (+)-(3aR,4R,8bR,2'R)-ent-2'-epi-orobanchyl acetate, on the basis of mass, CD, and (1)H NMR spectra; optical rotatory power; and chromatographic behavior on HPLC. The alcohol was first isolated and identified from the cowpea root exudates, and the acetate may be the same compound that had been previously isolated from the exudates and designated as alectrol. Identity of the stimulants produced by cowpea to those produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense) was confirmed. PMID:21899364

Ueno, Kotomi; Nomura, Saki; Muranaka, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

2011-09-19

180

Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)  

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Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau) e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum) e 67,5% (G. max). Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau) and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum) to 67,5% (G. max). With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira; José Vargas de Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da Câmara

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)/ Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau) e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo (more) com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum) e 67,5% (G. max). Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento. Abstract in english The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau) and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. (more) Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum) to 67,5% (G. max). With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

Pereira, Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Gondim Junior, Manoel Guedes Corrêa; Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes da

2009-02-01

182

Effects of P on Vigna unguiculata Cv. 305 and Stylosanthes hamata Cv. Verano Symbiosis in the Field of a Rubber-tree Plantation  

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In order to assess the effects of P addition and NP addition on nodulation and N fixation this study examines the nodulation of Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 (cowpea) and Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano in fertilized and unfertilized conditions in NE Thailand. V. unguiculata cv. 305 ...

K. Sungthongwises; R. Poss; J.J. Drevon

183

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi/ Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes pro (more) missoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative (more) for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Assunção, Iraildes P.; M.-Filho, Liliane R.; Resende, Luciane V.; Barros, Márcia C. S.; Lima, Gaus S. A.; Coelho, Rildo Sartori B.; Lima, J. Albérsio A.

2005-06-01

184

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota Antônio Chagas; Fernandes Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales Maurício Pereira; Flores Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho José

2002-01-01

185

Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus/ Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos (more) de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants showing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 (more) and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

Barros, Gislanne Brito; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro da Rocha; Oliveira, Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Valdenir Queiroz; Veiga, Carlos Frederico de Menezes; Brioso, Paulo Sérgio Torres; Eiras, Marcelo

2013-06-01

186

Cowpea plant architecture in relation to infestation and damage by the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). 2. Effect of pod angle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of pod angle on the resistance of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. to the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer, was investigated under field conditions at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), lbadan, Nigeria, using two cowpea cultivars: IT82D-716 (susceptible to borer damage) and TVu 946 (resistant to borer damage). Three different pod angles were used in the study -- a normal angle, a decreased angle and an increased angle. Negative and highly significant (P < 0.01) relationships were found between pod angle and per cent pod damage, as well as the seed damage index in the two cowpea cultivars. Pods with wide angles (greater than or equal to 89 degrees) were damaged on only one and rarely on both pods. Apart from biochemical and other bio-physical factors, selection and breeding for wide pod angle is suggested as a strategy for reducing M. testulalis damage to cowpea pods.

Oghiakhe S; Jackal LEN; Makanjuola WA

1992-06-01

187

Root N turnover in cowpea-millet rotation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of N from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to a succeeding millet crop grown in rotation was studied in 15 kg soil pot culture using the 15N isotope. The proportion of N in the roots differed significantly between cowpea varieties, ranging between 19.4 and 31.6%, but was not related to the N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa), which ranged between 885.4 and 1346.2 mg N/pot. Of the four varieties of cowpea, TN7575-80 and KVX309-66 had a positive N balance of 73.3 and 25.5 mg/pot, respectively, and TN3-78 and TN88-63 had a negative N balance of 15 and 108 mg/pot, respectively. The N balance was not related to the N yield or Ndfa, but was related to the proportion of N found in the roots - varieties with a high proportion of N in their roots had a positive N balance and varieties with a low proportion of N in their roots had a negative N balance. Fallowed soil gave the highest millet shoot dry weight (50.7 g/pot) and N yield (437.7 mg/pot). The soil planted with the four cowpea varieties had a significantly higher shoot dry matter and N yield in the subsequent millet crop than the soil planted with millet. The percentage and amount of N derived from the roots (Ndfr) or the preceding crop was higher for cowpea than for millet, and was positively correlated with Ndfa, indicating the importance of fixing legumes in crop rotations. The percentage recovery of root N was quite low, ranging between 3.9 for millet and 23.2 for the cowpea variety TN3-78. It is concluded that residual root N is not important as a source of N for a succeeding cereal crop in a rotation but it is maintaining a favourable soil N balance. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

1995-01-01

188

Effect of Exogenous Application of Silicon with Drought Stress on Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Edible Beans (Vigna radiate & Vigna unguiculata)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the impact of silicon application with different concentrations(20, 40, 60 ppm), on selected physiological characteristics of the leaves of mungbean (Vignaradiata) and cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) under different 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% soil moisture regimes. Stock solution (100 ppm) of silicon was preparedby MgSi3 salt but apply as 20, 40, 60 ppm solution in both treated and control plants. Results showed that silicon applicationsignificantly increases total carbohydrate & protein contents in treated samples as compare to control plants. In present study weconcluded that silicon promoted growth in the drought susceptible species to greater extent & it’s more beneficial forcarbohydrates and protein metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as compare to mungbean (Vignaradiata) plants.

N. Hamid; B. Naz; A. Rehman

2012-01-01

189

Carbon dioxide and light responses of photosynthesis in cowpea and pigeonpea during water deficit and recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse-grown pigeonpea (Cajunus cajan, (L.)) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, (L.)) were well-watered or subjected to low water potential by withholding water to compare their modes of adaptation to water-limited conditions. Leaf CO/sub 2/ exchange rate (CER), leaf diffusive conductance to CO/sub 2/ (g/sub L/), and CO/sub 2/ concentration in the leaf intercellular air space (C/sub i/) were determined at various CO/sub 2/ concentrations and photon flux densities (PFD) of photosynthetically active radiation. In cowpea, g/sub L/ declined to less than 15% of controls and total water potential (Psi/sub w/) at midafternoon declined to -0.8 megapascal after 5 days of withholding water, whereas g/sub L/ in pigeonpea was about 40% of controls even though midafternoon Psi/sub w/ was -1.9 megapascal. After 8 days of withholding water, Psi/sub w/ at midafternoon decline to -0.9 and -2.4 megapascals in cowpea and pigeonpea, respectively. The solute component of water potential (Psi/sub s/) decreased substantially less in cowpea than pigeonpea. Photosynthetic CER at saturation photon flux density (PFD) and ambient external CO/sub 2/ concentration on day 5 of withholding decreased by 83 and 55% in cowpea and pigeonpea, respectively. When measured at external, CO/sub 2/ concentration in bulk air of 360 microliters per liter, the CER of cowpea had fully recovered to control levels 3 days after rewatering; however, at 970 microliters per liter the PFD-saturated CERS of both species were substantially lower than in controls, indicating residual impairment.

Lopez, F.B.; Setter, T.L.; McDavid, C.R.

1987-10-01

190

Integrating host plant resistance and chemical control in the management of Cowpea pests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were conducted at Manga in the Sudan Savanna zone of Ghana to evaluate the potential of integrating host plant resistance with chemical control in the management of key insect pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. None of the improved varieties tested showed significant and consistent resistance to the key pests and there were no significant interaction effects between varieties and spray regime. The local varieties, Omondaw and Bengsogla however supported relatively fewer Megalurothrips sjostedti and pod sucking bug (PSB) populations and thus suffered significantly lower damage (shriveled pods) and produced better yields under no insecticide protection than the improved varieties. This was particularly evident in 2005 when the pest population was very high. Spraying the crop with Karate during the reproductive phase produced better results than with neem extracts. Nevertheless, applying neem seed extracts twice and four times increased grain yield by 45 - 54 % and 126 - 144 % respectively over the control, confirming their potential in cowpea Integrated Pest Management.

Paul B Tanzubil; M Zakariah; A Alem

2008-01-01

191

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

192

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin.

Sanon A; Ba NM; Binso-Dabire CL; Pittendrigh BR

2010-02-01

193

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes. PMID:14977138

Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

2003-12-01

194

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes.

Johnson JA; Valero KA

2003-12-01

195

Genetic architecture of delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress in cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes. PMID:23936140

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye N; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D

2013-07-30

196

Barrières pré-zygotiques chez les hybrides entre formes sauvages du niébé, Vigna unguilata (L.) Walp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hybrids pre-zygotic barriers between wild forms of cowpea. The wild forms of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, constitute an important gene pool insufficiently exploited for the improvement of the cultivated form. In order to promote the use of these wild forms in the genetic improvement programmes, we undertook to understand the various incompatibility reactions which appear in the crosses between wild forms. Efforts were concentrated to understand the incompatibility barriers in the hybridizations between subsp. baoulensis NI 933 and the other wild forms of V. unguiculata. Thanks to the use of the aniline blue fluorescence, we observed a high frequency of pre-zygotic barriers. They appear in three sites, i.e. the higher and lower third of the style, and within the ovary. However, these incompatibility barriers are not absolute. Indeed, in our hybridizations, more than 4% of the ovules were fertilized in the various studied combinations.

Kouadio D.; Toussaint A.; Pasquet RS.; Baudoin JP.

2006-01-01

197

Analysis of radiation-induced genome alterations in Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christell van der Vyver1, B Juan Vorster2, Karl J Kunert3, Christopher A Cullis41Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, and 3Department of Plant Science, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Seeds from an inbred Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) cultivar were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 180 Gy in order to identify and characterize possible mutations. Three techniques, ie, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellites, and representational difference analysis, were used to characterize possible DNA variation among the mutants and nonirradiated control plants both immediately after irradiation and in subsequent generations. A large portion of putative radiation-induced genome changes had significant similarities to chloroplast sequences. The frequency of mutation at three of these isolated polymorphic regions with chloroplast similarity was further determined by polymerase chain reaction screening using a large number of individual parental, M1, and M2 plants. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the rate at which various regions of the genome is mutated in irradiation experiments differs significantly and also that mutations have variable “repair” rates. Furthermore, regions of the nuclear DNA derived from the chloroplast genome are highly susceptible to modification by radiation treatment. Overall, data have provided detailed information on the effects of gamma irradiation on the cowpea genome and about the ability of the plant to repair these genome changes in subsequent plant generations.Keywords: mutation breeding, gamma radiation, genetic mutations, cowpea, representational difference analysis

van der Vyver C; Vorster BJ; Kunert KJ; Cullis CA

2011-01-01

198

Efectividad de cepas rizobianas de frijol bajo diferentes regímenes de fósforo/ Effectiveness of cowpea rhizobial strains under different phosphorus regimes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, el frijol representa una alternativa a la proteína animal, debido a su alto consumo y valor nutritivo, por ello se ha estimulado la implementación de programas para reactivar la economía de los pequeños y medianos productores, a fin de incrementar su producción y así tener mayor disponibilidad de proteína de alta calidad a bajo costo; de manera que, los estudios encaminados a mejorar su cultivo, son acertados. Se evaluó la efectividad de cepas rizobi (more) anas de crecimiento lento (cl) y rápido (cr) en frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivar TC9-6 en varios regímenes de fósforo (0, 20, 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial. Las plantas se cultivaron en 4 kg de suelo de sabana 45 días y las cepas en caldo de levadura y manitol: 5 (cr: JV91) y 10 (cl: JV94) días. La inoculación (2 ml cada vez) fue aplicada a la siembra y 6 días más tarde. La utilización de fósforo (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) incrementó la nodulación (número, peso seco total e individual de nódulos) y favoreció la aparición de nódulos rojos; así mismo, acrecentó el peso de la materia seca, la altura, el número de hojas y la concentración de nitrógeno del vástago. Los valores fueron similares con ambos tipos de cepas (efectividad similar) y para las dos concentraciones (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con las menores estimaciones para 0 y 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . De acuerdo con los resultados las concentraciones de 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 fueron las más favorables para el crecimiento y la nodulación de frijol. Abstract in english In Venezuela, cowpea is an alternative to animal protein due to its high consumption and nutritious value, so it has stimulated the implementation of programs to reactivate the small and medium producers economy, in order to increase its production and to have major high quality protein availability at low cost; so that, the studies carry on to improve its cultivation, are well-aimed. The effectiveness of slow (sg) and fast (fg) growing rhizobial strains was evaluated in (more) cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) cultivar TC9-6 at various phosphorus regimes (0, 20, 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ): randomized block design with factorial arrangement. Plants were cultivated in 4 kg savannah soil: 45 days, and the strains in yeast and mannitol broth: 5 (fg: JV91) and 10 (sg: JV94) days. The inoculation (2 ml each time) was applied at sowing time and 6 days later. Phosphorus utilization (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) increa- sed nodulation (nodule number, total and individual dry weight) and favoured nodule red colour appearance; also, incremented shoot dry matter weight, height, leaves number and nitrogen concentration. Values were similar with both strain types (similar effectiveness) and to the two doses (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), with lower estimations to 0 and 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . Accordingly with the results, the doses of 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 were the most favourable to cowpea growth and nodulation.

Mayz Figueroa, Juliana

2011-12-01

199

Integrated soil fertility management enhances population and effectiveness of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in semi-arid eastern Kenya  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Legume biological nitrogen fixation is an environmentally friendly and economical means that can reduce low resource farmer dependence on expensive chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizers. We investigated the effect of two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties (IT95K-52-34, an international variety from IITA and Kang'au, a local variety) under an integrated soil fertility management trial on indigenous symbiotic rhizobia in a semi-arid farmer's field in eastern Kenya. The ox-ploughed field trial had the following treatments: an unamended control, manure applied at 2.5tha?¹, triple superphosphate (TSP as (P?O?, 0:46:0) at 15kgha?¹; and a combination of manure and TSP applied at the single rates. Soil samples were collected from each treatment during planting and harvesting of the cowpea crop and used in most probable number (MPN) plant infection assays with the two cowpea varieties as traphosts in Leonard jar growth systems and grown under glasshouse conditions. Generally, soil amendments enhanced cowpea rhizobial populations which varied from 4.89×10² rhizobiag?¹ soil to 1.074×10³ rhizobiag?¹ soil. The highest shoot biomass accumulation occurred on cowpea variety IT95K-52-34 plants inoculated with soils from the manure applied plots. We isolated 150 fast- and slow-growing cowpea rhizobia. Contrary to most previous studies, the bulk (97%) of the isolates was fast growing which grouped into 9 types on the growth characteristics on yeast extract agar (YEMA). The study indicated that ISFM was important for rhizobia population build up over a cowpea-growing season.

Kimiti JacintaM; Odee DavidW

2010-07-01

200

Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF) technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs) with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa), and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO) with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) and transcription associated factors (TAFs) representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62) of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF) gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

Timko Michael P; Rushton Paul J; Laudeman Thomas W; Bokowiec Marta T; Chipumuro Edmond; Cheung Foo; Town Christopher D; Chen Xianfeng

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Sequence variability in the coat protein gene of Cowpea severe mosaic virus isolates from northeastern Brazil/ Variabilidade de sequências do gene da proteína do capsídeo de isolados do Cowpea severe mosaic virus do Nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O comovírus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causa a doença em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) conhecida como mosaico severo, mas, apesar de sua importância, não há estudos de diversidade genética de populações virais. Foram determinadas as sequências nucleotídicas de parte do gene da proteína do capsídeo (CP) de seis isolados brasileiros de CPSMV. Os fragmentos genômicos (521 nucleotídeos) foram amplificados por RT-PCR, clonados e suas sequências foram (more) comparadas entre si e com as sequências de outros comovírus. As comparações de sequências indicaram um elevado grau de conservação para o gene CP, com identidade de 92-100% (nucleotídeos) e 97-100% (aminoácidos) entre os isolados. Não houve correlação entre origem geográfica e identidade de sequência ou filogenia entre os isolados. Abstract in english The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of six Brazilian isolates of CPSMV. Genomic fragments (521 nucleotides) were RT-PCR amplified, cloned, and their sequences were compared with each other and with other comoviruses. Sequence comparisons (more) indicated a high degree of conservation for the CP gene, with 92-100% nucleotide and 97-100% amino acid sequence identity among the isolates. There was no correlation between geographical origin and sequence identity or phylogeny among the isolates.

Beserra Jr., José Evando A.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Camarço, Rosa F.R. Araújo; Nascimento, Aline K.Q.; Lima, José Albérsio A.

2011-04-01

202

Emission of methane and nitrous oxide from Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes in India during the dry cropping seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se hicieron estimaciones de la emisión de metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O) de las legumbres Vigna mungo y Vigna radiata. Para evaluar estas emisiones se estudió el potencial de óxido reducción (redox) y la temperatura del suelo. El CH4 fue negativo y el N2O positivo para Vigna mungo a lo largo de casi todo el período de cultivo. El potencial redox fue de más de +100 mV durante todo el período de cultivo con un flujo máximo de N2O de 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. El in (more) cremento de la temperatura del suelo y del potencial redox durante la cosecha incrementó aún más el flujo de N2O a 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. El flujo integrado estacional E(SIF) de CH4 y N2O para Vigna mungo se calculó en -4.06 g m-2 y 3.38 mg m-2, respectivamente. De manera simmilar los valores E(SIF) estimados para Vigna radiata durante la estación de cultivo fueron de 0.009 g m-2 y -7.6 mg m-2, mientras que para el período post cosecha fueron de 0.02 g m-2 y 4.06 mg m-2 para CH4 y N2O, respectivamente. Durante la estación de cultivo se evaluaron los parámetros del suelo carbón orgánico y nutrimentos como el amonio, nitratos y nitritos. La emisión de gases de efecto invernadero también se correlacionó con varios parámetros fisicoquímicos del suelo. Abstract in english Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates were made for Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes. The affecting soil parameters like redox potential, soil temperature were studied to evaluate CH4 and N2O emissions. The CH4 was negative and N2O was positive for Vigna mungo, almost throughout the cropping period. The redox potential was more than +100 mV during the entire cropping period with a maximum N2O flux of 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. The raise in soil tempera (more) ture and the redox potential during harvest further increased the N2O flux to 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. The seasonally integrated flux E(SIF) for CH4 and N2O for Vigna mungo was calculated to be -4.06 g.m-2 and 3.38 mg m-2 respectively. Similarly E(SIF) values estimated for Vigna radiata cropping season were 0.009 g m-2 and -7.6 mg m-2, whereas for the post harvesting period the fluxes were 0.02 g m-2 and 4.06 mg m-2 for CH4 and N2O respectively. The soil parameters like organic carbon and nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite during the cropping season were evaluated. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) was also correlated to various physico-chemical parameters of soil.

Swamy, Y. V.; Nikhil, G. N.; Venkanna, R.; Das, S. N.; Roy Chaudhury, G.

2012-01-01

203

Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui/ Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alocados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: (more) 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocated in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and prod (more) uctive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

Dairiki, Jony Koji; Correa, Rafaella Barbosa; Inoue, Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki; Morais, Irani da Silva de

2013-04-01

204

Genetic Architecture of Delayed Senescence, Biomass, and Grain Yield under Drought Stress in Cowpea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34< r <0.87) and allele effects (0.07< r <0.86) for delayed senescence and grain yield across three African environments. Three of the five putative stay-green QTLs, Dro-1, 3, and 7 were identified in both RILs and diverse germplasm with resolutions of 3.2 cM or less for each of the three loci, suggesting that these may be valuable targets for marker-assisted breeding in cowpea. Also, the co-location of early vegetative delayed senescence with biomass and grain yield QTLs suggests the possibility of using delayed senescence at the seedling stage as a rapid screening tool for post-flowering drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes.

Muchero W; Roberts PA; Diop NN; Drabo I; Cisse N; Close TJ; Muranaka S; Boukar O; Ehlers JD

2013-01-01

205

Genetic Architecture of Delayed Senescence, Biomass, and Grain Yield under Drought Stress in Cowpea  

Science.gov (United States)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34< r <0.87) and allele effects (0.07< r <0.86) for delayed senescence and grain yield across three African environments. Three of the five putative stay-green QTLs, Dro-1, 3, and 7 were identified in both RILs and diverse germplasm with resolutions of 3.2 cM or less for each of the three loci, suggesting that these may be valuable targets for marker-assisted breeding in cowpea. Also, the co-location of early vegetative delayed senescence with biomass and grain yield QTLs suggests the possibility of using delayed senescence at the seedling stage as a rapid screening tool for post-flowering drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes.

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye N.; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J.; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.

2013-01-01

206

Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. Cultivated as a Root Crop in Bali and Timor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vigna vexillata is considered as a pantropical distributed wild species closely related to the cowpea (Vigna uniculata) and adapted to infertile soils. The species is occasionally used for its storage roots as well as forage and erosion control plant. The objective of this study was to pursue personal communications that V. vexillata has be transformed into a cultivar in Indonesia. Seven Indonesian islands were visited (Java, Bali, Sumba, Flores, Timor, Kalimantan and Sulawesi). Wild V. vexillata was found in Java, Bali, Sumba, Flores and Timor, occasionally used as wild 'forest food', and cultivated V. vexillata was found in Bali and Timor, Seven cultivars were collected and two of these were made available for the National Botanic Garden of Belgium. The cultivars were primarily cultivated for their storage roots, propagated by seeds, required no scarified seeds for good germination and formed non-dehiscent pods. On-farm root yields of 18-30 t ha-1 and seed yields of 0.7-1.2 t ha-1 were estimated. A brief discussion about the common names of wild V. vexillata is given and it is proposed to use the name 'tuber cowpea' for V. vexillata accessions which are cultivated for their storage roots. The material may be of interest for regions, where the growing season is too short or the rainfall too low for sweet potato and cassava as well as to incorporate cultivar characteristics into wild V. vexillata accessions which are used for their storage roots.

Karuniawan A; Iswandi A; Kale PR; Heinzemann J; Gruneberg WJ

2006-02-01

207

Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years/ Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV) um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminosa no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC: CPSMV-CE - o primeiro isolado do vírus obtido no Cear? (more) ?; isolados obtidos de feijão-caupi: CPSMV-AL (Alagoas) and CPSMV-PE (Pernambuco); CPSMV-PR - isolado de soja (Glycine max) no Paraná e CPSMV-CROT - isolado de Crotalaria paulinea no Maranhão. Um isolado de CPSMV capaz de infetar o cv. Macaibo, cultivar de ffeijão-caupi imune a todos os demais isolados de CPSMV foi biológica e sorologicamente caracterizado e designado de CPSMV-MC. O CPSMV-MC obtido em janeiro de 1990 vem sendo avaliado através de estudos de gama de hospedeiro e mantido in vivo através de inoculações periódicas em feijão-caupi. Os resultados dessas avaliações revelaram que a integridade biológica e as propriedades sorológicas do CPSMV-MC foram preservadas ao longo dos anos, indicando que a preservação das propriedades genéticas de uma estirpe viral pode acontecer através dos anos. Estudos moleculares adicionais revelaram que a seqüência de nucleotídeos correspondente a parte do gene da capa protéica de cinco isolados de CPSMV, incluindo o CPSMV-MC, possui elevado grau de conservação, com 92-100% da seqüência de nucleotídeos idêntica entre os isolados. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cow (more) pea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max) in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC). The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP) gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.

Lima, José Albersio Araujo; Nascimento, Aline Kelly Queiroz do; Silva, Ana Kelly Firmino da; Aragão, Maria do Livramento

2012-03-01

208

Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação  

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Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.Estudou-se, na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) em Petrolina, PE, o efeito do plantio consorciado sobre o comportamento hídrico, trocas gasosas e produtividade do milho (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, e do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba, em condições semi-áridas. Os tratamentos foram: milho e caupi em cultivos isolados na população de 40.000 plantas ha-1, e consorciados na população de 20.000 plantas ha-1. No sistema de consórcio, o milho obteve valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, condutância estomática, transpiração e fotossíntese, em relação ao cultivo isolado. Com o caupi, observaram-se valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, porém menor condutância, transpiração e fotossíntese em relação ao cultivo isolado. Observou-se incremento de 18% na produtividade do milho, enquanto a do caupi foi reduzida em 5%, em relação aos respectivos sistemas de monocultivo. Entretanto, o índice de equivalência da terra obtido foi de 1,13, o que indica vantagens do consórcio sobre os sistemas isolados. O maior índice parcial de equivalência de terra foi obtido com o milho, sugerindo que esta espécie foi o principal componente a influenciar a produtividade final do sistema estudado.

JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO LIMA FILHO

2000-01-01

209

Mineralization of phosphorus from 32P-labelled cowpea residue added to soil in presence of growing maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An experiment was conducted to study mineralization of phosphorus from 32P labelled plant residue of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L.) in presence and absence of growing maize (Zea mays L.) plant both in P fertilized and unfertilized Fatehpur sand. The presence of growing maize plant led to a significant increase in net P mineralization from cowpea plant material in unfertilized and P fertilized soil from 10-day onwards. Phosphorus uptake was higher from the incorporated plant residue at each harvest on P fertilized soil than on non P fertilized soil. Net mineralization of P from added plant material after 40 days was 14.2 per cent in the P fertilized soil in presence of maize plant and 0.60 per cent in non P fertilized soil in absence of maize plant. In the absence of growing plant, immobilization of P added through plant residue commenced after initial 20 days of mineralization process. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

1992-01-01

210

Simulation of growth and development of irrigated cowpea in Piauí State by CROPGRO model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adapt the CROPGRO model, which is part of the DSSAT system, for simulating the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) growth and development under soil and climate conditions of the Baixo Parnaíba region, Piauí State, Brazil. In the CROPGRO, only input parameters that define crop species, cultivars, and ecotype were changed in order to characterize the cowpea crop. Soil and climate files were created for the considered site. Field experiments without water deficit were used to calibrate the model. In these experiments, dry matter (DM), leaf area index (LAI), yield components and grain yield of cowpea (cv. BR 14 Mulato) were evaluated. The results showed good fit for DM and LAI estimates. The medium values of R² and medium absolute error (MAE) were, respectively, 0.95 and 264.9 kg ha-1 for DM, and 0.97 and 0.22 for LAI. The difference between observed and simulated values of plant phenology varied from 0 to 3 days. The model also presented good performance for yield components simulation, excluding 100-grain weight, for which the error ranged from 20.9% to 34.3%. Considering the medium values of crop yield in two years, the model presented an error from 5.6%.

Bastos Edson Alves; Folegatti Marcos Vinícius; Faria Rogério Teixeira de; Andrade Júnior Aderson Soares de; Cardoso Milton José

2002-01-01

211

Toxicity of metals to roots of cowpea in relation to their binding strength.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metal phytotoxicity is important in both environmental and agricultural systems. A solution culture study examined the toxicity of 26 metals to roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.); new data were collected for 15 metals and published data for 11 metals. Metal toxicity, calculated as causing a 50% reduction in root elongation rate, was determined based on either the measured concentration in the bulk solution (EC50(b)) or the calculated activity at the outer surface of the plasma membrane (EA50(0)°). The EC50(b) values ranged from 0.007?µM for Tl to 98,000?µM for K, with the order of rhizotoxicity to cowpea, from most to least toxic, being Tl?=?Ag?>?Cu?>?Hg?=?Ni?=?Ga?=?Ru?=?In?>?Sc?=?Cd?=?Gd?=?La?=?Co?=?Cs?=?Pb?>?Zn?=?Al?=?H?>?Mn?>?Ba?=?Sr?>?Li?>?Mg?>?Ca?=?Na?>?K. The EA50(0)° values suggest that the binding of metals to hard ligands is an important, general, nonspecific mechanism of toxicity, a hypothesis supported by the similar toxicity symptoms to roots of cowpea by many metals. However, additional mechanisms, such as strong binding to soft ligands, substantially increase rhizotoxicity of some metals, especially Tl, Ag, and Cs. Besides direct toxic effects, osmotic effects or reduced activity of Ca(2+) at the outer surface of the root plasma membrane (and resultant Ca deficiency) may decrease short-term root growth.

Kopittke PM; Blamey FP; McKenna BA; Wang P; Menzies NW

2011-08-01

212

Dispersal and parasitizing abilities of Eupelmus vuilleti (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) within a column of cowpea seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eupelmus vuilleti (Crawford) is an ectoparasitoid of the seed-eating beetle Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic), which is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, seeds in West Africa. Herein, we investigated the dispersal abilities of females within columns of seeds to assess the potential of E. vuilleti as a biological control agent of bruchids in cowpea granaries. The influence of host presence together with the 2 abiotic factors light and gravity on parasitoid movement and parasitization efficiency were analyzed. E. vuilleti females were able to travel through large seed masses and parasitize hosts located at the end of the seed column opposed to their introduction zone. Parasitoid movement was stimulated by light. E. vuilleti females exhibited a negative geotropism. Females introduced at the bottom of the seed column dispersed more and parasitized more hosts than females introduced at the top. Host presence had some influence on the dispersal of the parasitoids within the seed column at a host density of 10 infested seeds for 16,000-18,000 uninfested seeds. This depended on female introduction zone because gravity was the major factor influencing dispersal. The possible applications of these results for biological control of bruchids in cowpea granaries are discussed.

Cortesero AM; Monge JP; Huignard J

1997-10-01

213

Dispersal and parasitizing abilities of Eupelmus vuilleti (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) within a column of cowpea seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eupelmus vuilleti (Crawford) is an ectoparasitoid of the seed-eating beetle Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic), which is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, seeds in West Africa. Herein, we investigated the dispersal abilities of females within columns of seeds to assess the potential of E. vuilleti as a biological control agent of bruchids in cowpea granaries. The influence of host presence together with the 2 abiotic factors light and gravity on parasitoid movement and parasitization efficiency were analyzed. E. vuilleti females were able to travel through large seed masses and parasitize hosts located at the end of the seed column opposed to their introduction zone. Parasitoid movement was stimulated by light. E. vuilleti females exhibited a negative geotropism. Females introduced at the bottom of the seed column dispersed more and parasitized more hosts than females introduced at the top. Host presence had some influence on the dispersal of the parasitoids within the seed column at a host density of 10 infested seeds for 16,000-18,000 uninfested seeds. This depended on female introduction zone because gravity was the major factor influencing dispersal. The possible applications of these results for biological control of bruchids in cowpea granaries are discussed. PMID:11758570

Cortesero, A M; Monge, J P; Huignard, J

1997-10-01

214

Mortality of life stages of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) exposed to low pressure at different temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that low pressure creates a low oxygen controlled atmosphere that can kill stored-product insects. The current study was conducted to determine the mortality of life stages of the cowpea weevil, Callosbruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), exposed to different low pressures and temperatures for various exposure periods. The adults were the most susceptible life stage to low pressure; 99% mortality was achieved within 0.8 h at 32.5 mmHg, 30 degrees C. The pupae were the most tolerant life stage to low pressure, requiring exposure periods between 28.98 and 153.20 h at temperatures of 20-35 degrees C to achieve 99% mortality. Mortality increased with exposure time and also with increasing temperature in all life stages. Early stage eggs (3 h old) and late stage eggs (48 h old) experienced higher mortality (values for LT99 of 42.331 and 46.652 h, respectively) compared with intermediate aged eggs (24 h old; LT99 of 74.735 h) under the same conditions of low pressure and temperature. Dried beans, including cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Walp.), are currently protected with fumigants. Application of low pressure as a pest management tool represents a potential nonchemical alternative to fumigants such as methyl bromide and phosphine for controlling the cowpea weevil and related bruchids. PMID:16022340

Mbata, George N; Johnson, Mario; Phillips, Thomas W; Payton, Mark

2005-06-01

215

Mortality of life stages of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) exposed to low pressure at different temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have shown that low pressure creates a low oxygen controlled atmosphere that can kill stored-product insects. The current study was conducted to determine the mortality of life stages of the cowpea weevil, Callosbruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), exposed to different low pressures and temperatures for various exposure periods. The adults were the most susceptible life stage to low pressure; 99% mortality was achieved within 0.8 h at 32.5 mmHg, 30 degrees C. The pupae were the most tolerant life stage to low pressure, requiring exposure periods between 28.98 and 153.20 h at temperatures of 20-35 degrees C to achieve 99% mortality. Mortality increased with exposure time and also with increasing temperature in all life stages. Early stage eggs (3 h old) and late stage eggs (48 h old) experienced higher mortality (values for LT99 of 42.331 and 46.652 h, respectively) compared with intermediate aged eggs (24 h old; LT99 of 74.735 h) under the same conditions of low pressure and temperature. Dried beans, including cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Walp.), are currently protected with fumigants. Application of low pressure as a pest management tool represents a potential nonchemical alternative to fumigants such as methyl bromide and phosphine for controlling the cowpea weevil and related bruchids.

Mbata GN; Johnson M; Phillips TW; Payton M

2005-06-01

216

Identification and survival of the causal organism of leaf smut disease of cowpea in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protomycopsis phaseoli (Ramak and Subram) is the causal agent of the cowpea leaf smut disease in Nigeria and not Entyloma vignae as claimed by some authors. This pathogen formed dark ash-grey to sooty-black lesions of 3-10 mm in diameter, while young lesions had yellow haloes. P. phaseoli produced dark reddish-brown chlamydospores that are globose to oval measured 23.8 microm, thick-walled and rugose. The chlamydospores germinated and produced globose vesicles. The pathogen grew on potato dextrose agar only when the leaf tissue was dipped in acidified water (1% H2SO4). The organism was slowly growing at 24-28 degrees C with snow white colour. Chlamydospores of P. phaseoli in infected cowpea leaves survived longer when buried in the soil for five months than when they were left on the soil surface for the same period at temperatures (26-27 degrees C) and humidity (70-82%) prevailing in Ibadan. Destruction of leaf debris before crop emergence, long period of rotation and no tillage cropping are suggested to prevent the onset and spread of leaf smut disease of cowpea.

Adejumo TO; Ikotun T; Florini DA

2001-01-01

217

Identification and survival of the causal organism of leaf smut disease of cowpea in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protomycopsis phaseoli (Ramak and Subram) is the causal agent of the cowpea leaf smut disease in Nigeria and not Entyloma vignae as claimed by some authors. This pathogen formed dark ash-grey to sooty-black lesions of 3-10 mm in diameter, while young lesions had yellow haloes. P. phaseoli produced dark reddish-brown chlamydospores that are globose to oval measured 23.8 microm, thick-walled and rugose. The chlamydospores germinated and produced globose vesicles. The pathogen grew on potato dextrose agar only when the leaf tissue was dipped in acidified water (1% H2SO4). The organism was slowly growing at 24-28 degrees C with snow white colour. Chlamydospores of P. phaseoli in infected cowpea leaves survived longer when buried in the soil for five months than when they were left on the soil surface for the same period at temperatures (26-27 degrees C) and humidity (70-82%) prevailing in Ibadan. Destruction of leaf debris before crop emergence, long period of rotation and no tillage cropping are suggested to prevent the onset and spread of leaf smut disease of cowpea. PMID:11407494

Adejumo, T O; Ikotun, T; Florini, D A

2001-01-01

218

Effect of Sowing Date on the Incidence, Apparent Infection Rate and Severity of Scab on Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sowing dates on the incidences, apparentinfection rates and severities of cowpea scab, caused by Sphaceloma sp. on three varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguilata L. Walp). The varieties were: TVx 3236, SAMPEA-6 and IT93K452-1. The investigationswere undertaken during the 2004, 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons at Samaru and Shika in Zaria, Nigeria. Foursowings were done at 7-day interval starting from late July and ending in mid August of each year. Scab diseaseincidence and severity ratings were taken every seven days starting from the first visible symptoms of infectionon the plant parts. The design used was a factorial concept in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)with three replications consisting of single row plots, each 75 cm wide, 6 m long, and 75 cm apart. For all the3 seasons, the early sown cowpeas had higher scab incidences, apparent infection rates and severities than thelate sown crops, even though not significantly higher in all cases or parameters. No scab symptoms wereobserved on the leaves of the more resistant cultivar, TVx 3236, in all 3 years of the investigation. Undernorthern Nigerian conditions, early cow pea plantings would result in higher infections from scab, unless moreresistant cultivars are used in such early plantings.

Dr. Chrys N. Akem

2010-01-01

219

Identification of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Pterodon pubescens with ability to inhibit cowpea weevil digestive enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea seeds (Vigna ungiculata) are widely cultivated by poor farmers in Latin America and Africa and are often severely damaged by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. A proteinaceous inhibitor of cowpea weevil digestive enzymes, PpAI, was purified from white sucupira seeds (Pterodon pubescens) and biochemically characterized in this study. Proteins were extracted from seeds and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 100% saturation. This fraction was applied onto a Red-sepharose CL-6B column, and the retained peak showed 70% inhibitory activity toward larval C. maculatus digestive alpha-amylases. The retained peak was then purified using an analytical reversed-phase HPLC column. Purified PpAI showed 65% inhibitory activity against larval C. maculatus enzymes. Enzymatic assays also showed that the purified P. pubescens inhibitor was unable to reduce the activity of mammalian alpha-amylases, suggesting specificity toward insect enzymes. Moreover, artificial seeds containing PpAI were able to reduce larval weight by 36% and cause 55% mortality. Mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analyses indicated that PpAI showed a molecular mass of approximately 5.0 kDa. This alpha-amylase inhibitor, coming from a native Cerrado plant, could be used to construct a genetically engineered cowpea with enhanced resistance against weevil pests. PMID:17488029

Silva, Diogo P; Casado-Filho, Erivaldo L; Corrêa, Andréa S R; Farias, Luciana R; Bloch, Carlos; de Sa, Maria F Grossi; Mendes, Paulo A M; Quirino, Betania F; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octavio L

2007-05-08

220

Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials.

Baloyi JJ; Ngongoni NT; Topps JH; Acamovic T; Hamudikuwanda H

2001-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F) Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus) infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditi...

A. Olonisakin; M.O. Oladimeji; L. Lajide

222

Occurrence of a Lysogenic Streptomyces sp. on the Nodule Surface of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lysogenic Streptomyces sp., strain NS.A4, which was isolated from the nodule surface of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), was found to inhibit rhizobia of fast-and slow-growing strains of cowpeas and soybeans. It exhibited plaques when there was a change in cultural conditions. Repeated culturing of the organism in nutrient agar and broth confirmed the infection of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 by an actinophage. Addition of the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 to shaken broth cultures of three other Streptomyces spp. resulted in phage infection.

Rangarajan M; Ravindran AD; Hariharan K

1984-07-01

223

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

2006-01-01

224

Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques to trace the amount of deposition and its transfer to associated and subsequent crops. Half of the total cowpea crop N was located below-ground at plant maturity, which exceeded 20 kg?N ha?1 when intercropped with millet. Only 15% of the below-ground cowpea N was recovered in roots, while 85% was found in the rhizodeposited pools. The experiment demonstrated that direct below-ground N transfer occurred from cowpea to millet in intercrop at a rate of 2 kg?N ha?1 over the growing season. Forty percent of the 25 kg below-ground N that the cowpea crop left at harvest were identifiable in the top 0.30 m soil in the beginning of the next planting season 7 months later; a pool still present at the end of that second season. Thus, the subsequent crop of millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) only recovered 2.5 kg?N ha?1 from the below-ground cowpea pre-crop N during this growth season. The role and potential of cowpea as N provider has been underestimated in the past by ignoring the large proportion of N contained in its rhizodeposits. However, information is needed to determine how losses of the rhizodeposited N can be minimized to fully harness the potential of cowpea as N provider in agro-ecosystems of the region.

Laberge, Guillaume; Haussmann, Bettina I.G.

2011-01-01

225

Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

226

The Sucrose Starvation Signal Mediates Induction of Autophagy- and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Cowpea Seedling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In higher plants, autophagy is bulk degradation process in vacuole necessary for survival under nutrient-limited conditions and plays important roles in senescence, development and pathogenic response, etc. Cowpea is one of the most important legume crops in semi-aride region, which is highly tolerant to drought stress. Changes of photoassimilate status by drought stress and/or sink-source balance appeared to affect autophagy and senescence of leaf in cowpea. Accordingly, we focused on roles of sucrose signal in autophagy and amino acid recycling in cowpea. Effects of starvation stress on the expression of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) and amino acid catabolism-related genes in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] were examined by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and anti-ATG8i specific antibody. Sucrose starvation stress enhanced the expression levels of VuATG8i, VuATG8c and VuATG4 incowpea seedlings. The expressions of amino acid catabolism related genes, such as asparagine synthase (VuASN1), proline dehydrogenase1 (VuProDH) and branched chain amino acid transaminase (VuBCAT2), are also up-regulated under the sucrose starvation. In contrast, high sucrose condition suppressed autophagy and the expressions of ATGs. These results indicate that sucrose starvation stress stimulates both autophagy and amino acid catabolism by regulation of ATGs and VuBCAT2. It is conceivable that sucrose starvation stress enhances autophagy in cowpea, possibly via branched chain amino acid level regulated by the starvation-induced BCAT.

Ayami Kaneko; Eri Noguchi; Yushi Ishibashi; Takashi Yuasa; Mari Iwaya-Inoue

2013-01-01

227

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

Antônio Chagas Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales Fernandes; Maurício Pereira Sales; Victor Martin Quintana Flores; José Xavier-Filho

2002-01-01

228

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimen (more) to e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) s (more) eeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota, Antônio Chagas; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales, Maurício Pereira; Flores, Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho, José

2002-03-01

229

Phosphorus Response Efficiency in Cowpea Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorus is important for cowpea production and is inherently low in many tropical soils. Selection of cowpea genotypes that produce good yield under low soil P or those with high P response efficiency can be a low input approach in solving this problem. Therefore, the effect of root architecture and P application on the yield of cowpea and its P uptake were investigated. A screen house experiment was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred cowpea genotypes obtained from the germplasm collection Unit of IITA were screened for number of root whorls and total number of roots using a completely randomized design with 12 replicates. Ten cowpea genotypes were further selected from the initial screening to determine the effect of three levels of P (0, 20 and 40 mg P kg-1 soil) application on their growth and nutrient uptake. The experiment was replicated three times. Phosphorus application significantly (p

Oladiran Olaleye; Fagbola Olajire; Abaidoo Robert C.; Ikeorah Nnenna

2012-01-01

230

Isolation and partial purification of b-galactosidases from cotyledons of two cowpea cultivars  

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Full Text Available Three isoforms of beta-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from the cotyledons of quiescent seeds of Vita 3 and Vita 5 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivars differing in water and salt stress tolerance. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion exchange chromatography through DEAE-sephadex and affinity chromatography through Lactosyl-sepharose columns. The three isoforms isolated from the two cultivars showed the same chromatographic patterns, same optimum of temperature for enzyme activity assay (60ºC), identical thermal stability up to 50°C, and similar pH optima (3-4). However, they differed from each other in sensitivity towards metal ions and certain chemical agents presents in the assay medium. The results have shown that the observed differences in beta-galactosidases from the cotyledons of quiescent seeds were not sufficient to relate them to stress tolerance.

ENÉAS-FILHO JOAQUIM; BARBOSA GISLAINY KARLA DA COSTA; SUDÉRIO FABRÍCIO BONFIM; PRISCO JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO; GOMES-FILHO ENÉAS

2001-01-01

231

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV.

José Albersio Araujo Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo Ferreira; Elizita Maria Teófilo

2011-01-01

232

Separating multiple, short-term, deleterious effects of saline solutions on the growth of cowpea seedlings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

• Reductions in plant growth as a result of salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. • Short-term (48-h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) or potassium (K). • Growth was poorly related to the ion activities in the bulk solution, but was closely related to the calculated activities at the outer surface of the plasma membrane, {I(z)}?°. The addition of Mg, Na or K may induce Ca deficiency in roots by driving {Ca²+}?° to < 1.6 mM. Shoots were more sensitive than roots to osmolarity. Specific ion toxicities reduced root elongation in the order Ca²+ > Mg²+ > Na+ > K+. The addition of K and, to a lesser extent, Ca alleviated the toxic effects of Na. Thus, Ca is essential but may also be intoxicating or ameliorative. • The data demonstrate that the short-term growth of cowpea seedlings in saline solutions may be limited by Ca deficiency, osmotic effects and specific ion toxicities, and K and Ca alleviate Na toxicity. A multiple regression model related root growth to osmolarity and {I(z)}?° (R²=0.924), allowing the quantification of their effects.

Kopittke PM; Blamey FP; Kinraide TB; Wang P; Reichman SM; Menzies NW

2011-03-01

233

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

1992-01-01

234

Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S) and resistant (R), on the biology of (C. maculatus) was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS) and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S) only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de; Oliveira José Vargas de; Barros Reginaldo; Torres Jorge Braz

2004-01-01

235

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management.

Appleby JH; Credland PF

2003-04-01

236

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management. PMID:14994820

Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

2003-04-01

237

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae) para la Argentina/ Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae) from Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae) y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae) para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por (more) su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto. Abstract in english During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae) and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae) for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1) Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná basin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2) (more) Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3) Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina) with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

Hoc, Patricia S.; Palacios, Ramón A.; Mom, María P.

2006-12-01

238

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae) para la Argentina Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae) from Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae) y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae) para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto.During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae) and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae) for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1) Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná basin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2) Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3) Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina) with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

Patricia S. Hoc; Ramón A. Palacios; María P. Mom

2006-01-01

239

Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora). Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto.The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora). Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

Jefté Ferreira da Silva; Ervino Bleicher

2010-01-01

240

Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto/ Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora). Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, (more) Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora). Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Piti (more) úba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

Silva, Jefté Ferreira da; Bleicher, Ervino

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Plant growth promoting potential of Pontibacter niistensis in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past couple of decades, understanding of rhizosphere biology has progressed with the discovery of a special group of microorganisms known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and its application for sustainable agriculture has increased tremendously in various parts of the world. The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. In this study we demonstrated, a novel bacterial species Pontibacter niistensis NII-0905 isolated from forest soil in Western ghat forest soil with potential plant growth promoting ability (PGP) such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production. The activity varies with different growth temperatures, strain solubilize 28.5±0.9, 48.02±1.9 and 65.07±2.1?gmL?1 at 4, 15 and 30°C respectively and produced 24.8?gmL?1day?1 of indole acetic acid (IAA) in tryptophan amended media. Qualitative detection of siderophore production and HCN were also detected at all temperature tested. At a lower temperature (4°C) strain NII-0905 retained all the plant growth promotion attributes. A significant increase in the growth of cow pea was recorded with inoculations of strain NII-0905 in pot experiments. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed the root colonization on cow pea seedlings against the untreated one. These results demonstrate that, the isolate NII-0905 has the promising PGPR attributes for both in cold as well as in humid condition. It has potential as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote the plant growth.

Dastager SG; Deepa CK; Pandey A

2011-09-01

242

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

Silva Luciana B.; Sales Maurício P.; Oliveira Antônia E. A.; Machado Olga L. T.; Fernandes Kátia V. S.; Xavier-Filho José

2004-01-01

243

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants. PMID:15048195

Silva, Luciana B; Sales, Maurício P; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Machado, Olga L T; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, José

2004-03-04

244

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

Silva LB; Sales MP; Oliveira AE; Machado OL; Fernandes KV; Xavier-Filho J

2004-03-01

245

Controle genético do comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi/ Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético do caráter comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Para isso, foi realizado um cruzamento entre os parentais TVx-5058-09C, de pedúnculo curto, e TE96-282-22G, de pedúnculo longo. Os parentais e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1) e RC2 (P2xF1) foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram estimados: variâncias fenotípica, genotípica, ambiental, aditi (more) va e de dominância; herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito; grau médio de dominância e número mínimo de genes que determinam o caráter. O modelo aditivo-dominante foi adequado para explicar a variação observada. O efeito gênico aditivo foi o mais importante no controle do comprimento do pedúnculo, que é, aparentemente, controlado por cinco genes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). A short peduncle cowpea line (TVx-5058-09C) was crossed with a long peduncle line (TE 96-282-22G). The parents and the F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1), and RC2 (P2xF1) generations were evaluated in randomized block design with four replications. Genotypic, phenotypic, environmental, additive, and dominance variances for peduncle length were determined. Narrow and bro (more) ad sense heritability, the degree of dominance, and the minimum number of genes determining peduncle length were estimated. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the observed variation. The additive gene effect was the most important in controlling peduncle length, which appeared to be controlled by five genes.

Rocha, Maurisrael de Moura; Carvalho, Kênnya Jhouanny Martins de; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Lopes, Ângela Celis de Almeida; Gomes, Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Sousa, Iradenia da Silva

2009-03-01

246

Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose em caupi Diagrammatic scale for assessment of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora cannescens e Pseudocercospora cruenta, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Brasil. Devido à inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi desenvolvida uma escala diagramática com níveis de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 e 82% de área foliar lesionada. A escala diagramática foi validada por 10 avaliadores, usando 50 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade, mensurados previamente com o programa Assess®. A acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples entre a severidade real e a estimada, com e sem o auxílio da escala. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão das estimativas, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram elevada repetibilidade (94%) e reprodutibilidade (90% em 82,3% dos casos) das estimativas com a utilização da escala. Portanto, a escala diagramática proposta é adequada para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose do caupi.Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora canescens and Pseudocercospora cruenta is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Brazil. Due to the inexistence of standard methods for the assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic scale was developed with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 82% of diseased leaf area. The diagrammatic scale was validated by 10 raters using 50 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software Assess®. The accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimative of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual and estimated severity, with and without the use of the scale. With the scale raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrating around 10%. Raters showed high repeatability (94%) and reproducibility ( 90% in 82.3% of the cases) of the estimates by using the scale. The proposed diagrammatic key is suitable for the evaluation of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea.

Igor Corrêa Lima Albert; Marissônia de Araújo Noronha; Ricardo Brainer Martins; Sami Jorge Michereff

2008-01-01

247

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba/ Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra ant (more) i-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados. Abstract in english Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (C (more) ABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Freitas, Aurivan Soares de; Cezar, Márcia Aparecida; Ambrósio, Márcia Michelle de Queiróz; Silva, Ana Kelly Firmino da; Aragão, Maria do Livramento; Lima, José Albérsio de Araújo

2012-08-01

248

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de Freitas; Márcia Aparecida Cezar; Márcia Michelle de Queiróz Ambrósio; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão; José Albérsio de Araújo Lima

2012-01-01

249

Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil/ Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias), genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a (more) antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p Abstract in english In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphological traits (mucous production and colony morphology), genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S) and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates cap (more) tured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p

Zilli, Jerri Édson; Valisheski, Romano Roberto; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Neves, Maria Cristina Prata; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa

2004-12-01

250

Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariaceae) sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariacecae) on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleptera Bruchidae). This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) (Scrophulariaceae) in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L.) Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain) exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w ) of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51%) and larvicidal (72%) effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

Kiendrebeogo M.; Ouedraogo AP.; Nacoulma OG.

2006-01-01

251

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

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Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer), a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris). Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Aloísio Sartorato; Kátia L. Nechet; Bernardo A. Halfeld-Vieira

2006-01-01

252

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima/ Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre (more) as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer), a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris). Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to (more) evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Sartorato, Aloísio; Nechet, Kátia L.; Halfeld-Vieira, Bernardo A.

2006-06-01

253

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS) of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

Abba M. Wakili

2013-01-01

254

Crop growth and development effects on surface albedo for maize and cowpea fields in Ghana, West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The albedo (alpha) of vegetated land surfaces is a key regulatory factor in atmospheric circulation and plays an important role in mechanistic accounting of many ecological processes. This paper examines the influence of the phenological stages of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields on observed albedo at a tropical site in Ghana. The crops were studied for the first and second planting dates in the year 2002. Crop management was similar for both seasons and measurements were taken from 10 mx10-m plots within crop fields. Four phenological stages were distinguished: (1) emergence, (2) vegetative, (3) flowering, and (4) maturity. alpha measured from two reference surfaces, short grass and bare soil, were used to study the change over the growing seasons. Surface alpha was measured and simulated at sun angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees . Leaf area index (LAI) and crop height (CH) were also monitored. Generally, alpha increases from emergence to maturity for both planting dates in the maize field but slightly decreases after flowering in the cowpea field. For maize, the correlation coefficient ( R) between alpha and LAI equals 0.970, and the R between alpha and CH equals 0.969. Similarly, for cowpea these Rs are 0.988 and 0.943, respectively. A modified albedo model adequately predicted the observed alphas with an overall R>0.860. The relative difference in surface alpha with respect to the alpha values measured from the two reference surfaces is discussed. Data presented are expected to be a valuable input in agricultural water management, crop production models, eco-hydrological models and in the study of climate effects of agricultural production, and for the parameterization of land-surface schemes in regional weather and climate models. PMID:15278686

Oguntunde, Philip G; van de Giesen, Nick

2004-07-20

255

Crop growth and development effects on surface albedo for maize and cowpea fields in Ghana, West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The albedo (alpha) of vegetated land surfaces is a key regulatory factor in atmospheric circulation and plays an important role in mechanistic accounting of many ecological processes. This paper examines the influence of the phenological stages of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields on observed albedo at a tropical site in Ghana. The crops were studied for the first and second planting dates in the year 2002. Crop management was similar for both seasons and measurements were taken from 10 mx10-m plots within crop fields. Four phenological stages were distinguished: (1) emergence, (2) vegetative, (3) flowering, and (4) maturity. alpha measured from two reference surfaces, short grass and bare soil, were used to study the change over the growing seasons. Surface alpha was measured and simulated at sun angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees . Leaf area index (LAI) and crop height (CH) were also monitored. Generally, alpha increases from emergence to maturity for both planting dates in the maize field but slightly decreases after flowering in the cowpea field. For maize, the correlation coefficient ( R) between alpha and LAI equals 0.970, and the R between alpha and CH equals 0.969. Similarly, for cowpea these Rs are 0.988 and 0.943, respectively. A modified albedo model adequately predicted the observed alphas with an overall R>0.860. The relative difference in surface alpha with respect to the alpha values measured from the two reference surfaces is discussed. Data presented are expected to be a valuable input in agricultural water management, crop production models, eco-hydrological models and in the study of climate effects of agricultural production, and for the parameterization of land-surface schemes in regional weather and climate models.

Oguntunde PG; van de Giesen N

2004-11-01

256

Physiological response of cowpea seeds to salinity stress Resposta fisiológica de sementes de feijão caupi ao estresse salino  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds submitted to salt stress. Seeds of cultivars 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' and 'Pitiúba' of cowpea, were submitted to germination test in germinator at 25(0)C, in "germitest" papers imbibed in distilled water or in 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200mol m-3 NaCl solutions. At the first and second counting of the germination test, normal seedlings were accounted, weighted and dried, obtaining data for vigor, total germination, fresh matter weight and dry matter weight. The seedlings hypocotyls, root and total length were measured total proteins content in cotyledons were obtained from germinating seeds. The presence of salt at concentrations higher than 50mol m-3 NaCl affect the germination, seedlings growth and cotyledons total protein synthesis of all cowpea cultivars. The seeds of cultivar pitiúba were is more tolerant to salinity, than the cultivars Canapu and Epace-10.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de três cultivares de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) ao estresse salino. As sementes das cultivares 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' e 'Pitiúba' foram submetidas ao teste de germinação em germinador a 25(0)C, em papel "germitest" embebido em água destilada ou em soluções de NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 10, 50, 100 e 200mol m-3. Na primeira e segunda contagem do teste de germinação, as plântulas normais foram contadas, pesadas e secadas, obtendo-se dados de vigor, germinação, massa de matéria fresca e massa de matéria seca. O comprimento do hipocótilo, raiz e total foram medidos e o teor de proteínas totais nos cotilédones foi obtido em plântulas de 3, 5 e 8 dias. As concentrações de NaCl acima da 50mol m-3 afetam a germinação e o vigor das sementes, crescimento de plântulas, bem como a síntese de proteínas totais. As sementes da cultivar Pitiúba são mais tolerantes à salinidade do que as cultivares Canapu e Epace-10.

Bárbara França Dantas; Luciana de Sá Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto Aragão

2005-01-01

257

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes/ Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeir (more) a inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, al (more) l inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

Lima, José Albersio Araujo; Silva, Ana Kelly Firmino da; Aragão, Maria do Livramento; Ferreira, Nádia Rutielly de Araújo; Teófilo, Elizita Maria

2011-11-01

258

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L. Rose; V.M. Gomes; M. Da Cunha; K.V.S. Fernandes; J. Xavier-Filho

2003-01-01

259

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ule (more) x europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

Rose, T.L.; Gomes, V.M.; Da Cunha, M.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.

2003-08-01

260

Distribution and speciation of Mn in hydrated roots of cowpea at levels inhibiting root growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phytotoxicity of Mn is important globally due to its increased solubility in acid or waterlogged soils. Short-term (?24 h) solution culture studies with 150 µM Mn were conducted to investigate the in situ distribution and speciation of Mn in apical tissues of hydrated roots of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Red Caloona] using synchrotron-based techniques. Accumulation of Mn was rapid; exposure to 150 µM Mn for only 5 min resulting in substantial Mn accumulation in the root cap and associated mucigel. The highest tissue concentrations of Mn were in the root cap, with linear combination fitting of the data suggesting that??80% of this Mn(II) was associated with citrate. Interestingly, although the primary site of Mn toxicity is typically the shoots, concentrations of Mn in the stele of the root were not noticeably higher than in the surrounding cortical tissues in the short-term (?24 h). The data provided here from the in situ analyses of hydrated roots exposed to excess Mn are, to our knowledge, the first of this type to be reported for Mn and provide important information regarding plant responses to high Mn in the rooting environment.

Kopittke PM; Lombi E; McKenna BA; Wang P; Donner E; Webb RI; Blamey FP; de Jonge MD; Paterson D; Howard DL; Menzies NW

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Quantitative resistance to Cercospora leaf spot disease caused by Pseudocercospora cruenta in cowpea  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six populations (Parent 1, Parent 2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) generated from each of four crosses involving four resistant and two susceptible varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were evaluated for resistance to Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) disease caused by Pseudocercospora cruenta under induced epiphytotic conditions, in four separate field experiments. Climatic conditions determined the onset of CLS disease in the susceptible cultivar and varied in the four experiments from 35 to 48 days after planting (DAP). Genetic analysis revealed that the mode of inheritance of resistance to P. cruenta can be oligogenic or polygenic depending upon the cross. This is the first report of polygenic inheritance of CLS resistance. Number of nodes infected fitted a simple additive dominance model with predominance of additive effects based on generation mean analysis. Oligogenic resistance was observed for the other three crosses, with the most plausible models being: a single gene model with incomplete dominance in CB27 x IT87D-939-1; a single gene model with complete dominance in CB27 x VRB-10; and a triger model in Los Banos Bush Sitao x IT86D-792, based on segregation analysis of symptomatic : non-symptomatic plants. The role of minor genes was also indicated in the above crosses. Suggested approaches to breeding for resistance to CLS are discussed.

Booker HelenM; Umaharan Pathmanathan

2008-07-01

262

In situ speciation and distribution of toxic selenium in hydrated roots of cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The speciation and spatial distribution of selenium (Se) in hydrated plant tissues is not well understood. Using synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (two-dimensional scanning [and associated mathematical model] and computed tomography), the speciation and distribution of toxic Se were examined within hydrated roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) exposed to either 20 µm selenite or selenate. Based upon bulk solution concentrations, selenate was 9-fold more toxic to the roots than selenite, most likely due to increased accumulation of organoselenium (e.g. selenomethionine) in selenate-treated roots. Specifically, uptake of selenate (probably by sulfate transporters) occurred at a much higher rate than for selenite (apparently by both passive diffusion and phosphate transporters), with bulk root tissue Se concentrations approximately 18-fold higher in the selenate treatment. Although the proportion of Se converted to organic forms was higher for selenite (100%) than for selenate (26%), the absolute concentration of organoselenium was actually approximately 5-fold higher for selenate-treated roots. In addition, the longitudinal and radial distribution of Se in roots differed markedly: the highest tissue concentrations were in the endodermis and cortex approximately 4 mm or more behind the apex when exposed to selenate but in the meristem (approximately 1 mm from the apex) when exposed to selenite. The examination of the distribution and speciation of Se in hydrated roots provides valuable data in understanding Se uptake, transport, and toxicity. PMID:23835408

Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David J; Howard, Daryl L; Glover, Chris J; James, Simon; Kappen, Peter; Johannessen, Bernt; Kopittke, Peter M

2013-07-08

263

In situ speciation and distribution of toxic selenium in hydrated roots of cowpea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The speciation and spatial distribution of selenium (Se) in hydrated plant tissues is not well understood. Using synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (two-dimensional scanning [and associated mathematical model] and computed tomography), the speciation and distribution of toxic Se were examined within hydrated roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) exposed to either 20 µm selenite or selenate. Based upon bulk solution concentrations, selenate was 9-fold more toxic to the roots than selenite, most likely due to increased accumulation of organoselenium (e.g. selenomethionine) in selenate-treated roots. Specifically, uptake of selenate (probably by sulfate transporters) occurred at a much higher rate than for selenite (apparently by both passive diffusion and phosphate transporters), with bulk root tissue Se concentrations approximately 18-fold higher in the selenate treatment. Although the proportion of Se converted to organic forms was higher for selenite (100%) than for selenate (26%), the absolute concentration of organoselenium was actually approximately 5-fold higher for selenate-treated roots. In addition, the longitudinal and radial distribution of Se in roots differed markedly: the highest tissue concentrations were in the endodermis and cortex approximately 4 mm or more behind the apex when exposed to selenate but in the meristem (approximately 1 mm from the apex) when exposed to selenite. The examination of the distribution and speciation of Se in hydrated roots provides valuable data in understanding Se uptake, transport, and toxicity.

Wang P; Menzies NW; Lombi E; McKenna BA; de Jonge MD; Paterson DJ; Howard DL; Glover CJ; James S; Kappen P; Johannessen B; Kopittke PM

2013-09-01

264

Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

1980-01-01

265

Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A...

Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, J.J.A., van; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, A., van; Dicke, M.

266

Caracterização fenotípica de rizóbio nativos isolados de solos da Amazônia e eficiência simbiótica em feijão caupi/ Phenotypic characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from Amazonian soils and symbiotic efficiency in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A fixação biológica do nitrogênio é de fundamental importância na sustentabilidade agrícola, e a caracterização fenotípica rizobial contribui para o conhecimento da sua diversidade em coleções e para a utilização posterior em sistemas agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade fenotípica de rizóbio isolados de solos da Amazônia e suas eficiências simbióticas quando inoculados em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Os isolado (more) s nativos apresentaram diversidade quanto às características morfológicas e fisiológicas. Foi verificado que a inoculação com isolados de rizóbio nativos contribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento da biomassa, nodulação de caupi e em eficiência simbiótica. Abstract in english Biological nitrogen fixation is of fundamental importance for agricultural sustainability, and the evaluation of the rhizobial diversity contributes to the knowledge of their diversity in collections, as well as for later use in agricultural systems. The objective of this paper was to evaluate phenotype diversity and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia isolates from Amazonian soils when inoculated on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). The native isolates presented diversit (more) y regarding their morphologic and physiological characteristics. It was verified that the inoculation with isolates of native rhizobia contributed to the increase of the biomass, nodulation on cowpea and symbiotic efficiency.

Chagas Junior, Aloisio Freitas; Oliveira, Luiz Antonio de; Oliveira, Arlem Nascimento de

2010-03-01

267

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

2008-01-01

268

Effect of Temperature, Air Relative Humidity and Water Presence on Some Biological Parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal (Hemiptera:Coreidae), the Pod Sucking Bug of Cowpea  

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Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted on the influence of temperature, air relative humidity and water presence on some biological parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal, a major pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walpers, in West Africa. The feeding of the first-instar larvae was also studied. The aim was to provide some indicators on the insect adaptation to hot and dry conditions in Sahelian zone. Results show that increased temperature reduced embryo and larvae development length and female fertility and lifespan. Temperature fluctuations had little effect on egg viability to the extent of hatching limit around 38 ° C. A full larval development and adult reproductive activity were possible at a constant temperature of 40 ° C. Increased air relative humidity (80%) improved larval survival especially under high temperatures. The presence of water was necessary for first-instar larvae development. The insect showed good adaptation to Sahelian hot and dry environment, which enables it to go through the long dry season.

C. Dabir?; M.N. Ba; A. Sanon; K. Foua-Bi

2005-01-01

269

The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

A.O. Ogaraku

2007-01-01

270

Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil/ Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à cultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do (more) ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida. Abstract in english Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in Teresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After scr (more) eenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

Lima, Élison Fabrício Bezerra; Fontes, Lúcia da Silva; Pinent, Silvia Marisa Jesien; Reis, Adriana Saraiva dos; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Lopes, Angela Celis de Almeida

2013-03-01

271

Diversidade morfológica de rizóbios isolados de caupi cultivado em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte/ Morphological diversity of rhizobia from cowpea cultivated in Rio Grande do Norte State soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em função das características nutricionais e de rusticidade, o feijão-caupi tornou-se importante fonte de proteína na Região Nordeste do Brasil. O caupi se beneficia da fixação biológica de nitrogênio e pode receber parte do nitrogênio necessário para a cultura via simbiose, o que reduz os custos de produção. Um experimento em condições de casa-de-vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio de nódulos de caupi (more) em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Os nódulos foram coletados de raízes de Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., utilizada como planta-isca, sendo obtidos 304 isolados com características típicas de rizóbio. Embora todos os isolados tenham apresentado crescimento rápido e ácido em meio de cultivo, os isolados apresentaram elevada diversidade morfológica e foram agrupados em 18 grupos morfológicos. Não foi observada diferença de diversidade de isolados de rizóbio entre as diferentes amostras de solo analisadas. Abstract in english As a result of it nutritional and rustic characteristics, cowpea has become an important source protein in the Northeast region of Brazil. Cowpea may benefit from biological nitrogen fixation and can receive part of the nitrogen needed for culture from symbiosis, which reduces the cost of production. An experiment in greenhouse conditions was carried out in order to assess the diversity of rhizobia isolates of the nodules of cowpea, in soils from Rio Grande do Norte State (more) . The nodules were obtained from roots of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., a species used as trap plant; 304 isolates with typical rhizobial features were obtained. Although all isolates showed rapid and acid growth in the medium, the isolates showed high morphological diversity, forming 18 clusters. No diversity differences of rhizobial isolates were observed among the different soil samples studied.

Medeiros, Erika Valente de; Martins, Claudia Miranda; Lima, José Arcanjo Melo; Fernandes, Ykesaky Terson Dantas; Oliveira, Vianney Reinaldo de; Borges, Wardsson Lustrino

2009-09-01

272

Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author).

1983-01-01

273

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas/ Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testemunha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão- (more) caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chloroph (more) yll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de; Carneiro, Romero Francisco Vieira; Bezerra, Antônio Aécio Carvalho; Araújo, Fábio Fernando de

2010-02-01

274

Efecto del tipo de labranza sobre el suministro del agua y el crecimiento del frijol tuy en un suelo mollisol de Venezuela/ Effect of the type of farming on the provision of the water and the growth of kidney bean tuyin a ground mollisol of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp; variedad Tuy, es un cultivo de gran importancia en Venezuela. Se requiere la evaluación de alternativas de labranza que incrementen su producción, mejoren o mantengan las características favorables del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de la labranza mínima (LM) y la labranza convencional (LC) sobre la producción de materia seca (MS) del frijol; variedad Tuy, área foliar (ÁF), rendimiento , humedad del su (more) elo hasta 50 cm de profundidad durante el ciclo del cultivo (CC), densidad aparente (Da), macro y microporosidad e infiltración al momento de madurez, para ello se sembró en el período norte-verano sin aplicación de riego en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, con una densidad aproximada de 400.000 plantas.ha-1 en un diseño en bloques aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones. El análisis de la varianza y prueba de Medias (Tukey a=10%) se realizó mediante el programa del Sistema de Análisis Estadístico (siglas en inglés SAS). Al analizar los resultados no se observó diferencias relevantes en el patrón de acumulación, MS (hojas, tallos), MS total, ÁF y producción de grano entre LM y LC. El ÁF fue significativamente mayor en LC a los 67 días después de emergencia (DDE). En el suelo se notaron cambios en la humedad del horizonte 0-5 cm, en la porosidad total a los 30-40 y 40-50 cm, en Da a los 0-5 y 5-10 cm y en el contenido de humedad a capacidad de campo (HCC) del 0-5 y 10-20 cm. Se detectó una relación entre la lámina de agua faltante y la MS total en LM y LC Abstract in english The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, is an important crop in Venezuela, and is necessary to evaluate different tillage practices to increase its production, and to improve the soil properties. We evaluated the impact of the minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT) in the production of dry matter (DM), foliar area (FA), and crop production of cowpea, variety Tuy, sowed at 0.5 m between rows and 0.05 m between plants in a Mollisol soil of Aragua State, in a comp (more) letelly randomized block desing, with four repetitions, and the impact in the soil water content until 50 cm of depth during the crop cycle (CC), the soil bulk density, macro- and micro-porosity, total soil porosity and soil infi ltration. The analisis of variance and means test (Tukey a=10%) was done using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program. There was a not signifi cant difference in the pattern of DM production of leaves, stem, total DM, foliar area, and grain yield between MT and CT. The FA of the CT there was only signifi cat higher than in MT at 67 days after emergency. In the soil, there was signifi cant differences bewteen MT and CT in the soil water of the 0-5 cm soil layer, in the total soil porosity of the 30-40 and 40-50 cm soil layers, in the soil bulk density of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, and in the soil water content at soil capacity in the 0-5 and 10-20 cm soil layers. There was a signifi cant relationship between the water used or missing during the crop cycle and the total DM produced in MT and CT

Delgado, Rodolfo; Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelyn; Gamez, Florencio; Navarro, Lesce

2010-06-01

275

Molecular cloning of glutathione reductase cDNAs and analysis of GR gene expression in cowpea and common bean leaves during recovery from moderate drought stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cDNAs of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) encoding a dual-targeted isoform (dtGR) and a cytosolic isoform (cGR), were cloned from leaves of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Moderate drought stress (Psi w=-1.5MPa) followed by re-watering was applied to common bean cultivars, one tolerant to drought (IPA), the other susceptible (Carioca) and to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cultivars, one tolerant to drought (EPACE-1), and the other susceptible (1183). mRNA levels were much higher for PvcGR than for PvdtGR in all cases. Moderate drought stress induced an up-regulation of the expression of PvcGR in the susceptible cultivars. On the contrary, PvdtGR expression decreased. In the tolerant cowpea EPACE-1, GR gene expression remained stable under drought. During recovery from drought, an up-regulation of the two GR isoforms occurred, with a peak at 6-10h after re-hydration. This suggests that moderate drought stress may lead to a hardening process and acclimation tolerance. The role of GR isoforms in plant tolerance and capacity to recover from drought stress is discussed.

Torres-Franklin ML; Contour-Ansel D; Zuily-Fodil Y; Pham-Thi AT

2008-01-01

276

DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756) strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da; Costa Roberto Cezar Lobo da; Oliveira José Tadeu Abreu

2001-01-01

277

Envelhecimento acelerado para avaliar o vigor de sementes de feijão caupi Accelerated aging to assess seed vigor of cowpea  

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Full Text Available A avaliação do vigor de sementes tem sido fundamental dentro de programas de controle de qualidade. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado (EA) é uma das opções disponíveis, mas não há informações suficientes sobre sua eficiência para sementes de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar procedimentos para condução do teste de EA para avaliar o vigor de sementes dessa espécie. Utilizaram-se sementes das cultivares Setentão e Epace 10, cada uma representada por dois lotes, das safras 1998 e 2001 (Setentão), 2002 e 2003 (Epace-10). Durante o período experimental, as sementes foram mantidas em sacos plásticos e armazenadas em câmara fria e seca (10ºC e 50% UR). O envelhecimento acelerado foi conduzido a 40, 42 e 45ºC durante 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas; as sementes foram distribuídas em camada única sobre tela, em caixas plásticas com 40mL de água destilada, no interior de câmara BOD. O teor de água e a germinação das sementes foram determinados antes e após o EA. Os resultados revelaram que a menor taxa de deterioração (redução menos drástica da germinação) foi verificada quando as sementes de feijão caupi foram expostas aos períodos de 24 e 48 horas, nas três temperaturas. A combinação 42ºC/48 horas foi a mais adequada para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes dessa espécie.Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs, and accelerated aging is a possible option in this process. This study was conducted to investigate procedures to assess seed vigor by the accelerated aging test in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds. Samples from Setentão and Epace 10 cultivars, harvested in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2003 were used. During the experimental period seeds were stored in plastic bags and kept at 10ºC and 50% R.H. Accelerated aging was performed at 40, 42 and 45ºC during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours; seeds were kept in plastic boxes with 40mL of distilled water in a BOD chamber. Seeds were tested for germination and moisture content before and after aging. The best condition to evaluate physiological potential of cowpea seeds was the combination 42ºC/48 hours.

Alek Sandro Dutra; Elizita Maria Teófilo

2007-01-01

278

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho confirmamos a resistência do feijão comum ( Phaseolus vulgaris) ao bruquídeo Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), inseto que preda sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) (L.). A resistência desta semente não está relacionada com a espessura do tegumento nem com os níveis de diversos compostos como ácido taníco, fenóis e ácido cianídrico conforme demonstram nossos resultados. No entanto, faseolina, detectada no tegumento por ??Western blott (more) ing?? e seqüenciamento N-terminal, é tóxica a C. maculatus. Esses dados estão de acordo com estudos anteriores feitos com duas outras sementes de leguminosas (Canavalia ensiformis e Phaseolus lunatus) e nos levam a sugerir que a presença de proteínas do tipo vicilina no tegumento de sementes de leguminosas tiveram papel importante nos mecanismo de adaptação de bruquídeos a sementes de leguminosas. Abstract in english We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detec (more) ted in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

Silva, Luciana B.; Sales, Maurício P.; Oliveira, Antônia E. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Fernandes, Kátia V. S.; Xavier-Filho, José

2004-03-01

279

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.Neste trabalho confirmamos a resistência do feijão comum ( Phaseolus vulgaris) ao bruquídeo Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), inseto que preda sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) (L.). A resistência desta semente não está relacionada com a espessura do tegumento nem com os níveis de diversos compostos como ácido taníco, fenóis e ácido cianídrico conforme demonstram nossos resultados. No entanto, faseolina, detectada no tegumento por ‘‘Western blotting’’ e seqüenciamento N-terminal, é tóxica a C. maculatus. Esses dados estão de acordo com estudos anteriores feitos com duas outras sementes de leguminosas (Canavalia ensiformis e Phaseolus lunatus) e nos levam a sugerir que a presença de proteínas do tipo vicilina no tegumento de sementes de leguminosas tiveram papel importante nos mecanismo de adaptação de bruquídeos a sementes de leguminosas.

Luciana B. Silva; Maurício P. Sales; Antônia E. A. Oliveira; Olga L. T. Machado; Kátia V. S. Fernandes; José Xavier-Filho

2004-01-01

280

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP), West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn), clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Percy), Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn.) A. Rich), Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum) and African locust ...

F.A.Ajayi; H.U. Wintola

 
 
 
 
281

Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) Seeds  

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Full Text Available Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans) parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole), C. elegans (sole), a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and the control which received no parasitoids. The introduction of parasitoids was repeated at 3 d interval, and all treatments were replicated 3 times. Result indicated that early introduction of the parasitoids caused significantly (P ? 0.05) higher mortality of C.maculatus than late introduction. Mix culture of both parasitoids was significantly more efficacious than sole culture. The emergence of each parasitoid and the mortality of C. maculatus in sole culture showed a highly significant (P ? 0.01) positive relationship (r = 0.487) between C. maculatus and D. basalis but non-significant (P ? 0.05) though positive association (r = 0.289) with C. elegans. A multiple regression analysis between C. maculatus mortality and the emergence of the two parasitoids in mix culture also indicated a highly positive significant (P ? 0.01) relationship (R = 0.751, R2 = 0.564). Pearson Correlation analysis also showed a significant (P ? 0.05) positive association (r = 0.464, and 0.401) between C. maculatus mortality and emergence of C. elegans and D. basalis in mix culture, respectively. However, a non significant (P ? 0.05) negative relationship (r = -0.336) was observed between the two parasitoids in their emergence in mix culture, but D. basalis contributed more to the mortality of C. maculatus than C. elegans. Data from this study showed that D. basalis and C. elegans have potentials to be deployed as biological control entities in the management of C. maculatus as a part of the integrated pest management strategies of storage pests in the tropics.

Umoetok S. B. A.; Ukeh D. A.; Udo I. A.; Ekanem M.; Iloba B. N

2012-01-01

282

Estratégias de manejo de água em caupi irrigado Strategies of irrigation scheduling in cowpea  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1997, numa área irrigada da Fazenda Experimental do Vale do Curu, pertencente à Universidade Federal do Ceará, no município de Pentecoste, CE, localizada a 100 km de Fortaleza. O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a utilização do tensiômetro de mercúrio, do Tanque Classe A e da equação de Hargreaves, na determinação da lâmina de água a ser aplicada na irrigação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, enquanto os tratamentos foram representados pelos três diferentes métodos de estimação citados, de quando e quanto irrigar (Tratamento 1 - Tensiômetro; Tratamento 2 - Tanque Classe A e Tratamento 3 - equação de Hargreaves) e a cultura utilizada foi o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) para consumo em estado verde, cultivar João Paulo II, no espaçamento de 0,90 x 0,40 m, com duas plantas por cova, irrigada por aspersão convencional. A análise dos resultados constatou uma economia de água no tratamento 1, de 28 e 23%, em relação aos tratamentos 2 e 3, respectivamente, e também evidenciou a inexistência de diferenças significativas entre as produtividades alcançadas em todos os tratamentos. O tensiômetro pode ser indicado como instrumento de racionalização do uso da água em irrigação.A field study was conducted from September to December 1997 at the Federal University of Ceará Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, Brazil. The irrigation scheduling was based on a tensiometer, Class A pan evaporation and Hargreaves equation. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the three treatments (Treatment 1 - tensiometer, Treatment 2 - pan evaporation and Treatment 3 - Hargreaves equation) with four replications in a completely randomized design. Sprinkler irrigated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), cultivar João Paulo II for fresh consumption was grown on the experimental area. Plants were spaced at 0.90 x 0.40 m, maintaining two plants per hole. Crop yield showed no significant difference, although using the tensiometer to schedule irrigation, the water consumption was 28 and 30% lower compared to the Class A Pan Evaporation and Hargreaves equation, respectively. The tensiometer may be indicated as an instrument for saving water in irrigation scheduling.

Rubens Sonsol Gondim; José Vanglésio de Aguiar; Raimundo Nonato Távora Costa

2000-01-01

283

Toxic Effects of Three Industrial Effluents on Growth and Development of Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp (Cultivar it 84 E-124)  

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Full Text Available The toxic effects of Paint, Battery and Textile effluents respectively on Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Cultivar It 84 E-124) were evaluated in this study. Viable seeds were planted in 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted) effluents. Distilled water was used as control. The Physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Zinc being 35.6 mg L-1 in Paint effluent, copper and lead were 10.5 mg L-1 in Battery effluent were found to be above Federal Environmental Protection Agencys limit suggesting toxic impact on the seedling. Leaf size, stem length and root length were observed to be responsive to the concentration gradient of the effluents. Dry weight declined with a positive response from mean value of 1.18 g for 25% Textile to 0.11 g for 25% Key paint. The test plant indicated high concentration of heavy metals in its biomass, for instance, 75% flash battery with highest fresh weight of 1.75 g except for textile effluent with 1.45 g. Textile effluent was also found to favour chlorophyll formation leading to photosynthesis while the other effluents were found not to be in favour of chlorophyll production. The mean total chlorophyll for control is 56.43 mg g-1, Undiluted Textile being 51.45 mg g-1, while Key paint has 9.11 mg g-1. Howbeit, the severity of toxicity of the industrial effluents follow this trend; key paint higher than flash battery which is higher than textile at the different treatment concentrations of 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted). Suggesting that at very low concentration, Vigna unguiculata thrives better in textile effluents contaminated environment than battery and paint effluents. It is suggested that these parameters in cowpea may constitute methods of environmental monitoring.

E.O. Oladele; P.G.C. Odeigah; T. Yahaya

2011-01-01

284

Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba/ Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC), no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feij? (more) ?o-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA), o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba. Abstract in english This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration an (more) d duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI). The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

Campos, João H. B. da C.; Silva, Madson T.; Silva, Vicente de P. R. da

2010-04-01

285

Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose em caupi/ Diagrammatic scale for assessment of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora cannescens e Pseudocercospora cruenta, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Brasil. Devido à inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi desenvolvida uma escala diagramática com níveis de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 e 82% de área foliar lesionada. A escala diagramática foi validada por 10 avaliadores, usando 50 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade, mensurados (more) previamente com o programa Assess®. A acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples entre a severidade real e a estimada, com e sem o auxílio da escala. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão das estimativas, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram elevada repetibilidade (94%) e reprodutibilidade (90% em 82,3% dos casos) das estimativas com a utilização da escala. Portanto, a escala diagramática proposta é adequada para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose do caupi. Abstract in english Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora canescens and Pseudocercospora cruenta is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Brazil. Due to the inexistence of standard methods for the assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic scale was developed with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 82% of diseased leaf area. The diagrammatic scale was validated by 10 raters using 50 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software Assess®. Th (more) e accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimative of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual and estimated severity, with and without the use of the scale. With the scale raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrating around 10%. Raters showed high repeatability (94%) and reproducibility ( 90% in 82.3% of the cases) of the estimates by using the scale. The proposed diagrammatic key is suitable for the evaluation of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea.

Albert, Igor Corrêa Lima; Noronha, Marissônia de Araújo; Martins, Ricardo Brainer; Michereff, Sami Jorge

2008-10-01

286

Development and evaluation of drought resistant mutant germplasm of Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Subterranea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this project was to select cowpea and bambara groundnut plants with improved levels of drought resistance without alteration to the colour of the testa or the growth form. M2 to M5 generation plants were tested. The M2 to M4 plants were evaluated in the wooden boxes in the greenhouse and the field. Six cowpea mutant lines and seven bambara groundnut lines were included in a physiological screening experiment that was conducted in the greenhouse. One cowpea line exhibited high yield under watered conditions, and three under drought stress conditions. Three bambara groundnut mutants yielded more than the parent, and one showed relatively high yield under drought stress. It proved possible to examine mutant plants at the seedling stage in wooden boxes, mature plants were screened in rain-out shelter and physiological traits were distinguished among the tested lines for drought stress. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variation could be correlated with drought tolerance. Chlorophyll fluorescence was found to be a good predictor of plant performance in drought conditions. (author)

2006-01-01

287

Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes/ Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F (more) 2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado no estudo. As seis populações (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 e RC2) foram avaliadas num experimento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, em Teresina - PI; o plantio foi realizado em março de 1998. Os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram variâncias fenotípica, genética total, genética aditiva e dos desvios de dominância e devido aos efeitos do ambiente, herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito, grau médio de dominância e número dos genes que controlam o caráter. O modelo aditivo - dominante ajustou-se aos dados do peso de 100 sementes, visto que a média e o efeito gênico aditivo foram os parâmetros genéticos mais importantes na determinação desse caráter. O número dos genes que controlam sua expressão é cinco. A ocorrência de alto valor para a herdabilidade no sentido restrito indicou que a seleção para o tamanho da semente pode ser realizada em gerações segregantes iniciais. Abstract in english Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C (more) X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC) were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.

Lopes, Francisco Cláudio da Conceição; Gomes, Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues

2003-01-01

288

Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC) were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado no estudo. As seis populações (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 e RC2) foram avaliadas num experimento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, em Teresina - PI; o plantio foi realizado em março de 1998. Os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram variâncias fenotípica, genética total, genética aditiva e dos desvios de dominância e devido aos efeitos do ambiente, herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito, grau médio de dominância e número dos genes que controlam o caráter. O modelo aditivo - dominante ajustou-se aos dados do peso de 100 sementes, visto que a média e o efeito gênico aditivo foram os parâmetros genéticos mais importantes na determinação desse caráter. O número dos genes que controlam sua expressão é cinco. A ocorrência de alto valor para a herdabilidade no sentido restrito indicou que a seleção para o tamanho da semente pode ser realizada em gerações segregantes iniciais.

Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes; Regina Lúcia Ferreira Gomes; Francisco Rodrigues Freire Filho

2003-01-01

289

Impact of saline water stress on nutrient uptake and growth of cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Soil salinity is a major limitation to crops production in many areas of the world. The present study reports the impact of salt stress on seeds germination, plant growth parameters and leaf ions accumulation in three cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Indian cultivars: Akshay102, Gomti vu-89 and Pusa Falguni. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil was 0.75 dS m?1 and the NaCl treatments increased it to 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m?1. Germination percentage wa (more) s recorded 10 days after sowing, while shoot and root dry weights were measured in 45 days old plants. Leaf ion concentrations for Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl? and proline content were determined. The results showed that the germination percentage of seeds was highly affected by salinity in all cultivars in all salinity levels from 2 to 10 dS m?1. On the other hand, height and weight of all cultivars were less affected by the salt stress. Only at 10 dS m?1 EC, significant reduction in plant height and root length could be found for all three cultivars. Salinity induced a significant increase in Na+, Cl? and proline concentrations, while reduced the accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ in leaves of all the cultivars. Moreover, the tolerance difference between the cultivars was better observed at the lowest levels of salt stress, as reveled in the measurements of K+/Na+ ratio and proline content. In conclusion, this study characterizes Akshay102 as the most tolerant cultivar and establishes the measurements of germination capacity, K+/Na+ ratio and proline accumulation as an important features to be explored in programs for selection and/or development of tolerant cultivars which make possible the utilization of waste saline water as well as the cultivation of vast areas of the tropical world affected by salinity.

Patel, Prakash R.; Kajal, Sushil S.; Patel, Vinay R.; Patel, Vimal J.; Khristi, Sunil M.

2010-01-01

290

Impact of saline water stress on nutrient uptake and growth of cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major limitation to crops production in many areas of the world. The present study reports the impact of salt stress on seeds germination, plant growth parameters and leaf ions accumulation in three cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Indian cultivars: Akshay102, Gomti vu-89 and Pusa Falguni. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil was 0.75 dS m?1 and the NaCl treatments increased it to 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m?1. Germination percentage was recorded 10 days after sowing, while shoot and root dry weights were measured in 45 days old plants. Leaf ion concentrations for Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl? and proline content were determined. The results showed that the germination percentage of seeds was highly affected by salinity in all cultivars in all salinity levels from 2 to 10 dS m?1. On the other hand, height and weight of all cultivars were less affected by the salt stress. Only at 10 dS m?1 EC, significant reduction in plant height and root length could be found for all three cultivars. Salinity induced a significant increase in Na+, Cl? and proline concentrations, while reduced the accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ in leaves of all the cultivars. Moreover, the tolerance difference between the cultivars was better observed at the lowest levels of salt stress, as reveled in the measurements of K+/Na+ ratio and proline content. In conclusion, this study characterizes Akshay102 as the most tolerant cultivar and establishes the measurements of germination capacity, K+/Na+ ratio and proline accumulation as an important features to be explored in programs for selection and/or development of tolerant cultivars which make possible the utilization of waste saline water as well as the cultivation of vast areas of the tropical world affected by salinity.

Prakash R. Patel; Sushil S. Kajal; Vinay R. Patel; Vimal J. Patel; Sunil M. Khristi

2010-01-01

291

Functional characterization and expression of a cytosolic iron-superoxide dismutase from cowpea root nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

An iron-superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) with an unusual subcellular localization, VuFeSOD, has been purified from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules and leaves. The enzyme has two identical subunits of 27 kD that are not covalently bound. Comparison of its N-terminal sequence (NVAGINLL) with the cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed that VuFeSOD is synthesized as a precursor with seven additional amino acids. The mature protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was used to generate a polyclonal monospecific antibody. Phylogenetic and immunological data demonstrate that there are at least two types of FeSODs in plants. An enzyme homologous to VuFeSOD is present in soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodules but not in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules. The latter two species also contain FeSODs in the leaves and nodules, but the enzymes are presumably localized to the chloroplasts and plastids. In contrast, immunoblots of the soluble nodule fraction and immunoelectron microscopy of cryo-processed nodule sections demonstrate that VuFeSOD is localized to the cytosol. Immunoblot analysis showed that the content of VuFeSOD protein increases in senescent nodules with active leghemoglobin degradation, suggesting a direct or indirect (free radical-mediated) role of the released Fe in enzyme induction. Therefore, contrary to the widely held view, FeSODs in plants are not restricted to the chloroplasts and may become an important defensive mechanism against the oxidative stress associated with senescence. PMID:14512518

Moran, Jose F; James, Euan K; Rubio, Maria C; Sarath, Gautam; Klucas, Robert V; Becana, Manuel

2003-09-25

292

Interspecific hybridization of Vigna radiata x 13 wild Vigna species for developing MYMV donar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is having a desirable characters like short duration, high protein, less anti nutritionalfactors, nitrogen fixing capacity, suitable for inter cropping, making many kinds of foods for higher human consumption andcosmetics products and some of the undesirable characters like low yield, low test weight.The aim of the study is to checkcrossabil;ity of Vigna radiata with all wild Vigna species and to create variability through wide hybridization and to developsuperior segregants for yield component coupled with pest and disease resistance. The interspecific crosses were attemptedwith thirteen wild relatives of mungbean (V. radiata ) were employed with V. radiata as male parent. The highest pod set of25 and crossability of 21.92 per cent was recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata and lowest pod set of2.0 per cent recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. dalzelliana in the direct cross combinations. The highest pollengermination 69.72 per cent was recorded by V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata. The estimates of pollen fertility wassufficient enough to recover F2 segregants in all the crosses combination.For all the traits in majority of the crosses, In the F2generation the skewness was positive indicating that predominance of dominant alleles. Among the direct crosses V. radiatax V. mungo var. silvestris exhibited highest value for four characters viz., number of clusters per branch, number of clustersper plant, number of pods per plant and single plant yield. The cross V. umbellata x V. radiata showed better performancefor the characters viz., number of branches and number of clusters in reciprocal direction In advanced generation of Vignaradiata x Vigna umbellata cross combination has expressed virus resistance for nine seasons. The same line was tested byagro inoculation for confirmation of resistance and was resulted found effective resistance. This line can be used MYMVdonar. Conclusion of the studies are mungbean is highly compatible with other wild Vigna species. Donor development fordifferent stress is possible in mungbean.

M. Pandiyan , N.Senthil, N. Ramamoorthi, AR.Muthiah, N.Tomooka V.Duncan and T.Jayaraj

2010-01-01

293

Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

Murevanhema YY; Jideani VA

2013-01-01

294

Sinergismo Bacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Paenibacillus na simbiose Bradyrhizobium-caupi/ Synergism of Bacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Paenibacillus in the symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium-cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. é a principal cultura de subsistência do semiárido brasileiro, sendo fonte de proteínas de baixo custo, notadamente, para populações carentes. A produção dessa cultura no Nordeste é baixa devido à não utilização de insumos agrícolas - entre eles, o fertilizante nitrogenado. Por outro lado, bactérias promotoras de crescimento em plantas (BPCPs) vêm sendo estudadas, de forma a maximizar a fixação de N2, disponib (more) ilizar nutrientes como P ou fito-hormônios e inibir doenças. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a viabilidade da coinoculação das sementes de feijão-caupi usando Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Bacillus e Bradyrhizobium-caupi; caracterizar as estirpes quanto à produção de ácido indol acético (AIA) e solubilização de fosfato; e avaliar o sinergismo entre os microrganismos como alternativa para otimizar a FBN. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA), utilizando o feijão-caupi cv. "IPA - 206". As estirpes utilizadas foram: Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 e ANBE 31; B. cereus - 440; B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 e 459; B. pumilus - 444, 445 e 448; B. megaterium - 462; Brevibacillus brevis - 447; Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 e 177; P. graminis - MC 04.21, MC 22.13 e BR 60106; P. polymyxa - S21; e P. durus - RBN4. Os microrganismos não apresentaram capacidade para produzir AIA nem solubilizar fosfato. Ocorreu sinergismo das estirpes de Bacillus sp. (449) e Bacillus pumilus (444) coinoculadas com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267) no feijão-caupi. Abstract in english Cowpea Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. is the main subsistence crop of the semi-arid region and a low-cost protein source, especially for poorer populations. The production of this crop in the Northeast is low due to the lack of agricultural inputs, among them, nitrogen fertilizer. Plant-growth promoting bacteria (BGPB) are being studied to maximize N2 fixation, provide nutrients such as P or phytohormones and inhibit diseases. The objectives of this study were to verify the (more) viability of co- inoculation of cowpea seeds with Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Bacillus together with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea; characterize the strains for the production of indol acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization, as well as to evaluate the synergism among microorganisms as an alternative to optimize biological nitrogen fixation. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory and a greenhouse of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA), with cowpea cv. "IPA - 206" and the strains Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 and ANBE 31, B. cereus - 440, B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 and 459, B. pumilus - 444, 445 and 448, B. megaterium - 462 and Brevibacillus brevis - 447, Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 and 177, P. graminis - 04.21 MC, MC 22:13 and 60,106 BR, P. polymyxa - S21 and P. durus - RBN4. No capacity to produce IAA or solubilize phosphate was observed in the microorganisms. Synergism was observed between the strains of Bacillus sp. (449) and Bacillus pumilus (444) co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea.

Lima, André Suêldo Tavares de; Barreto, Maria do Carmo Silva; Araújo, Janete Magali; Seldin, Lucy; Burity, Hélio Almeida; Figueiredo, Márcia do Vale Barreto

2011-06-01

295

Sinergismo Bacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Paenibacillus na simbiose Bradyrhizobium-caupi Synergism of Bacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Paenibacillus in the symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium-cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O feijão-caupi Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. é a principal cultura de subsistência do semiárido brasileiro, sendo fonte de proteínas de baixo custo, notadamente, para populações carentes. A produção dessa cultura no Nordeste é baixa devido à não utilização de insumos agrícolas - entre eles, o fertilizante nitrogenado. Por outro lado, bactérias promotoras de crescimento em plantas (BPCPs) vêm sendo estudadas, de forma a maximizar a fixação de N2, disponibilizar nutrientes como P ou fito-hormônios e inibir doenças. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a viabilidade da coinoculação das sementes de feijão-caupi usando Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Bacillus e Bradyrhizobium-caupi; caracterizar as estirpes quanto à produção de ácido indol acético (AIA) e solubilização de fosfato; e avaliar o sinergismo entre os microrganismos como alternativa para otimizar a FBN. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA), utilizando o feijão-caupi cv. "IPA - 206". As estirpes utilizadas foram: Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 e ANBE 31; B. cereus - 440; B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 e 459; B. pumilus - 444, 445 e 448; B. megaterium - 462; Brevibacillus brevis - 447; Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 e 177; P. graminis - MC 04.21, MC 22.13 e BR 60106; P. polymyxa - S21; e P. durus - RBN4. Os microrganismos não apresentaram capacidade para produzir AIA nem solubilizar fosfato. Ocorreu sinergismo das estirpes de Bacillus sp. (449) e Bacillus pumilus (444) coinoculadas com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267) no feijão-caupi.Cowpea Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. is the main subsistence crop of the semi-arid region and a low-cost protein source, especially for poorer populations. The production of this crop in the Northeast is low due to the lack of agricultural inputs, among them, nitrogen fertilizer. Plant-growth promoting bacteria (BGPB) are being studied to maximize N2 fixation, provide nutrients such as P or phytohormones and inhibit diseases. The objectives of this study were to verify the viability of co- inoculation of cowpea seeds with Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Bacillus together with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea; characterize the strains for the production of indol acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization, as well as to evaluate the synergism among microorganisms as an alternative to optimize biological nitrogen fixation. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory and a greenhouse of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA), with cowpea cv. "IPA - 206" and the strains Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 and ANBE 31, B. cereus - 440, B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 and 459, B. pumilus - 444, 445 and 448, B. megaterium - 462 and Brevibacillus brevis - 447, Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 and 177, P. graminis - 04.21 MC, MC 22:13 and 60,106 BR, P. polymyxa - S21 and P. durus - RBN4. No capacity to produce IAA or solubilize phosphate was observed in the microorganisms. Synergism was observed between the strains of Bacillus sp. (449) and Bacillus pumilus (444) co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima; Maria do Carmo Silva Barreto; Janete Magali Araújo; Lucy Seldin; Hélio Almeida Burity; Márcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo

2011-01-01

296

Physiological responses of NaCl stressed cowpea plants grown in nutrient solution supplemented with CaCl2  

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Full Text Available Pitiuba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) plants were grown in nutrient solution and kept in a greenhouse up to pre-flowering stage. They were subjected to four different treatments: nutrient solution; nutrient solution containing 75 mmol.L-1 NaCl; nutrient solution containing 75 mmol.L-1 NaCl and 5 mmol.L-1 CaCl2; and nutrient solution containing 75 mmol.L-1 NaCl and 10 mmol.L-1 CaCl2. Salt stress strongly inhibited plant growth, caused a disturbance in plant-water balance, and increased the total content of inorganic solutes in the different plant parts, due mainly to accumulation of Na+ and Cl-. It also increased leaf and root soluble carbohydrates, reduced soluble amino nitrogen both in root tips and in the youngest trifoliate leaves, and reduced proline levels in root tips. Although the addition of CaCl2 to the root environment of salt stressed plants caused a reduction in Na+ content, specially in roots, it did not ameliorate the salt stress effects on plant-water relations and growth. Therefore, the results obtained do not support the hypothesis that supplemental calcium would ameliorate the inhibitory effects of NaCl-stress.

Silva José Vieira; Lacerda Claudivan Feitosa de; Costa Paulo Henrique Alves da; Enéas Filho Joaquim; Gomes Filho Enéas; Prisco José Tarquínio

2003-01-01

297

Seleção de rizóbios nativos para guandu, caupi e feijão-de-porco nos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe/ Selection of indigenous rhizobia to the cowpea, pigeonpea and jackbean crops in the coastal tableland of Sergipe, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A inoculação de estirpes de rizóbios em sementes de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e guandu (Cajanus cajan), recomendadas para outras regiões do País, não tem resultado em incrementos nas taxas de fixação biológica de N2 nem no crescimento dessas leguminosas em solos dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência simbiótica de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros associados a (more) essas leguminosas e a tolerância deles a estresses. Das 17 estirpes de rizóbios isoladas e analisadas em casa de vegetação, quatro foram selecionadas para o guandu, sete para o caupi e três para o feijão-de-porco. O número e a massa de nódulos secos por planta correlacionaram-se com a massa da parte aérea seca, a área foliar e o N total acumulado nas folhas das três leguminosas. Os mesmos rizóbios foram eficientes para o caupi e para o guandu. Três estirpes do guandu (R35, R43 e R45) e duas do caupi (R10 e R17) foram caracterizadas in vitro e todas apresentaram tolerância às concentrações elevadas de ácido nalidíxico, cloranfenicol e tetraciclina, porém, foram sensíveis à estreptomicina e à kanamicina. Todas as estirpes cresceram a 35ºC e, exceto a R17, toleraram o alumínio (10 mg L-1). Abstract in english The inoculation of rhizobial strains in jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), recommended for other regions of Brazil, has not resulted in increases of biological nitrogen fixation rates and plant growth in soils of the coastal tableland of Sergipe (Brazilian Northeast). The objectives of this work were to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia from that coastal tableland associated to these three l (more) egumes and their tolerance to stresses. Seventeen rhizobia strains were isolated and evaluated in a greenhouse. Four strains were selected for pigeonpea; seven for cowpea and three for jackbean. Nodules number and dry weight were related to shoot dry weight, leaf area and leaf N content, in all three legumes. The same strains were efficient for both cowpea and pigeonpea. Three pigeonpea (R35, R43 and R45) and two cowpea (R10 and R17) rhizobia were characterized in vitro and all showed tolerance to high levels of nalidix acid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline; however, they were sensitive to streptomycin and kanamycin. All strains were able to grow at 35ºC and, except for R17, were tolerant to aluminium (10 mg L-1).

Fernandes, Marcelo Ferreira; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda; Hungria, Mariangela

2003-07-01

298

Seleção de rizóbios nativos para guandu, caupi e feijão-de-porco nos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe Selection of indigenous rhizobia to the cowpea, pigeonpea and jackbean crops in the coastal tableland of Sergipe, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A inoculação de estirpes de rizóbios em sementes de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e guandu (Cajanus cajan), recomendadas para outras regiões do País, não tem resultado em incrementos nas taxas de fixação biológica de N2 nem no crescimento dessas leguminosas em solos dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência simbiótica de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros associados a essas leguminosas e a tolerância deles a estresses. Das 17 estirpes de rizóbios isoladas e analisadas em casa de vegetação, quatro foram selecionadas para o guandu, sete para o caupi e três para o feijão-de-porco. O número e a massa de nódulos secos por planta correlacionaram-se com a massa da parte aérea seca, a área foliar e o N total acumulado nas folhas das três leguminosas. Os mesmos rizóbios foram eficientes para o caupi e para o guandu. Três estirpes do guandu (R35, R43 e R45) e duas do caupi (R10 e R17) foram caracterizadas in vitro e todas apresentaram tolerância às concentrações elevadas de ácido nalidíxico, cloranfenicol e tetraciclina, porém, foram sensíveis à estreptomicina e à kanamicina. Todas as estirpes cresceram a 35ºC e, exceto a R17, toleraram o alumínio (10 mg L-1).The inoculation of rhizobial strains in jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), recommended for other regions of Brazil, has not resulted in increases of biological nitrogen fixation rates and plant growth in soils of the coastal tableland of Sergipe (Brazilian Northeast). The objectives of this work were to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia from that coastal tableland associated to these three legumes and their tolerance to stresses. Seventeen rhizobia strains were isolated and evaluated in a greenhouse. Four strains were selected for pigeonpea; seven for cowpea and three for jackbean. Nodules number and dry weight were related to shoot dry weight, leaf area and leaf N content, in all three legumes. The same strains were efficient for both cowpea and pigeonpea. Three pigeonpea (R35, R43 and R45) and two cowpea (R10 and R17) rhizobia were characterized in vitro and all showed tolerance to high levels of nalidix acid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline; however, they were sensitive to streptomycin and kanamycin. All strains were able to grow at 35ºC and, except for R17, were tolerant to aluminium (10 mg L-1).

Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; Roberta Pereira Miranda Fernandes; Mariangela Hungria

2003-01-01

299

Milho verde e feijão-caupi cultivados em consórcio sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação e doses de fósforo/ Green maize intercropped with cowpea under different irrigation depths and phosphorus doses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de milho verde (Zea mays) e de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), cultivados em consórcio, a lâminas de irrigação e doses de fósforo. Os experimentos foram realizados em 2008 e 2009, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 25 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco lâminas de irrigação, a 70, 110, 140, 180 e 220% da evapotranspiração da cultura, e de cinco doses de P2O5 a 0, 50, 100, (more) 150 e 200% da dose de P recomendada. O milho foi semeado no espaçamento 0,80x0,40 m, e o feijão-caupi foi semeado dentro das linhas entre as plantas de milho. Não houve efeito das doses de P2O5; porém, a resposta às lâminas de irrigação foi quadrática em milho e linear em feijão-caupi. As máximas produtividades técnicas de espigas de milho verde com palha (10,76 Mg ha-1) e sem palha (7,62 Mg ha-1) foram obtidas com a lâmina de 530 mm, intermediária às lâminas referentes a 180 e 220% da evapotranspiração da cultura. A maior produtividade de grãos verdes de feijão-caupi (3,40 Mg ha-1) foi obtida com a maior lâmina de água aplicada, de 644 mm. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of green maize (Zea mays) intercropped with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to irrigation depths and phosphorus doses. The experiments were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in a randomized block design, with 25 treatments and four replicates. Treatments consisted of five irrigation depths at 70, 110, 140, 180 and 220% of the crop evapotranspiration, and of five doses of P2O5: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of the recommended P dose (more) . Maize was sown at 0.80x0.40 m spacing, and cowpea was planted inside the lines among maize plants. There was no effect of P2O5 doses, but the response to irrigation depths was quadratic for maize and linear for cowpea. The maximum technical yield of green ears of maize with straw (10.76 Mg ha-1) and without straw (7.62 Mg ha-1) was obtained with 530 mm depth, intermediary to the 180 and 220% of the crop evapotranspiration. The highest cowpea green grain (3.40 Mg ha-1) was obtained with the highest water depth, of 644 mm.

Blanco, Flávio Favaro; Cardoso, Milton José; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Veloso, Marcos Emanuel da Costa; Nogueira, Carlos Cesar Pereira; Dias, Nildo da Silva

2011-05-01

300

Effect of Cowpea Seeds Contamination Rate by the Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus on Epidemics Development  

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Full Text Available Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV) diseased seeds provide at seedling, virus infected plants which are the only source of primary inoculum. Secondary infections are bequeathed by aphids. The objective of this research is to study the development of the secondary infection in field. Therefore, eight cowpea varieties with different seed contamination rate (0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5%) were used over consecutive four years. The infected plants were recorded every week from the tenth day after sowing and over seven weeks. In the same way, aphids` population were evaluated in plots 30 days after sowing. There was no difference for the incidence rate between the average of plots sown with virus free-seeds and those sown with infected seeds with a rate of 0, 5%. In any case, the disease progressed lowly leading to incidences less than 50% at the post-flowering period in spite of a relatively high initial contamination rate of seed. For this group of varieties, the low progression of the disease indicated a high level of resistance to the infection. The high levels of infection especially observed with the varieties with high level of virus transmission to seed, translated the need to reduce aphids` population density notably by the use of insecticides during cowpea growing cycle. The high number of aphids and inoculum availability in the neighbouring plots were undoubtedly at the source of this result. This situation laid out the problematic of the use of seeds then little or not contaminated by the virus.

B.J. Neya; J. Zabre; R.J. Millogo; S. Ginko; G. Konate

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P2O5/ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

1993-01-01

302

Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación). Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante altoIn the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment) were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nutrients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

Silvina R Drago; Rolando J González; Luis Chel-Guerrero; Mirta E Valencia

2007-01-01

303

Effect of physical mutagen on expression of characters in arid legume pulse cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

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Full Text Available Studies on physical induced mutagenesis, gamma rays were performed by exposing the healthy and dry seeds of cowpeavariety CO 4 to gamma rays 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 kR. The study was to evolve economically important mutants withvaried seed coat colour as against dark grey coloured seed coat of CO 4. The LD50 value was found at 50kR for 60 Cogamma rays. Under field conditions, germination, seedling survival, plant height on 30th day, pollen fertility, seed fertility,pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and single plant yield was reduced as compared to the control. InM2 generation, viable macro mutants like dwarf mutant, spreading type, late mutant, semi sterile type, single and tricotyledonary leaf mutant, basal branching, multiple leaf mutant, white flower mutant, chimeric mutant and seed coat colourmutant were observed. Gamma rays induced higher proportion of chlorophyll mutations. Single type and multiple typemutations occurred more frequently. Economically important macro mutants such as brownish white seed coat colourmutants were observed in M2 generation.

V.Ashok kumar, R.Usha kumari, N.Vairam and R.Amutha

2010-01-01

304

Restriction site polymorphism-based candidate gene mapping for seedling drought tolerance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

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Quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies provide insight into the complexity of drought tolerance mechanisms. Molecular markers used in these studies also allow for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs, enabling transfer of genetic factors between breeding lines without complete knowled...

Muchero, Wellington; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Roberts, Philip A.

305

Studies on hybrid vigour and combining ability for seed yield and contributing characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

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Full Text Available The combining ability aids in better selection of parents besides elucidating the nature and magnitude of gene action. Heterosisand combining ability analysis were carried out in line x tester model using five lines viz., Kanakamany, Subadra, TC 49-1,Lola and Sarika and five testers viz., CO2, CO4, CO6, CO (CP) 7 and VBN 1. The results reveled that TC 49-1, Lola, Sarika,VBN1, CO2 and CO (CP)7 were found to be good general combiners for seed yield. Among the parents, TC 49-1, Lola andVBN1 were found good general combiners for days to 50% flowering, plant height, cluster / plant, pods, / plant, length of podand number of seeds / plant. The crosses Lola x VBN 1, Sarika x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO (CP) 7 were the best specificcombination for grain yield. The two crosses Lola x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO 4 showed significant heterosis over the standardlatest variety CO (CP)7 for seed / pod, cluster / plant, pods / plant and 50% flowering. The crosses TC 49-1 x CO 2 showedhigh heterosis over standard variety for plant height and clusters/plant. Hence, these hybrids can be utilized for commercialcultivation.

R.Ushakumari, N.Vairam, C.R. Anandakumar and N. Malini

2010-01-01

306

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet) extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml) of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml) dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

Maisale A B; Patil M B; Jalalpure S S; Patil A M; Attimarad S L

2012-01-01

307

Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation in vigna radiata (L) wilczek and vigna mungo species-II yield and yield components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the effects of radiation, dry dormant of eight cultivars of vigna radiata and vigna mungo were treated with eight doses of gamma-radiation (5-100 kR). The results revealed that drastic effects were noted at higher doses (80 kR and 100 kR). LD/sub/50 ranged from almost all the characters and varities. Mung Kabuli was found to be more sensitive due to bold grain size as compared to normal seeded varities. However, vigna radiata showed more radioresistance as compared to vigna mungo. (author).

1987-01-01

308

Field Occurrence of Bruchid Pests of Cowpea and Associated Parasitoids in a Sub Humid Zone of Burkina Faso: Importance on the Infestation of Two Cowpea Varieties at Harvest  

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Full Text Available The cowpea is a very important legume for peasant farmers in West Africa but this crop is very sensitive to bruchid attacks during storage. A study was carried out in a sub humid zone of Burkina Faso to determine the relation between the dynamic of bruchid and parasitoid populations in the fields and cowpea infestation at harvest. The variations in insect numbers were weekly estimated by net captures during the growth of an early and a late cowpea variety. Adults of two bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic) appeared early in the fields before cowpea flowering and their population regularly increased over time and from early to late cowpea variety. The Pteromalid Dinarmus basalis Rond was the only larval parasitoid encountered. Its adults appeared later than bruchids and their parasitism activity increased over time. At harvest, 35% of the early cowpea pods and 74.5% of the late cowpea pods were infested by bruchid eggs. 58.5 and 72% of the bruchid eggs laid respectively on the early and the late cowpea variety were parasitized by Uscana sp. The level of cowpea seed infestation by bruchids at the beginning of storage was estimated to be 1 and 2.7% for the early and late cowpea variety respectively. The parasitism rate of bruchid larvae by D. basalis was estimated at this period to be 7.8% for early cowpea variety and 18.2% for the late variety. These results are discussed in view of developing an integrated control method based on the enhancement of the pest natural enemies in the fields and/or into storage systems in combination with beneficial farming practices.

Sanon Antoine; Dabir? Cl?mentine; Ouedraogo Albert Patoin; Huignard Jacques

2005-01-01

309

Biochemical Basis of Resistance in Rice Bean, Vigna umbellata Thunb. (Ohwi and Ohashi) Against Callosobruchus maculatus F.  

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Vigna umbellata Thunb. (Ohwi and Ohashi), a wild relative of the genus Vigna and other species belonging to Vigna were screened for their relative resistance to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus

T. Srinivasan; C. Durairaj

310

Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade/ Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl. Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas (more) folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the photosynthetic responses and the accumulation of carbohydrates, salt ions, and proline in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants subjected to salinity. Plants were subjected to four treatments, from 28 to 35 days of age: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, and leaf concentrations of carbohydrates, Na+, Cl-, and proline were evaluated. Treatments had no effect (more) on potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, but there was a slight reduction in effective quantum efficiency and a higher dissipation of excess excitation energy by non-photochemical processes. The foliar contents of starch decreased, and those of sucrose and proline increased with higher NaCl content. There was Na+ exclusion and Cl-accumulation in leaves, and leaf water relations were little affected by salt stress, except in the most severe treatment. The accumulation of Cl- was related with the reduction of CO2 assimilation, which resulted from the decline in stomatal conductance and in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency. Cowpea plants have physiological characteristics that favor the maintenance of photosynthetic activity under short-term exposure to salinity.

Souza, Rogéria Pereira; Machado, Eduardo Caruso; Silveira, Joaquim Albenísio Gomes; Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos

2011-06-01

311

Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl. Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade.The objective of this work was to determine the photosynthetic responses and the accumulation of carbohydrates, salt ions, and proline in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants subjected to salinity. Plants were subjected to four treatments, from 28 to 35 days of age: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, and leaf concentrations of carbohydrates, Na+, Cl-, and proline were evaluated. Treatments had no effect on potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, but there was a slight reduction in effective quantum efficiency and a higher dissipation of excess excitation energy by non-photochemical processes. The foliar contents of starch decreased, and those of sucrose and proline increased with higher NaCl content. There was Na+ exclusion and Cl-accumulation in leaves, and leaf water relations were little affected by salt stress, except in the most severe treatment. The accumulation of Cl- was related with the reduction of CO2 assimilation, which resulted from the decline in stomatal conductance and in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency. Cowpea plants have physiological characteristics that favor the maintenance of photosynthetic activity under short-term exposure to salinity.

Rogéria Pereira Souza; Eduardo Caruso Machado; Joaquim Albenísio Gomes Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

2011-01-01

312

Adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva de feijão-caupi de porte semiprostrado/ Yield adaptability and stability of semi-prostrate cowpea genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade produtiva de genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) de porte semiprostrado. Foram avaliados 20 genótipos de feijão-caupi com uso do modelo de efeitos aditivos principais e interação multiplicativa (AMMI) com genótipo e ambiente suplementares. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em nove ambientes (Balsas, MA, 2010; Balsas, MA, 2011; Bom Jesus, PI, 2010; Bom Jesus, PI, 2011; São Raimundo das Mang (more) abeiras, MA, 2010; São Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2011; São João do Piauí, PI, 2011; Campo Grande do Piauí, PI, 2011; Buriti, MA, 2011), da região Meio-Norte do Brasil, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 20 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os efeitos de genótipos, ambientes e da interação genótipo x ambiente foram significativos. Os genótipos diferiram quanto à adaptabilidade e à estabilidade da produtividade. A linhagem MNC03-736F-2 apresentou genes para adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva. Entre as cultivares avaliadas, BR 17-Gurguéia e Pingo-de-Ouro-1-2 são as mais previsíveis, e a BRS Xiquexique é a mais adaptada. Entre os locais de teste, Balsas, MA, é o mais adequado para a seleção de genótipos superiores em adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield adaptability and stability of semi-prostrate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. Twenty cowpea genotypes were evaluated using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model with supplementary genotype and environment. The trials were carried out in nine environments (Balsas, MA, 2010; Balsas, MA, 2011; Bom Jesus, PI, 2010; Bom Jesus, PI, 2011; São Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2010; São Raimun (more) do das Mangabeiras, MA, 2011; São João do Piauí, PI, 2011; Campo Grande do Piauí, PI, 2011; Buriti, MA, 2011) of the Mid-North region of Brazil in a randomized complete block design with 20 treatments and four replicates. The effects of genotypes, environments, and genotype x environment interaction were significant. Genotypes differed as to yield adaptability and stability. The line MNC03-736F-2 presented genes for yield adaptability and stability. Among the evaluated genotypes, BR 17-Gurguéia and Pingo-de-Ouro-1-2 are the most predictable, and BRS Xiquexique is the most adapted. Among the test sites, Balsas, MA is the most appropriate for selection of genotypes superior for yield adaptability and stability.

Barros, Michel Alves; Rocha, Maurisrael de Moura; Gomes, Regina Lucia Ferreira; Silva, Kaesel Jackson Damasceno e; Neves, Adão Cabral das

2013-04-01

313

Roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio como fuente de fósforo para frijol en dos tipos de suelo/ Phosphate rock acidulated with sulfuric acid and ammonium thiosulfate as sources of phosphorus for cowpea in two soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La deficiencia de fósforo en los suelos tropicales es común. Una fuente natural de este nutriente es la roca fosfórica acidulada (RFA) con ácido sulfúrico (AS), aunque una alternativa más económica es la acidulación sustituyendo el 30 % del AS por tiosulfato de amonio (R30T). Para probar la eficiencia de esta última forma se trabajó con dos experimentos usando un suelo ácido y otro neutro. Se aplicó P en forma de superfosfato triple (SFT), RFA y R30T en dosis (more) de 0, 70, 140 y 210 mg·kg-1. Se usó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, y se sembró frijol (Vigna sinensis) el cual se cosechó a los 35 días para determinar materia seca (MS), longitud radical (LR), P absorbido, y Ca y P residual en el suelo. La MS y el P absorbido en promedio fueron parecidos donde se aplicó SFT, RFA y R30T. La MS dependió altamente de la concentración de P y Ca en ambos suelos, así como de la concentración del P en la planta. La LR mostró un mayor crecimiento con el incremento del P disponible en el suelo ácido, no así en el suelo neutro. Se concluye que la acidulación parcial de la roca fosfórica con tiosulfato de amonio y ácido sulfúrico permite producir un fertilizante tan eficiente como la RFA para el crecimiento del sistema radical tanto en suelo ácido como neutro, y se ratificó su eficiencia en la producción de materia seca y absorción de fósforo por la planta. Abstract in english Phosphorus deficiency in tropical soils is a common constrain. Acidulated phosphate rock with sulfuric acid (RFA) is a natural source of P, but a cheaper alternative is the acidification of phosphate rock by replacing 30% of sulfuric acid with ammonium thiosulfate (R30T). To test the efficiency of those fertilizers and superphosphate two experiments were conducted using an acidic soil and a neutral one. The doses of P applied were 0, 70, 140 and 210 mg·kg-1. A completely (more) randomized design was used with four replications, and cowpea plants were grown. Plants were harvested at 35 days old and dry matter (DM), P uptake, residual P and Ca in soil, and root length (RL) were determined. When RFA was applied, DM and P uptake were similar to those in R30T and SFT. DM was highly related to soil P and Ca contents as well as to P concentration in the plant. RL increased as available P was higher in the acidic soil, but not in neutral soil. It is concluded that partial acidulation of phosphate rock with ammonium thiosulfate and sulfuric acid produces a fertilizer as efficient as the RFA for growth of the root system in both acid and neutral soil, and confirmed its efficiency in the production of dry matter and phosphorus uptake by the plant.

Sequera, Omaira; Ramírez, Ricardo

2013-04-01

314

Identification of resistance to Cercospora leaf spot of cowpea  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve selected cowpea cultivars were screened for resistance to Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) disease caused by Pseudocercospora cruenta and Cercospora apii s. lat. under artificial epiphytotic conditions in a replicated field trial, with the objective of developing a quantitative measure of disease resistance. CLS incidence, leaf spotting score, lesion density, lesion size, proportion of nodes infected, diseased leaf area, conidia number mg-¹ and fascicle density were assessed in 12 cowpea genotypes at crop maturity. Proportion of nodes infected and leaf spotting score were best able to quantitatively differentiate between the levels of resistance, and allow the exploitation of quantitative resistance to the disease. Both lesion density and lesion size were important in determining the final leaf spotting score but the former was epidemiologically more important than the latter, indicated by its correlation to most of the CLS symptom measures. There was differential resistance to the P. cruenta and C. apii s. lat. among the cowpea varieties screened. Among the cowpea lines screened, resistance to P. cruenta was more common than resistance to C. apii s. lat. Nevertheless, P. cruenta was considered the more aggressive and epidemiologically more important than C. apii s. lat. on the varieties tested evidenced by the strong correlation of P. cruenta incidence with acropetal spread of CLS, intensity of leaf spotting, conidia number mg-¹ and fascicle density. The highly susceptible varieties namely VRB7, Los Banos Bush Sitao no.1 and CB27 were susceptible to both Cercospora pathogens. The cowpea variety VRB-10 was completely resistant to both pathogens and is a useful source of resistance in CLS breeding programmes.

Booker HelenM; Umaharan Pathmanathan

2007-08-01

315

Radiação microondas para o controle de pupas de Callosobruchus maculatus em cultivares de feijão-caupi Microwave radiation to control Callosobruchus maculatus pupae in cowpea cultivars  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho investigar os efeitos da radiação microondas em pupas de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775) nas cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) BRS Paraguaçu e BRS Xique-xique. Para a radiação, utilizou-se um forno microondas comercial, com frequência de 2.450 MHz, rendimento de potência de 800 W, em baixa potência (30%), sendo os tempos de exposição à radiação microondas 0, 60, 90, 120 e 150 segundos. Observou-se, para ambas as cultivares, redução no número de insetos emergidos por grão, número de insetos emergidos por tratamento e aumento do período ovo-adulto, com exposição a 60 segundos de radiação. Os tempos de 90, 120 e 150 segundos de exposição à radiação microondas foram letais para 100% das pupas de C. maculatus The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on Callosobruchus maculates (Fabr., 1775) pupae in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars BRS Paraguaçu and BRS Xique-xique. The irradiation was made using a commercial microwave oven with a 2450 MHz frequency, 800 W power output, in low power (30%), with exposure periods to microwave radiation of 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 seconds. It was observed, for both cultivars, reduction of the number of insects emerged per grain, number of insects emerged per treatment and increase in the egg to adult period, with 60 seconds exposure to microwave radiation. The 90, 120 and 150 seconds exposure periods to microwave radiation were lethal to 100% of the C. maculates pupae.

Douglas R. e S. Barbosa; Lúcia da S. Fontes

2011-01-01

316

Inter-relação entre caracteres de caupi de porte ereto e crescimento determinado/ Interrelation among characters of upright cowpea plants with determined growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram estudados dez caracteres em 32 genótipos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.], com o objetivo de avaliar o grau de associação existente entre o rendimento de grãos e seus componentes. Oensaio foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Meio-Norte, em Teresina, PI. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Os dados foram coletados nas duas fileiras centrais, subtraídas das duas (more) primeiras covas em cada extremidade. A floração inicial e o peso de 100 grãos apresentaram, com rendimento de grãos, as maiores correlações genéticas positivas e os maiores efeitos diretos em sentido favorável à seleção, e foram os caracteres mais importantes para o processo de seleção indireta. A seleção, praticada nos caracteres ângulo de inserção dos ramos laterais e número de grãos por vagem, não teve influência direta significativa sobre o rendimento de grãos. Abstract in english Ten characteristics were studied in 32 cowpea genotypes [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] with the objective of evaluating the association among yield and yield components. The experiment was conduced at Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Meio-Norte in Teresina, PI, Brazil. Acomplete random blocks design with six replications was used. The data were collected from the two central rows subtracting two hills at the extremities. Initial flowering and 100-seed weight, th (more) at presented the highest direct effect and positive correlation with grain yield, were the most important characters in the process of indirect selection to obtain an efficient correlated response on grain yield. However, selection for the characters angle insertion of the secondary branches and number of grains per pod had no significant direct influence on grain yield.

Bezerra, Antonio Aécio de Carvalho; Anunciação Filho, Clodoaldo José da; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Valdenir Queiroz

2001-01-01

317

Early maturing, dwarf mutant of Urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation work on urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] has been taken up to improve the agronomic characteristics. From gamma irradiated M2 populations various types of mutant were isolated including one early maturing, dwarf mutant. The mutant line was evaluated in the M4 and is being reported in this paper. (author).

1988-01-01

318

Cellular and molecular analyses of coffee resistance to Hemileia vastatrix and nonhost resistance to Uromyces vignae in the resistance-donor genotype HDT832/2  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Arabica coffee breeding, some of the most used sources of resistance to leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) are natural Coffea arabica x canephora hybrids (“Híbrido de Timor”). To decipher the cellular and molecular nature of that resistance, leaves of genotype HDT832/2, were challenged with H. vastatrix race II, and monitored using light microscopy and RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in plant immunity mechanisms (receptor-like kinase, WRKY transcription factor 1, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, 13-lipoxygenase, glycosyltransferase, pathogenesis related PR1b and PR10). These were compared to the nonhost resistance responses of HDT832/2 to the infection by the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae). H. vastatrix ceased growth more frequently after stomata penetration, forming few haustoria, inducing a hypersensitive-like response, phenol accumulation and haustorium encasement with callose. U. vignae could enter stomata but failed to form haustoria, while inducing hypersensitive-like responses and phenol accumulation. In host and nonhost interactions, activation of genes involved in signalling coincided with the differentiation of appressoria, and cellular responses (hypersensitive-like responses and accumulation of phenolic compounds) were recorded from the full appressorium or penetration hypha stages onwards. Similarly, a gene related to the JA pathway was first activated at the penetration hypha stage for both interactions, while genes related to the SA pathway were only activated in the host interaction, the latter being the single clear difference between host and nonhost interactions. The cellular and molecular resistance responses of HDT832/2 to these rust fungi suggest that common immunity components are shared between host and nonhost resistance, which may explain the longer durability of this resistance.

Diniz I; Talhinhas P; Azinheira HG; Várzea V; Medeira C; Maia I; Petitot AS; Nicole M; Fernandez D; do Céu Silva M

2012-05-01

319

Simulation of growth and development of irrigated cowpea in Piauí State by CROPGRO model Simulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi irrigado no Estado do Piauí pelo modelo CROPGRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adapt the CROPGRO model, which is part of the DSSAT system, for simulating the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) growth and development under soil and climate conditions of the Baixo Parnaíba region, Piauí State, Brazil. In the CROPGRO, only input parameters that define crop species, cultivars, and ecotype were changed in order to characterize the cowpea crop. Soil and climate files were created for the considered site. Field experiments without water deficit were used to calibrate the model. In these experiments, dry matter (DM), leaf area index (LAI), yield components and grain yield of cowpea (cv. BR 14 Mulato) were evaluated. The results showed good fit for DM and LAI estimates. The medium values of R² and medium absolute error (MAE) were, respectively, 0.95 and 264.9 kg ha-1 for DM, and 0.97 and 0.22 for LAI. The difference between observed and simulated values of plant phenology varied from 0 to 3 days. The model also presented good performance for yield components simulation, excluding 100-grain weight, for which the error ranged from 20.9% to 34.3%. Considering the medium values of crop yield in two years, the model presented an error from 5.6%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar o modelo CROPGRO, o qual faz parte do sistema DSSAT, para simular o crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi (Vigna unguiculata) nas condições de solo e clima do Baixo Parnaíba, Piauí. No CROPGRO, foram modificados apenas parâmetros que definem os arquivos de espécie, de cultivar e de ecótipo, visando caracterizar a cultura do caupi. Foram criados arquivos contendo as características de solo e de clima do referido local. Na calibração do modelo, foram utilizados experimentos de campo sem restrições hídricas nos quais foram avaliados a matéria seca (MS), o índice de área foliar (IAF), os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos da cultivar BR 14 Mulato. Os valores médios dos R² e do erro absoluto médio (EAM) foram, respectivamente, 0,95 e 264,9 kg ha-1 quanto à MS, e 0,97 e 0,22 quanto ao IAF. A diferença entre os valores observados e simulados da fenologia da planta variaram entre 0 e 3 dias. O modelo também apresentou bom desempenho nas simulações dos componentes de produção, exceto quanto ao peso de 100 grãos, cujos erros de estimativa variaram de 20,9% a 34,3%. Considerando os valores médios de produtividade de grãos de dois anos, o modelo apresentou erro de 5,6%.

Edson Alves Bastos; Marcos Vinícius Folegatti; Rogério Teixeira de Faria; Aderson Soares de Andrade Júnior; Milton José Cardoso

2002-01-01

320

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP) POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP) BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791), "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV). Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae), coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus. Visando fornecer subsídios a uma melhor compreensã