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Uso del cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) en mezclas con fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) en el desarrollo de nuevos productos alimenticios / Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar el cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) como sustituto parcial del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) como pasta o como harina. El grado de sustitución sería aquel en el cual no se detecte el sabor del frijol cowpea alterando el sabor del frijol común. Para la [...] ejecución del estudio se utilizó la variedad Peruchin Negro del frijol cowpea y el ICTA Ligero del frijol común con un contenido de proteína de 24.4% y 18.7% respectivamente. No hubo diferencias significativas en otros nutrientes. Se postulo que el sabor característico a tierra del cowpea era debido al contenido de polifenoles, la cual se redujo con tratamientos de remojo, cocción y descascarado. Se estableció que los niveles de polifenoles logrados con 9 horas de remojo y 30 minutos de cocción eran iguales a los obtenidos con el descascarado. Con estos procedimientos previos en el cowpea se prepararon 2 pastas de frijol frito a base de una mezcla de frijol negro/cowpea (con y sin cáscara) en la relación 70/30 las cuales fueron enlatadas y una mezcla de harina precocida en las mismas proporciones. Estas pastas se sometieron a pruebas sensoriales de tipo triangular y de perfil descriptivo. En el perfil descriptivo se evaluó: color, textura, punto de sal y sabor, en una escala de 10 puntos. Las evaluaciones sensoriales de las 2 mezclas de frijol no mostraron diferencia significativa respecto al sabor del frijol común. El contenido de proteína en las mezclas fue más alto debido a la mayor concentración de este nutriente en el cowpea. Aunque las mezclas de frijol común con cowpea entero y sin cáscara dieron mayor valor proteico (NPR) que el de frijol solo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was develop [...] ed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant.

Claudia Maritza, López Guerra; Ricardo, Bressani.

2008-03-01

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Uso de la leguminosa (Vigna sinensis) como complemento del pollo en una fórmula infantil / Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las leguminosas mundialmente representan una fuente proteica importante. En Venezuela generalmente se preparan en el hogar y son consumidas por los adultos como sopa o guiso, mientras que los niños las consumen muy poco. A los fines de incorporar leguminosas en la alimentación de niños se realizó el [...] presente trabajo utilizando fríjol (Vigna sinensis), como complemento del pollo en una fórmula nutricionalmente adaptada a los requerimientos de niños. Se desarrollaron varias formulas y en base a su aceptabilidad se seleccionaron tres. La primera constituida principalmente por pollo como fuente proteica, en la segunda se sustituyó parcialmente el pollo por frijol, y en la tercera solo se usó frijol. Otros ingredientes fueron: arroz, auyama (Cucurbita máxima), zanahoria, y algunos condimentos. Se realizó el análisis proximal, calidad proteica (relación de eficiencia proteica y digestibilidad) y evaluación sensorial (escala hedónica de 7 puntos). La composición proximal fue similar en las tres fórmulas: proteína (3,5%), grasa (1,3%) y carbohidratos (19,7%), con una buena distribución del aporte energético (98,9 kal o 413,8 kJ por 100g). La calidad de la proteína en la fórmula pollo-frijol fue superior a la de frijol, al igual que la digestibilidad. La aceptabilidad con las madres fue mayor en la fórmula pollo-frijol que en la de frijol. La aceptabilidad de la formula pollo-frijol con los niños fue de 77% (escala hedónica facial) y 92% (midiendo consumo). La fórmula pollo-frijol por su alta aceptabilidad y buena calidad proteica; podría ser incluida en los almuerzos de los hogares de cuidado de niños institucionalizados. Abstract in english Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children’s diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vign [...] a sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98,9 kcal/100g or 413,8 kJ/100g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

Marisa, Guerra Modernell; Marisela, Granito; Mariangel, Paolini; Cristina, Olaizola.

2008-09-01

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Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth tests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiologica...

Odeigah, P. G. C.; Osanyinpeju, A. O.; Myers, G. O.

1998-01-01

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Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth tests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

P.G.C. Odeigah

1998-09-01

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Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth t [...] ests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

P.G.C., Odeigah; A.O., Osanyinpeju; G.O., Myers.

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Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth t [...] ests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

P.G.C., Odeigah; A.O., Osanyinpeju; G.O., Myers.

1998-09-01

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Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J., Xavier Filho.

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Early defence responses of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) induced by non-pathogenic rust fungi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In cowpea (Vigna s&ensis L.) leaves the pathogenic rust fungus Uromyces vignae and the non-pathogens U. appendiculatus and U. viciae-fabae developed similarly to give rise to more than 80% haustorial mother cells. Whereas U. vignae was able to sporulate, the nonpathogens were stopped either after formation of some haustoria (U. appendiculatus) or immediately after formation of haustorial mother cells (U. viciae-fabae). Approximately 30% of the cells in contact with haustorial mother cells of ...

Fink, Werner; Haug, M.; Deising, Holger; Mendgen, Kurt

1991-01-01

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Floral Biology and Pollination Ecology of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on the floral biology and pollination ecology of three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were carried out. The varieties studied were Var. Oloyin, Var. Sokoto, and Var. Drum. Cowpea is a self pollinated crop which is encouraged by the arrangements of the floral parts. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:30am and closes between 11:30am and 12:00pm. Pollen analysis showed similarities in the pollen morphology of the cowpea varieties. Moreover Var. Drum produced the highest number of pollen grains per flower in terms of pollen productivity.

Ige, O. E.

2011-08-01

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Effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is regarded as hardy and one of the important tropical legumes. The plants respond differently to mutagenic treatments. Ionizing radiations affect a wide range of physiological and biochemical activities of plants. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour of two important cowpea varieties viz., KBC-1 and TVX-994-02E in M1 generation under laboratory conditions. (author)

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Proximate, Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Whole and Dehulled Cowpea Seed Flour (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study was conducted to analyze the production, proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic properties of whole and dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds. Flour samples were produced from whole and dehulled cowpea seeds which was purchased from Obada market Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. The flour samples were subjected to proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses. The results of proximate analysis showed that dehulled cowpea was higher in crude protein (23.12% and carbohydrate content (62.86% than whole cowpea flour, which was recorded as 22.85% and 61.67% respectively. The fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture content were 1.6%, 1.03%, 0.48%, 10.89% for dehulled cowpea flour and 1.83%, 1.12%, 0.65%, 11.88% for whole cowpea flour respectively. The results obtained for physicochemical analysis showed that the pH, TSS and TS of whole cowpea flour were 6.84%, 16.47% and 88.12% while dehulled cowpea were recorded as 6.80%, 12.85%, 89.11% respectively. The results of organoleptic analysis revealed that beans ball produced from dehulled cowpea flour was more acceptable than that from whole cowpea flour.

W.A. Oyeleke

2011-01-01

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Assessment of genetic diversity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty six genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp were investigated to understand the extent of genetic diversitythrough twelve quantitative traits. Mahalanobis’s D2 analysis established the presence of wide genetic diversity among thesegenotypes by the formation of 23 clusters. Cluster I had the maximum number of genotypes i.e 22 and cluster 23 had onlyone genotype. Intra cluster distance analysis revealed that the minimum intra cluster distance was observed in the cluster II.The inter-cluster distance (D was found to be the maximum between the clusters XXII and XXIII and the same wasminimum between clusters II and V. The results indicated that grain yield per plant contributed maximum to the totaldivergence followed by 100 seed weight and days to 50% flowering. Number of branches per plant had least contribution tothe total divergence followed by petiole length. The existence of wide genetic diversity among the types chosen from thesame geographical location was obviously seen. In the present study, the variety Vellayani local had the maximum value forplant height and pod length and thereby distinguished from other varieties and it is present singly in the cluster XXIII. Henceit is proved to be widely divergent, since its yield is high, it can be used for further crossing and yield improvement. Thecluster XVIII had the highest cluster mean values for number of clusters per plant and the cluster XIV has the highest meanvalue for grain yield per plant. These two clusters may be utilized in crossing programme which may yield in a widespectrum of variability and for selection for seed yield in the subsequent generations. The clustering pattern of the varietiesin the present study clearly indicated that there was no parallelism between genetic and geographic diversities. Based on themean performance and genetic divergence, the genotypes Vellayani local, NBC 7, Lola, CP 18, CP 150, ACM 05-07 can beused for crossing and further selection.

R.M.Nagalakshmi, R. Usha Kumari and M. B. Boranayaka

2010-07-01

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Effect of processing on some properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), seed, protein, starch, flour and akara.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large brown eye Kano white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were processed into three batches of flour by wetting, drying individually at 30, 80, and 120 degrees C, decorticating and dry milling. Starch was extracted from the cowpea seed and protein from the flour using water as solvent. The water-extractable proteins were purified by dialysis and analysed by electrophoresis. The cowpea flour was used to produce akara balls (fried paste). The microstructure of the cowpea cotyledon, flour, starch and akara crumb were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Electrophoretic separation revealed that some of the protein fractions from the sample extracted from 30 degrees C dried cowpea were absent in the sample extracted from the 80 degrees C and 120 degrees C dried cowpeas or their quantities had decreased. In the SEM study, no difference was observed in the microstructure of the three flour samples except in the size and shape of the starch granules and particles of protein and cell wall material. The starch granules from the cowpea dried at 120 degrees C had surface defects. Cavities occurred in the cotyledons of the 80 and 120 degrees C dried cowpea seeds, some starch granules, protein matrix and sometimes the entire cell contents were lost from the cell. The protein sheet in the akara crumb became thicker as temperature increased to 80 and 120 degrees C. PMID:10367006

Enwere, N J; McWatters, K H; Phillips, R D

1998-09-01

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Harinas de planta entera de frijol (Vigna unguiculata) y de mazorca de maíz (Zea mays) como suplemento para becerros antes del destete / Flours of whole cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and cob maize (Zea mays) as supplements for suckling calves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los sistemas de producción de doble-propósito, el amamantamiento restringido mejora el ingreso por leche vendible, pero es negativo para el crecimiento de los becerros. Sin embargo, un arreglo de alimentación agropastoril la suplementación con cultivos podría mejorar el suministro de nutrientes. [...] Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el consumo de harinas de frijol y de mazorca de maíz, el consumo de leche y el crecimiento de becerros pre-destete. El ensayo tuvo una duración de 217 días y se usaron 30 becerros hijos de vacas mestizas de Brahmán x Holstein x Simmental. Se colocaron  cinco becerros en tres tratamientos ubicados en dos bloques al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: harina de frijol (F), harina de maíz (M) y harina de frijol + harina de maíz (FM) todos a voluntad. Los becerros entraron al experimento entre 30 y 45 días de nacidos y después del ordeño permanecieron 30 minutos con sus madres, para luego ser llevados a potreros de Cynodon nlemfuensis durante 6 horas/día. En la tarde fueron alojados en corrales individuales donde se les ofreció el suplemento. La producción de leche vendible (P0,05) fueron 2,5 2,4 y 2,54 L/d; de suplementos (P0,05) 0,41 0,48 y 0,37 para F, M y FM, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el aporte de la leche para suplir los requerimientos de energía y proteína disminuye, debido a que su consumo permanece constante mientras que los requerimientos aumentan, pero los becerros tienen la capacidad de ajustar el consumo de los componentes de la dieta, cuando encuentran restricciones debidas a cantidad ofrecida, calidad y palatabilidad. Abstract in english In the dual purpose systems, the restricted sukling increases the income due to vendible milk, but in turn it decreases the yearling calf growth if they are not properly supplemented. An agropastoral system with crops for supplementation would improve the calf feeding. This work had as aim to study [...] milk intake, whole cowpea and whole maize cob flours intake and calves growth. The experiment lasted for 217 days and were used 30 calves, from crossbred cows (Brahman x Holstein x Simmental). There were five calves in each of the three treatments in two randomized blocks. Treatments were: cowpea flour (F), maize flour (M), and cowpea plus maize flour (FM) all of them ad libitum. Calves were incorporated to the trial at 30-45 days age. They stayed with their dams about 30 minutes after milking, thereafter were taken to paddocks of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) during 6 h/d. In the afternoon were taken into individual pens where the supplements were offered. The vendible milk (P0.05) were 25, 2.4, and 2.54 L/d; supplement intake (P>0.05) were 0.35, 0.76, and 0.52 kg DM/d, and liveweight gain (P>0.05) were 0.41, 0.48, and 0.37 for F, M, and FM treatments, respectively. It was concluded that the milk contribution to supply the requirements of energy and protein diminishes, because its consumption remains constant whereas the requirements increased, but the yearling calves have the capacity to fit the consumption of the components of the diet, when they find restrictions due to offered amount, quality and palatability.

Carlos, Canelones; Manuel, Castejon.

2006-09-01

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Harinas de planta entera de frijol (Vigna unguiculata) y de mazorca de maíz (Zea mays) como suplemento para becerros antes del destete / Flours of whole cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and cob maize (Zea mays) as supplements for suckling calves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los sistemas de producción de doble-propósito, el amamantamiento restringido mejora el ingreso por leche vendible, pero es negativo para el crecimiento de los becerros. Sin embargo, un arreglo de alimentación agropastoril la suplementación con cultivos podría mejorar el suministro de nutrientes. [...] Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el consumo de harinas de frijol y de mazorca de maíz, el consumo de leche y el crecimiento de becerros pre-destete. El ensayo tuvo una duración de 217 días y se usaron 30 becerros hijos de vacas mestizas de Brahmán x Holstein x Simmental. Se colocaron  cinco becerros en tres tratamientos ubicados en dos bloques al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: harina de frijol (F), harina de maíz (M) y harina de frijol + harina de maíz (FM) todos a voluntad. Los becerros entraron al experimento entre 30 y 45 días de nacidos y después del ordeño permanecieron 30 minutos con sus madres, para luego ser llevados a potreros de Cynodon nlemfuensis durante 6 horas/día. En la tarde fueron alojados en corrales individuales donde se les ofreció el suplemento. La producción de leche vendible (P0,05) fueron 2,5 2,4 y 2,54 L/d; de suplementos (P0,05) 0,41 0,48 y 0,37 para F, M y FM, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el aporte de la leche para suplir los requerimientos de energía y proteína disminuye, debido a que su consumo permanece constante mientras que los requerimientos aumentan, pero los becerros tienen la capacidad de ajustar el consumo de los componentes de la dieta, cuando encuentran restricciones debidas a cantidad ofrecida, calidad y palatabilidad. Abstract in english In the dual purpose systems, the restricted sukling increases the income due to vendible milk, but in turn it decreases the yearling calf growth if they are not properly supplemented. An agropastoral system with crops for supplementation would improve the calf feeding. This work had as aim to study [...] milk intake, whole cowpea and whole maize cob flours intake and calves growth. The experiment lasted for 217 days and were used 30 calves, from crossbred cows (Brahman x Holstein x Simmental). There were five calves in each of the three treatments in two randomized blocks. Treatments were: cowpea flour (F), maize flour (M), and cowpea plus maize flour (FM) all of them ad libitum. Calves were incorporated to the trial at 30-45 days age. They stayed with their dams about 30 minutes after milking, thereafter were taken to paddocks of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) during 6 h/d. In the afternoon were taken into individual pens where the supplements were offered. The vendible milk (P0.05) were 25, 2.4, and 2.54 L/d; supplement intake (P>0.05) were 0.35, 0.76, and 0.52 kg DM/d, and liveweight gain (P>0.05) were 0.41, 0.48, and 0.37 for F, M, and FM treatments, respectively. It was concluded that the milk contribution to supply the requirements of energy and protein diminishes, because its consumption remains constant whereas the requirements increased, but the yearling calves have the capacity to fit the consumption of the components of the diet, when they find restrictions due to offered amount, quality and palatability.

Carlos, Canelones; Manuel, Castejon.

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Nutritional aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fortified cookies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Defatted cowpea flour was used to replace 10%, 20% and 30% of wheat flour in cookies. The wheat flour and cowpea-fortified cookies were prepared with standardized levels of ingredients. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and sensory characteristics of the different cookies were investigated. The fortification with cowpea flour increased the contents of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus and reducing non-reducing and total sugars. The fortification resulted in slight reduction in the in vitro digestibility. The products were accepted by the panelists who gave high scores for most of the attributes, although the fortification with more than 10% cowpea flour significantly (P<0.05) affected those attributes when compared with the control sample.(Author)

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Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) after tannery sludge compost amendment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with ta [...] nnery sludge compost (TSC). Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%). Only Cr accumulation was significant (P

Maria Doroteia, Marçal Silva; Ademir Sérgio, Ferreira Araújo; Luís Alfredo, Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José, de Melo; Rajeev, Pratap Singh.

2013-09-01

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Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) after tannery sludge compost amendment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with ta [...] nnery sludge compost (TSC). Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%). Only Cr accumulation was significant (P

Maria Doroteia, Marçal Silva; Ademir Sérgio, Ferreira Araújo; Luís Alfredo, Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José, de Melo; Rajeev, Pratap Singh.

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Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 ?mol plant-1 week-1. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N2-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N2-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW showing large variation among lines. Most of the tolerance to P deficiency was due to increase in the nodule function rather than conservation of nodule mass. In conclusion, the screening in glasshouse hydroaeroponics made it possible to sort cowpea lines in SNF potential to fix N2, and in tolerance to P deficiency. (author)

 
 
 
 
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Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

2014-01-01

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Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L. in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L. Grains using Botanicals  

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Full Text Available An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L. was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no protectant and standard actellic super dust, making a total of 13 treatments. A split plot experiment in which the two commercial cultivars were the main plots while the 13 protectant treatments comprised the subplots was used as a Randomized Complete Design with four replications. Cultured pest weevils were placed in vials containing cowpea seeds and the respective sub-plot treatments including the two controls; ashes of rice husks, kitchen and cow dung; powders of dried leaves of Tephrosia vogelii, neem, pyrethrum flowers, tobacco snuff, black pepper fruit and their various combinations. Data were recorded after 10 weeks of storage on number of bruchids after treatment, number of holes per seed, numbers of damaged and undamaged seeds. Protectants had varying degrees of effectiveness in controlling the cowpea weevil. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff, actellic super dust and combination of leaf powders of neem and Tephrosia vogelii significantly excelled the control of no protectant in controlling the cowpea weevil. Black pepper powder gave significantly better results than the control in suppressing bruchid survival, higher numbers of undamaged seeds and fewer holes per seed. The cowpea cultivars did not differ significantly on the studied traits. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff and combination of neem and Tephrosia are effective in controlling stored grain of cowpeas. Black pepper powder can as well be used for cowpea grain storage particularly where the aforementioned botanicals are not available.

Shazia O.W.M. Reuben

2006-01-01

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Nucleotide sequence of a genomic clone encoding a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) trypsin inhibitor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A protease inhibitor gene has been isolated from native cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. 130 from lambda-ZAP II genomic library. The nucleotide sequence of this genomic clone shared 86% homology with a cowpea trypsin inhibitor f IV mRNA, and 81% with Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor genes of soybean. [...] The isolated gene had TATA and CAT signals in the 5' upstream region. The longest open reading frame had 504 bases, encoding 167 amino acids from the predicted coding region. The active serine centers of this protein was found between 105-158 amino acid residues, with a 69 amino acids long signal peptide in its N terminal.

Paulraj Kirubakaran, Lawrence; Jayaveeramuthu, Nirmala; Kripa Ram, Koundal.

2001-04-15

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biologi [...] cal nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Terezinha Ferreira, Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de, Lima; José de Paula, Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo, Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

2011-09-01

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Seed Size Influence On Germination And Seedling Development Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp  

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Full Text Available The effect of seed size on the germination and seedling development was carried out on four local varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp, oloyin,drum, ifebrown and local white. Each of the varieties were sorted into big and small seeds, 100 seeds each of both big and small seeds of the four Varieties were weighed and the average weights were calculated and recorded. Six seeds of each sort were planted in a plastic pot filled with sandy-loamy soil in three replicates. Results of the various parameters studied revealed that germination efficiency was similar in both big and small seeds of drum, oloyin and ifebrown but not in small seeds of local white, weights of 100 seeds from big seeds were much heavier than those of small seeds. Number of leaves, leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area, stem height and dry weight, were consistently higher in cowpea plants from big seeds than the small seeds of all the varieties. Number of seeds per pod was higher in cowpea from big seeds in all the varieties except in drum where number of seeds was higher in plants from small seeds. In general, seedlings emerging from big seeds of all the cowpea varieties performed better in all the parameters studied than those emerging from smaller seeds.

Olayemi Ibukun Ehoniyotan

2013-09-01

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Comparative Analysis of Six DNA Extraction Methods in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp  

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Full Text Available High quality DNA extractions are a prerequisite for genetic studies of a variety of plants including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Nowadays, there are a great number of plant DNA extraction methods, and commercially available extraction kits are also becoming more and more popular. It appears that different procedures work best for different plant groups. Thus in the genetic studies of cowpea, which DNA extraction method to choose becomes a concern. To solve this problem, five classic plant DNA isolation methods, including three CTAB methods and two SDS methods, were compared and evaluated while isolation using a commercial kit was also undertaken. The DNA extracted by these six methods from two-week-old cowpea seedlings were analyzed according to their cost and time, yield, purity, integrity, and functionality in restriction endonuclease digestion and PCR (polymerase chain reaction based downstream analysis. After the evaluation, one most suitable method, described by Dellaporta et al. (1983 was selected and chosen for isolating DNA from young leaves of cowpea seedlings. The cost and time required in this method was relatively low. In addition, the quantity and the quality of the DNA extracted by this method were high enough to perform hundreds of PCR-based reactions.

Huaqiang Tan

2013-06-01

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Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ‘I [...] -484’ (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ‘I-490’ (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ‘I-484’. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ‘I-490’ se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ‘I-484’ (moderate sensibility to sa [...] linity) and ‘I-490’ (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ‘I-484’. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ‘I-490’ the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

Paola, Garzón; Marina, García.

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Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

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Composition and Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp Flour and Protein Isolates  

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Full Text Available Protein isolates from dehulled defatted cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. seeds were prepared using isoelectric (CPIA precipitation and micellization (CPIB procedures. Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB.The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF, protein isolates showed 75 and 76% for CPIA and CPIB, respectively. The minimum protein solubility for CPIA was at pH 5.0 and for CPIB at pH 4.0. Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions. For water and oil absorption capacity, DDCF gave 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample, respectively; while CPIA gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.93 mL oil g-1 sample, CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 sample. Thus CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein at pH 2.0 The emulsion capacity for both cowpea protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. Least gelation concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF and both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and (CPIB was noted at 12.0% (w/v at both pH 4.0 and 7.0.

E.A. Elkhalifa

2012-01-01

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Improved Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation in Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA1305.1, with a hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt and a ?-glucuronidase (GUS gene interrupted with an intron, was used for transformation of Vigna unguiculata cotyledonary node explants. High concentration of acetosyringone (200 ?M in the Agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium with 1 g L-1 L-cysteine, 250 mg L-1 Na-thiosulphate and 150 mg L-1 dithiothretiol (DTT proved to be indispensable for successful transformation. Three days old cotyledonary nodes were used for transformation studies. Binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.1 proved to be very efficient for transformation. Stable transformation with 1.61% efficiency was achieved using optimized conditions. Transformed green shoots were rooted on medium containing hygromycin. Transformed shoots tested positive for hpt gene by polymerase chain reaction. GUS activity was detected in cotyledonary nodes and leaves of the putative transformants. Southern analysis of putative transformants showed the integration of hpt into the plant genome.

S. Ignacimuthu

2010-01-01

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Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to Water Stress and Phosphorus Fertilization  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted in the experimental college of agriculture and forestry, in Maputo-Mozambique, in order to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to irrigation and phosphorus and test the hypothesis that high levels of phosphorus improves the tolerance of plants to water stress. We used a variety IT 18 of cowpea, short cycle and ended. The experiment was subdivided into building plots complete block design with five repetitions, the irrigation factor was fixed at the main plot with two levels (with irrigation and without irrigation and phosphorus factor in sub-plots with 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of phosphorus. The fertilization strongly influenced the yield and the number of pods per plant in both irrigation conditions. The effect of fertilizing phosphorus was higher under irrigation. The interaction was significant only for grain yield and number of pods, which means that the effect of phosphorus in these two variables has not been the same for the two levels of irrigation, high levels of phosphate fertilizer (P2O5 have improved the tolerance of cowpea when not irrigated.

V.G. Uarrota

2010-01-01

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Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: ? In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ? Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. ? Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. ? Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. ? Irradiatioutritional content. ? Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

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CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS. Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

Spraggins Thomas A

2007-04-01

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Generation Means Analysis of Seed Sucrose Content in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available The sucrose concentration of seeds is an important component of the taste in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. The objective of this research was to estimate the heritability, to investigate the mode of genetic control and to evaluate the potential for genetic improvement of sucrose content in cowpea using generation’s means analysis. F1 and F2 generations as well as backcross populations (BCP1 and BCP2 were produced in three hybrid combinations by crosses of four selected cultivars. The sucrose level was measured via a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC system. The range of variation in sucrose content among tested varieties was from 1.88 mg/g (Lori to 5.32 mg/g (C93W-24-125. Broad-sense heritability (h2 was of a moderate 58.50% to high 68.12% value and no transgressive segregation was observed. Narrow-sense heritability (39.47 to 47.83% and heterosis (-20.00 to - 5.94% values and gene effects analysis suggested that the sucrose content is controlled by additive and non-additive genes. At 10% level of selection, an increase of 19.60 to 33.64% was predicted after one cycle. Epistasis was significant in most of crosses and at least five genes affected the sucrose accumulation in cowpea seeds. These results suggested that breeding for increased sucrose content in the seeds of cowpea can be quite successful through recurrent selection in later generations.

J.B. Noubissie Tchiagam

2011-11-01

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Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.

Warin Pimpa

2006-07-01

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

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The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets fo...

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe Salazar-García; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo

2009-01-01

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Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu2+ activities as low as 1-2 ?M, the effect of Cu2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu2+. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu2+ activity of 1.0 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu2+ activity of 0.2 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ?0.77 ?M Cu2+, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

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Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp  

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Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (?Achishiru?, ?Aloka local?, ?Borno local?, ?Danila?, ?Danmisira?, ?Danwuri?, ?Kanannado? and ?Yambare? of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg, phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113, days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301, days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958 and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096. On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011. Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

Muhammad L. UMAR

2010-03-01

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Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp  

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Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (‘Achishiru’, ‘Aloka local’, ‘Borno local’, ‘Danila’, ‘Danmisira’, ‘Danwuri’, ‘Kanannado’ and ‘Yambare’ of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg, phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113, days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301, days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958 and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096. On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011. Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

Mohammed G. SANUSI

2009-12-01

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Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

2007-01-15

 
 
 
 
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Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Science.gov (United States)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

2011-09-01

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as trap plant  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

F.V. Silva

2012-06-01

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhi [...] zobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

F.V., Silva; J.L., Simões-Araújo; J.P., Silva Júnior; G.R., Xavier; N.G., Rumjanek.

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Desenvolvimento comparado de três cultivares de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Comparative growth of three cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se determinação comparada da área foliar, da partição de biomassa e da análise de crescimento em três cultivares de Vigna unguiculata (Epace-1, Epace-6 e Epace-8) mantidos em vasos sob condições naturais. Ométodo de estabelecimento da área foliar baseado na correlação entre o peso da matéri [...] a seca foliar com o peso de discos foliares de área conhecida mostrou-se equivalente a estimativa (c.1) 1,75, referente aos folíolos terminais. O cultivar Epace-1 apresentou maior número de folhas, maiores incrementos na área foliar e maior duração de área foliar em relação aos cultivares Epace-6 e Epace-8. Vigna unguiculata mostrou uma fase exponencial inicial no acúmulo de matéria seca e uma tendência sigmoidal após a maturidade. O acúmulo de biomassa na parte reprodutiva do caupi iniciou-se mais tardiamente no cultivar Epace-1, sendo que este cultivar alocou maior proporção de carboidratos no sistema radicular com relação aos cultivares Epace-6 e Epace-8. Verificou-se que o cultivar Epace-1 apresentou-se mais tardio do que os cultivares Epace-6 e Epace-8. O cultivar Epace-6 apresentou um incremento no crescimento na segunda fase do ciclo de desenvolvimento com relação aos cultivares Epace-8 e Epace-1. As plantas de caupi atingiram os valores mais altos de taxa assimilatória líquida e de taxa de crescimento relativo de 30 a 50 dias após a emergência. Vigna unguiculata apresentou incrementos na razão de área foliar e na razão de peso foliar de 28 a 42 dias após a emergência. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out to establish the comparative growth of three Vigna unguiculata cultivars throught determination of leaf area, dry matter partition and growth analysis. Leaf area established throught the method of relationship between total dry matter of leaves and dry matter of discs w [...] ith knowed area, and estimated by the product of length x maximum width of leaf x 1.75did not present differences. Cultivar Epace-1 showed higher leaf area duration in relation to Epace-6 and Epace-8 cowpea cultivars. Vigna unguiculata presented an initial exponential phase of dry matter accumulation and a sygmoid phase post-maturity. Accumulation of biomass in the reproductive part of cowpea 'Epace-1' was later and more effective in relation to Epace-6 and Epace-8 cultivars. Cultivar Epace-1 presented later development in relation to 'Epace.6' and 'Epace-8'. Epace-6 cultivar of cowpea showed higher growth on the second part of the plant life cycle in relation to Epace-8 and Epace-1 cultivars. Vigna unguiculata plants presented higher net assimilation rate and relative growth rate from 30 to 50 days after emergence. Cowpea snowed higher leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio from 28 to 42 days after emergence.

Paulo R.C., Castro; Homero, Bergamaschi; Joaquim A.G., Silveira; Paulo F.S., Martins.

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Physiological, biochemical and agromorphological responses of five cowpea genotypes (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to water deficit under glasshouse conditions  

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Five genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambey 21, Gorom local, KVX61-1, Mouride and TN88-63, grown in pots under glasshouse conditions, were submitted to water deficit by withholding irrigation at vegetative stage (T1) for 14 days, and at flowering stage (T2) for 12 days. Effect of this stress on leaf water potential, gas exchanges, foliar proline, total protein and starch contents, maximal quantum yield of photochemistry (fp0), root volume and yield components was determined. Leaf wat...

Diop, Nde?ye N.; Sita Guinko; Omar Diouf; Falalou Hamidou; Gérard Zombre; Serge Braconnier

2007-01-01

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The Response of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes for Salt Stress during Germination and Seedling Stage  

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Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most significant abiotic factors affecting growth and yield of cowpea in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Nineteen cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes were tested during germination and seedling stages of growth at 4 NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200mM. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS (version 9.1 statistical software. Germination percentage (GP, seedling shoot and root traits were evaluated. The analyzed data revealed highly significant (p<0.001 variation among cowpea genotypes, treatments and their interactions. It is found that salt stress significantly decreased root length and shoot length. The extent of decrease varied with accessions and salt concentrations. Most accessions were highly susceptible to 200 mM NaCl concentration. Genotypes 211557 and Asebot were better salt tolerant. The result showed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in cowpea genotypes for salt tolerance.

Ashebir Gogile

2013-11-01

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Transcriptional profiling of root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) using a soybean genome array  

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Abstract Background The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS) profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. Results Responses to M. incogni...

Das Sayan; Ehlers Jeffrey D; Close Timothy J; Roberts Philip A

2010-01-01

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Fate of ZnO nanoparticles in soils and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in various commercial products is prompting detailed investigation regarding the fate of these materials in the environment. There is, however, a lack of information comparing the transformation of ZnO-NPs with soluble Zn(2+) in both soils and plants. Synchrotron-based techniques were used to examine the uptake and transformation of Zn in various tissues of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) exposed to ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2 following growth in either solution or soil culture. In solution culture, soluble Zn (ZnCl2) was more toxic than the ZnO-NPs, although there was substantial accumulation of ZnO-NPs on the root surface. When grown in soil, however, there was no significant difference in plant growth and accumulation or speciation of Zn between soluble Zn and ZnO-NP treatments, indicating that the added ZnO-NPs underwent rapid dissolution following their entry into the soil. This was confirmed by an incubation experiment with two soils, in which ZnO-NPs could not be detected after incubation for 1 h. The speciation of Zn was similar in shoot tissues for both soluble Zn and ZnO-NPs treatments and no upward translocation of ZnO-NPs from roots to shoots was observed in either solution or soil culture. Under the current experimental conditions, the similarity in uptake and toxicity of Zn from ZnO-NPs and soluble Zn in soils indicates that the ZnO-NPs used in this study did not constitute nanospecific risks. PMID:24195448

Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; Johannessen, Bernt; Glover, Chris J; Kappen, Peter; Kopittke, Peter M

2013-12-01

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A stakeless yard long bean cultivar derived from an interspecific cross between cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and yard long bean Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: 'Yard long bean' is an important vegetable in the Thai diet, particularly in Northeast Thailand. However, growing 'yard long beans' requires stakes for supporting the twining stems and keeping the pod from touching the ground. Staking costs money, takes time and needs labour. An ideal cultivar would be a 'yard long bean' with erect plant type and under 80 cm in height that produces typical long bean pods and allows convenient picking during the harvest time. An attempt to breed such a cultivar was made by crossing cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) with' yard long bean' Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.) in 1984. This resulted in a new cultivar 'KKU 25'. This cultivar, having erect plant type, requires no staking for supporting the stem and produces long fresh pods with acceptable taste which can be harvested within 43 days. The average pod length is 48 cm, and pod diameter 1.43 cm. In a preliminary yield trial, an average fresh pod yield of 16 t/ha was obtained. (author)

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

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Full Text Available The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC, dehulled (DC, cooked (CC, germinated (GC and extruded (EXC. The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC, decorticado (DC, cocido (CC, germinado (GC y extruido (EXC. Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos.

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega

2009-04-01

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) / Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata) como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC), de [...] corticado (DC), cocido (CC), germinado (GC) y extruido (EXC). Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g) usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos. Abstract in english The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled [...] (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g) to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.

Martha Elisa, Rivas-Vega; Ofelia, Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe, Salazar-García; Josafat Marina, Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto, Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto, Civera-Cerecedo.

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Identification of Novel Resistance Gene Sources to Cowpea Aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.  

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Full Text Available The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236. The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (pAphis craccivora endemic to Zaria environs, or that of the ability of insects to overcome hindrances to their survival including various forms of resistance.

M.F. Ishiyaku

2013-01-01

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An improved genetic linkage map for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) combining AFLP, RFLP, RAPD, biochemical markers, and biological resistance traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved genetic linkage map has been constructed for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) based on the segregation of various molecular markers and biological resistance traits in a population of 94 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between 'IT84S-2049' and '524B'. A set of 242 molecular markers, mostly amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), linked to 17 biological resistance traits, resistance genes, and resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were scored for segregation within the parental and recombinant inbred lines. These data were used in conjunction with the 181 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), AFLP, and biochemical markers previously mapped to construct an integrated linkage map for cowpea. The new genetic map of cowpea consists of 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total of 2670 cM, with an average distance of 6.43 cM between markers. Astonishingly, a large, contiguous portion of LG1 that had been undetected in previous mapping work was discovered. This region, spanning about 580 cM, is composed entirely of AFLP markers (54 in total). In addition to the construction of a new map, molecular markers associated with various biological resistance and (or) tolerance traits, resistance genes, and RGAs were also placed on the map, including markers for resistance to Striga gesnerioides races 1 and 3, CPMV, CPSMV, B1CMV, SBMV, Fusarium wilt, and root-knot nematodes. These markers will be useful for the development of tools for marker-assisted selection in cowpea breeding, as well as for subsequent map-based cloning of the various resistance genes. PMID:11908660

Ouédraogo, J T; Gowda, B S; Jean, M; Close, T J; Ehlers, J D; Hall, A E; Gillaspie, A G; Roberts, P A; Ismail, A M; Bruening, G; Gepts, P; Timko, M P; Belzile, F J

2002-02-01

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Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

2014-01-01

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Identification of novel resistance gene sources to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p aphid. The reaction of IT84S-2246-4, a hitherto aphid resistant genotype, which supported higher levels of survival of the larvae relative to other known susceptible genotype IAR-48, may be an indication of the presence of a new biotype of Aphis craccivora endemic to Zaria environs, or that of the ability of insects to overcome hindrances to their survival including various forms of resistance. PMID:24506004

Aliyu, H; Ishiyaku, M F

2013-08-01

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GENETIC CONTROL OF SEED SIZE IN COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp  

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Full Text Available Seed size contributes to yield and it is also a consumer trait of cowpea in Ghana and other parts of the world. Ghanaian consumers tend to prefer large seeded cowpea to small sizes although, Ghanaian varieties have smaller seeds compared to the imported types. This might be a contributing factor to high importation of cowpea to Ghana. To breed cowpeas with large grains, it is paramount to understand the inheritance of the trait. Generation mean analysis was performed to estimate gene actions on seed size of cowpea using CB27 and Gh3710 as the large and small seeded parents respectively. It was observed that eight genes control seed size and that small seed is partially dominant over large seed. The estimated broad sense heritability was 84% while the narrow sense was 35%. Both additive and non-additive genes with their interactions in the exception of additive - additive had significant effect on seed size inheritance in cowpea. The inheritance of seed size was observed to be complex, it was suggested that combinations of methods such as single seed descent and backcross methods with selection from early generations through advanced level would help improve seed size of cowpea.

EGBADZOR K.F.

2013-10-01

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Cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.: traditional and improved cropping methods in northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The present article describes the traditional cowpea cropping system in Dambatta, Kano State, Nigeria. Through a baseline survey it becomes clear that traditionally cowpea is mostly intercropped with cereals, that the importance of land preparation is marginal, that yields are low and that, in general, the technical level of the cowpea grower is low (low inputs of fertilizer and pesticide. In a second part some data are given about a project that introduced à new cowpea variety, T.V.X.-3.236, and improved methods. It is shown that, although better yields are possible, the extension service does not succeed in motivating the farmers enough so that the outcome of the project intervention is uncertain.

W. Sampers

1986-01-01

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COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.) / COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP) base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ) para l [...] os caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa) y vega (textura franco-arcillosa). Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a) Sin fertilizante; b) FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c) DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d), con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreció el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF) on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF) for the above characters. Two soil types were used: sa [...] vanna (sand lime texture) and “vega” (lime clay texture). Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a) without fertilizer; b) CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c) WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS), with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor

Jesús Rafael, Méndez-Natera; Víctor Alejandro, Otahola-Gómez; Rubén E, Pereira-Garantón; José A, Simosa-Mallé; Luis, Tellis; Enrique, Zabala.

59

COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP. COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L. WALP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ para los caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa y vega (textura franco-arcillosa. Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a Sin fertilizante; b FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d, con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreci?? el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF for the above characters. Two soil types were used: savanna (sand lime texture and “vega” (lime clay texture. Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a without fertilizer; b CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS, with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor for average number of total germination days and germination velocity, whit averages of 3.2 and 7.9,

Jesús Rafael Méndez-Natera

2007-04-01

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Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15N sources included residual soil 15N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N2 fixed varied with the source of 15N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 15N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

 
 
 
 
61

Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips  

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Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

Ampong-Nyarko, K.

1994-01-01

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Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). / Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluy [...] en pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %). Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral. Abstract in english In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that al [...] low to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%). The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

Z.M., Peña P.; G., Trujillo.

63

Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp..  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %. Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%. The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

Z.M. Peña P.

2006-10-01

64

Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). / Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluy [...] en pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %). Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral. Abstract in english In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that al [...] low to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%). The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

Z.M., Peña P.; G., Trujillo.

2006-10-01

65

Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in the Tropics / Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. en los Trópicos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En los trópicos húmedos, el mayor obstáculo para la aplicación de sistemas de agricultura sostenible es la reducción de la eficiencia del uso de nutrientes por los cultivos. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de cinco cepas de rizobios seleccionados en simbiosis con frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. [...] ), con el objetivo de sustituir la fertilización nitrogenada en el sistema de uso de suelo predominante utilizado por los pequeños agricultores. El estudio se llevó a cabo en tres zonas adyacentes de distintos usos agrícolas: labranza convencional, agricultura itinerante, y un sistema de no laboreo. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete tratamientos: cinco cepas de rizobios (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B y UFLA 3-84) y dos controles sin inocular (uno sin N mineral y otro fertilizado con 74 kg de N ha-1). Se midió el peso en seco de 100 granos, de los nódulos y de los brotes, así como los rendimientos de frijol y se calcularon los índices de eficiencia relativa y absoluta para la producción de biomasa seca de los brotes de frijol. El sistema de uso del suelo afecta el número y peso en seco de los nódulos y, en consecuencia, la masa de la materia vegetal seca y el rendimiento del frijol. En términos de rendimiento, hubo una gran diferencia entre el convencional y los sistemas itinerantes. La productividad fue alrededor de cuatro veces mayor en la agricultura itinerante (1009,9 kg ha-1 en comparación con 243,7 kg ha-1). En condiciones de suelos propensos a la cohesión, el sistema de labranza convencional reduce la posibilidad de cultivo de una segunda cosecha en el año, incluso con la inoculación o la fertilización nitrogenada. Abstract in english In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), with the objective of r [...] eplacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage, itinerant agriculture, and a no-till system. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates and seven treatments: five rhizobia strains (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B, and UFLA 3-84) and two controls without inoculation (one without mineral N and another fertilized with 74 kg N ha-1). We measured the dry mass of 100 grains, nodules and shoots, as well as cowpea yields and calculated relative and absolute efficiency indices for dry biomass production of cowpea shoots. Agricultural uses affected the number and dry mass of the nodules and, consequently, the mass of the dry plant matter and bean yield. In terms of yield, there was a major difference between the conventional and the itinerant systems. Yield was around four times as high in the itinerant system (1009.9 kg ha-1 compared to 243.7 kg ha-1). Under conditions of cohesion-prone soils, the system of conventional tillage reduces the possibility of cultivation of a second harvest in the year even with inoculation or N fertilization.

José Geraldo, Donizetti dos Santos; Alana das Chagas, Ferreira Aguiar; Edilson Máximo, Silva Junior; Danubia, Lemes Dadalto; Merijane, Rodrigues Sousa; Gustavo, Ribeiro Xavier; Emanoel, Gomes de Moura.

66

Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length of seedling in vigna unguiculata . The chlorine water has inhibitory effect on root growth ( radical length and number of rootlets in Vigna unguiculata . The fresh weight and dry weight goes on decreasing in chlorine water treatment of Vigna unuiculata over control.Chlorine is essential micronutrient in plant vital processes. However, higher concentration of chlorine inhibits the plant vital process during seed germination of Vigna uguiculata. The higher concentration of chlorine affects the seed germination percentage, leaves number, seedling growth, radical length with rootlets, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling

Sharad Phulari

2013-08-01

67

Screening Selected Genotypes of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] for Salt Tolerance During Seedling Growth Stage  

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Full Text Available The environmental stress such as, salinity (soil or water are serious obstacles for field crops especially in the arid and semi-arid parts of the world. This study was conducted to assess the potential for salt tolerance of cowpea genotypes during the seedling stage. The experimental treatments were 9 cowpea genotypes and 4 NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM and they were tested in greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized design in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS (version 9.1 statistical software. Seedling shoots and root traits, seedling shoots and root weight, number of leaves and total biological yield were evaluated. The analyzed data revealed highly significant (p<0.001 variation among cowpea genotypes, treatments and their interactions. It is found that salt stress significantly decreased root length, shoot length, seedling shoot and root weight of cowpea genotypes. The extent of decrease varied with genotypes and salt concentrations. Most genotypes were highly susceptible to 200 mM NaCl concentration. The correlation analysis revealed positive and significant association among most of the parameters. Genotypes 210856, 211557 and Asebot were better salt tolerant. The study revealed the presence of broad intra specific genetic variation in cowpea varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production.

M. Muthuswamy

2013-01-01

68

Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming sig...

Eskandari, Hamdollah; Kazemi, Kamyar

2011-01-01

69

Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis  

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Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI

2011-11-01

70

Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp as influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed interference in South-West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Weed problem appears to be the most deleterious factor causing between 25 and 60% reduction in potential yield of cowpea. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effect of inter-row spacing and period of weed interference on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07° 15'; 03° 25' E in South Western Nigeria during the early and late wet seasons of 2009. The experiment consisted of eight main plots of weed interference which included initial weed removal for 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS and subsequently weed –infested until harvest as well as initial weed infestation for corresponding periods and thereafter kept weed free until harvest. There were also sub-plot treatments of three inter-row spacing of 60, 75, and 90 cm. All treatments in different combinations were laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. In both trials, the use of inter-row spacing of 60 cm resulted in significant reduction in weed growth as evident in lower weed dry matter production and subsequent higher cowpea pod and grain yields than those of 75 and 90 cm inter-row spacing. Initial weed infestation of up to 3 WAS did not have any adverse effect on crop growth and cowpea grain yields provided the weeds were subsequently removed. On the other hand, cowpea grain yield loss was not significantly averted by keeping the crop weed free for only 3 WAS without subsequent weed removal. In this study, initial weed-infestation for 6 WAS and beyond significantly depressed various crop growth parameter and cowpea grain yield compared with the crop kept weed free throughout its life cycle. In order to obtain optimum yields similar to that of the weed free cowpea field, it was required to keep the crop weed free for 6 WAS and beyond. However, frequent weeding beyond 9 weeks after sowing did not improve cowpea yield significantly and as a matter of fact it may even result in reduction of cowpea grain yield due to mechanical damage of hoe weeding. The practical implication of this finding is that early weeding starting from 3 WAS is very crucial for cowpea production while the critical period of weed removal for optimum yield in cowpea is between 3 and 9 WAS in the forest-savannah transitional zone of south Western Nigeria.

Joseph Adigun

2014-03-01

71

Physiological and Biochemical Variations in Seed Germination of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Cultivars  

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Full Text Available Germination, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG, lipid and sugar compositions were determined in whole ungerminated seed of three cowpea cultivars. The cultivars were chosen for biochemical characteristics based on seed germination and coefficient of velocity of germination tests. Texas cream 40 was able to germinate at very high and low temperatures. Black Crowder demonstrated acceptable germination at high temperatures but negatively affected at low temperature. Mississippi Purple obtained low germination percent and CVG at all temperatures studied. The main sugars present in cowpea seed are sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. Sugar contents were affected by cultivar. Sugar compositions were higher in the cultivars with high percent germination and reduced in the cultivar with lower percent germination suggesting the use of sugar for seed germination process. The most abundant fatty acids in cowpea seed were palmitic acid [CH3(CH214COOH; (16:0], palmitoleic acid [CH3(CH25CH = CH(CH27COOH; (16:1], stearic acid [CH3(CH216COOH; (18:0], oleic acid [CH3(CH27CH = CH(CH27COOH; (18:1], linoleic acid [CH3(CH24CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2(CH26 COOH; (18:2], linolenic acid [CH3CH2CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2CH = CH(CH27COOH; (18:3] and arachidic acid [CH3(CH218COOH; (20:0]. The result shows that the long-chain fatty acid appears to be important in the cowpea seed germination process. Thus, the information provided by this research will facilitate future plant physiological and genetic studies of cowpea cultivars.

Jr. James O. Garner

2008-01-01

72

Comparative Protection of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walpers Against Field Insect Pests Using Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Cypermethrin (Cymbush  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of ethanolic extract of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL in protecting Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. against field insect pests was ascertained through two field trials at two different planting seasons by comparing with a suitable insecticide, Cymbush 10 EC containing 100 g Cypermethrin per litre of water under natural infestation at Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. The liquid which is viscous and contains Phenolic compounds was first standardized in the screen house using concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% to determine a marginal position of high protective capability and non-toxicity to the leaves. About 1.0% proved most effective and it was subsequently transferred to the field for comparison with Cymbush. CNSL was evaluated through the assessment of Insect Pest Number and Percentage Flower Infestation. From these, results were obtained on pod characteristics, yield and yield components, which showed that the 1.0% formulation of CNSL selected was as effective as Cymbush showing a comparatively higher protective ability.

T.I. Ofuya

2010-01-01

73

Induction of Genetic Variation in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. by Gamma Irradiation  

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Full Text Available Cowpea IT84S2246D mutants were screened for useful agronomic traits. Dry seeds of cowpea ’IT 84S2246D were exposed to gamma irradiation from cobalt 60 source at 196 and 245 Gy dosages. The non-irradiated parent was used as the control. Identification and selections were carried out at the second generation (M2. The eight mutants selected from 245 Gy population included plants with light green pods, plants with leaflets having tendrils, early maturing plants with broad leaflets, plants with pigmented pods and plants with pods above canopy. They also included plants with dark green pods, plants with wide angled pods and pigmented plants with hairy pods. The two mutants selected from 196 Gy populations were early maturing and dwarf plants. The selected mutants were found to possess useful agronomic traits capable of conferring on them selection advantage for increased yield, easy harvesting and insect tolerance.

O.F. Adekola

2007-01-01

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Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cowpea Mutant (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) as Revealed by RAPD Marker  

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The aim of present study is examine the effect of different doses gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and combination of both gamma rays with EMS on cowpea seeds and to identify DNA polymorphism among the mutants through a RAPD marker analysis. The mutants showing the differences in morphological traits showed DNA polymorphism in PCR profile amplified by RAPD marker. Ten random decamer primers revealed a high DNA polymorphism among the mutant populations like tall, dwarf, leaf; flower and se...

Devarajan Dhanavel; Seenuvasan Gnanamurthy; rugan Girija,

2013-01-01

75

Response of Vegetable Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to Intra-Row Spacing and Defoliation at Garkawa  

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Full Text Available A field experiment aimed at investigating the response of vegetable cowpea to intra-row spacing and defoliation at 4, 6 and 8 Weeks after Sowing (WAS was conducted in 2009 at the Plateau State College of Agriculture, Garkawa, Nigeria (Southern guinea Savannah. Treatments consisted of four intra-row spacing (20, 30, 40, 50 cm, respectively and four defoliation levels (0, 25, 50 and 75%, respectively. These were factorially combined and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Vegetable Cowpea growth related characters (plant height, shoot fresh weight per plant increased significantly with decreasing levels of intra-row spacing. The intra-row spacing of 20 cm yielded 5.7 g edible leaf yields per plot. Defoliation level at 25% gave 6.8 edible leaf yields. The interaction between intra-row spacing at 20 cm and defoliation level at 25% produced the highest green pod yield of 404.7 kg/ha. Based on these findings, it would be suggested that harvesting 25% leaves of vegetable cowpea at a spacing of 20 cm at 4 and 6 WAS be practiced for optimum leaf and seed production.

S.H. Badi

2012-05-01

76

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality  

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Full Text Available Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays and cowpea (Vigna sinensis monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on forage dry weight, where dry matter yield was increased by intercropping as compared with maize and cowpea sole crops. It was related with a higher consumption consumption of environmental resources, such as photosynthetically active radiation and soil moisture, by intercropping. Maize forage quality in terms of crude protein was improved by intercropping. It was because of more nitrogen availability for maize in intercropping compared with its sole crop.

Ahmad GHANBARI

2009-11-01

77

Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.  

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Full Text Available Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152 of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi and mean square deviations (s2di from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment, environment (linear weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability analysis, the genotype IL3 was found stable across the seasons fortest weight. Genotypes such as M17, Goa local and Bailhongal local were stable and superior across all the environments for seed yield.

Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

2010-12-01

78

Determination of Genotypical Differences for Leaf Characteristics in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes  

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Full Text Available Leaf characteristics of ten cowpea genotypes, including registered Cv. Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, from diverse locations in Turkey and relationships among leaf characteristics such as length of leaf, petiole, petiolule and terminal leaflet, terminal leaflet width and leaf area were determined. Significant differences were found among genotypes in terms of leaf and petiole length while highly significant differences found for petiolule length. There were no significant differences among genotypes for width and length of terminal leaflet and leaf area. Terminal leaflet length positively and significantly correlated with petiole and petiolule length. Positive and highly significant correlations were found between the other leaf characteristics.

Erkut Peksen

2005-01-01

79

Extraction, purification, and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15 M NaCl for 30 min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90°C for 10 min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ?8000 kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90°C for 60 min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods. PMID:24117148

Wang, Jia; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Jing; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

2014-01-01

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Transport and utilization of 14C photosynthate in cowpea (Vigna uniquiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out to study the transport and distribution patterns of 14C assimilate during the reproductive phase of cowpea var. Pusa dofashali. The pattern of 14C distribution and relative transport from different leaf positions were assessed. The effect of 'Source' and 'Sink' size on movement and distribution of assimilates was also studied. During the reproductive phase, a considerable amount of 14C assimilates was trans-located to pod (34%) and to stem and branches (25.5%). Roots gained little amount of assimilate when whole plant was exposed to 14CO2. The export of 14C assimilates from middle leaf on plant without pod as well as from leaf at node bearing pod was of greater maqnitude as compared with the lowest leaf on the main stem. Export of 14C photosynthates was highest from 'source leaf' when all other leaves were removed and a higher proportion of 14C was recovered in stem and pods. When pods were removed the export of assimilate from source leaf was reduced. On depodded plants the stem and roots accumulated considerably larger amounts of 14C assimilates than normal plants. The assimilate requirements by pods determined the degree of diversion of assimilate into the vegetative parts during the reproductive ohase. Thus source sink relationships in varietal improvement programmes with cowpea merit consideration. (auth.)ation. (auth.)

 
 
 
 
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VALOR NUTRICIONAL DEL ENSILAJE DE MAÍZ CULTIVADO EN ASOCIO CON VIGNA (Vigna radiata  

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Full Text Available Se cuantificó la fermentabilidad y valor nutricional del ensilaje de maíz cultivado en asocio con vigna (Vigna radiata mediante la técnica de microsilos. Se trabajó con 2 densidades de siembra de maíz y vigna (70:30 y 60:40, 3 niveles de melaza (0, 2 y 4% p/p e inóculo bacterial (con o sin. El material se cosechó a 85 días de sembrado. Al material antes de ensilar y ensilado se le determinó materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, extracto etéreo (EE, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS, cenizas (Ce, fibra detergente neutro (FDN, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, capacidad buffer (CB, pH, nitrógeno amoniacal (N-NH3.N-total-1 y lignina. Al mejor tratamiento, se le fraccionó la PC y se estimó el contenido energético. La asociación maíz-vigna presentó un contenido de humedad, digestibilidad y Ce alto; PC y EE aceptables y contenidos de FDN y FDA bajos. En el material ensilado, la densidad de siembra fectó la MS, Ce, PC, EE, FDN, FDA, lignina, N-NH3.N-total-1, CB y pH. La melaza modificó la composición nutricional y las características fermentativas de los tratamientos, excepto el pH. El inóculo bacterial afectó la PC, CB y pH del material. La densidad de siembra 70:30, con adición de 2% de melaza y sin inóculo bacterial presentó valores de DIVMS y PC altos, porcentajes de FDN y FDA bajos, N-NH3 bajo y un pH inferior a 4,2. En este ensilaje se estimó un valor de NDT (1X de 63,9% y de ED, EM, ENm, ENg y ENl de 2,8, 2,3, 1,4, 0,8 y 1,4 Mcal.kg-1 MS, respectivamente. La fracción proteica se separó en A, B1, B2, B3 y C con valores de 2,3, 0,2, 2,6,2,4 y 1,9% PC, respectivamente, donde el 24,4% de la PC es degradable en el rumen, lo cual podría limitar la síntesis de proteína microbial.

Marianela Castillo Jim\\u00E9nez

2009-01-01

82

Effects of Salinity Stress on Growth, Ions Partitioning and Yield of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In this study, twenty one cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. were tested for their salt tolerance at different degrees of salinity; 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM of NaCl, in both the laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, Na+, K+, K/Na ratio, plant height, roots dry weights, stems and leaves were investigated. In the field conditions, yield components (weight of 1000 seeds, number of pods per plant, total chlorophyll and grains yield were determined in harvesting phase. Results showed that K+ concentration, K/Na ratio, seedlings height and total chlorophyll were significantly decreased by salt solutions, especially by 200 mM and the magnitude of reduction varied according to cultivars. Na+ was significantly increased with increasing NaCl concentrations in all plant organs. Roots dry weights as well as stems and leaves decreased significantly in all cultivars with increasing salinity except in organs of Bambey 21 (V11, IT97K-556-4 (V3 and IT04K-332-1 (V10 cultivars. Under field conditions, the weight of 1000 seeds, the number of pods per plant and grains yield were affected by soil salinity at 50 mM of all cultivars except in Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1. The results obtained during vegetative growth and harvesting phase suggested that Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1 cultivars were relatively tolerant to salinity than others. Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1 cultivars could be grown in environments with varying salinity.

Victor Desire Taffouo

2009-01-01

83

Inheritance of Time to First Flower in Photo-insensitive Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Early maturity is a relatively important agronomic trait and is important in the adaptation of annual crops, including cowpea to any agro ecological zone. This trait was studied using days to first flowering under screen house condition to determine heterotic effects, heritability and inheritance of early heritable (h2ns was 98.9% while (h2bs was 68%. The F1 hybrid performed better than the average parent by 8.82 and 23.3% over the superior parent. Transgressive segregation was observed in the F2 population with plants flowering 9 days earlier than the early parent and 37 days later than the late maturing parent. Inheritance of earliness was observed to be controlled by duplicate dominant epistasis with late flowering partially dominant over early flowering.

A.O. Adeyanju

2007-01-01

84

Genetic divergence in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] for yield components and seed quality parameters  

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Full Text Available Forty cowpea genotypes were evaluated for 18 quantitative characters to estimate the genetic diversity existing among them by using Mahalanobis D2statistics. The genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The cluster strength varied from single genotype (Clusters III, IV and V to 25 genotypes (Cluster I. Clusteres IV and VI had high inter cluster distance. Clusters II, III and I had maximum 100-seed weight, number of seeds per pod and seed yield respectively. Cluster IV had maximum seedling vigour index, germination per cent, peduncle length, number of clusters per plant and number of primary branches. The genotypes from clusters IV and IV may be inter crossed to obtain high variation.

Brahmaiah M, Jhansi Rani K, Sunil N and Keshavulu K

2014-03-01

85

Physiological and Biochemical Effects of ?-Irradiation on Cowpea Plants (Vigna sinensis under Salt Stress  

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Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the possible role of ?-irradiation in alleviating soil salinity stress during plant growth was investigated. Increasing salinity in the soil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl decreased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total carbohydrate content and mineral uptake compared to control, while increased total phenol content, proline, total free amino acids and lipid peroxidation. Seed irradiation with gamma rays significantly increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrate, total phenol, proline, total free amino acids and the contents of N, P, K +, Ca+2 and Mg+2 compared to non irradiated ones under salinity. On the other hand, irradiation with gamma rays decreased lipid peroxidation, Na+ and Cl- contents which may contribute in part to activate processes involved in the alleviation of the harmful effect of salt at all concentrations used (25, 50 and 100 mM except at the high concentration (200 mM. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities among all treatments.

Asmaa M. MOGAZY

2013-05-01

86

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cowpea Mutant (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp as Revealed by RAPD Marker  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study is examine the effect of different doses gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and combination of both gamma rays with EMS on cowpea seeds and to identify DNA polymorphism among the mutants through a RAPD marker analysis. The mutants showing the differences in morphological traits showed DNA polymorphism in PCR profile amplified by RAPD marker. Ten random decamer primers revealed a high DNA polymorphism among the mutant populations like tall, dwarf, leaf; flower and seed mutants were analyzed. Ten primers produced a total of 60 amplified products. Among these 48 were monomorphic with an average of 53.84 per cent polymorphism. Only five primers (PG-04, PG-05, PG-07, OPA-05 and OPA-07 showed highest polymorphism. The primer OPA-02 gave the lowest polymorphism (22.27%. Highest genetic coefficient similarity (0.76 was observed between leaf and tall; whereas least similarity (0.58 was observed between control and leaf. In a Dendrogram constructed based on genetic similarity coefficients, t

Devarajan Dhanavel

2013-06-01

87

Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed c [...] oats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

Walison Fabio, Rogério; Ralf, Greiner; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Sabrina, Feitosa; Dalva Maria da Nóbrega, Furtunato; Deusdélia Teixeira de, Almeida.

88

Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed c [...] oats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

Walison Fabio, Rogério; Ralf, Greiner; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Sabrina, Feitosa; Dalva Maria da Nóbrega, Furtunato; Deusdélia Teixeira de, Almeida.

2014-06-01

89

Efecto del procesamiento sobre las propiedades funcionales de Vigna Sinensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O feijão-de-corda (Vigna sinensis) é uma leguminosa de origem tropical que forma parte dos hábitos alimentícios de muitas regiões latino americanas, onde se consume basicamente em forma de grão integral. Devido seu alto potencial nutricional é importante incrementar seu consumo e diversificar seu us [...] o como ingrediente no desenvolvimento de produtos alimentícios. Para isto é necessário conhecer suas propriedades funcionais, tanto na matéria prima crua, como processada. Neste trabalho se avaliaram propriedades tais como absorção de água e gordura, capacidade emulsificante, espumante e gelificante em farinhas de duas variedades de feijão-de-corda venezuelano. Encontrou-se que o processamento térmico úmido, assim como a fermentação natural, incrementam a capacidade para absorver água e gordura, mas diminuem a capacidade espumante, assim como a estabilidade da espuma. A fermentação natural por 48h a 42ºC não altera a capacidade emulsificante das farinhas cruas. Com base nos resultados se sugere a incorporação de farinhas fermentadas e cozidas de feijão-de-corda para a elaboração de alimentos viscosos tais como sopas, molhos, massas e produtos assados no forno, assim como para produtos emulsionados tais como maioneses, molhos, sobremesas congeladas e embutidos. Também cabe sugerir sua incorporação a produtos fritos tais como empanadas, croquetes ou roscas. Abstract in spanish El frijol (Vigna sinensis) es una leguminosa de origen tropical que forma parte de los hábitos alimenticios de muchas regiones latinoamericanas, donde se consume básicamente en forma de grano integral. Dado su alto potencial nutricional es importante incrementar su consumo y diversificar su uso como [...] ingrediente en el desarrollo de productos alimenticios. Para ello es necesario conocer sus propiedades funcionales, tanto en la materia prima cruda, como procesada. En este trabajo se evaluaron propiedades tales como absorción de agua y grasa, capacidad emulsificante, espumante y gelificante en harinas de dos variedades de frijol venezolano. Se encontró que el procesamiento térmico húmedo, así como la fermentación natural, incrementan la capacidad para absorber agua y grasa, pero disminuyen la capacidad espumante, así como la estabilidad de la espuma. La fermentación natural por 48h a 42ºC no altera la capacidad emulsificante de las harinas crudas. Con base en los resultados se sugiere la incorporación de harinas fermentadas y cocidas de frijol para la elaboración de alimentos viscosos tales como sopas, salsas, masas y productos horneados, así como para productos emulsionados tales como mayonesas, salsas, postres congelados y embutidos. También cabe sugerir su incorporación a productos fritos tales como empanadas, croquetas o donas. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) is a tropical legume that is part of the daily diet of many Latin American regions, where it is mostly consumed as whole grain. Given its nutritional potential, it is important to increase its consumption and diversify its use as an ingredient in foodstuff development. To ach [...] ieve this, it is important to know the functional properties of the raw material as well as those of the processed one. In this work, properties such as water and fat absorption, emulsifying, foaming and jelling capacities of flours of two varieties of a Venezuelan cowpea were evaluated. It was found that wet thermal processing, as well as natural fermentation, increased the capacity to absorb water and fat, but decreased foaming capacity as well as the foam stability. Natural fermentation for 48h at 42ºC does not alter the emulsifying capacity of the raw flours. Based on the results, the incorporation of fermented and cooked bean flours for the manufacture of viscous foodstuffs such as soups, sauces, dough and baked products, as well as emulsified products such as mayonnaise, sauces, frozen desserts and sausages, is suggested. Its use for the manufacture of fried foodstuf

Marisela, Granito; Marisa, Guerra; Alexia, Torres; Julieta, Guinand.

90

Efecto del procesamiento sobre las propiedades funcionales de Vigna Sinensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O feijão-de-corda (Vigna sinensis) é uma leguminosa de origem tropical que forma parte dos hábitos alimentícios de muitas regiões latino americanas, onde se consume basicamente em forma de grão integral. Devido seu alto potencial nutricional é importante incrementar seu consumo e diversificar seu us [...] o como ingrediente no desenvolvimento de produtos alimentícios. Para isto é necessário conhecer suas propriedades funcionais, tanto na matéria prima crua, como processada. Neste trabalho se avaliaram propriedades tais como absorção de água e gordura, capacidade emulsificante, espumante e gelificante em farinhas de duas variedades de feijão-de-corda venezuelano. Encontrou-se que o processamento térmico úmido, assim como a fermentação natural, incrementam a capacidade para absorver água e gordura, mas diminuem a capacidade espumante, assim como a estabilidade da espuma. A fermentação natural por 48h a 42ºC não altera a capacidade emulsificante das farinhas cruas. Com base nos resultados se sugere a incorporação de farinhas fermentadas e cozidas de feijão-de-corda para a elaboração de alimentos viscosos tais como sopas, molhos, massas e produtos assados no forno, assim como para produtos emulsionados tais como maioneses, molhos, sobremesas congeladas e embutidos. Também cabe sugerir sua incorporação a produtos fritos tais como empanadas, croquetes ou roscas. Abstract in spanish El frijol (Vigna sinensis) es una leguminosa de origen tropical que forma parte de los hábitos alimenticios de muchas regiones latinoamericanas, donde se consume básicamente en forma de grano integral. Dado su alto potencial nutricional es importante incrementar su consumo y diversificar su uso como [...] ingrediente en el desarrollo de productos alimenticios. Para ello es necesario conocer sus propiedades funcionales, tanto en la materia prima cruda, como procesada. En este trabajo se evaluaron propiedades tales como absorción de agua y grasa, capacidad emulsificante, espumante y gelificante en harinas de dos variedades de frijol venezolano. Se encontró que el procesamiento térmico húmedo, así como la fermentación natural, incrementan la capacidad para absorber agua y grasa, pero disminuyen la capacidad espumante, así como la estabilidad de la espuma. La fermentación natural por 48h a 42ºC no altera la capacidad emulsificante de las harinas crudas. Con base en los resultados se sugiere la incorporación de harinas fermentadas y cocidas de frijol para la elaboración de alimentos viscosos tales como sopas, salsas, masas y productos horneados, así como para productos emulsionados tales como mayonesas, salsas, postres congelados y embutidos. También cabe sugerir su incorporación a productos fritos tales como empanadas, croquetas o donas. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) is a tropical legume that is part of the daily diet of many Latin American regions, where it is mostly consumed as whole grain. Given its nutritional potential, it is important to increase its consumption and diversify its use as an ingredient in foodstuff development. To ach [...] ieve this, it is important to know the functional properties of the raw material as well as those of the processed one. In this work, properties such as water and fat absorption, emulsifying, foaming and jelling capacities of flours of two varieties of a Venezuelan cowpea were evaluated. It was found that wet thermal processing, as well as natural fermentation, increased the capacity to absorb water and fat, but decreased foaming capacity as well as the foam stability. Natural fermentation for 48h at 42ºC does not alter the emulsifying capacity of the raw flours. Based on the results, the incorporation of fermented and cooked bean flours for the manufacture of viscous foodstuffs such as soups, sauces, dough and baked products, as well as emulsified products such as mayonnaise, sauces, frozen desserts and sausages, is suggested. Its use for the manufacture of fried foodstuf

Marisela, Granito; Marisa, Guerra; Alexia, Torres; Julieta, Guinand.

2004-09-01

91

Mecanismos de adaptación a sequía en caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Una revisión / Drought adaptation mechanisms in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.). A review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de adaptación a sequía observados en fríjol caupí, mostrando las respuestas morfológicas, las relaciones hídricas e intercambio gaseoso, el ajuste osmótico, el sistema antioxidante y la actividad molecular. Se describen algunos indicadores que pe [...] rmiten la aproximación a un diagnóstico del nivel de estrés de las plantas tales como la relación raíz/parte aérea, densidad y profundidad de raíces, materia seca radical, área foliar específica, número de hojas y flores, senescencia foliar y abscisión foliar, componentes del rendimiento, conductancia estomática, transpiración, eficiencia en el uso del agua, contenido de osmolitos: prolina, glicina betaína y azucares; actividad de enzimas antioxidantes involucradas en procesos de detoxificación de las especies reactivas de oxígeno: catalasa, ascorbato peroxidasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión reductasa, así como la visualización de la frontera del conocimiento en este aspecto de gran importancia para el mejoramiento de la especie y los avances en biología molecular. Abstract in english This article presents a review of the drought adaptation mechanisms observed in the cowpea bean, providing the morphological responses, water and gas exchange ratios, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant system and molecular activity. Furthermore, the indicators that allow for the diagnosis of the plant [...] stress level are described, such as the root / shoot ratio, density and root depth, root dry-matter, specific leaf area, number of leaves and flowers, leaf senescence and abscission, yield components, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water-use efficiency, contents of the osmolytes: proline, glycine-betaine and sugars; activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification processes of the oxygen-reactive species: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, as well as the visualization of the knowledge-frontiers in this area that are of great importance to the improvement of the species and advances in molecular biology.

CARLOS, CARDONA-AYALA; ALFREDO, JARMA-OROZCO; HERMES, ARAMÉNDIZ-TATIS.

2013-12-01

92

Alternativas Microbiológicas para Mejorar el Crecimiento del Caupí / Microbiological Alternatives for the Improvement of Cowpea Growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P) en el suelo, la ineficiencia que presenta su absorción y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo, capaces de m [...] ejorar la disponibilidad y la absorción de P y la eficiencia de la fertilización con fertilizantes más económicos como la Roca Fosfórica (RP). En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de casa de malla, el efecto de un hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) y un microorganismo solubilizador de P (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) sobre la toma de P y el crecimiento de plantas de caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), con adición de tres niveles de RP (0, 100 y 300 mg de P kg-1 suelo). Los resultados mostraron un incremento significativo (P0,05) sobre las variables de crecimiento evaluadas. Sin embargo, en todos los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el MSP, se incrementó significativamente el P soluble. Con base en lo encontrado en este trabajo, se puede plantear que el hongo micorrízico arbuscular evaluado (HMA), mejora la eficiencia de absorción de P y el crecimiento del caupí bajo las condiciones evaluadas. Abstract in english The low phosphorus (P) availability in soil, absorption inefficiency and high costs of phosphate fertilization are limiting factors for agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative is the use of soil microorganisms, capable of improving P disponibility, absorption and the use of fertili [...] zer cheaper as rock phosphate fertilization (PR). This experiment was performed under screen house conditions aiming to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) and a P solubilizing fungus (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) on P uptake and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) growth, planted with three concentrations (0, 100 and 300 mg of P per each kg of soil) of PR. A significant increase (P-?0.05) in dry mass, plant height, mean stem diameter and foliar phosphorus, was observed in the HMA-inoculated plants compared with the HMA-non inoculated plants. No significant differences were identified when PR was added or MSP was inoculated. The results suggest that the use of HMA may improve P absorption and cowpea growth under the evaluated conditions.

Joaquín Guillermo, Ramírez Gil; Laura, Osorno Bedoya; Nelson Walter, Osorio Vega; Juan Gonzalo, Morales Osorio.

2013-12-01

93

Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados / Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. [...] Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil). Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais) com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna. Abstract in english Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress [...] on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil). The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition) with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Marcus M., Correa.

2013-04-01

94

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicil [...] ins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

M.P., Sales; P.P., Pimenta; N.S., Paes; M.F., Grossi-de-Sá; J., Xavier-Filho.

2001-01-01

95

Identification of Novel Resistance Gene Sources to Cowpea Aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p<0.01) were observed with respect to fertility, larval development, adult longevity, life span, multiplication rate and intrinsic rate of increase. KANANNADO an...

Ishiyaku, M. F.; Aliyu, H.

2013-01-01

96

Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour. - Highlights: ? We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation of cowpea on quality characteristics of its resultant flour. ? Flour wics of its resultant flour. ? Flour was prepared from four cowpea cultivars irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ? Proximate and physical properties of flour from irradiated cowpea were generally not affected by the radiation doses used. ? Functional properties of flour samples were affected by gamma irradiation of cowpea. ? Pasting parameters studied were also affected by the radiation at various radiation doses.

97

Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Results Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible and incompatible (resistant interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi and late (13 dpi stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301 – SG4z, multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Conclusion Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots following successful and unsuccessful attempted parasitism by Striga. Induction of specific defense related genes and pathways defines components of a unique resistance mechanism. Some genes and pathways up-regulated in the host resistance response to SG3 are repressed in the susceptible interactions, suggesting that the parasite is targeting specific components of the host’s defense. These results add to our understanding of plant-parasite interactions and the evolution of resistance to parasitic weeds.

Huang Kan

2012-08-01

98

Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de [...] feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains [...] were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

Simone Janaína da Silva, Morais; Ivano Alessandro, Devilla; Daiane Assis, Ferreira; Itamar Rosa, Teixeira.

99

Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de [...] feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains [...] were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

Simone Janaína da Silva, Morais; Ivano Alessandro, Devilla; Daiane Assis, Ferreira; Itamar Rosa, Teixeira.

2013-09-01

100

Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em fun??o do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1.This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

Simone Janaína da Silva Morais

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250?m and stored at 4 oC for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Genep > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p oC. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any clear pattern with increase in the radiation dose, there was significant (p < 0.05) effect on some proximate parameters (protein, fat, moisture and mineral), functional and pasting properties. The radiation did not affect sensory qualities and acceptability of the cowpea seeds. For cowpea insects disinfestation a radiation dose of 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial. (au)

102

Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (pwater and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

Darfour, B.; Wilson, D. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Ocloo, F. C. K.

2012-04-01

103

Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

P. Van Damme

1986-01-01

104

EVALUATION OF VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF Akara (FRIED BEANS CAKE MADE FROM COWPEA (vigna unguiculata AND SOYBEAN (glycine max BLENDS  

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Full Text Available Akara (fried bean cake is one of the most popular local dishes in Nigeria. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory evaluation of akara prepared from cowpea and soybean blends were carried out in present study. Furthermore, study was also planned to determine the best ratio of cowpea & soybean blend that can give best akara production (fried beans cake. Result of proximate analysis revealed that the combination of cowpea and soybean blends (sample B, C and D had a higher protein content (15.20, 18.31and 22.52% ash content (1.74, 1.80 and 1.88% crude fat (3.38, 4.06 and 5.28% and crude fiber (1.03, 1.10 and 1.19% compare to individual cowpea control (sample A which have only 4.44% (protein 1.17% (ash 1.91% (crude fat and 0.92% (crude fiber respectively. The functional properties results showed a reduction in bulk density with an increase in soybean blend with cowpea i.e. sample A > B>C. The same pattern of results were recorded for water absorption and swelling capacity. Sample A having the highest value in all the functional properties determined except in oil absorption capacity. The sensory evaluation results showed a slight difference in all parameters tested for except the overall acceptability which showed no significant difference for all the samples at p?0.05. This implies that cowpea and soybean blends, up to 30% subtitution, can be used to produce akara that will be acceptable thus improving the culinary uses of soybean and improving the nutritional quality of akara.

Ogundele G F

2014-10-01

105

Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

2007-12-01

106

Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivars  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch). Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC). A [...] s cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora. Abstract in english This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch). The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC) cam [...] pus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

João Gutemberg Leite, Moraes; Ervino, Bleicher.

1554-15-01

107

Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch). Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC). A [...] s cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora. Abstract in english This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch). The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC) cam [...] pus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

João Gutemberg Leite, Moraes; Ervino, Bleicher.

108

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

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Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

2012-12-01

109

A Varietal Screening of Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata for a High Resistance to Pseudocercospora cruenta (Sacc. Deighton in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This investigation consisted of four experiments, i.e., two pot experiments were carried out under glasshouse conditions and another two experiments were conducted under field conditions. The glasshouse pot experiments were carried out at Mahasarakham University, whilst the field experiments were carried out at Khon Kaen University. Twelve cowpea cultivars were used for both the first glasshouse and the first field experiments. The second glasshouse experiment had 14 cowpea cultivars and the same number of cultivars was used for the second field experiment. The four experiments aim to search for outstanding cowpea cultivars where they manifest high resistance to Pseudocercospora leaf spot disease for further breeding programme. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications was used for both glasshouse experiments, whilst a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications was used for both field experiments. The results showed that eight out of fourteen cowpea cultivars of the glasshouse and field experiments possessed a ranking score of Immunity (I. They were ranked accordingly as the best gene resources for future breeding programme. They include IT84E-1-108 as the best cultivar followed by KKU35, Ubonrachatanee1, KKU305, KKU264B, KKU264R, KVC#7 and IT86D-812 with seed yields of the field Experiment 2 of 1,480, 944, 864, 860, 738, 714 and 614 kg ha-1, respectively. The spread out of the disease was encouraged most by high relative humidity of the environmental conditions.

N. Sinsiri

2006-01-01

110

Effect of De Cortication and Roasting on Trypsin Inhibitors and Tannin Contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Seeds  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9 , for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73, for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52 for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32 for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60 for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value.

Nasara Gumaa Balail

2014-01-01

111

Utilization of applied phosphorus by greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilzek), bengal gram (Cicer arietinum L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in soils of Delhi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse experiments were conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the utilization of applied P by three pulse crops (greengram, Bengal gram and cowpea) on twelve soils of Delhi State. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) solution tagged with 32P was used in the study at the rate of 30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1. Maximum response of these legumes were noted at 60 kg P2O5 ha-1, irrespective of the type of soils. The per cent utilization of P declined from 22.2 to 16.1 as the level of P increased from 30 to 90 kg/ha in cowpea but showed less P utilization in greengram (8.0 to 7.4) and Bengal gram (4.9 to 5.1), respectively. The extent of decrease in per cent P utilization of added phosphate was more in Mehrauli, Palam, Kakra, Hisar, Ghoga, Hiranki and Wazirabad soils. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

112

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth.  

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The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8-1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth at a wide range of pH 6-12, optimum at pH 7.0 and tolerates up to 7% (w/v) salt concentration. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the confirmation of isolates to Enterobacter aerogenes sp. (NII-0907 and NII-0929), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae sp. (NII-0931) and Enterobacter asburiae sp. (NII-0934) with which they share >99% sequence similarity. Under in vitro conditions, all the four isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid, P-solubilization and hydrogen cyanide. The P-solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium (pH 7.0-<3.0). The plant growth promotion properties were demonstrated through a cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp) based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in root, shoot and biomass and it stimulated bacterial counts in the rhizosphere. Hence, these isolates can further formulated and used for field application. PMID:24026928

Deepa, C K; Dastager, Syed G; Pandey, Ashok

2010-07-01

113

Evaluation of Local Spices as Biopesticides for the Control of Ootheca mutabilis, Shalbera and Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Stal. on Cultivated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted at the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the impact of aqueous extracts of five local spices as biopesticides for the control of O. mutabilis and C. tomentosicollis on cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. The spices evaluated were Capsicum annum L., Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal, Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, Allium sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The extracts were applied at 3, 4 and 5% concentrations, respectively to study toxicity, repellency, pod and leaf damage as well as grain yield. The experiment was designed as a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. Results obtained showed that the biopesticides significantly (P<0.05 reduced insect population, offered greater protection and promoted better grain yield compared to the control. However, amongst the spices, P. guineense consistently induced greater protection by bringing down the population of insects and promoting grain yield. The promising use of spices as biopesticides is discussed since they are available local resources for poor farmers and are environmentally friendly options for pest control.

Ime O. Udo

2012-08-01

114

Varietal Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to Striga gesnerioides (Willd. Vatke Race SG5 Infestation  

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Full Text Available The parasitic plant Striga gesnerioides (Willd Vatke is becoming a serious threat to cowpea production in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 7 races of S. gesnerioides exhibiting specific virulence have been identified. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 spreads in northern Cameroon and to study the inheritance of the resistance. Twelve accessions of cowpea, IT98K-205-8, IT98K-503-1, IT98K-1092-1, IT99K-216-1-1, IT98K-494-6, IT99K-529-4, IT99K-573-1-1, IT99K-573-2-1, IT00K-1207, IT03K-378-4, IT04K-227-4 and VYA were assessed in field trials for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 in Maroua, northern Cameroon and the genetics of the resistance from two sources was elucidated in artificially infested pots. Data on resistant and susceptible cowpea plants were analyzed using the chi-square test to ascertain the goodness of fit to different genetic ratios. Tests of resistance using field screening techniques showed that among these varieties, four were susceptible, four tolerant, two partially resistant while IT99K-573-1-1 and IT98K-205-8 appeared completely resistant to Striga race SG5. On susceptible varieties, the mean number of emerged S. gesnerioides plants 9 weeks after sowing was 1.8 to 2.4 per cowpea plant, while completely resistant lines carried none. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for percentage of infected plants, the decimation rates and Striga height. On susceptible genotypes, the seeds yield losses due to Striga infestation varied from 28.4 to 36.6% while for the fodder yield these losses ranged between 23.63 to 41.03%. The analysis of F1 and F2 populations resulting from crossings between resistant varieties and the susceptible tester VYA demonstrated that resistance is was controlled by two factor inheritance with duplicate dominant genes (Rsg5a and Rsg5b for IT99K-573-1-1 and a single dominant gene (Rsg5 for IT98K-205-8. These two varieties provide newly additional sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides and can be used in programmes of genetic improvement of this legume.

Emmanuel YOUMBI

2010-09-01

115

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

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Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

F.A.Ajayi

2006-01-01

116

Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), cultivar BRS-Milênio / Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), BRS-Milênio cultivar  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio) foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando [...] -se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1): 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1): ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra). O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados. Abstract in english Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio) was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty [...] acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1): 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1) were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample). The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves, Frota; Rosana Aparecida Manólio, Soares; José Alfredo Gomes, Arêas.

2008-06-01

117

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, coletados em Roraima Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata blight in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com sintoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado. Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani.The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected in two ecosystems (savannah and forest in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates. Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

Kátia L. Nechet

2006-10-01

118

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), coletados em Roraima / Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata) blight in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris) é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com si [...] ntoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata) e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado). Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani. Abstract in english The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris) is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected i [...] n two ecosystems (savannah and forest) in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG) and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates) and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates). Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

Kátia L., Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

2006-10-01

119

Evaluation of dwarf mutant of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) developed through gamma irradiation for nitrogen fixation characters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dwarf mutant developed through gamma-irradiation and mutation breeding of its parent cowpea variety, namely KBC-1 has been characterized for nitrogen-fixation characters such as root nodule acetylene reduction activity (ARA) and legthemoglobin content at different days after sowing (DAS). Significant variations in these characters were noticed among the varieties and for interactions between the varieties and DAS. The ARA was nearly one-and-a half fold higher in the mutant at both 30 (12.69 ?moles)C2H4 formed/h/g fr.wt. of nodules) and 50 DAS (6.74 ?moles) over its parent (9.20 and 4.46 ?moles at 30 and 50 DAS, respectively). Further, the ARA in the mutant decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS. The leghemoglobin (Lb) content was also higher in the mutant over the parent at all the DAS. However, it decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS in both the mutant and the parent. The highest leghemoglobin content was noticed at 30 DAS in both mutant (2.1 mg/g fr. wt. of nodules) and the parent (1.45 mg/g). Thus, the dwarf cowpea mutant was found to be associated with higher nitrogen-fixing ability which could be exploited in future breeding programmes. (author)

120

RESPONSE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L. GENOTYPES TO NATIVE SOIL RHIZOBIA FOR NODULATION, YIELD AND SOIL PROPERTIES  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil, on comparision of both the check varieties, COCP-702 performed significantly better than RC-101 in most of the characters under study. The highest soil microbial biomass carbon, i.e., 234.70 ?g g-1, soil available N, i.e., 256.56 kg ha-1 and K, i.e., 205.00 kg ha-1 was shown by check variety COCP-702. PGCP-4 recorded significantly more number of nodules plant-1, i.e., 74.33, N concentration in grain, i.e., 4.76%. PGCP-6 gave significantly more grain yield, i.e., 1893.75 kg ha-1, plant N, i.e., 2.15 %, plant protein content, i.e., 13.43 %. This variety also recorded highest N uptake by grain, i.e., 81.81 kg ha-1 and total plant uptake, i.e., 97.64 kg ha-1. Response of COCP-702, PGCP-4 and PGCP-6 to native soil rhizobia were found to be significantly more than the other cowpea genotypes.

SONAM BINJOLA

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Agronomic Efficiency of Cowpea Varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp under Varying Phosphorus Rates in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Savanna soils of Nigeria are inherently low in nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus thereby resulting in low yield of crops. To this end, field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of College of Agriculture Lafia in the Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria (08°30'N and 08°30'E, 18 m above sea level during the rainy seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the yield and agronomic efficiency of cowpea varieties under varying phosphorus application rates. The experiment consisted of four levels of phosphorus in the form of single super phosphate (0, 30 and 60 kg P ha-1 and four varieties (DAN ILA, IAR-48, IT90K-277-1 and IT93K-452-1. The twelve treatment combinations were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results obtained showed that number of pods per plant, pod yield per plant, seed yield per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per hectare were significantly increased by the application of 30 kg P ha-1 in all the years of the experiment. Variety IT90K-277-1 consistently produced significantly, the highest values for all yield and yield characters measured. Agronomically, application of 30 kg P ha-1 was significantly more efficient than 60 kg P ha-1. Application of 30 kg P ha-1 to variety IT90K-277-1 produced significantly, the highest seed yield per hectare and is therefore recommended.

I.M. Haruna

2013-01-01

122

Functional and physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated cowpea flours and pastes  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important potential source of protein in many parts of Africa. However, cowpea use is confined primarily to boiled whole seeds or traditional food preparations such as akara and moi-moi prepared from cowpea flours or pastes. By creating variety in the foods made from cowpeas, its utilization may be enhanced. The functional properties of cowpeas are mainly responsible for the quality of cowpea foods such as akara and moi-m...

Abu, Joseph Oneh

2006-01-01

123

Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso  

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In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside the shade of six randomly selected Parkia biglobosa trees during one season in south-central Burkina Faso. The area under the canopy of each tree was divided into four main plots according to cardinal directions, and sub-divided into three concentric zones. Control plots were established outside the tree canopy. The crops were intercropped in two different proportions using the replacement method and compared to sole crops. Days to flowering were noted and yields were measured, and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) and Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) calculated. Flowering was earlier outside than under the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate that intercropping could improve the system’s productivity, increase the income for farmers, and compensate losses in pearl millet under the canopy.

Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders

2011-01-01

124

Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.  

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Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

1995-01-01

125

Effects of Planting Dates on Green Manure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata l., Response of Succeeding Maize in a Derived Savanna Ecological Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, to identify a niche for growing green manure in the derived savannah of Nigeria. Two local cowpea varieties were grown on 20th and 27th of March and 3rd of April 2009; 10th, 17th and 24th March, 2010 in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design. Open pollinated maize was planted as a test crop a week after incorporation of the green manure. Total biomass of cowpea was low in 2009 relative to 2010. Cowpea green manuring led to grain yield increase of succeeding maize by 92 -131 % and 43-124 % in 2009 and 2010 respectively. The erratic rains in mid March to first week in April could provide sufficient moisture for the growth of cowpea for green manure in this ecological zone and could ameliorate the effect of drought condition occasioned by climate change.

Thomas Oladeji Fabunmi

2012-05-01

126

Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa  

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Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed for the two periods. About 23 fungal species were identified on cowpea seed samples across zones of which Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that produces aflatoxins, was most frequently encountered. Fusarium species shown to produce fumonisins were not recorded from cowpea seeds. Overall incidence of A. flavus infection was found to increase after storage from 7.6% at T0 to 28.25% at T3. In spite of this natural infection of cowpea, very low levels of fumonisin and aflatoxin were detected. Only three out of the 92 cowpea samples, all collected at T0, were found to be fumonisin B1 positive with a mean level of 0.03 mg/g. Similarly, only six samples out of the 92, all collected at T3, were aflatoxin B1 positive with mean levels of 3.58 µg/kg. Fumonisin (B2 and B3) and aflatoxin (B2, G1 and G2) were not detected in any of the samples. Contrary to the situation with maize and groundnut where high levels of toxin are often detected in naturally infected samples, the current results indicate that cowpea is less susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. A low susceptibility could be due to the presence in cowpea of substances that inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis. Further investigations are underway to confirm this hypothesis.

Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.

2009-01-01

127

Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under water deficit / Intercambio gaseoso y distribución de biomasa de caupí (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) bajo déficit hídrico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La tolerancia a sequía es importante para la supervivencia y productividad de las plantas en ambientes con aumentos de sequía, como resultado de la variabilidad climática por causas naturales y, el cambio climático por actividades humanas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las dinámicas de fot [...] osíntesis (A), conductancia estomática (gs) y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA=A/gs) en función del contenido de humedad del suelo durante un periodo de sequía, y la recuperación pos-estrés en 14 genotipos de caupí. Los genotipos estudiados toleraron tensiones de humedad del suelo cercanas a -2 Mpa, sin presentar marchitamiento permanente. A partir de potencial hídrico del suelo de -0,7 Mpa, fueron evidentes las disminuciones en A y gs, así como el aumento en A/gs, las cuales variaron con el genotipo; sus estimaciones con modelos de regresión permitieron discriminar grados de tolerancia a sequía entre cultivares. A los 4 días después de reasumir la hidratación, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medias de tales parámetros. Los genotipos L-047 y L-034 conservaron entre 4 y 6 hojas, se mostraron como los de mayor retraso en senescencia foliar durante la sequía y presentaron mayor biomasa a los 16 días de recuperación post-stress Abstract in english Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of [...] photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

Cardona-Ayala, Carlos Enrique; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Araméndiz-Tatis; Marvin, Perneth-Montaño; César Augusto, Vergara-Córdoba.

128

Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under water deficit / Intercambio gaseoso y distribución de biomasa de caupí (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) bajo déficit hídrico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La tolerancia a sequía es importante para la supervivencia y productividad de las plantas en ambientes con aumentos de sequía, como resultado de la variabilidad climática por causas naturales y, el cambio climático por actividades humanas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las dinámicas de fot [...] osíntesis (A), conductancia estomática (gs) y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA=A/gs) en función del contenido de humedad del suelo durante un periodo de sequía, y la recuperación pos-estrés en 14 genotipos de caupí. Los genotipos estudiados toleraron tensiones de humedad del suelo cercanas a -2 Mpa, sin presentar marchitamiento permanente. A partir de potencial hídrico del suelo de -0,7 Mpa, fueron evidentes las disminuciones en A y gs, así como el aumento en A/gs, las cuales variaron con el genotipo; sus estimaciones con modelos de regresión permitieron discriminar grados de tolerancia a sequía entre cultivares. A los 4 días después de reasumir la hidratación, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medias de tales parámetros. Los genotipos L-047 y L-034 conservaron entre 4 y 6 hojas, se mostraron como los de mayor retraso en senescencia foliar durante la sequía y presentaron mayor biomasa a los 16 días de recuperación post-stress Abstract in english Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of [...] photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

Cardona-Ayala, Carlos Enrique; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Araméndiz-Tatis; Marvin, Perneth-Montaño; César Augusto, Vergara-Córdoba.

2013-12-01

129

EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP  

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Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

2013-01-01

130

Evaluación de altura de plantas y componentes del rendimiento de seis genotipos del género Vigna en dos localidades de Venezuela Plant height and yield components of six genotypes of the genus Vigna in two locations of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar el comportamiento agronómico, los componentes del rendimiento y su correlación con el rendimiento en genotipos del género Vigna, identificados como JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016, MS-01-00-09 y la variedad comercial `Tuy', se llevaron a cabo ensayos en las localidades de Samán Mocho, estado Carabobo y en Maracay, estado Aragua, entre los meses de noviembre de 2001 y febrero 2002. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En este trabajo se describen brevemente los genotipos y se evalua la altura de las plantas, en cinco estadios fenológicos durante el ciclo del cultivo; así como también el rendimiento y sus componentes, al momento de la cosecha. El genotipo que alcanzó mayor altura de planta en ambas localidades fue MEM-02-00-19, por su hábito de crecimiento indeterminado trepador. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de medias de Duncan detectaron diferencias significativas para el rendimiento en Maracay. Los materiales con mayor rendimiento fueron de la especie Vigna unguiculata: MS-01-00-09 (2114,1 kg/ha y JA-01-00-05 (1605,6 kg/ha. Las vainas de mayor longitud y total de semillas por vainas se observaron en MS-01-00-09, con 14,2 cm de longitud y 10,9 semillas/vainas. En el genotipo de Vigna umbellata, MEM- 02-00-19 se obtuvo el mayor número de vainas por planta con 17,5. El rendimiento se correlacionó positivamente con la longitud de vaina y número de semillas por vaina. Los genotipos: JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MS-01-00-09, Vigna unguiculata, y AM-02-00-016, Vigna radiata, fueron de mejor manejo en campo; no así el genotipo MEM-02-00-19, Vigna umbellata, cuyo uso es más para cultivos asociados, por su hábito de crecimiento trepador.With the purpose of characterizing agronomic behaviour, yield components and their correlations with yield for six genotypes of Vigna identified as JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016 and MS-01-00-09, and a commercial variety, `Tuy', experiments were conducted in Saman Mocho, Carabobo State and Maracay, Aragua state, during the period November 2001 to February 2002. The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. In this paper, genotypes are briefly described, plant height is measured at five phenological stages during growth cycle, and yield and its components are evaluated at harvest. For both sites, MEM-02-00-19 had the tallest plants due to its indeterminate climbing growth habit. Results of the variance analysis and Duncan´s Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences for yield in Maracay. Treatments with highest yields, belonging to the species Vigna unguiculata, were MS-01-00-09 (2114.1 kg/ha and JA-01-00-05 (1605.6 kg/ha. MS-01-00-09 (Vigna unguiculata also had longest pods (14.2 cm and greatest number of seeds per pod (10.9 seeds/pod. The genetic material belonging to the species Vigna umbellata, MEM-02-00-19, exhibited the greatest number of pods per plant (17.5 pods/plant. Yield was positively correlated with pod length and number of seeds per pod. Because of differences in growth habits, genotypes belonging to species Vigna unguiculata (JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05 and MS-01-00-09 and species Vigna radiata (AM-02-00-016 were easier to handle in field conditions than Vigna umbellata, which had a climbing behaviour and is better suited for mixed cropping systems.

C.M Flores M

2005-10-01

131

Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivars  

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Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch). Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC). As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensa...

João Gutemberg Leite Moraes; Ervino Bleicher

2007-01-01

132

Response of Maize (Zea mays and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP amended with cow dung (CD manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05 affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1, okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1 and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1 in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande

2006-03-01

133

Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Genotypes to Nitrogen Fertilizer (NPK Application in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The effects of compound fertilizer (NPK application on growth and yields of cowpea genotypes were investigated in a field study at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin in the Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The study was designed as a series of factorial experiments in split-plot arrangements with four replications and were carried out in the late cropping seasons (August to December of 2002 to 2004. Ten cowpea genotypes were evaluated at fertilizer levels ranging from 0 to 300 kg fertilizer (NPK ha-1 (equivalent to 0-0-0 to 60-30-30 kg N-P-K ha-1. Results show that fertilizer application resulted in significant improvement in plant height, number of leaves per plant and reduced days to flowering, but no significant effect on total number of flowers produced. Application of fertilizer resulted in significant decreases in nodule production. Yield components and grain yield were significantly enhanced by the application of fertilizer at 150 kg ha-1 (i.e., 30 kg N, 15 P2O5 and 15 K2O ha-1, but significant fertilizerxgenotype effect indicated differential genotype responses to fertilizer application which may have significant practical implications for field production. It was therefore concluded that the application of fertilizer to cowpea is beneficial although in small quantity and genotype dependent.

Y.A. Abayomi

2008-01-01

134

Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N  

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Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

2009-07-15

135

Influencia de la germinación en la composición del Phaseolus vulgaris y Vigna sinensis / Influence of germination on composition of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las leguminosas son fuente de proteínas que al combinarla con cereales incrementa su valor biológico. Adicionalmente, las leguminosas son fuente de calorías, hierro, fósforo, magnesio y potasio. Las caraotas negras, Phaseolus vulgaris, son además una buena fuente de calcio. En este estudio se determ [...] inó el contenido de proteínas, grasas, cenizas, fibra dietética soluble e insoluble y de los minerales Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn y Mn, en caraotas negras y en frijoles, Vigna sinensis, variedad Tuy y Orituco. Las leguminosas fueron germinadas a 25±2 °C, en presencia de luz natural y humedad relativa de 78±4%. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología oficial. Para la determinación de minerales se utilizó un equipo de Plasma de Acoplamiento Inducido (ICP). Con fines comparativos, se utilizaron granos sin germinar. Se observó que la germinación incrementa el contenido de proteína en aproximadamente 7% y de fibra soluble en frijoles Tuy en 2% en frijoles Orituco. También se observó una disminución del contenido de grasa de 25% en las caraotas y en un poco más de 50% en frijoles. La germinación afecta el contenido de minerales en las caraotas y en las dos variedades de frijoles, sin una tendencia definida. Se demostró que la germinación varía la composición de las caraotas negras y frijoles variedad Tuy y Orituco. Abstract in english Legumes are a source of proteins that combined with cereals increase its biological value. In addition, legumes calories source, iron, phosphorous, magnesium and potassium. Black beans, Phaseolus vulgaris are also a good source of calcium. In this study, the content of protein, fat, ash, dietetic fi [...] bre, both soluble and insoluble, and the minerals Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn and Mn, were determined in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis, Tuy and Orituco varieties. Legumes were germinated at 25 ± 2 °C, in natural light and 78 ± 4% relative humidity. Proximal composition was determined according to official methods. An Induced Coupling of Plasma (ICP) equipment was used for the determination of the minerals. For comparison purpuses, non-germinated grains were used. It was observed that germination increases the content of proteins in about 7% in both legumes and 2% of soluble fibre in Vigna sinensis var. Tuy. Fat content also decreased 25% in black beans and more than 50% in Vigna sinensis. Germination affects the mineral content of both legumes, without a definite trend. It was demonstrated that germination varies the composition of both legumes.

Mercedes, Ramos de Vega; Elba, Sangronis.

136

Influencia de la germinación en la composición del Phaseolus vulgaris y Vigna sinensis / Influence of germination on composition of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las leguminosas son fuente de proteínas que al combinarla con cereales incrementa su valor biológico. Adicionalmente, las leguminosas son fuente de calorías, hierro, fósforo, magnesio y potasio. Las caraotas negras, Phaseolus vulgaris, son además una buena fuente de calcio. En este estudio se determ [...] inó el contenido de proteínas, grasas, cenizas, fibra dietética soluble e insoluble y de los minerales Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn y Mn, en caraotas negras y en frijoles, Vigna sinensis, variedad Tuy y Orituco. Las leguminosas fueron germinadas a 25±2 °C, en presencia de luz natural y humedad relativa de 78±4%. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología oficial. Para la determinación de minerales se utilizó un equipo de Plasma de Acoplamiento Inducido (ICP). Con fines comparativos, se utilizaron granos sin germinar. Se observó que la germinación incrementa el contenido de proteína en aproximadamente 7% y de fibra soluble en frijoles Tuy en 2% en frijoles Orituco. También se observó una disminución del contenido de grasa de 25% en las caraotas y en un poco más de 50% en frijoles. La germinación afecta el contenido de minerales en las caraotas y en las dos variedades de frijoles, sin una tendencia definida. Se demostró que la germinación varía la composición de las caraotas negras y frijoles variedad Tuy y Orituco. Abstract in english Legumes are a source of proteins that combined with cereals increase its biological value. In addition, legumes calories source, iron, phosphorous, magnesium and potassium. Black beans, Phaseolus vulgaris are also a good source of calcium. In this study, the content of protein, fat, ash, dietetic fi [...] bre, both soluble and insoluble, and the minerals Cu, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, Zn and Mn, were determined in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis, Tuy and Orituco varieties. Legumes were germinated at 25 ± 2 °C, in natural light and 78 ± 4% relative humidity. Proximal composition was determined according to official methods. An Induced Coupling of Plasma (ICP) equipment was used for the determination of the minerals. For comparison purpuses, non-germinated grains were used. It was observed that germination increases the content of proteins in about 7% in both legumes and 2% of soluble fibre in Vigna sinensis var. Tuy. Fat content also decreased 25% in black beans and more than 50% in Vigna sinensis. Germination affects the mineral content of both legumes, without a definite trend. It was demonstrated that germination varies the composition of both legumes.

Mercedes, Ramos de Vega; Elba, Sangronis.

2006-12-01

137

Eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma spp. em diferentes cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no cerrado (Savana Brasileira) / Efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobia and Trichoderma spp. in different cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the “cerrado” (Brazilian savanna)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Foram utilizadas três cultivares de feijão-caupi, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ e ‘Sempre Verde’. O ensaio foi conduzido no campo com delineamento experimental em blocos [...] ao acaso e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados consistiram em inoculações simples e combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma na semente e no solo, no plantio e aos 15 dias após o plantio (DAP). Foram também incluídos um controle adubado com azoto e uma testemunha sem inoculação. Foram inoculadas estirpes de Bradyrhizobium sp., e para os tratamentos com a utilização de Trichoderma, foi utilizado o inoculante comercial Trichoplus JCO em pó. Foram avaliadas à biomassa, nodulação, produtividade, eficiência simbiótica e teor de azoto e fósforo. A aplicação de Trichoderma aos 15 DAP, tanto na semente quanto no solo, apresentou os melhores resultados na maioria das cultivares analisadas, superando os demais tratamentos. A cultivar ‘Corujinha’ apresentou os melhores resultados para produção de biomassa. A aplicação de Trichoderma não prejudicou o processo de nodulação, sendo que os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando o fungo foi inoculado com rizóbio. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of combined inoculation of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Three cultivars of cowpea, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ and ‘Sempre Verde’ were assayed. The experiment was conducted in a field in a randomized block design with four replication [...] s. The treatments used were simple and combined inoculations of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in the seed and in the soil, at planting and 15 days after planting (DAP). It was also included a control over fertilized with nitrogen and a non-inoculated control. Strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. were used for inoculation. Trichoplus JCO inoculant powder was used for treatments with Trichoderma. The parameters evaluated were biomass, nodulation, productivity, efficiency and symbiotic nitrogen content and phosphorus. The application of Trichoderma at 15 DAP in both the seed and in the soil showed the best results in most of the cultivars analyzed, overcoming the other treatments. Cultivar ‘Corujinha’ showed the best results for biomass production. The application of Trichoderma did not inhibit the nodulation process, and the best results were obtained when the fungus was inoculated with Rhizobia.

Aloisio F. Chagas, Junior; Ariádila G., Oliveira; Higor B., Reis; Gil R., Santos; Lillian F. B., Chagas; Luciane O., Miller.

2014-03-01

138

EFFECT OF EFFLUENT WATER ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COWPEA APHID, APHIS CRACCIVORA KOCH (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE), ON COWPEA PLANTS  

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Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) is an important legume grown in Botswana and the main yield losses incurred are from cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch). Agriculture in Botswana is hampered by limitation in water resources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of effluent water on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth. This was randomized completely block design pot experiment conducted under net shade environment. Four treatments of 100%, 60%, 30% of effluent di...

Tshwenyane, S. O.; Nketso, T. H.; Tiroesele, B.

2013-01-01

139

Preparation and Nutritional Composition of a Weaning Food Formulated from Germinated Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and Steamed Cooked Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.  

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Full Text Available Weaning food was produced from sorghum and cowpea based on a malted technology with a view to determining the amylase activity, nutritional composition/properties and its ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Malted sorghum flour was produced (steeping, germination, drying, toasting, grinding and sieving and steamed cooked cowpea flour was produced. Both were blended in ratio 2:1 to get malted weaning food (GSC, unmalted sorghum and steamed cooked cowpea in same ratio was also produced (USC. Optimum amylase activity of sorghum was determined, proximate composition, amino acid, vitamin and mineral contents were analysed. Seventy two hours gave optimum amylase activity with reduced dietary bulk in GSC due to decrease in viscosity. Germination had no significant effect on protein contents, 12.07 g (GSC and 12.57 g (USC, samples met 1/3 RDA protein requirement for 1-3 years old child. Germination significantly increased essential amino acid except sulphur amino acids and tryptophan. GSC had amino acid value that approximate FAO reference pattern except for threonine that was also the limiting amino acid. Vitamin A ie beta-carotene (267.0 IU/100 g, thiamin (0.24 mg/100 g and ascorbic acid (5.0 mg/100 g were increased from 197.0 IU/100 g (Vit. A, 0.16 mg/100 g (thiamin and 2.73 mg/100 g (ascorbic acid in GSC. Phosphorus and iron contents also increased from 91.65 mg/100 g and 4.01 mg/100 g to 100.0 mg/100 g and 6.40 mg/100 g, respectively. Weaning food based on germinated sorghum had improved/superior nutritional values compared to the ungerminated. Germination significantly increased essential amino except for Histidine, sulphur amino acid and tryptophan. It also increased phosphorus, iron, vitamin A (?-carotene thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid.

J.N.C. Okafor

2011-01-01

140

Storage Time: Influence of Nano-ZnO and Soft-Sterilization on Biophysical and Quality Attributes of Canned Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, TN 5-78  

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Full Text Available Cowpea seeds can be cooked in the dried form, sprouted, or ground into flour. This study is to investigate effect of soft-sterilization and nano-ZnO treatment on canned cowpea (TN 5-78 biophysical and quality attributes during 10 months of storage. Cowpea was blanched, ultrasonicated with nano-ZnO solution 0.025% (w/v added prior to canning at 110 ºC for 15 min and analyzed every 2 months up to 10 month at ambient storage. Total mold and yeast count were below the limits of detection for nano-ZnO treated samples and control over the storage period though, some colonies of mesophilic bacteria were observed in the untreated samples at the 8th and 10th month of storage. There are significant differences (P < 0.05 between the treated samples and untreated one at the 10th month of storage for the pea’s firmness. No significant differences was noticed between the samples from the initial analysis to the end of storage time for the leached solids percentage (P < 0.05. Moreover, slight change in protein content and pH values were also found. The overall acceptability score of nano-ZnO treated samples remained in a good range up to 10th month of storage whereas, untreated samples was under acceptation level. Therefore, ZnO nanoparticules combined with heat can be a possible alternative approach to can foods that the quality attributes are altered by conventional thermal sterilization.

Moutaleb Oumarou Hama

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of Different Rates of Indole-3-Acitic Acid on Root Formation of Detached Leaves of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

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Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the dry season (February-April, 2004 at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand to investigate the effect of different rates of indole-3-acitic acid (IAA growth regulator in inducing root formation of detached leaves of MSU1, KVC#7 and IT84E-1-108 cowpea cultivars under tunnel conditions. The experiment was laid in a strip plot design with four replications and each replication was duplicated four times for four sampling periods. IAA levels used were 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg L-1 of distilled water, thus the experiment consisted of 21 treatments. The results showed that root length, number of both roots and root hairs were highly affected by IAA treatments and the best IAA level was found with level 3 (500 mg L-1. The effects due to IAA levels and cultivars were highly significant and the effects due to an interaction between factors A (cultivars and B (IAA levels, in most cases, were highly significant. Detached leaf technique with the use of IAA growth regulator could be considered as one of the most appropriate techniques for the preparation of plant samples for the test on disease resistance of cowpea cultivars.

N. Sinsiri

2007-01-01

142

Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] / Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.), é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegeta [...] l vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer) e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos. Abstract in english The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to co [...] ntrol it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer) and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde"). These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes, Pereira; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa, Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da, Câmara.

143

Functional and physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated cowpea flours and pastes  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important potential source of protein in many parts of Africa. However, cowpea use is confined primarily to boiled whole seeds or traditional food preparations such as akara and moi-moi prepared from cowpea flours or pastes. By creating variety in the foods made from cowpeas, its utilization may be enhanced. The functional properties of cowpeas are mainly responsible for the quality of cowpea foods such as akara and moi-moi and are derived mostly from ...

Abu, Joseph Oneh

2005-01-01

144

Evaluación de la fertilización biológica del frijol con cepas nativas de Rhizobium aisladas de un ultisol de la altiplanicie del estado guarico / Evaluation of the biological fertilization on cowpea with nativa Rhizobium strains isoleted from an ultisol in landplane guarico state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización biológica en frijol, Vigna unguiculata L., con cepas nativas de Rhizobium aisladas de un Ultisol de la altiplanicie en condiciones de mesa del estado Guárico sobre la producción de materia seca (MS), porcentaje de nódulos (PN), masa nodular (MN), actividad nod [...] ular, (AN), absorción de nitrógeno (N) y absorción de fósforo (P), en condiciones de invernadero. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: sin biofertilizante, biofertilización con la cepa 1, biofertilización con cepa 2 y biofertilización con una combinación de las cepas 1 y 2, conjuntamente con la aplicación de una fertilización basal de N, P y K reducida, obteniéndose a partir de las variables medidas que la cepa 1 mostró una alta capacidad para colonizar el cultivo, lo cual la convierte en el biofertilizante con mayor potencial para gestionar la fertilización del frijol en los conucos llaneros presentes en la altiplanicie Abstract in english The effect of biological fertilization on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L., with native Rhizobium strains isolated from an ultisol in landplane condition of Guárico state, Venezuela, was evaluated on dry matter production (MS), nodules percentage (PN), nodular mass (MN), nodular activity (AN), nitrogen [...] uptake (N) and phosphorus uptake (P), in an experiment carried out in greenhouse conditions. The evaluated treatments were: without biofertilization (control), biofertilization with strain 1, biofertilization with strain 2 and biofertilization with consortium strains 1 + 2, jointly with the application of a reduced basal fertilization of N, P and K. the strain1 showed high capacity to colonize the crop, which turn it into biological fertilizer with the greatest potential to manage cowpea fertilization in llaneros homegarden in landplane conditions

Belkys, Rodríguez; Marisol, López.

145

Nutrient composition and amino acid pattern of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Fabaceae) grown in the Gizan area of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proximate composition, grain protein, minerals, amino acid and sugar profiles of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp were analyzed. The crude protein was 23%, fat 3.40% and ash 3.60%. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of at least 17 amino acids including most of the essential ones. The essential amino acids valine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine were slightly higher, but sulphur-containing amino acids were lower than recommended in the WHO/FAO requirement pattern. Qualitative phytochemical screening of seeds showed fructose, alpha-glucose, beta-glucose, glycerol, manitol, inositol and some oligosaccharides, e.g. raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose. The grain contained almost similar amount of phosphorus as compared with that of Lebanese and Pakistani cultivars. Calcium was found to be lower as compared to some Indian, Pakistani and Lebanese cultivars. In general the results indicated that the legume is nutritive as staple food, feed and/or fodder. PMID:9713582

Hussain, M A; Basahy, A Y

1998-03-01

146

Evaluation of Advanced Lines of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp for Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield in the Transition Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2001 and 2002 cropping seasons to evaluate 25 advanced medium erect cowpea lines for agronomic traits and grain yield using a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Significant difference was recorded on most of the parameters measured. The average number of days to 50% flowering ranged from 52 DAP TO 56 DAP in IT98K-131-2 and IT95K-207-22, respectively. Most of the lines attained physiological maturity about the same time. IT98K-131-2 recorded the highest average number of pods per plant and also recorded the highest grain yield of 1392 kg ha-1. It is concluded that most farmers should be encouraged to adopt some of the breeding lines that recorded grain yield of over 1000 kg ha-1.

A.A. Oyekanmi

2007-01-01

147

Integrated Effects of Bio and Mineral Fertilizers and Humic Substances on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Contents of Fertigated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Grown on Sandy Soils  

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Full Text Available A bio-fertigation trial was conducted at the experimental farm of National Research Centre, Noubaria, Egypt during May to August of 2010 to study the relative efficacy of bio-fertigation of liquid formulation of N-fixer (Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. and P-solubilizer (Basillus megatheriumion with bio fertigation and humic substances gave rather equal yield. Injection of 50% recommended dose NPK as drip fertigation in combination with biofertigation of liquid formulation and humic substances was better and comparable way than the other treatments. Bio fertigation of microbial inoculums and humic substances could be used as a complementary for mineral fertilizers to improve yield and quality of cowpea under sandy soil conditions which protect the environment chemical pollution and its harmful effect on human and animal health.

E.M. Selim

2011-01-01

148

Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela / Identification of seed borne viruses in growing areas of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose [...] los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de estabilidad en savia, se estudió la transmisión a través de insectos, se estudió el rango de hospedantes, microscopía electrónica y se realizaron pruebas serológicas con los antisueros disponibles. En tres aislamientos virales de caraota se identificó, el virus del mosaico sureño de la caraota (BSMV) en muestra del Valle de Tucutunemo, estado Aragua, en un material procedente de Colombia colectado en Sanare, estado Lara, se detectó infección viral simple con el BSMV y doble el BSMV y el virus del mosaico común de la caraota (BCMV) . En fríjol se identificó el virus del mosaico severo del frijol (CpSMV) a partir de semilla de los estados Portuguesa y Falcón. Con este estudio se ratifica la necesidad del control fitosanitario para la exclusión de materiales nacionales o importados no aptos para la siembra y se corrobora la importancia de la certificación de semillas. Abstract in english With the purpose of knowing the incidence of seed borne viruses in production areas of beans and cowpea, 53 materials used as seed were evaluated. Viral isolations coming from seeds sowed in shelter protected against insects; being identified the beans isolations like: "Colombian 1", "Colombian 2" a [...] nd "Tucutunemo"; and those of cowpea like "Black Eye", were selected. Material was multiplied, stability test in sap were carried out, vector transmission was studied, the hosts range was determined, serological tests with the available antibody were carried out. In three viral isolations of beans, the bean southern mosaic virus (BSMV) was identified in a sample of Tucutunemo Valley, Aragua state. In the material coming from Colombia collected in Sanare, Lara state, it was detected simple viral infection BSMV and double infection BSMV and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). In cowpea, it was identified the cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) from seed of Portuguese and Falcon states. Through this essay was corroborated the necessity of establishing a phytopathological control, for the exclusion of national or imported seed materials not suitable for sows, and also the importance of seed certification.

Z, Peña; G, Trujillo.

149

Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela / Identification of seed borne viruses in growing areas of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose [...] los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de estabilidad en savia, se estudió la transmisión a través de insectos, se estudió el rango de hospedantes, microscopía electrónica y se realizaron pruebas serológicas con los antisueros disponibles. En tres aislamientos virales de caraota se identificó, el virus del mosaico sureño de la caraota (BSMV) en muestra del Valle de Tucutunemo, estado Aragua, en un material procedente de Colombia colectado en Sanare, estado Lara, se detectó infección viral simple con el BSMV y doble el BSMV y el virus del mosaico común de la caraota (BCMV) . En fríjol se identificó el virus del mosaico severo del frijol (CpSMV) a partir de semilla de los estados Portuguesa y Falcón. Con este estudio se ratifica la necesidad del control fitosanitario para la exclusión de materiales nacionales o importados no aptos para la siembra y se corrobora la importancia de la certificación de semillas. Abstract in english With the purpose of knowing the incidence of seed borne viruses in production areas of beans and cowpea, 53 materials used as seed were evaluated. Viral isolations coming from seeds sowed in shelter protected against insects; being identified the beans isolations like: "Colombian 1", "Colombian 2" a [...] nd "Tucutunemo"; and those of cowpea like "Black Eye", were selected. Material was multiplied, stability test in sap were carried out, vector transmission was studied, the hosts range was determined, serological tests with the available antibody were carried out. In three viral isolations of beans, the bean southern mosaic virus (BSMV) was identified in a sample of Tucutunemo Valley, Aragua state. In the material coming from Colombia collected in Sanare, Lara state, it was detected simple viral infection BSMV and double infection BSMV and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). In cowpea, it was identified the cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) from seed of Portuguese and Falcon states. Through this essay was corroborated the necessity of establishing a phytopathological control, for the exclusion of national or imported seed materials not suitable for sows, and also the importance of seed certification.

Z, Peña; G, Trujillo.

2007-01-01

150

Cowpea flour: a potential ingredient in food products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are an important grain legume in East and West African countries as well as in other developing countries. The U.S. is the only developed country producing large amounts of cowpeas. High protein (18 to 35%) and carbohydrate (50 to 65%) contents, together with an amino acid pattern complementary to that of cereal grains, make cowpeas potentially important to the human diet from a nutritional standpoint. Despite their potential as an inexpensive source of protein and energy, cowpeas are underutilized in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. A simple technology for preparing cowpea flour would stimulate increased consumption of this legume. This paper reviews the status of cowpea flour production technologies and uses of cowpea flour in various food products. PMID:8725672

Prinyawiwatkul, W; McWatters, K H; Beuchat, L R; Phillips, R D

1996-05-01

151

Evaluación de altura de plantas y componentes del rendimiento de seis genotipos del género Vigna en dos localidades de Venezuela / Plant height and yield components of six genotypes of the genus Vigna in two locations of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el fin de caracterizar el comportamiento agronómico, los componentes del rendimiento y su correlación con el rendimiento en genotipos del género Vigna, identificados como JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016, MS-01-00-09 y la variedad comercial `Tuy', se llevaron a cabo ensayos e [...] n las localidades de Samán Mocho, estado Carabobo y en Maracay, estado Aragua, entre los meses de noviembre de 2001 y febrero 2002. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En este trabajo se describen brevemente los genotipos y se evalua la altura de las plantas, en cinco estadios fenológicos durante el ciclo del cultivo; así como también el rendimiento y sus componentes, al momento de la cosecha. El genotipo que alcanzó mayor altura de planta en ambas localidades fue MEM-02-00-19, por su hábito de crecimiento indeterminado trepador. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de medias de Duncan detectaron diferencias significativas para el rendimiento en Maracay. Los materiales con mayor rendimiento fueron de la especie Vigna unguiculata: MS-01-00-09 (2114,1 kg/ha) y JA-01-00-05 (1605,6 kg/ha). Las vainas de mayor longitud y total de semillas por vainas se observaron en MS-01-00-09, con 14,2 cm de longitud y 10,9 semillas/vainas. En el genotipo de Vigna umbellata, MEM- 02-00-19 se obtuvo el mayor número de vainas por planta con 17,5. El rendimiento se correlacionó positivamente con la longitud de vaina y número de semillas por vaina. Los genotipos: JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MS-01-00-09, Vigna unguiculata, y AM-02-00-016, Vigna radiata, fueron de mejor manejo en campo; no así el genotipo MEM-02-00-19, Vigna umbellata, cuyo uso es más para cultivos asociados, por su hábito de crecimiento trepador. Abstract in english With the purpose of characterizing agronomic behaviour, yield components and their correlations with yield for six genotypes of Vigna identified as JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016 and MS-01-00-09, and a commercial variety, `Tuy', experiments were conducted in Saman Mocho, Carabo [...] bo State and Maracay, Aragua state, during the period November 2001 to February 2002. The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. In this paper, genotypes are briefly described, plant height is measured at five phenological stages during growth cycle, and yield and its components are evaluated at harvest. For both sites, MEM-02-00-19 had the tallest plants due to its indeterminate climbing growth habit. Results of the variance analysis and Duncan´s Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences for yield in Maracay. Treatments with highest yields, belonging to the species Vigna unguiculata, were MS-01-00-09 (2114.1 kg/ha) and JA-01-00-05 (1605.6 kg/ha). MS-01-00-09 (Vigna unguiculata) also had longest pods (14.2 cm) and greatest number of seeds per pod (10.9 seeds/pod). The genetic material belonging to the species Vigna umbellata, MEM-02-00-19, exhibited the greatest number of pods per plant (17.5 pods/plant). Yield was positively correlated with pod length and number of seeds per pod. Because of differences in growth habits, genotypes belonging to species Vigna unguiculata (JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05 and MS-01-00-09) and species Vigna radiata (AM-02-00-016) were easier to handle in field conditions than Vigna umbellata, which had a climbing behaviour and is better suited for mixed cropping systems.

C.M, Flores M; P.M, Madriz I; R, Warnock de Parra; A, Trujillo de Leal.

152

Parámetros productivos y química sanguínea en pollos de engorde alimentados con tres niveles diéticos de harina de granos de fríjol (vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp.) Durante la fase de crecimiento. / Productive Parameters and Blood Chemistry in Broiler Chickens Fed With Three Dietary Levels of Cowpea Grain Meal (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) During Growth Phase.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el efecto de tres niveles de inclusión dietética de harina de granos de fríjol, variedad “Catatumbo” (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) (VU), sobre los parámetros productivos tales como, ganancia de peso corporal (GPC), consumo de alimento (CA), conversión al [...] imenticia (CVA) y la química sanguínea medida a través de las concentraciones plasmáticas de glucosa (G), proteínas totales (PT), albúmina plasmática (AP) y alanina amino transferasa (ALT) en pollos de engorde hasta la tercera semana de edad. 500 pollos machos (Ross-Cobb) de un día de edad se distribuyeron al azar en 4 grupos, de 125 pollos cada uno: G1= alimento sin VU, G2= alimento con 5% de VU, G3= alimento con 10% de VU y G4= alimento con 15% de UV. Cada grupo incluyó 5 repeticiones. Las aves se alojaron en 20 corrales de 3 mt² c/u (25 pollos/corral), con una densidad de 8,3 ave/mt², por un periodo de 21 días. Durante las tres semanas evaluadas, las aves de los G1, G2, y G3 tuvieron mejores (P Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of cowpea grain meal (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) (CGM) on productive parameters such as weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC) and blood chemistry such as plasma concentrations of glucose (G), [...] total proteins (TP), albumin (A) and alanine-amino-tranferase (ALT) of growing broiler chicks until 3 weeks of age. Five hundred male broiler chicks (Ross-Cobb) one day of age were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 125 each (G1= feed no CGM, G2= feed with 5% CGM, G3= feed with 10% de CGM and G4= feed with 15% CGM). Each group included 5 repetitions. All chicks were housed into 20 pens of 3 mt² keeping a density of 8.3 chicks/mt² during 21 d. Chicks from G1, G2, y G3 had better (P

Silvio, Miranda-López; Hirwin, Rincón-Reyes; Rafaela, Muñoz; Atilio, Higuera; Ana María, Arzálluz-Fischer; Hermógenes, Urdaneta.

153

INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON EMERGENCE, GROWTH OF WEEDS, YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea mays L. AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.  

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Full Text Available The effects of cropping system and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, weed biomass production and yield of maize and cowpea were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna (9°29' N, 4°35' E and 307 m ASL of Nigeria. Weed emergence occurred throughout the 3-15 weeks after planting (WAP. Forty-three weed species belonging to 38 genera within 20 families were encountered. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudet, Tridax procumbens L and Eleusine indica Gaertn were the most prevalent weed species. Cropping system and weed management practice significantly affected weed emergence. Significantly (p?0.05 lower number of weeds emerged in the intercropped and herbicide treated plots while higher weed densities and weed biomass were recorded in the uncropped and unweeded control plots than in the other plots. While aggregate crop yields were significantly higher in the intercropped than in the sole plots, component crop yields were higher under the sole cropping than in the intercrop. The implication of the results on weed management is discussed.

Felix Ogar Takim

2014-06-01

154

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium  

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Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer to other rhizobia, revealed that it is necessary, in view of possibility of deliberate release of a variety of recombinant rhizobia into the environment for such agricultural purposes as improving nitrogen fixation. New recombinants revealed higher amounts of indole compounds from tryptophan above the mid-parents in two out of six transconjugants resulted from the cross between P1 x P3. Significant number of nodules were developed on the root system of V2-variety in M4 generation treated with 20 krad in response to inoculation with the parental strains (P2 and P3 and also in response to inoculation with triparental transconjugants (Tr4 and Tr5, above that developed on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. The results revealed the success of rhizobial strains and their recombinants to colonize and infect roots of cowpea, because of significant dry weight of nodules per plant which can be obtained in V1-variety treated with 20 krad in M4 generation inoculated with the parental strain (P3, above that on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. Total chlorophyll formation in V1-variety inoculated with di-parental transconjugants (DPM-Tr2 and DPM-Tr3 at all doses of gamma irradiation was significantly increase above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose and the mid-parents, with the exception at 30 krad if compared with the mid-parents. Significant increase was resulted in fresh weight of pods developed per plant above the mid-parents in M3 generation of V1-variety at doses zero and 10 krad, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugant, DPM-Tr2. While, the same trend was also achieved above the full dose in M3 generation at 10 krad in response to inoculation with DPM-Tr2, DPM-Tr3, TPM-Tr4 and TPM-Tr5. The highest nitrogen content was appeared in the shoots of V1-variety at all doses of gamma irradiation in response to inoculation with diparental transconjugant (DPM-Tr2. However, V2-variety had the lowest nitrogen content in relation to the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen and to the mid-parents of rhizobial transconjugants. The genetic variability of grain-protein content appeared that V2-variety treated with 10 krad had significant increase in protein content above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N among M3 and M4 generations, in response to inoculation with parental strains and most of their transconjugants. The same trend was also shown in M4 generation of V1-variety treated with 20 and 30 krad above the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugants. All biochemical traits studied were more affected by biofertilization than the doses of gamma rays and the interaction between biofertilization x doses. This indicated that the significance of treatments was mainly due to inoculation and particularly to gamma irradiation and the interaction between both of them.

Zaied K.A.

2005-01-01

155

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4% among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively. All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

2010-05-01

156

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação / Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC), avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo) e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina). [...] Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%), dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente). Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável. Abstract in english This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll) with cowpea flour (CF) to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). Three fo [...] rmulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4%) among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves, Frota; Marcelo Antonio, Morgano; Marta Gomes da, Silva; Marcos Antonio da Mota, Araújo; Regilda Saraiva dos Reis, Moreira-Araújo.

2010-05-01

157

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpure...

Mogle And, Umesh P.; Maske, Sanjay R.

2012-01-01

158

Early events in living epidermal cells of cowpea and broad bean during infection with basidiospores of the cowpea rust fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The infection process of basidiospores of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae) was studied on living host (Vigna sinensis) and nonhost (Vicia faba) leaves using light microscopy with differential interference contrast optics. During the first 8 h, fungal development was similar on host and on nonhost leaves.Penetration and production of intraepidermal vesicles occurred in nonhost cells 4 h earlier than in host cells. Penetration frequency was also higher in nonhost leaves. These results s...

Xu, Haixin; Mendgen, Kurt

1991-01-01

159

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

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Full Text Available Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy" analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF showed the highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3% compared to "Unary" (27.1%. The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (15.5% and "Unare" (21.7% were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF (15.4% and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF (16.1% higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy" analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutro (FDN produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3% en relación a "Unare" (27,1%. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5% y "Unare", (21,7% eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI (15,4% y fibra dietética total (16,1% de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF.

Omar Eduardo García

2010-12-01

160

EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

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Full Text Available

Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta.

A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp, Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare.

Magda Beatriz de Almeida Matteucci

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS / COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy") analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutr [...] o (FDN) produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3%) en relación a "Unare" (27,1%). El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5%) y "Unare", (21,7%) eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI) (15,4%) y fibra dietética total (16,1%) de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF. Abstract in english Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy") analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed the [...] highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3%) compared to "Unary" (27.1%). The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (15.5%) and "Unare" (21.7%) were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) (15.4%) and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF) (16.1%) higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.

Omar Eduardo, García; Benito, Infante; Carlos Julio, Rivera.

162

Storage fungi and mycotoxins associated with cowpea  

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Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important African indigenous legume crop for the livelihoods of many relatively poor people residing n less developed countries of the tropics. Rural families derive a nutritious food, animal feed and in income from the production of this crop. Storage of seed is certainly the most important post-harvest operation but the losses incurred are great. These losses, due to an inability to effectively control physical and biological factors, result in pr...

Kritzinger, Quenton

2001-01-01

163

EFFECT OF EFFLUENT WATER ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COWPEA APHID, APHIS CRACCIVORA KOCH (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE, ON COWPEA PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. is an important legume grown in Botswana and the main yield losses incurred are from cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch. Agriculture in Botswana is hampered by limitation in water resources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of effluent water on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth. This was randomized completely block design pot experiment conducted under net shade environment. Four treatments of 100%, 60%, 30% of effluent dilution and the control being clean tap water were used. This study revealed that the presence of N and K in the effluent water did not affect the population growth of aphids on cowpea plants. There was no significant difference among the effluent water treatments and the clean tap water. Therefore, effluent water in this study did not show any effect on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth.

TSHWENYANE S.O.

2013-10-01

164

Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope  

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Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID with the difference methods (DM for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

2009-08-01

165

Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de 15N / Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como planta [...] s-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante) no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI) com o método da diferença (MD) para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2) compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS), o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas. Abstract in english Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, throug [...] h the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

2009-08-01

166

Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de 15N / Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como planta [...] s-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante) no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI) com o método da diferença (MD) para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2) compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS), o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas. Abstract in english Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, throug [...] h the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

167

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

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The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, ...

José Albersio Araujo Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo Ferreira; Elizita Maria Teófilo

2011-01-01

168

Elevated Concentrations of Dietarily-Important Trace Elements and Macronutrients in Edible Leaves and Grain of 27 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes: Implications for Human Nutrition and Health  

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Full Text Available Legumes are a good source of calories, protein and mineral nutrients for human nutrition and health. In this study, the edible leaves and grain of 27 field-grown cowpea genotypes were assessed for trace elements and macronutrient den-sity at Manga in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Ghana in 2005 and 2006, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The genotypes differed markedly in their accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in edible leaves and grain. Except for P, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S and Na were much higher in edible cowpea leaves than grain in 2005. A similar pattern was observed for Ca, Mg, S, Na in 2006. However, more dramatic variations were found in the micronutrient concentrations between edible cowpea leaves and grain. The levels of the trace elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B were sometimes 2- to 20-fold greater in leaves than grain of cowpea. Furthermore, there were strong genotypic differences in mineral density of cowpea leaves and grain. For the major nutrients, for example, IT93K-2045-29 and IT90K-59 accumulated greater concentrations of P, K, Ca, S and Na in both edible leaves and grain in 2006, while ITH98-46, which showed the least macronutrient density, exhibited the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B in edible leaves, as well as Fe, Cu and Mn in grain. These results have implications for cowpea breeding, as well as for human nutrition and health.

Alphonsus K. Belane

2012-03-01

169

Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna / Análisis químico y evaluación nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composición próximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascorbico), proteína y perfil de amino ácidos, perfil de ácidos graso [...] s y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de proteína cruda que los fríjoles de consumo común en la India. Los frijoles analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos ácidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino ácidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptófano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontró un contenido relativamente alto de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolénico. Se analizó para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, ácido fítico, ácido cianhidríco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of [...] lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses appeared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

Pious, Tresina Soris; Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan.

170

Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna / Análisis químico y evaluación nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composición próximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascorbico), proteína y perfil de amino ácidos, perfil de ácidos graso [...] s y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de proteína cruda que los fríjoles de consumo común en la India. Los frijoles analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos ácidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino ácidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptófano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontró un contenido relativamente alto de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolénico. Se analizó para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, ácido fítico, ácido cianhidríco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of [...] lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses appeared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

Pious, Tresina Soris; Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan.

2011-08-01

171

Effect of Native Soap on Insect Pests and Grain Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Asaba and Abraka during the Late Cropping Season in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of native soap against cowpea insect pests during the late cowpea cropping season in two agro-ecological zones-Asaba and Abraka, Delta State. Four major insect pests, namely the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, the legume flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb, the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fab and pod sucking bugs were studied. The experiment was made up of five treatments-1, 2 and 3 percent concentrations of native soap, cypermethrin (as conventional chemical and check and a control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was arranged into a randomised complete block design (RCBD. The results showed that all the major insect pests occurred in the study areas but were more at Asaba compared to Abraka. Native soap was effective against A. craccivora and flower bud thrips population at Asaba. Maruca vitrata was not affected by soap application. Grain yield was high at Abraka and significantly (P<0.05 higher than Asaba. The use of native soap as non-conventional insecticide in cowpea insect pests management appears promising, more so as it is not expensive and safe to handle. Farmers may prefer it to synthetic chemical pesticides with their associated dangers.

E. O. Egho

2012-06-01

172

Economic Yield and Sustainability of Maize Crop (Zea mays (L. in Association with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and Egusi-melon (Citrullus lunatus (Thumb mansf in South Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the April 2004 and December 2005 cropping seasons at Kwale, Ndokwa West local Government Council farm annex, in south western Nigeria, to determine the compatibility of maize, cowpea and egusi-melon as well as their economic yield and the stability of these mixtures. The growth parameters considered were plant height and leaf number of maize, cowpea height and number of branches, egusi-melon vine coverage, weed biomass as well as economic yield while land equivalent ratios were calculated from the economic yield. The result of the experiment showed that sole egusi-melon and in association with maize and cowpea significantly suppressed weeds compared to other cropping systems. The economic yields of sole crops were significantly higher than in their respective crop associations. Associations of three crops had higher combined yields than two crops or sole crops. The LER, was highest in three crop association of 1.91. It was concluded that a system, with the highest combined economic yield, highest LER, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the humid tropical environment, a mixture of maize/cowpea/egusi-melon is recommended than sole crops or one or two crop associations.

F.N. Emuh

2007-01-01

173

Proteomics changes during the incompatible interaction between cowpea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthracnose represents an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] caused by the hemibiothrophic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that drastically reduces cowpea field production. In this study we investigated some biochemical aspects underlying the incompatible interaction between a resistant cowpea genotype and C. gloeosporioides using a proteomic approach. Analyses of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns and protein identification indicate C. gloeosporioides infection-dependent cowpea leaf proteome changes associated with metabolism, photosynthesis, response to stress, oxidative burst and scavenging, defense signaling, and pathogenesis-related proteins. Moreover the C. gloeosporioides responsive proteins interaction network in cowpea revealed the interconnected modulation of key cellular processes involving particularly antioxidants proteins, photosynthetic apparatus forming proteins and proteins of the energetic metabolism that interact with each other suggesting that their expression changes are also important for resistance of cowpea to C. gloeosporioides. PMID:24467908

Moura, Hudson Fernando N; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Silva, Fredy D A; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moura, Arlindo A; Costa, José H; Oliveira, José Tadeu A

2014-03-01

174

Assessing the Microbiological Level and the Incidence of Water-soaking on the Proximate Composition of two Cultivars of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Grains Grown in Côte d’Ivoire  

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Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the influence of seed treatment (soaking in water) on nutritional and microbiological composition of two cowpea cultivars. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Food Biochemistry and Tropical Products Technology, and the laboratory of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, University of Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, between October 2010 and December 2011. Study Design: Method based on AOAC tests and AFNOR...

Koffi-Nevry Rose; Koussémon Marina; Mireille, Alloue-boraud W. A.; Kouassi Kouassi

2013-01-01

175

Improving the Nutritional Quality of Cowpea and Bambara Bean Flours for Use in Infant Feeding  

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Ground cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp] and Bambara bean [Vigna subterranea (L.) verde] were treated with 60% ethanol to eliminate anti-nutrients and improve their nutritional quality. Analytical results show that the resulting flour products had a yield of 81-82% and a protein content increase of 11.61 and 4.68% for cowpea and Bambara bean respectively compared to the untreated flours. Their fat content also increased by 10.74 and 15.24% in the same order, as well as ...

Mune Mune Martin Alain; Israe?, Mbome Lape L.; Minka Samuel Rene

2007-01-01

176

Physicochemical characteristics of conditioned and micronised cowpeas and functional properties of the resultant flours  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important source of protein in some parts of sub Saharan Africa. In southern Africa, it is mainly boiled into a stew, and long cooking time is a concern. Micronisation of preconditioned seeds has been used to reduce the cooking time of other dry legume seeds such as lentils. Hence micronisation (moisture conditioning and infrared heating) presents an opportunity for processing cowpeas to alleviate long cooking time and provide a c...

Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi

2008-01-01

177

Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa  

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Abstract Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%), whi...

Kouam Eric B; Pasquet Remy S; Campagne Pascal; Tignegre Jean-Baptiste; Thoen Kevin; Gaudin Remi; Ouedraogo Jeremy T; Salifu Abdulai B; Muluvi Geoffrey M; Gepts Paul

2012-01-01

178

Inheritance of resistance to the cowpea aphid in cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inheritance of resistance to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, in three resistant cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, was studied. The parents, F1 and F2 population were grown in an insect-proof screenhouse. Each 3-day-old seedling was infested with 10 apterous adult aphids. Seedling reaction was recorded when the susceptible check was killed. The segregation data revealed that the resistance of ICV11 and TVU310 is governed by single dominant genes. All the F2 seedlings of the cross ICV10xTVU310 were resistant, indicating that they have the same gene for resistance. However, the F2 populations from the crosses ICV10xICV11 and ICV11xTVU310 segregated in a ratio of 15?1, indicating that the dominant genes in ICV11 and TVU310 are non-allelic and independent of each other. The resistance gene of ICV10 and TVU310 is designated as Ac1 and that of ICV11 as Ac2. PMID:24240345

Ombakho, G A; Tyagi, A P; Pathak, R S

1987-10-01

179

Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

180

Fases de desarrollo y componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares defríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L Wilczek en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela Phases of development and yield components of three mungbean cultivars (Vigna radiata (L Wilczek in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Bajo las condiciones agroecológicas de Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela, se estudiaron las fases de desarrollo y se evaluaron los componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares de fríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L Wilczek, durante los meses de mayo a julio de 1997. Los cultivares ML 267, Acriollado y VC 1973C, se distribuyeron en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 6 repeticiones. Para la diferenciación de las fases y etapas de desarrollo, se observaron semanalmente los cambios morfológicos de las plantas en cada parcela. Al momento de la cosecha se obtuvo el promedio por planta de las variables: número de racimos, vainas, semillas por vaina y longitud de las vainas. El rendimiento de granos en kg/ha se midió en base al 12% de humedad. La fase vegetativa tuvo una duración de 28 a 43 días, mientras que la fase reproductiva entre 22 y 30 días. El cultivar más precoz fue ML 267 con 34,87 días para la floración y 61,83 días para la maduración. Hubo diferencias significativas para el número de racimos/planta y vainas/planta donde ML 267 y Acriollado tuvieron los valores más altos. Para el número de semillas/vaina VC 1973C y Acriollado fueron significativamente mayores que ML 267. Acriollado mostró los mayores rendimientos con 1438,33 kg/ha.The development phases and seed yield were evaluated in three cultivars of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L Wilczek, ML 267, Acriollado and VC 1973C under the agroecological conditions of Maracay (Venezuela (May - July, 1997. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks (RCB with six replications. The differentiation of the development phases and stages, and the morphological changes of plants were studied in each plot. The variable totals of pod clusters, number of pods per plant, seeds/pods and pods length, were studied too. The seed yield in kg/ha was measured at a humidity of 12%. The vegetative phase was between 28 to 43 days, while the reproductive phase was between 22 and 30 days. The earliest cultivar was ML 267 with 34.87 days to flowering and 61.83 to maturity. There were significant differences for total pod clusters/plant and number of pods/plant, where ML 267 and Acriollado had the highest values. Total seeds/pods VC 1973C and Acriollado were significantly greater then ML 267. Acriollado showed the highest yields with 1438,33 kg/ha.

N Infante

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Fases de desarrollo y componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares defríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela / Phases of development and yield components of three mungbean cultivars (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bajo las condiciones agroecológicas de Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela, se estudiaron las fases de desarrollo y se evaluaron los componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares de fríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), durante los meses de mayo a julio de 1997. Los cultivares ML 267, Acriollado [...] y VC 1973C, se distribuyeron en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 6 repeticiones. Para la diferenciación de las fases y etapas de desarrollo, se observaron semanalmente los cambios morfológicos de las plantas en cada parcela. Al momento de la cosecha se obtuvo el promedio por planta de las variables: número de racimos, vainas, semillas por vaina y longitud de las vainas. El rendimiento de granos en kg/ha se midió en base al 12% de humedad. La fase vegetativa tuvo una duración de 28 a 43 días, mientras que la fase reproductiva entre 22 y 30 días. El cultivar más precoz fue ML 267 con 34,87 días para la floración y 61,83 días para la maduración. Hubo diferencias significativas para el número de racimos/planta y vainas/planta donde ML 267 y Acriollado tuvieron los valores más altos. Para el número de semillas/vaina VC 1973C y Acriollado fueron significativamente mayores que ML 267. Acriollado mostró los mayores rendimientos con 1438,33 kg/ha. Abstract in english The development phases and seed yield were evaluated in three cultivars of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), ML 267, Acriollado and VC 1973C under the agroecological conditions of Maracay (Venezuela) (May - July, 1997). The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks (RCB) with six repl [...] ications. The differentiation of the development phases and stages, and the morphological changes of plants were studied in each plot. The variable totals of pod clusters, number of pods per plant, seeds/pods and pods length, were studied too. The seed yield in kg/ha was measured at a humidity of 12%. The vegetative phase was between 28 to 43 days, while the reproductive phase was between 22 and 30 days. The earliest cultivar was ML 267 with 34.87 days to flowering and 61.83 to maturity. There were significant differences for total pod clusters/plant and number of pods/plant, where ML 267 and Acriollado had the highest values. Total seeds/pods VC 1973C and Acriollado were significantly greater then ML 267. Acriollado showed the highest yields with 1438,33 kg/ha.

N, Infante; P, Madriz; T, González.

182

Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada / Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) culture under the chopped secondary forest system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio diret [...] o na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m) lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância). Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) e Rubiaceae (4). No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo. Abstract in english The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon. Since weed management is an essential part of the production process, this study aimed to survey the flora in no-tillage areas of a chopped [...] secondary forest cultivated with cowpea. This work was conducted in a rural farming area in the municipality of Zé Doca, MA in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. The preparation of the area was carried out with a wheel tractor using the implement ahwi FM600. The area was originally planted with maize followed by BRS Guariba cowpea for two years.Weed evaluation was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m), launched 30 times. Evaluation was performed every time, with the aerial parts of the weeds being harvested for counting, identification, and drying, to obtain the phytosociological indices (frequency, density, dominance index, and importance value). The families with the most weed species were Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) and Rubiaceae (4). In the agricultural years 2006/2007, the species with the highest IVI were: Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata and Cyperus sp. In the agricultural years 2007/2008, the main species were: Digitaria horizontalis, followed by C. diffusus, Pavonia cancellata and F. dichotoma. The secondary forest plants originated from sprouting presented the highest IVIs in the agricultural year 2006/2007 and suffered a drastic reduction in 2007/2008. Thus, it can be concluded that progressive cultivation reduces secondary forest plant sprouting and increases the herbaceous extract.

L.J.P., Marques; M.R.M., Silva; M.S., Araújo; G.S., Lopes; M.J.P., Corrêa; A.C.R., Freitas; F.H., Muniz.

183

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.  

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Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

Umesh P. Mogle1 and

2012-06-01

184

Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping  

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Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

LIMA FILHO JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO

2000-01-01

185

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

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Full Text Available The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w concentration. The ability of the plant powders to protect cowpea seeds was assessed in terms of mortality rates after 24 - 96 hours post treatment, oviposition and adult emergence, percentage weight loss and damage after the first filial generation (F1. All the tested plant part powders significantly (P<0.05 reduce the longevity of adult C. maculatus on treated cowpea seeds. From the study, the plant powders could be ranked in order of effectiveness thus; stem bark > leaf > root. Alstonia boonei can be used as biopesticide against C. maculatus and its incorporation into traditional storage pest management is strongly recommended.

K. D. Ileke

2012-03-01

186

Determinação da difusividade e da energia de ativação para feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde, com base no comportamento da secagem / Determination of diffusivity and activation energy for cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), alwaysgreen variety, based on its drying behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, teve-se o objetivo de determinar curvas de secagem em camada fina para grãos de feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde. Visou-se, também, à determinação da difusividade efetiva da água no interior do produto, bem como a energia de ativação. Para tal, foram utilizadas amostras com 150 [...] g de feijão com teor inicial de água de 37% (bu), nas temperaturas de 40; 50 e 60 ºC. A velocidade do ar do secador convectivo foi mantida em 1,0 m s-1 e, durante todo o processo, os valores médios da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar ambiente foram, respectivamente, 29 ºC e 58%. A difusividade efetiva da água no produto foi determinada, em cada temperatura, por meio da lei de Fick, pressupondo um modelo esférico para os grãos. Uma expressão para a difusividade efetiva da água em função da temperatura foi determinada por meio do ajuste da equação de Arrhenius aos dados obtidos. A análise dos resultados possibilita concluir que a equação de Page representa, de forma satisfatória, o processo de secagem em todas as condições estudadas. O modelo esférico estabelecido para os grãos é satisfatório, resultando em difusividade efetiva que variou de 7,13x10-11 até 14,0x10-11 m²s-1, e em energia de ativação igual a 26,9 kJ mol-1. Foi observado que, para a temperatura do ar de secagem mantida em 60 ºC, houve a formação de fissuras em quantidade significativa de grãos. Abstract in english In this paper it was determined the thin layer drying curves for cowpea grains, always-green variety. It was also determined the effective water diffusivity inside the product and its activation energy. For these purposes, 150 g samples of cowpea grains dried at temperatures of 40; 50 and 60 ºC were [...] used. The drying air velocity was maintained constantly at 1.0 m s-1 during the drying process. The drying air temperature and relative humidity were 29 ºC and 58%, respectively. The effective water diffusivity inside the product was determined, for each drying temperature, by using Fick’s equation assuming a spherical shape for the grains. A mathematical expression for the effective water diffusivity inside the product as a function of temperature was determined by fitting Arrhenius’s equation to the observed data. According to the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that the Page equation can be used to satisfactorily represent the cowpea grains drying process for the conditions of this research. The assumption of a spherical shape for the grains was satisfactory, resulting in a water effective diffusivity varying from 7.13x10-11 to 14.00x10-11 m²s-1 and activation energy equal to 26.9 kJ mol-1. It was also observed that for a drying air temperature of 60 ºC a significant amount of grains presented fissures.

Wilton P. da, Silva; Mário E. R. M. C., Mata; Cleiton D. P. S. e, Silva; Manoel A., Guedes; Antonio G. B., Lima.

187

Determinação da difusividade e da energia de ativação para feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde, com base no comportamento da secagem / Determination of diffusivity and activation energy for cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), alwaysgreen variety, based on its drying behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, teve-se o objetivo de determinar curvas de secagem em camada fina para grãos de feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde. Visou-se, também, à determinação da difusividade efetiva da água no interior do produto, bem como a energia de ativação. Para tal, foram utilizadas amostras com 150 [...] g de feijão com teor inicial de água de 37% (bu), nas temperaturas de 40; 50 e 60 ºC. A velocidade do ar do secador convectivo foi mantida em 1,0 m s-1 e, durante todo o processo, os valores médios da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar ambiente foram, respectivamente, 29 ºC e 58%. A difusividade efetiva da água no produto foi determinada, em cada temperatura, por meio da lei de Fick, pressupondo um modelo esférico para os grãos. Uma expressão para a difusividade efetiva da água em função da temperatura foi determinada por meio do ajuste da equação de Arrhenius aos dados obtidos. A análise dos resultados possibilita concluir que a equação de Page representa, de forma satisfatória, o processo de secagem em todas as condições estudadas. O modelo esférico estabelecido para os grãos é satisfatório, resultando em difusividade efetiva que variou de 7,13x10-11 até 14,0x10-11 m²s-1, e em energia de ativação igual a 26,9 kJ mol-1. Foi observado que, para a temperatura do ar de secagem mantida em 60 ºC, houve a formação de fissuras em quantidade significativa de grãos. Abstract in english In this paper it was determined the thin layer drying curves for cowpea grains, always-green variety. It was also determined the effective water diffusivity inside the product and its activation energy. For these purposes, 150 g samples of cowpea grains dried at temperatures of 40; 50 and 60 ºC were [...] used. The drying air velocity was maintained constantly at 1.0 m s-1 during the drying process. The drying air temperature and relative humidity were 29 ºC and 58%, respectively. The effective water diffusivity inside the product was determined, for each drying temperature, by using Fick’s equation assuming a spherical shape for the grains. A mathematical expression for the effective water diffusivity inside the product as a function of temperature was determined by fitting Arrhenius’s equation to the observed data. According to the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that the Page equation can be used to satisfactorily represent the cowpea grains drying process for the conditions of this research. The assumption of a spherical shape for the grains was satisfactory, resulting in a water effective diffusivity varying from 7.13x10-11 to 14.00x10-11 m²s-1 and activation energy equal to 26.9 kJ mol-1. It was also observed that for a drying air temperature of 60 ºC a significant amount of grains presented fissures.

Wilton P. da, Silva; Mário E. R. M. C., Mata; Cleiton D. P. S. e, Silva; Manoel A., Guedes; Antonio G. B., Lima.

2008-06-01

188

Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem no calor latente de vaporização de água em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde / Influence of the temperature on the latent heat of vaporization of moisture from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), always-green variety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em cálculos da quantidade de energia requerida em processos de secagem artificial de um produto agrícola, é necessário o conhecimento de uma expressão para a determinação do calor latente de vaporização (H) de água no produto. Normalmente, as expressões para H, encontradas na literatura, são dadas p [...] elo calor latente de vaporização (h) de água livre multiplicado por funções que dependem apenas do teor de água do produto. Isso significa que a relação H/h, para um dado produto, só depende do teor de água, o que é uma simplificação, pois se sabe que tal relação depende também da temperatura. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma expressão para o cálculo de H para feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde, levando em consideração a dependência de H/h com a temperatura. Para tal, foi desenvolvido e utilizado um programa computacional que ajusta, de forma automática, cerca de 500 funções contidas em sua biblioteca, com uma e duas variáveis independentes, a dados experimentais. O programa, que usa regressão não-linear, classifica as melhores funções ajustadas pelo critério do menor qui-quadrado reduzido. O conjunto de testes estatísticos realizados indica que a expressão apresentada neste artigo produz resultados mais precisos na determinação de H para feijão macassar que os de outras equações normalmente encontradas na literatura. Abstract in english In order to determine the energy needed to artificially dry an agricultural product the latent heat of vaporization of moisture in the product, H, must be known. Generally, the expressions for H reported in the literature are of the form H = h(T)f(M), where h(T) is the latent heat of vaporization of [...] free water, and f(M) is a function of the equilibrium moisture content, M, which is a simplification. In this article, a more general expression for the latent heat of vaporization, namely H = g(M,T), is used to determine H for cowpea, always-green variety. For this purpose, a computer program was developed which automatically fits about 500 functions, with one or two independent variables, imbedded in its library to experimental data. The program uses nonlinear regression, and classifies the best functions according to the least reduced chi-squared. A set of executed statistical tests shows that the generalized expression for H used in this work produces better results of H for cowpea than other equations found in literature.

Wilton P. da, Silva; Cleide M. D. P. S. e, Silva; Jürgen W., Precker; Diogo D. P. S. e, Silva.

2008-06-01

189

Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem no calor latente de vaporização de água em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., variedade sempre-verde Influence of the temperature on the latent heat of vaporization of moisture from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., always-green variety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em cálculos da quantidade de energia requerida em processos de secagem artificial de um produto agrícola, é necessário o conhecimento de uma expressão para a determinação do calor latente de vaporização (H de água no produto. Normalmente, as expressões para H, encontradas na literatura, são dadas pelo calor latente de vaporização (h de água livre multiplicado por funções que dependem apenas do teor de água do produto. Isso significa que a relação H/h, para um dado produto, só depende do teor de água, o que é uma simplificação, pois se sabe que tal relação depende também da temperatura. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma expressão para o cálculo de H para feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde, levando em consideração a dependência de H/h com a temperatura. Para tal, foi desenvolvido e utilizado um programa computacional que ajusta, de forma automática, cerca de 500 funções contidas em sua biblioteca, com uma e duas variáveis independentes, a dados experimentais. O programa, que usa regressão não-linear, classifica as melhores funções ajustadas pelo critério do menor qui-quadrado reduzido. O conjunto de testes estatísticos realizados indica que a expressão apresentada neste artigo produz resultados mais precisos na determinação de H para feijão macassar que os de outras equações normalmente encontradas na literatura.In order to determine the energy needed to artificially dry an agricultural product the latent heat of vaporization of moisture in the product, H, must be known. Generally, the expressions for H reported in the literature are of the form H = h(Tf(M, where h(T is the latent heat of vaporization of free water, and f(M is a function of the equilibrium moisture content, M, which is a simplification. In this article, a more general expression for the latent heat of vaporization, namely H = g(M,T, is used to determine H for cowpea, always-green variety. For this purpose, a computer program was developed which automatically fits about 500 functions, with one or two independent variables, imbedded in its library to experimental data. The program uses nonlinear regression, and classifies the best functions according to the least reduced chi-squared. A set of executed statistical tests shows that the generalized expression for H used in this work produces better results of H for cowpea than other equations found in literature.

Wilton P. da Silva

2008-06-01

190

An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding. PMID:22242703

Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

2012-02-01

191

Stylet penetration activities by Aphis craccivora (Hymenoptera: Aphididae) on plants and excised plant parts of resistant and susceptible cultivars of cowpea (Leguminosae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Direct current electrical penetration graphs (DC-EPGs) were used to analyze the stylet penetration activities of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, on plants of aphid-resistant (ICV-12) and aphid-susceptible (ICV-1) cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers. Aphid stylet penetration on whole plants at seedling, flowering, and podding stages were studied in one experiment, and in another experiment excised leaves from seedling plants, excised flowers, and excised pods were tested. ...

Annan, B.; Tingey, W. M.; Schaefers, G. A.; Tjallingii, W. F.; Backus, E. A.; Saxena, K. N.

2000-01-01

192

Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds  

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Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = < 0.1 mg/10 g seed > Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed. Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

A. Olonisakin

2006-01-01

193

Identification and comparative analysis of drought-associated microRNAs in two cowpea genotypes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important crop in arid and semi-arid regions and is a good model for studying drought tolerance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to play critical roles in plant stress responses, but drought-associated miRNAs have not been identified in cowpea. In addition, it is not understood how miRNAs might contribute to different capacities of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes. Results We generated deep sequencing small RNA reads from two cowpea genotypes (CB46, drought-sensitive, and IT93K503-1, drought-tolerant that grew under well-watered and drought stress conditions. We mapped small RNA reads to cowpea genomic sequences and identified 157 miRNA genes that belong to 89 families. Among 44 drought-associated miRNAs, 30 were upregulated in drought condition and 14 were downregulated. Although miRNA expression was in general consistent in two genotypes, we found that nine miRNAs were predominantly or exclusively expressed in one of the two genotypes and that 11 miRNAs were drought-regulated in only one genotype, but not the other. Conclusions These results suggest that miRNAs may play important roles in drought tolerance in cowpea and may be a key factor in determining the level of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes.

Roberts Philip A

2011-09-01

194

Radiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds contaminated by Callosobruchus maculatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) can be prevented by sterilization of the adult forms and destruction of the eggs, larvae and pupae using an ionizing treatment at doses less than 100 Gy, without causing unfavorable nutritional consequences. Storage of these cowpea seeds in polyethylene bags of a thickness greater than 100 micrometer avoids all recontamination by this weevil. Economically, the irradiation of such a foodstuff would certainly be worthwhile in Senegal on the condition that the ionizing treatment would also be profitable for other foodstuffs harvested locally, so as to attain a satisfactory utilization rate for the industrial plant which would be set up in this country

195

Descomposición de Vigna unguiculata (caupí en un Argiudol Típico de Colonia Benítez, Chaco  

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Full Text Available ResumenEn los últimos años, esencialmente motivos ambientales han llevado a renovar el interés por el uso de leguminosas herbáceas como abonos verdes, puesto que su empleo supone un ahorro económico importante para el agricultor y por sus efectos benéficos sobre las propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo.Para que los abonos verdes sean considerados una efectiva fuente de nutrientes para los cultivos que se implanten posteriormente, deben estar disponibles en los momentos de mayor demanda del cultivo y para ello se hace necesario conocer la velocidad de descomposición de la biomasa vegetal aportada al suelo y la subsiguiente liberación de nutrientes. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la velocidad de descomposición del caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp y calcular la tasa de liberación de N, P y K, en las condiciones agroecológicas de Colonia Benítez, Chaco. En un Argiudol Típico se realizó la incorporación de caupí a los 74 días después de su siembra, se determinó su tasa de descomposición empleando la técnica de litterbags y cada 30 días se determinaron peso seco y N, P y K foliar. Se calcularon los porcentajes de masa seca remanente (%MSR, la tasa de descomposición y liberación de los nutrientes analizados. La producción promedio de caupí fue de 7603 kg MS ha-1, correspondiendo el 63,9% a las hojas y el 36,1% a tallos. La velocidad de descomposición durante los 30 días iniciales fue rápida con un %MSR = 36; que posteriormente se estabiliza. La tasa de liberación de N, P y K es máxima también durante los primeros 30 días. Para las condiciones edafoclimáticas de Colonia Benítez, es necesario continuar con los ensayos con el fin de establecer una precisa sincronización entre la liberación de los nutrientes del abono verde con la máxima demanda del cultivo.AbastractIn recent years, mainly for environmental reasons has led to renewed interest in the use of herbaceous legumes as green manure, as their employment is a significant cost savings for farmers and for their beneficial effects on physical, chemical and biological soil properties. For green manure are considered an effective source of nutrients for crops that are in place then, should be available in times of increased demand for the crop and it is necessary to know the rate of decomposition of plant biomass to the soil and subsequent release of nutrients.The objective was to determine the rate of decomposition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, and calculate the rate of release of N, P and K in the agroecological conditions of the Colonia Benítez, Chaco. In a Typic Argiudol was the addition of cowpea at 74 days after sowing and determined the rate of decompositionusing litterbags technique, and every 30 days were determined dry weight and N, P and K leaf. We calculated the percentages of mass remaining (%MSR, rate of decomposition and release of nutrients analyzed. The average yield of cowpea was 7603 kg DM ha-1, corresponding to 63,9% and 36,1% leaves to stems. The rateof decomposition during the initial 30 days was quick with a %MSR = 36, which was subsequently stabilized.The release rate of N, P and K was also high during the first 30 days and for the soil and climate of Colonia Benítez, one should proceed with testing for the purpose of establishing a precise synchronization between the release of nutrients from fertilizer full green crop demand.

PRAUSE, J

2012-04-01

196

Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea  

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Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1) present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose) resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular ma...

FRANCO OCTÁVIO LUIZ; GONDIM LORRANCE ABREU; BEZERRA KÁTIA REGINA; GUERRA MARIA ELANE DE CARVALHO; LIMA CARMEM ROGÉLIA FARIAS MACHADO; ENÉAS-FILHO JOAQUIM; PRISCO JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO; GOMES-FILHO ENÉAS

2001-01-01

197

Ent-2'-epi-Orobanchol and its acetate, as germination stimulants for Striga gesnerioides seeds isolated from cowpea and red clover.  

Science.gov (United States)

Striga gesnerioides is a root parasitic weed of economic significance to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) crops in Western Africa. Seeds of the parasite germinate in response to cowpea root exudates. Germination stimulants for the seeds were isolated from the hydroponic culture filtrate of cowpea, and their structures were unambiguously determined as (-)-(3aR,4R,8bR,2'R)-ent-2'-epi-orobanchol and (+)-(3aR,4R,8bR,2'R)-ent-2'-epi-orobanchyl acetate, on the basis of mass, CD, and (1)H NMR spectra; optical rotatory power; and chromatographic behavior on HPLC. The alcohol was first isolated and identified from the cowpea root exudates, and the acetate may be the same compound that had been previously isolated from the exudates and designated as alectrol. Identity of the stimulants produced by cowpea to those produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense) was confirmed. PMID:21899364

Ueno, Kotomi; Nomura, Saki; Muranaka, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

2011-10-12

198

Role of endogenous flavonoids in resistance mechanism of Vigna to aphids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultivated and wild species of the genus Vigna were screened for their flavonoid content. Flavonoid HPLC analyses clearly showed that cultivated lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) are very similar from a qualitative point of view, always showing three flavonoid aglycons: quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. In addition, a positive relationship between resistance/susceptibility characteristics against aphids and flavonoid glycoside content of cowpea lines was found. The resistant lines showed a flavonoid content higher than that of susceptible ones. In vitro bioassays proved that, among endogenous flavonoids, quercetin and isorhamnetin possess a good inhibitory aphid reproduction rate. Flavonoid HPLC analyses of wild Vigna species supported evidence for the existence of different flavonoid chemotypes in some species of section Vigna. There are kaempferol chemotypes, kaempferol being the main aglycon detected, quercetin chemotypes, containing quercetin glycosides only, and two isorhamnetin chemotypes. When the resistance characteristics to aphids in different chemotypes of the same species were tested, it became evident that quercetin or isorhamnetin chemotypes showed a higher level of resistance compared to kaempferol chemotypes in the same species, thus demonstrating a direct involvement of quercetin or isorhamnetin in the resistance mechanism. These results can provide useful information for further studies on gene expression of resistance factors. PMID:11087479

Lattanzio, V; Arpaia, S; Cardinali, A; Di Venere, D; Linsalata, V

2000-11-01

199

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

2005-06-01

200

Impact of cowpea adition on the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score and other protein quality parameters of traditional African foods made from non-tannin and tannin sorghum  

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Protein malnutrition is a problem in Africa where sorghum is a staple foodstuff. Improvement in the protein quality of traditional African sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) foods through the addition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), an indigenous African legume, was investigated. Two sorghum cultivars, a red, tannin-type (NS 5511) and a white tan-plant, non-tannin type (Orbit) were complemented with cowpea (70:30 ratio). Ugali (thick porridge), uji (fermented thin porridge...

Anyango, Joseph Ochieng; Kock, Henrietta Letitia; Taylor, J. R. N.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijã [...] o-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Sérgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

202

Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijã [...] o-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Sérgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

2013-06-01

203

Radiation induced promising mutants in Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crop of the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa and America. Breeding objectives in recent years have been to combine high yields with upright growth habit, bushy dwarf determinate plant type, early maturity and large seed size in addition to resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. With a view to achieving these objectives and creating additional - variability, the seeds of an elite variety V-130 were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma rays, and a number of morphological mutants were isolated. The mutants with desirable characters like erect growth habit, dwarf, large seed size, and high pod number were isolated in the M2 generation and studied further in subsequent generations for their yield potential and other characteristics. The dwarf plant mutant TCM 77-4, characterised by reduced plant height, bushy growth, large seed size and absence of tendril bred true when grown in rabi seasons, but behaved like parent in respect of growth habit in kharif season. It was far superior to the parent in respect of seed size in all the seasons. The mutant is envisaged to be the most suitable for rice fallows. Among the several promising mutants with large seed size, the mutant TCM 13-5 showed a test weight of 16.8 g against 8.8 g of the parent. A mutant with large pod number designated as TCM 121-8 showed promise with its very high yield, when grown in summer albeit with delayed maturity. Several mutants with maturity similar to that of the parent have shown higher seed yield. The variability generated through the radiation- induced mutation is being utilised for creating novel high yielding early maturing varieties of cowpea. (author)

204

Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses and Micro Elements on Some Physical, Chemical and Crop Parameters of Vigna sinensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work aim to expose Vigna sinensis L. (cowpea) seeds to gamma rays at dose levels 40, 80 and 120 Gy and to spray the growing plants with micro elements; boron (B) and zinc (Zn) after one month of planting; until harvest date, for increasing crop quality and quantity. Some physical parameters, some chemical analysis, the yield and net percentage of the produced crop were evaluated. The result obtained refer that, the 40 Gy dose enhanced most of physical, chemical and yield parameters of cowpea crop. Moreover, the harvested crop was increased and improved in case of those produced from plants sprayed with different concentrations of B or Zn plus 40 Gy dose as compared with the other treatments used followed by the dose of 80 Gy. Meanwhile, the dose of 120 Gy gave the least enhancement on the quality and quantity of the aforementioned treatments in cowpea crop

205

Improving the Nutritional Quality of Cowpea and Bambara Bean Flours for Use in Infant Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ground cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. walp] and Bambara bean [Vigna subterranea (L. verde] were treated with 60% ethanol to eliminate anti-nutrients and improve their nutritional quality. Analytical results show that the resulting flour products had a yield of 81-82% and a protein content increase of 11.61 and 4.68% for cowpea and Bambara bean respectively compared to the untreated flours. Their fat content also increased by 10.74 and 15.24% in the same order, as well as their fibre content. In vitro protein digestibility studies showed an increase of 68.71 to 81.82% and 71.58 to 83.83% for alcohol-treated cowpea and Bambara bean flours, compared to the untreated flours, thus indicating the elimination of protease inhibitors. Likewise, gas chromatography of neutral sugars in the treated flour samples showed elimination of the major flatulence-causing sugars. Alcohol treatment caused loss of Fe and concentration of Ca and Zn. Semi-liquid gruels prepared from blends of the treated grain legume flours and fermented maize dough powder are adequate in energy and some nutrients to meet the requirements of 6-8-month-old infants, when fed three meals a day.

Mune Mune Martin Alain

2007-01-01

206

Genetic Analyses of Pigmentation in Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic control of pigmentation in different parts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. was studied in six F2 segregating populations and their corresponding F3 families derived from eight parents. Monogenic control for colour expression was found for leaf node pigmentation, flower (petal colour, immature pod colour, seed coat colour, seed eye colour and seed eye colour pattern. Presence of pigment was dominant over absence of pigment and the black seed eye was dominant over brown eye. For seed eye pattern however, partial dominance of the very small eye type over the Holstein eye type was observed. Different flower colour genes induce similar white flower colours in the parents and non-allelic interactions between these white flower colour loci produced novel flower colour variants in the F2 population. In the parental lines, flower and seed pigmentation are due to the same single locus effects, although flower colour may be influenced by epistatic gene interactions that have no effects on seed coat pigmentation. Pleiotropic effects of the recessive locus that causes loss of pigmentation of the leaf node include loss of pigment in petals and at least, in a genetic background of lines with a white seed coat, induces intense pigmentation around the hilum. By contrast, there are no apparent pleiotropic effects of the pod colour locus and the seed eye colour locus on pigmentation in other tissues.

Francis Kwame Padi

2003-01-01

207

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae) para la Argentina Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae) from Argentina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae) y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae) para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal ...

Hoc, Patricia S.; Palacios, Ramo?n A.; Mom, Mari?a P.

2006-01-01

208

biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

209

Analysis of radiation-induced genome alterations in Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christell van der Vyver1, B Juan Vorster2, Karl J Kunert3, Christopher A Cullis41Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, and 3Department of Plant Science, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Seeds from an inbred Vigna unguiculata (cowpea cultivar were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 180 Gy in order to identify and characterize possible mutations. Three techniques, ie, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellites, and representational difference analysis, were used to characterize possible DNA variation among the mutants and nonirradiated control plants both immediately after irradiation and in subsequent generations. A large portion of putative radiation-induced genome changes had significant similarities to chloroplast sequences. The frequency of mutation at three of these isolated polymorphic regions with chloroplast similarity was further determined by polymerase chain reaction screening using a large number of individual parental, M1, and M2 plants. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the rate at which various regions of the genome is mutated in irradiation experiments differs significantly and also that mutations have variable “repair” rates. Furthermore, regions of the nuclear DNA derived from the chloroplast genome are highly susceptible to modification by radiation treatment. Overall, data have provided detailed information on the effects of gamma irradiation on the cowpea genome and about the ability of the plant to repair these genome changes in subsequent plant generations.Keywords: mutation breeding, gamma radiation, genetic mutations, cowpea, representational difference analysis

van der Vyver C

2011-09-01

210

Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

1990-01-01

211

Reproductive performance and population dynamics of cowpea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on leaf extracts of resistant and susceptible cowpeas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Membrane feeding studies were conducted to determine the effects of raw juices and chemical extracts of leaves of aphid-resistant (ICV-12) and aphid-susceptible (ICV-1) cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], on the survival, growth, and reproduction of cowpea aphidAphis craccivora Koch. Life table and demographic statistics of the cohort population and subsequent generations were estimated. Compared to ICV-1, the leaf juices and chemical extracts of ICV-12 exhibited significant (Paphid survival, growth, and reproduction. Raw leaf juice and ethyl acetate extract of ICV-12 in both water and sucrose significantly (Paphid performance. The adverse long-term effects were often more extreme than those resulting from a diet of distilled water alone. Methanol extract of ICV-12 showed an intermediate level of adverse effects on aphids, being generally less than that of ethyl acetate but greater than that of hexane. Compared to the other ICV-12 extracts, the hexane extracts in water or sucrose media did not significantly affect the aphid performance. Overall, it was determined that antibiosis was a governing modality of aphid-resistance in ICV-12. Postingestive intoxication was caused by foliage components of seedling plants of that cultivar. PMID:24226090

Annan, I B; Tingey, W M; Schaefers, G A; Saxena, K N

1996-07-01

212

Emission of methane and nitrous oxide from Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes in India during the dry cropping seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se hicieron estimaciones de la emisión de metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O) de las legumbres Vigna mungo y Vigna radiata. Para evaluar estas emisiones se estudió el potencial de óxido reducción (redox) y la temperatura del suelo. El CH4 fue negativo y el N2O positivo para Vigna mungo a lo largo de [...] casi todo el período de cultivo. El potencial redox fue de más de +100 mV durante todo el período de cultivo con un flujo máximo de N2O de 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. El incremento de la temperatura del suelo y del potencial redox durante la cosecha incrementó aún más el flujo de N2O a 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. El flujo integrado estacional E(SIF) de CH4 y N2O para Vigna mungo se calculó en -4.06 g m-2 y 3.38 mg m-2, respectivamente. De manera simmilar los valores E(SIF) estimados para Vigna radiata durante la estación de cultivo fueron de 0.009 g m-2 y -7.6 mg m-2, mientras que para el período post cosecha fueron de 0.02 g m-2 y 4.06 mg m-2 para CH4 y N2O, respectivamente. Durante la estación de cultivo se evaluaron los parámetros del suelo carbón orgánico y nutrimentos como el amonio, nitratos y nitritos. La emisión de gases de efecto invernadero también se correlacionó con varios parámetros fisicoquímicos del suelo. Abstract in english Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates were made for Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes. The affecting soil parameters like redox potential, soil temperature were studied to evaluate CH4 and N2O emissions. The CH4 was negative and N2O was positive for Vigna mungo, almost through [...] out the cropping period. The redox potential was more than +100 mV during the entire cropping period with a maximum N2O flux of 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. The raise in soil temperature and the redox potential during harvest further increased the N2O flux to 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. The seasonally integrated flux E(SIF) for CH4 and N2O for Vigna mungo was calculated to be -4.06 g.m-2 and 3.38 mg m-2 respectively. Similarly E(SIF) values estimated for Vigna radiata cropping season were 0.009 g m-2 and -7.6 mg m-2, whereas for the post harvesting period the fluxes were 0.02 g m-2 and 4.06 mg m-2 for CH4 and N2O respectively. The soil parameters like organic carbon and nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite during the cropping season were evaluated. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) was also correlated to various physico-chemical parameters of soil.

Y. V., Swamy; G. N., Nikhil; R., Venkanna; S. N., Das; G., Roy Chaudhury.

213

Emission of methane and nitrous oxide from Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes in India during the dry cropping seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se hicieron estimaciones de la emisión de metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O) de las legumbres Vigna mungo y Vigna radiata. Para evaluar estas emisiones se estudió el potencial de óxido reducción (redox) y la temperatura del suelo. El CH4 fue negativo y el N2O positivo para Vigna mungo a lo largo de [...] casi todo el período de cultivo. El potencial redox fue de más de +100 mV durante todo el período de cultivo con un flujo máximo de N2O de 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. El incremento de la temperatura del suelo y del potencial redox durante la cosecha incrementó aún más el flujo de N2O a 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. El flujo integrado estacional E(SIF) de CH4 y N2O para Vigna mungo se calculó en -4.06 g m-2 y 3.38 mg m-2, respectivamente. De manera simmilar los valores E(SIF) estimados para Vigna radiata durante la estación de cultivo fueron de 0.009 g m-2 y -7.6 mg m-2, mientras que para el período post cosecha fueron de 0.02 g m-2 y 4.06 mg m-2 para CH4 y N2O, respectivamente. Durante la estación de cultivo se evaluaron los parámetros del suelo carbón orgánico y nutrimentos como el amonio, nitratos y nitritos. La emisión de gases de efecto invernadero también se correlacionó con varios parámetros fisicoquímicos del suelo. Abstract in english Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates were made for Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes. The affecting soil parameters like redox potential, soil temperature were studied to evaluate CH4 and N2O emissions. The CH4 was negative and N2O was positive for Vigna mungo, almost through [...] out the cropping period. The redox potential was more than +100 mV during the entire cropping period with a maximum N2O flux of 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. The raise in soil temperature and the redox potential during harvest further increased the N2O flux to 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. The seasonally integrated flux E(SIF) for CH4 and N2O for Vigna mungo was calculated to be -4.06 g.m-2 and 3.38 mg m-2 respectively. Similarly E(SIF) values estimated for Vigna radiata cropping season were 0.009 g m-2 and -7.6 mg m-2, whereas for the post harvesting period the fluxes were 0.02 g m-2 and 4.06 mg m-2 for CH4 and N2O respectively. The soil parameters like organic carbon and nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite during the cropping season were evaluated. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) was also correlated to various physico-chemical parameters of soil.

Y. V., Swamy; G. N., Nikhil; R., Venkanna; S. N., Das; G., Roy Chaudhury.

2012-01-01

214

Efectividad de cepas rizobianas de frijol bajo diferentes regímenes de fósforo / Effectiveness of cowpea rhizobial strains under different phosphorus regimes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, el frijol representa una alternativa a la proteína animal, debido a su alto consumo y valor nutritivo, por ello se ha estimulado la implementación de programas para reactivar la economía de los pequeños y medianos productores, a fin de incrementar su producción y así tener mayor dispon [...] ibilidad de proteína de alta calidad a bajo costo; de manera que, los estudios encaminados a mejorar su cultivo, son acertados. Se evaluó la efectividad de cepas rizobianas de crecimiento lento (cl) y rápido (cr) en frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivar TC9-6 en varios regímenes de fósforo (0, 20, 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial. Las plantas se cultivaron en 4 kg de suelo de sabana 45 días y las cepas en caldo de levadura y manitol: 5 (cr: JV91) y 10 (cl: JV94) días. La inoculación (2 ml cada vez) fue aplicada a la siembra y 6 días más tarde. La utilización de fósforo (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) incrementó la nodulación (número, peso seco total e individual de nódulos) y favoreció la aparición de nódulos rojos; así mismo, acrecentó el peso de la materia seca, la altura, el número de hojas y la concentración de nitrógeno del vástago. Los valores fueron similares con ambos tipos de cepas (efectividad similar) y para las dos concentraciones (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con las menores estimaciones para 0 y 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . De acuerdo con los resultados las concentraciones de 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 fueron las más favorables para el crecimiento y la nodulación de frijol. Abstract in english In Venezuela, cowpea is an alternative to animal protein due to its high consumption and nutritious value, so it has stimulated the implementation of programs to reactivate the small and medium producers economy, in order to increase its production and to have major high quality protein availability [...] at low cost; so that, the studies carry on to improve its cultivation, are well-aimed. The effectiveness of slow (sg) and fast (fg) growing rhizobial strains was evaluated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) cultivar TC9-6 at various phosphorus regimes (0, 20, 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ): randomized block design with factorial arrangement. Plants were cultivated in 4 kg savannah soil: 45 days, and the strains in yeast and mannitol broth: 5 (fg: JV91) and 10 (sg: JV94) days. The inoculation (2 ml each time) was applied at sowing time and 6 days later. Phosphorus utilization (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) increa- sed nodulation (nodule number, total and individual dry weight) and favoured nodule red colour appearance; also, incremented shoot dry matter weight, height, leaves number and nitrogen concentration. Values were similar with both strain types (similar effectiveness) and to the two doses (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), with lower estimations to 0 and 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . Accordingly with the results, the doses of 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 were the most favourable to cowpea growth and nodulation.

Juliana, Mayz Figueroa.

2011-12-01

215

Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years / Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV) um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminos [...] a no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC: CPSMV-CE - o primeiro isolado do vírus obtido no Ceará; isolados obtidos de feijão-caupi: CPSMV-AL (Alagoas) and CPSMV-PE (Pernambuco); CPSMV-PR - isolado de soja (Glycine max) no Paraná e CPSMV-CROT - isolado de Crotalaria paulinea no Maranhão. Um isolado de CPSMV capaz de infetar o cv. Macaibo, cultivar de ffeijão-caupi imune a todos os demais isolados de CPSMV foi biológica e sorologicamente caracterizado e designado de CPSMV-MC. O CPSMV-MC obtido em janeiro de 1990 vem sendo avaliado através de estudos de gama de hospedeiro e mantido in vivo através de inoculações periódicas em feijão-caupi. Os resultados dessas avaliações revelaram que a integridade biológica e as propriedades sorológicas do CPSMV-MC foram preservadas ao longo dos anos, indicando que a preservação das propriedades genéticas de uma estirpe viral pode acontecer através dos anos. Estudos moleculares adicionais revelaram que a seqüência de nucleotídeos correspondente a parte do gene da capa protéica de cinco isolados de CPSMV, incluindo o CPSMV-MC, possui elevado grau de conservação, com 92-100% da seqüência de nucleotídeos idêntica entre os isolados. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isola [...] tes were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max) in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC). The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP) gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do, Nascimento; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão.

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Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

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Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC. The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminosa no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC: CPSMV-CE - o primeiro isolado do vírus obtido no Ceará; isolados obtidos de feijão-caupi: CPSMV-AL (Alagoas and CPSMV-PE (Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - isolado de soja (Glycine max no Paraná e CPSMV-CROT - isolado de Crotalaria paulinea no Maranhão. Um isolado de CPSMV capaz de infetar o cv. Macaibo, cultivar de ffeijão-caupi imune a todos os demais isolados de CPSMV foi biológica e sorologicamente caracterizado e designado de CPSMV-MC. O CPSMV-MC obtido em janeiro de 1990 vem sendo avaliado através de estudos de gama de hospedeiro e mantido in vivo através de inoculações periódicas em feijão-caupi. Os resultados dessas avaliações revelaram que a integridade biológica e as propriedades sorológicas do CPSMV-MC foram preservadas ao longo dos anos, indicando que a preservação das propriedades genéticas de uma estirpe viral pode acontecer através dos anos. Estudos moleculares adicionais revelaram que a seqüência de nucleotídeos correspondente a parte do gene da capa protéica de cinco isolados de CPSMV, incluindo o CPSMV-MC, possui elevado grau de conservação, com 92-100% da seqüência de nucleotídeos idêntica entre os isolados.

José Albersio Araujo Lima

2012-03-01

217

Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui / Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alo [...] cados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocat [...] ed in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and productive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Rafaella Barbosa, Correa; Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki, Inoue; Irani da Silva de, Morais.

218

Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

Cheung Foo

2008-02-01

219

Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Cowpea Using Nitrogen 15-isotope: The Role of Water and Improved Crop Varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by low productivity and is associated with variable and irregular rainfall, infertile soils, and inadequate application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (Fatokun et al., 2002). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) is a major source of dietary protein for the people, and occupies about eight million hectares of agricultural land, a majority being in Niger and Nigeria (Singh et al., 1997). The major uses include (1) food grain, (2) animal feed, and (3) source of organic N fertilizer. In Niger, cowpea production increased from 4 000 tons year-1 in the mid-fifties to a maximum of 775 000 tons year-1 in 1997, and its cultivated area is still increasing. Despite its importance, cowpea yields in Niger are very low (approximately 300 kg ha-1) relative to the production potential of between 1.5-3.0 t ha-1 (Ball et al., 2000). Yield can be substantially increased by using improved cowpea varieties and overcoming water stress. With adequate soil moisture cowpea flowers over a long period produce more seeds and yield loss is limited. On the contrary, under water deficit conditions the flowering period is cut short and the seed matures earlier, reducing yield. Overcoming water stress can also improve nutrient use efficiency of cowpea. This article summarizes the results of a field study carried out in Niger to assess the use of improved cowpea varieties and water management on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of cowpea using stable isotopes of nitrogen-15 (15N). The field experiment was carried out in the Sahelian zone of Sadore located 45 km south of Niamey, capital of Niger. Six varieties of cowpea cultivars including three widely used varieties in Niger (TN3-78, TN5-78 and KVX) improved the variety obtained from IATA, Nigeria (V499). One variety imported from Ghana (Ghana) and a non-fixing variety obtained from ICRISAAT, Niger (IC10), were used in the study. The water application includes: (a) control in which the treatment is irrigated at field capacity (I1), (b) irrigation every three days (I2), (c) irrigation every five days (I3), and (d) irrigation every seven days (I4). Each treatment received a basal application of 10 kg ha-1 as 15N-labelled urea and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 as single superphosphate. Crop yield, N uptake and 15N in plant were measured and fertilizer N use and biological nitrogen fixation were estimated. Results showed that keeping the soil water content at field capacity through regular application of water increased cowpea grain yield in all five varieties

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Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp  

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Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

Gakuru, S.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping / Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se, na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) em Petrolina, PE, o efeito do plantio consorciado sobre o comportamento hídrico, trocas gasosas e produtividade do milho (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, e do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba, em condiç [...] ões semi-áridas. Os tratamentos foram: milho e caupi em cultivos isolados na população de 40.000 plantas ha-1, e consorciados na população de 20.000 plantas ha-1. No sistema de consórcio, o milho obteve valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, condutância estomática, transpiração e fotossíntese, em relação ao cultivo isolado. Com o caupi, observaram-se valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, porém menor condutância, transpiração e fotossíntese em relação ao cultivo isolado. Observou-se incremento de 18% na produtividade do milho, enquanto a do caupi foi reduzida em 5%, em relação aos respectivos sistemas de monocultivo. Entretanto, o índice de equivalência da terra obtido foi de 1,13, o que indica vantagens do consórcio sobre os sistemas isolados. O maior índice parcial de equivalência de terra foi obtido com o milho, sugerindo que esta espécie foi o principal componente a influenciar a produtividade final do sistema estudado. Abstract in english The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petr [...] olina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO, LIMA FILHO.

2000-05-01

222

Simulation of growth and development of irrigated cowpea in Piauí State by CROPGRO model  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adapt the CROPGRO model, which is part of the DSSAT system, for simulating the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata growth and development under soil and climate conditions of the Baixo Parnaíba region, Piauí State, Brazil. In the CROPGRO, only input parameters that define crop species, cultivars, and ecotype were changed in order to characterize the cowpea crop. Soil and climate files were created for the considered site. Field experiments without water deficit were used to calibrate the model. In these experiments, dry matter (DM, leaf area index (LAI, yield components and grain yield of cowpea (cv. BR 14 Mulato were evaluated. The results showed good fit for DM and LAI estimates. The medium values of R² and medium absolute error (MAE were, respectively, 0.95 and 264.9 kg ha-1 for DM, and 0.97 and 0.22 for LAI. The difference between observed and simulated values of plant phenology varied from 0 to 3 days. The model also presented good performance for yield components simulation, excluding 100-grain weight, for which the error ranged from 20.9% to 34.3%. Considering the medium values of crop yield in two years, the model presented an error from 5.6%.

Bastos Edson Alves

2002-01-01

223

Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea Purificação parcial e caracterização das ribonucleases de raízes, caule e folhas de feijão-de-corda  

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Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1) present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose) resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular ma...

OCTÁVIO LUIZ FRANCO; LORRANCE ABREU GONDIM; KÁTIA REGINA BEZERRA; MARIA ELANE DE CARVALHO GUERRA; CARMEM ROGÉLIA FARIAS MACHADO LIMA; JOAQUIM ENÉAS-FILHO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO PRISCO; ENÉAS GOMES-FILHO

2001-01-01

224

Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone  

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Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques to trace the amount of deposition and its transfer to associated and subsequent crops. Half of the total cowpea crop N was located below-ground at plant maturity, which exceeded 20 kg?N ha?1 when intercropped with millet. Only 15% of the below-ground cowpea N was recovered in roots, while 85% was found in the rhizodeposited pools. The experiment demonstrated that direct below-ground N transfer occurred from cowpea to millet in intercrop at a rate of 2 kg?N ha?1 over the growing season. Forty percent of the 25 kg below-ground N that the cowpea crop left at harvest were identifiable in the top 0.30 m soil in the beginning of the next planting season 7 months later; a pool still present at the end of that second season. Thus, the subsequent crop of millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) only recovered 2.5 kg?N ha?1 from the below-ground cowpea pre-crop N during this growth season. The role and potential of cowpea as N provider has been underestimated in the past by ignoring the large proportion of N contained in its rhizodeposits. However, information is needed to determine how losses of the rhizodeposited N can be minimized to fully harness the potential of cowpea as N provider in agro-ecosystems of the region.

Ambus, Per; Jensen, Henning HØgh

2011-01-01

225

Caracterización de cepas de Rhizobium y Bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulación) seleccionados de los cultivos de fríjol caupi (Vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinóculos / Characterization of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiu´s strains (with ability of nodulation) selected from bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultures as a potentials bioinoculants  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los suelos de Latinoamérica son ácidos y deficientes en nitrógeno; por esta razón es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulación y fijar el nitrógeno en las plantas [...] leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opción con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analizó la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del fríjol Vigna unguiculata (fríjol caupí) cultivado en el norte del departamento de Bolívar (Colombia). Se identificaron aislados capaces de crecer mejor en ambientes hostiles (los cuales tienen un uso potencial como bioinoculantes). Se describe además un acercamiento a la taxonomía de estas bioespecies. Se caracterizaron 52 cepas de rizobios (basados en sus características morfológicas, requerimientos de cultivo, metabólicas, resistencia a metales y antibióticos y de autenticación). De acuerdo con sus propiedades de crecimiento, el 63,5% fueron de cepas de lento, mientras que el 36,5%, de rápido crecimiento. Prevalecieron las de lento crecimiento con un 63,5% del total sobre un 36,5% de rápido crecimiento. Los aislados fueron caracterizados de acuerdo con sus patrones de asimilación de carbohidratos, y se encontraron microorganismos de los géneros Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium y Mesorhizobium (12 cepas identificadas como potenciales bioinoculantes). Abstract in english Latin America´s soils are acidic and nitrogen-deficient, for this reason is necessary to explore new alternatives in order to modulate in the development of plants, specially the leguminous plants. The use of bacteria´s potential to induce nodulation and to fix nitrogen in leguminous plants has been [...] studied as an option with potential impact. In our study, we analyzed the diversity of rhizobial isolated of the bean Vigna unguiculata (beans cowpea) cultured in the north of Bolivar department (Colombia). We identified strains able of growing in hostile environment (which have a potential use like bioinoculants). Additionally, we described an approach to taxonomy of these biospecies. We reached the characterization of 52 rhizobial strains (based on their morphologic, requires of culture, metabolic, resistance to metals and antibiotics and authentication characteristics). According with their growing properties, 63.5 % were slow growth strains while the 36.5 % were of rapid growth. The isolates were characterized according to their assimilation carbohydrate´s pattern, finding microorganism as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium (12 of which were identified as potential bioinoculants).

Bernarda, Cuadrado; Guillermo, Rubio; Winston, Santos.

2009-01-01

226

Caracterización de cepas de Rhizobium y Bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulación) seleccionados de los cultivos de fríjol caupi (Vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinóculos / Characterization of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiu´s strains (with ability of nodulation) selected from bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultures as a potentials bioinoculants  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los suelos de Latinoamérica son ácidos y deficientes en nitrógeno; por esta razón es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulación y fijar el nitrógeno en las plantas [...] leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opción con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analizó la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del fríjol Vigna unguiculata (fríjol caupí) cultivado en el norte del departamento de Bolívar (Colombia). Se identificaron aislados capaces de crecer mejor en ambientes hostiles (los cuales tienen un uso potencial como bioinoculantes). Se describe además un acercamiento a la taxonomía de estas bioespecies. Se caracterizaron 52 cepas de rizobios (basados en sus características morfológicas, requerimientos de cultivo, metabólicas, resistencia a metales y antibióticos y de autenticación). De acuerdo con sus propiedades de crecimiento, el 63,5% fueron de cepas de lento, mientras que el 36,5%, de rápido crecimiento. Prevalecieron las de lento crecimiento con un 63,5% del total sobre un 36,5% de rápido crecimiento. Los aislados fueron caracterizados de acuerdo con sus patrones de asimilación de carbohidratos, y se encontraron microorganismos de los géneros Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium y Mesorhizobium (12 cepas identificadas como potenciales bioinoculantes). Abstract in english Latin America´s soils are acidic and nitrogen-deficient, for this reason is necessary to explore new alternatives in order to modulate in the development of plants, specially the leguminous plants. The use of bacteria´s potential to induce nodulation and to fix nitrogen in leguminous plants has been [...] studied as an option with potential impact. In our study, we analyzed the diversity of rhizobial isolated of the bean Vigna unguiculata (beans cowpea) cultured in the north of Bolivar department (Colombia). We identified strains able of growing in hostile environment (which have a potential use like bioinoculants). Additionally, we described an approach to taxonomy of these biospecies. We reached the characterization of 52 rhizobial strains (based on their morphologic, requires of culture, metabolic, resistance to metals and antibiotics and authentication characteristics). According with their growing properties, 63.5 % were slow growth strains while the 36.5 % were of rapid growth. The isolates were characterized according to their assimilation carbohydrate´s pattern, finding microorganism as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium (12 of which were identified as potential bioinoculants).

Bernarda, Cuadrado; Guillermo, Rubio; Winston, Santos.

227

Organisation du pool génique de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : croisements entre les formes sauvages et cultivées du niébé  

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Full Text Available Organization of the genic pool of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : crosses between the wild and cultivated forms of cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. gene pool organization is studied on the basis of intra-specific crossing between cultivated (cv-gr. Unguiculata, cv-gr. Biflora and wild forms of the species (var. spontanea, subsp. alba, subsp. stenophylla, subsp. pawekiae, subsp. baoulensis. The rate of crosses success, the rate of the obtained pods fruitfulness and the pollinic fertility of the hybrids F1 varied according to the wild taxa used. The highest rate of success was obtained for the crossings between cultivated and annual inbred form (40-79,3%. This result confirms that var. spontanea is genetically closer to the cultivated forms than the other wild forms. Crosses between cultivated and wild allo-autogamous forms gave intermediate rates of success (17,8-57,9% and a significant reduction of the pollinic fertility of some hybrids F1. These observations suggest the existence of a genetic divergence between these two groups, however they share the same gene pool. The wild allogamous forms gave the weakest rates of success with the cultivated forms (3,1-40% showing that they are genetically more distant of these last, compared to the other wild groups. The rates of crosses success are particularly weaker when the wild form subsp. baoulensis is crossed with the cultivated forms.

Jean-Pierre Baudoin

2007-01-01

228

Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.  

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Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

2013-08-01

229

Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

230

Observation on gamma ray induced viable mutations in vegetable cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties 'Pusa Komal' and 'Co 2' were irradiated with gamma rays at 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy. After mutagenic treatment, M1 generation was raised. Ten M1 plants in each treatment and in the control were advanced to M2 generation. The M2 seedling progenies were examined for viable mutants. In a population of 3,199 and 3,538 plants in Pusa Komal and Co 2 respectively, a total number of 140 mutants were observed for variation in cotyledonary leaves in the early stage of growth to abberants possessing modified plant structure, leaf morphology, pod size, pod color and seed coat color. In the progeny of Pusa Komal variety, the percentage of viable mutation was the highest at 300 Gy while in Co 2, at 500 Gy. Mutants for plant habit have also been reported in greengram. The data on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency are given. In Pusa Komal, the effectiveness for viable mutation ranged from 4.22 to 12.45 and in Co 2 ranged from 6.60 to 13.35. The effectiveness and efficiency were decreased with increased doses of gamma rays as was also noted for mungbean

231

Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage. PMID:24322505

Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

2014-07-01

232

Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

233

Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus / Caracterização da resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a resistência de 50 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a Callosobruchus maculatus. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento (genótipo). Testes de confinamento foram realizados com os 50 genótipos de [...] feijão-caupi, para avaliar a preferência para oviposição e o desenvolvimento do caruncho. Os genótipos IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2 e Sanzi Sambili apresentam resistência do tipo não preferência (oviposição e alimentação). IT81 D-1045 Ereto e IT81 D-1045 Enramador apresentam antibiose contra C. maculatus e descendem de genitores resistentes, o que lhes confere potencial para serem utilizados em futuros cruzamentos, para obtenção de variedades de feijão-caupi com maior nível de resistência. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype) was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the pr [...] eference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding). IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

Maria de Jesus Passos de, Castro; Edson Luiz Lopes, Baldin; Patrícia Leite, Cruz; Camila Moreira de, Souza; Paulo Henrique Soares da, Silva.

234

Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus / Caracterização da resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a resistência de 50 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a Callosobruchus maculatus. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento (genótipo). Testes de confinamento foram realizados com os 50 genótipos de [...] feijão-caupi, para avaliar a preferência para oviposição e o desenvolvimento do caruncho. Os genótipos IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2 e Sanzi Sambili apresentam resistência do tipo não preferência (oviposição e alimentação). IT81 D-1045 Ereto e IT81 D-1045 Enramador apresentam antibiose contra C. maculatus e descendem de genitores resistentes, o que lhes confere potencial para serem utilizados em futuros cruzamentos, para obtenção de variedades de feijão-caupi com maior nível de resistência. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype) was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the pr [...] eference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding). IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

Maria de Jesus Passos de, Castro; Edson Luiz Lopes, Baldin; Patrícia Leite, Cruz; Camila Moreira de, Souza; Paulo Henrique Soares da, Silva.

1201-12-01

235

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV.

José Albersio Araujo Lima

2011-11-01

236

Use of 15N in determining the influence of fertilizer potassium on nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency in cowpea and finger millet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted using 15N enriched fertilizer to determine the impact of potassium (K) on the nitrogen (N) nutrition of two popular annual crops grown in the region. The species used were cowpea (Vigna unguiculata WALP) and finger millet (Elucine coracana L), and the study included two soil moisture regimes. The plant N content, N uptake and efficiency of utilization of fertilizer N were affected by potassium fertilizer and soil moisture. The plant N content of cowpea was greater than that of millet. In contrast, the response of all other parameters were greater in millet at all levels of fertilizer K. Soil moisture also had a significant impact on the measured parameters, and cowpea required greater quantities of fertilizer K to utilize applied N more efficiently under dry conditions. The response of millet in terms of fertilizer N utilization increased up to the highest level of K, irrespective of soil moisture status. In addition, N fertilizer uptake and utilization efficiency was greater than in cowpea at all levels of K. The results are presented in relation to the N fertilizer use patter of these species under low and high soil moisture levels. The study also presents the positive interactions between N and K, and possible implications for fertilizer programmes. (author). 16 refs, 4 tabs

237

Adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva de feijão-caupi / Yield adaptability and stability of cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade da produtividade de grãos de 15 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) utilizando o modelo de efeitos principais aditivos e interação multiplicativa. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em 13 ambientes, nos Estados do Piaui e Mar [...] anhão, no período de 1999 a 2001. Os resultados mostraram a existência de poucas diferenças entre genótipos, mas os efeitos de ambientes, interação genótipos x ambientes e os três primeiros eixos da análise de componentes principais da interação foram altamente significativos (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain yield stability and adaptability of 15 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. The trials were carried out at 13 environments of Piaui and Maranhão, Brazil, from 1999 to 2001. Geno [...] type showed low effect, but environment, genotype x environment interaction, and the first tree axes of the principal components analysis were highly significant (P

Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Ângela Celis de Almeida, Lopes.

238

Ultrastructural alterations into chloroplasts and root nodules of cowpea plants grown under saline stress conditions / Alteraciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos y nódulos de las raíces de plantas de frijol Caupí desarrolladas bajo condiciones de estrés salino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha evaluado el efecto del estrés salino sobre la ultraestructura de los cloroplastos y los nódulos radicales de plantas de frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión TEM. Las plantas se sometieron a 150 y 0,02 mM de NaCl, siendo [...] considerado este último como control. La cepa VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense), aislada de suelos salinos del Valle del Cauto (Cuba), fue inoculada en el momento de la siembra. Cuarenta días después de la germinación se tomaron muestras de hojas y nódulos de la misma posición y edad para realizar observaciones microscópicas. Se han puesto en evidencia modificaciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos, provocadas principalmente por el incremento de tamaño de los gránulos de almidón. Estas modificaciones produjeron alteraciones en la distribución normal de los granos. En la ultraestructura del nódulo se produjo un debilitamiento de la membrana peribacteroidal y se incrementó el número de vesículas de las células infectadas, al ser aplicado el tratamiento salino. Los simbiosomas comenzaron a degradarse al romperse la membrana peribacteroidal. Dentro de las células no infectadas se observó una alta vesiculación y la degradación de algunos orgánulos celulares. Abstract in english The ultrastructure of leaves chloroplast and root nodules from cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, subjected to saline stress was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Plants were exposed at 150 and 0,02 mM of NaCl treatments, considering 0,02 mM salt level [...] as control. Native strain VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense) isolated from saline soils of Cauto Valley (Cuba) was inoculated at sowing. Forty days after germination, samples of the same age and position from leaves and root nodules were taken for microscopy observations. Some ultrastructural modifications were detected by the salt effect in chloroplasts, mainly triggered by the great increase in the size of the starch granules. These modifications produced altered grana distribution. In nodule structure, when saline stress was applied, a weakness of peribacteroid membrane and high number of vesicles into infected cells were noted. Symbiosomes started deteriorating with some broken peribacteroidal membranes. A high vesiculation and degradation of some cellular organelle into uninfected cells were observed.

Ernesto, Gómez Padilla; Raúl, López Sánchez; Beatriz, Ruiz-Diez; Mercedes, Fernández-Pascual; Susana, Fajardo; Bettina, Eichler-Loebermann.

2014-03-01

239

Ultrastructural alterations into chloroplasts and root nodules of cowpea plants grown under saline stress conditions / Alteraciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos y nódulos de las raíces de plantas de frijol Caupí desarrolladas bajo condiciones de estrés salino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha evaluado el efecto del estrés salino sobre la ultraestructura de los cloroplastos y los nódulos radicales de plantas de frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión TEM. Las plantas se sometieron a 150 y 0,02 mM de NaCl, siendo [...] considerado este último como control. La cepa VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense), aislada de suelos salinos del Valle del Cauto (Cuba), fue inoculada en el momento de la siembra. Cuarenta días después de la germinación se tomaron muestras de hojas y nódulos de la misma posición y edad para realizar observaciones microscópicas. Se han puesto en evidencia modificaciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos, provocadas principalmente por el incremento de tamaño de los gránulos de almidón. Estas modificaciones produjeron alteraciones en la distribución normal de los granos. En la ultraestructura del nódulo se produjo un debilitamiento de la membrana peribacteroidal y se incrementó el número de vesículas de las células infectadas, al ser aplicado el tratamiento salino. Los simbiosomas comenzaron a degradarse al romperse la membrana peribacteroidal. Dentro de las células no infectadas se observó una alta vesiculación y la degradación de algunos orgánulos celulares. Abstract in english The ultrastructure of leaves chloroplast and root nodules from cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, subjected to saline stress was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Plants were exposed at 150 and 0,02 mM of NaCl treatments, considering 0,02 mM salt level [...] as control. Native strain VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense) isolated from saline soils of Cauto Valley (Cuba) was inoculated at sowing. Forty days after germination, samples of the same age and position from leaves and root nodules were taken for microscopy observations. Some ultrastructural modifications were detected by the salt effect in chloroplasts, mainly triggered by the great increase in the size of the starch granules. These modifications produced altered grana distribution. In nodule structure, when saline stress was applied, a weakness of peribacteroid membrane and high number of vesicles into infected cells were noted. Symbiosomes started deteriorating with some broken peribacteroidal membranes. A high vesiculation and degradation of some cellular organelle into uninfected cells were observed.

Ernesto, Gómez Padilla; Raúl, López Sánchez; Beatriz, Ruiz-Diez; Mercedes, Fernández-Pascual; Susana, Fajardo; Bettina, Eichler-Loebermann.

240

Phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay, and fresh pea production. Strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought is available and should be incorporated. The extreme ability of extra-early erect cowpea cultivars to escape terminal drought should be exploited in zones with very short rainfall seasons. In zones with the possibility of limited rainfall in the middle of the growing season, resistance to mid-season drought, and the delayed-leaf-senescence trait can be valuable. Breeding for water-use efficiency, deeper rooting, and heat tolerance are discussed. Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Resistance to the organism causing ashy stem blight disease should be incorporated because this disease can destroy cowpea seedlings under hot, dry soil conditions. The value of varietal intercrops with contrasting types of cowpea cultivars in enhancing adaptation to drought is described. Implications of cowpea/cereal rotations for cowpea breeding are discussed. Breeding strategies for enhancing cowpea adaptation to drought are described. PMID:22654769

Hall, Anthony E

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Variation in Phosphorus Uptake and Use Efficiencies Between Pigeonpea Genotypes and Cowpea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low bioavailability of soil phosphorus (P) often limits N-2 (nitrogen) fixation and crop production in large parts of the tropics. The efficiency of P acquisition and P use by 21 genotypes of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] were studied in a pot experiment using two cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Waip.] genotypes as controls. The short-duration genotypes produced more dry matter, accumulated more P, and produced more dry matter per unit of absorbed P than the medium-and long-duration genotypes. Dry-matter production correlated positively with the P uptake (r(2) = 0.72) and P-use efficiency (r(2) = 0.86). The P uptake correlated positively with the P-use efficiency (r(2) = 0.36); whereas the P-use efficiency correlated negatively with the P-uptake efficiency (r(2) = 0.50). Root surface did not determine P acquisition of pigeonpea, which absorbed 1.6 mg P cm(-3) from 33 cm(3) soil compared with 0.17 mg P cm(-3) from 387 cm(3) soil for cowpea at 66 d.

Vesterager, J.M.; Nielsen, N.E.

2006-01-01

242

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 renefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

243

Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Germination on Anti oxidative activity of Cowpea seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anti oxidative activity (AOA) of cowpea (Vigna unquiculata L.) methanolic extracts was investigated. AOA of crude methanolic extracts (CME's) for embryo was the strongest (81.4%) followed by seed coat (testa) (80.0%) and whole seed (13.95% of AOA for ?-tocopherol at 120 hr storage period: while AOA of seed coat and whole seed were 98.6, 86.15% respectively at 168 hr. AOA increased for CME's of seed coat (from 80 to 89.76%) and whole seed (from 13.95 to 83.72%), as irradiation dose increased up to 7.5 KGy. In the first 24 hr germination, AOA declined for seed coat from 40 to 20.46% then start to increase to reach 73.02% at the end of germination period. AOA for whole seed as well increased in the first 48 hr from 13.95 to 44.18% then decreased to 37.5% of AOA for ?-tocopherol. The research proved the commercial importance of cowpea seed as natural source for antioxidants, and investigated the role of gamma irradiation and germination in increasing the anti oxidative activity

244

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s[sup [minus]1] as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs.

Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A. (Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)); Serafini, P.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

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Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

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Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation  

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Full Text Available Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0 with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contrasting (Al-resistant and Al-susceptible cowpea genotypes, Epace 10 (E10 and Santo Inacio (SI were studied at 0 and 0 ?M Al. Root elongation was followed over the first 96 h of Al treatment and during the initial 48 hours elongation was determined daily. In addition, exudation of carboxylates in apical root zone and modifications of rhizoplane pH by the two genotypes were compared in hydroponics` culture experiments that involved +/-Al treatments at mild (14 days and severe (21 days phosphorus (P limitation stages. Differential genotypic responses were further evaluated in a rhizobox experiment, using an acidic Aerenosol from West Africa (Niger with low expression of Al toxicity. Strong Al-induced inhibition of root growth occurred at 20 ?M Al without genotypic difference, suggesting the need to further test genotypic differences at lower concentrations. Under P limitation, E10 exhibited a stronger expression (relative to SI of root induced chemical changes (increased rhizoplane pH and citrate exudation in apical root zone to counteract Al toxicity. Therefore, genotypic differences in performance of E10 and SI on acid mineral soils may be associated with different expression of Al tolerance mechanisms, particularly under conditions of limited P supply.

E.A. Akinrinde

2006-01-01

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Efetividade de rizóbios e caracterização fenotípica dos isolados que nodulam feijão-caupi em solos da Amazônia Central / Effectiveness and phenotypic characterization of cowpea rhizobia isolated from central Amazonian soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma cultura importante na Amazônia Central, mas os rizóbios associados a essa leguminosa são poucos estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e caracterizar fenotipicamente os isolados de rizóbio que nodulam feijão-caupi na região. As populaçõe [...] s de rizóbio de Novo Ayrão proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca da parte aérea e total, raiz, número de nódulos e peso dos nódulos secos nas plantas de feijão-caupi; porém, não diferiram do tratamento testemunha com N. Com base nos critérios fenotípicos avaliados, foi possível identificar uma ampla diversidade de populações de rizóbios contidos nos solos da Amazônia. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important legume cultivated in central Amazonia, but its rhizobia have been little studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and to characterize phenotypically the population of indigenous rhizobia that infect cowpea in the region. The rhizobia p [...] opulation from Novo Ayrão soils provided the highest shoot, root and total dry matter yields, number of nodules and nodule dry weights in cowpea plants; however, they were not different from those found for the control treatment with N. Based on phenotypic criteria, it was possible to identify a wide diversity of populations of rhizobia contained in Amazonian soils.

Aloísio Freitas, Chagas Junior; Luiz Antonio de, Oliveira; Arlem Nascimento de, Oliveira; André Luiz, Willerding.

248

Efetividade de rizóbios e caracterização fenotípica dos isolados que nodulam feijão-caupi em solos da Amazônia Central Effectiveness and phenotypic characterization of cowpea rhizobia isolated from central Amazonian soils  

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Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura importante na Amazônia Central, mas os rizóbios associados a essa leguminosa são poucos estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e caracterizar fenotipicamente os isolados de rizóbio que nodulam feijão-caupi na região. As populações de rizóbio de Novo Ayrão proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca da parte aérea e total, raiz, número de nódulos e peso dos nódulos secos nas plantas de feijão-caupi; porém, não diferiram do tratamento testemunha com N. Com base nos critérios fenotípicos avaliados, foi possível identificar uma ampla diversidade de populações de rizóbios contidos nos solos da Amazônia.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important legume cultivated in central Amazonia, but its rhizobia have been little studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and to characterize phenotypically the population of indigenous rhizobia that infect cowpea in the region. The rhizobia population from Novo Ayrão soils provided the highest shoot, root and total dry matter yields, number of nodules and nodule dry weights in cowpea plants; however, they were not different from those found for the control treatment with N. Based on phenotypic criteria, it was possible to identify a wide diversity of populations of rhizobia contained in Amazonian soils.

Aloísio Freitas Chagas Junior

2009-09-01

249

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae) para la Argentina / Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae) from Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae) y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae) para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transició [...] n jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto. Abstract in english During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae) and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae) for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1) Vigna candida (Vell.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná ba [...] sin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2) Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3) Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina) with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

Patricia S., Hoc; Ramón A., Palacios; María P., Mom.

2006-12-01

250

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae para la Argentina Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae from Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto.During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1 Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná basin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2 Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3 Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

Patricia S. Hoc

2006-12-01

251

Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

252

Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto / Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora). Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao ac [...] aso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora). Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomi [...] zed complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

Jefté Ferreira da, Silva; Ervino, Bleicher.

1089-10-01

253

Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora. Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto.The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora. Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

Jefté Ferreira da Silva

2010-10-01

254

Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto / Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora). Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao ac [...] aso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora). Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomi [...] zed complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

Jefté Ferreira da, Silva; Ervino, Bleicher.

255

Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose em caupi Diagrammatic scale for assessment of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea  

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Full Text Available A cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora cannescens e Pseudocercospora cruenta, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata no Brasil. Devido à inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi desenvolvida uma escala diagramática com níveis de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 e 82% de área foliar lesionada. A escala diagramática foi validada por 10 avaliadores, usando 50 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade, mensurados previamente com o programa Assess®. A acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples entre a severidade real e a estimada, com e sem o auxílio da escala. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão das estimativas, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram elevada repetibilidade (94% e reprodutibilidade (90% em 82,3% dos casos das estimativas com a utilização da escala. Portanto, a escala diagramática proposta é adequada para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose do caupi.Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora canescens and Pseudocercospora cruenta is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in Brazil. Due to the inexistence of standard methods for the assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic scale was developed with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 82% of diseased leaf area. The diagrammatic scale was validated by 10 raters using 50 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software Assess®. The accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimative of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual and estimated severity, with and without the use of the scale. With the scale raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrating around 10%. Raters showed high repeatability (94% and reproducibility ( 90% in 82.3% of the cases of the estimates by using the scale. The proposed diagrammatic key is suitable for the evaluation of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea.

Igor Corrêa Lima Albert

2008-10-01

256

Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single and combined treatment of ?-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

257

QTL mapping for salt tolerance and domestication-related traits in Vigna marina subsp. oblonga, a halophytic species.  

Science.gov (United States)

QTL mapping in F2 population [V. luteola × V. marina subsp. oblonga] revealed that the salt tolerance in V. marina subsp. oblonga is controlled by a single major QTL. The habitats of beach cowpea (Vigna marina) are sandy beaches in tropical and subtropical regions. As a species that grows closest to the sea, it has potential to be a gene source for breeding salt-tolerant crops. We reported here for the first time, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping for salt tolerance in V. marina. A genetic linkage map was constructed from an F2 population of 120 plants derived from an interspecific cross between V. luteola and V. marina subsp. oblonga. The map comprised 150 SSR markers. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups spanning 777.6 cM in length with a mean distance between the adjacent markers of 5.59 cM. The F2:3 population was evaluated for salt tolerance under hydroponic conditions at the seedling and developmental stages. Segregation analysis indicated that salt tolerance in V. marina is controlled by a few genes. Multiple interval mapping consistently identified one major QTL which can explain about 50% of phenotypic variance. The flanking markers may facilitate transfer of the salt tolerance allele from V. marina subsp. oblonga into related Vigna crops. The QTL for domestication-related traits from V. marina are also discussed. PMID:24370961

Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Naito, Ken; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Kaga, Akito; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

2014-03-01

258

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de Freitas

2012-08-01

259

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba / Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. A [...] mostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados. Abstract in english Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms [...] of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de, Freitas; Márcia Aparecida, Cezar; Márcia Michelle de Queiróz, Ambrósio; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; José Albérsio de Araújo, Lima.

260

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba / Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. A [...] mostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados. Abstract in english Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms [...] of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de, Freitas; Márcia Aparecida, Cezar; Márcia Michelle de Queiróz, Ambrósio; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; José Albérsio de Araújo, Lima.

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil / Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz [...] e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias), genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p Abstract in english In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphol [...] ogical traits (mucous production and colony morphology), genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S) and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p

Jerri Édson, Zilli; Romano Roberto, Valisheski; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Maria Cristina Prata, Neves; Norma Gouvêa, Rumjanek.

262

The cowpea RING ubiquitin ligase VuDRIP interacts with transcription factor VuDREB2A for regulating abiotic stress responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important grain legume cultivated in drought-prone parts of the world, having higher tolerance to heat and drought than many other crops. The transcription factor, Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding protein 2A (DREB2A), controls expression of many genes involved in osmotic and heat stress responses of plants. In Arabidopsis, DREB2A-interacting proteins (DRIPs), which function as E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19), regulate the stability of DREB2A by targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation. In this study, we cloned the cowpea ortholog of DRIP (VuDRIP) using PCR based methods. The 1614 bp long VuDRIP mRNA encoded a protein of 433 amino acids having a C3HC4-type Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain in the N-terminus and a C-terminal conserved region, similar to Arabidopsis DRIP1 and DRIP2. We found VuDRIP up-regulation in response to various abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) two-hybrid analysis, VuDRIP was identified as a VuDREB2A-interacting protein. The results indicate negative regulation of VuDREB2A by ubiquitin ligases in cowpea similar to Arabidopsis along with their other unknown roles in stress and hormone signaling pathways. PMID:25090086

Sadhukhan, Ayan; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

2014-10-01

263

Multiple forms of cotyledonary b-galactosidases from Vigna unguiculata quiescent seeds  

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Full Text Available Cotyledonary b-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from Pitiúba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. quiescent seeds. The purification steps consisted of precipitation of the crude extract with ammonium sulphate in the range of 20-60% saturation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and Lactosyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. This purification process gave rise to three b-galactosidases-rich fractions: b-gal I, b-gal II and b-gal III, which were purified about 5, 509, and 62 fold, respectively. They reached maximal enzyme activity at different pH ranges: 3.5-4.5 for b-gal I, 3.0-3.5 for b-gal II, and 3.0-4.0 for b-gal III. Their maximal activities were reached when the temperature of the assay medium was 60° C, and preincubation of the enzymes at different temperatures has shown that they were heat-stable up to 50° C. There were no significant differences among the partially purified enzymes as far as their response to the different effectors tested, except for Mn2+ and EDTA, which affected differently b-gal I, b-gal II, and b-gal III. They were slightly affected by Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarate, molybdate, glucose, and lactose, strongly inhibited by Cu2+ and galactose, and inactivated by Hg2+. These chemical and physical properties are similar to the ones found for other plant b-galactosidases. Although through this process of purification three isoforms of this enzyme were obtained, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gel of these enzyme-proteins suggest that cotyledons of Pitiúba cowpea quiescent seeds possess four isoforms of b-galactosidases.

ENÉAS-FILHO JOAQUIM

2000-01-01

264

Evidence that cowpea aphid-borne mosaic and blackeye cowpea mosaic viruses are two different potyviruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immunoreactivity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against African isolates of potyviruses from cowpea and African yam bean was examined in ELISAs. A serological study including reference isolates followed by further characterization in differential hosts resulted in separation of the potyviruses into two distinct serogroups, one containing blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) and the other containing cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV). Using biotin-labelled MAbs, the BlCMV isolates were further subdivided into two serotypes and the CAMV isolates into five serotypes. Because both BlCMV and CAMV induce a very similar mosaic disease in cowpea, different ELISA procedures using mixed MAbs were evaluated and a single protocol was developed which allowed reliable diagnosis of both viruses. PMID:8445363

Huguenot, C; Furneaux, M T; Thottappilly, G; Rossel, H W; Hamilton, R I

1993-03-01

265

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

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Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris. Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris. Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Aloísio Sartorato

2006-06-01

266

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima / Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solan [...] i (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer), a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris). Although R. solani [...] is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Aloísio, Sartorato; Kátia L., Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

2006-06-01

267

Determinação de épocas de semeadura do feijão caupi no Recôncavo Baiano através do modelo CROPGRO / Determining the optimum sowing dates for cowpea based on CROPGRO model in Recôncavo of Bahia - Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se simular épocas de semeadura para o feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) em Cruz das Almas, no Recôncavo Baiano, através do modelo CROPGRO-cowpea, calibrado e validado por meio de conjunto de dados provenientes de experimentos de campo. Dois cenários foram elaborados, [...] os quais são: produtividade atingível (com irrigação automática quando requerido) e atual (sequeiro), enquanto para cada cenário foram executadas 12 simulações, sendo uma por mês (início 15 de janeiro e fim em 15 de dezembro), com base nos vinte anos de dados climáticos históricos provenientes da estação automática da Embrapa CNPMF. O modelo simulou satisfatoriamente a produção do feijão caupi nas condições de Cruz das Almas demonstrando sensibilidade às variações climáticas inter e intra-anuais apontando, como mais propícias para a semeadura, as épocas compreendidas entre meados de junho e de julho devido ao fato de apresentarem menor risco de quebra de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to simulate sowing dates for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Cruz das Almas, Recôncavo of Bahia, based on crop model CROPGRO-cowpea. The crop model CROPGRO was calibrated and evaluated based on field experiments data set. Two different scenarios were elaborat [...] ed, attainable yield (automatic irrigation when required) and observed yield (rainfed) and for each scenario 12 simulations were made, one per month (begin January, 15 and end December, 15), considering 20 years of historic daily weather data set from the weather station at Embrapa CNPMF. The model simulated well the yield for Cruz das Almas, showing sensitivity for the climate variation inter and intra years, being July and June the best month for sowing cowpea due to lesser risk for yield loss.

Aristides F., Lima Filho; Mauricio A., Coelho Filho; Alexandre B., Heinemann.

268

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima / Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solan [...] i (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer), a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris). Although R. solani [...] is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Aloísio, Sartorato; Kátia L., Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

269

Determinação de épocas de semeadura do feijão caupi no Recôncavo Baiano através do modelo CROPGRO / Determining the optimum sowing dates for cowpea based on CROPGRO model in Recôncavo of Bahia - Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se simular épocas de semeadura para o feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) em Cruz das Almas, no Recôncavo Baiano, através do modelo CROPGRO-cowpea, calibrado e validado por meio de conjunto de dados provenientes de experimentos de campo. Dois cenários foram elaborados, [...] os quais são: produtividade atingível (com irrigação automática quando requerido) e atual (sequeiro), enquanto para cada cenário foram executadas 12 simulações, sendo uma por mês (início 15 de janeiro e fim em 15 de dezembro), com base nos vinte anos de dados climáticos históricos provenientes da estação automática da Embrapa CNPMF. O modelo simulou satisfatoriamente a produção do feijão caupi nas condições de Cruz das Almas demonstrando sensibilidade às variações climáticas inter e intra-anuais apontando, como mais propícias para a semeadura, as épocas compreendidas entre meados de junho e de julho devido ao fato de apresentarem menor risco de quebra de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to simulate sowing dates for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Cruz das Almas, Recôncavo of Bahia, based on crop model CROPGRO-cowpea. The crop model CROPGRO was calibrated and evaluated based on field experiments data set. Two different scenarios were elaborat [...] ed, attainable yield (automatic irrigation when required) and observed yield (rainfed) and for each scenario 12 simulations were made, one per month (begin January, 15 and end December, 15), considering 20 years of historic daily weather data set from the weather station at Embrapa CNPMF. The model simulated well the yield for Cruz das Almas, showing sensitivity for the climate variation inter and intra years, being July and June the best month for sowing cowpea due to lesser risk for yield loss.

Aristides F., Lima Filho; Mauricio A., Coelho Filho; Alexandre B., Heinemann.

1294-13-01

270

Revisión taxonómica de los géneros Phaseolus y Vigna (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae en Cuba  

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Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the Cuban species of Phaseolus L. and Vigna Savi. It includes keys, descriptions, illustrations of selected taxa, chromosome numbers, palinology, phenology, ecology, distribution maps, notes on chemical composition and ethnobotany for each of the eleven species known from Cuba. We also present a discussion on the value of the characters used in the taxonomy of the complex.Se hace una revisión taxonómica de las especies de los géneros Phaseolus L. y Vigna Savi presentes en Cuba. Se incluyen claves dicotómicas, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos químicos, cromosomáticos, palinológicos, etnobotánicos, así como la distribución y ecología de las 11 especies de ambos géneros. Se analiza y se hace una estimación del valor de los caracteres que diferencian a cada uno de los géneros y especies.

Beyra, Ángela

2004-12-01

271

Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

2014-03-01

272

Divergência genética entre cultivares de caupi Genetic divergence among cultivars of cowpea  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a divergência genética de cultivares de caupi, agrupadas por análise multivariada visando à seleção de parentais superiores. Foram utilizadas 16 cultivares de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] do banco de germoplasma do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Ceará. As observações fenotípicas foram realizadas num ensaio com delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados, com seis blocos e 16 tratamentos, incluindo três testemunhas, com parcela experimental de 24 m² e área útil de 16 m², sendo quatro fileiras de plantas, com espaços de 1,0 x 0,5 m, contendo duas plantas por cova. Para mensurar os caracteres fenotípicos, cinco plantas competitivas, localizadas nas duas fileiras centrais da parcela, foram tomadas ao acaso. Os cruzamentos entre os grupos I [TVx-337-3F e Vita-4 (TVu 1977-OD] e II (Bengala e V-4 Alagoas podem resultar em produção de novas combinações gênicas, por serem divergentes e reunirem maior número de caracteres agronomicamente desejáveis. Os caracteres que mais contribuem para divergência genética são o comprimento da vagem (36,80% e o peso de 100 sementes (19,21%.This work aimed to determine the genetic divergence among cowpea cultivars [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] when grouped in a multivariate analysis concerning to select superior parents. So 16 cowpea cultivars were used from the germplasm bank of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, in Brazil. The data were accomplished in complete randomized blocks, with six blocks, 16 treatments and three cultivar checks. The total area of experimental plots was 24 m² and the net area was 16 m², displayed in four rows, plants were spaced about 1.0 x 0.5 m with two plants in each plot. The phenotypic data were estimated from five competitive plants as casual samples on two central rows of each replicate. Breeding among the groups I [TVx-337-3F and Vita-4 (TVu 1977-OD] and II (Bengala and V-4 Alagoas may be the direct way to obtain new more productive cultivars because these groups are the most geneticaly divergent. The characters that contributed most to genetic divergence were the medium length of the plants (36.80% and weight of 100 seeds (19.21%.

Francisco José de Oliveira

2003-05-01

273

Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation, or crude extract from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization. Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

M.I. Florindo

2002-07-01

274

Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish r [...] elationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen). Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP) and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154) yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9) CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

Bruno Lima, Soares; Paulo Avelar Ademar, Ferreira; Silvia Maria de, Oliveira-Longatti; Leandro Marciano, Marra; Marcia, Rufini; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

2014-06-01

275

Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish r [...] elationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen). Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP) and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154) yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9) CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

Bruno Lima, Soares; Paulo Avelar Ademar, Ferreira; Silvia Maria de, Oliveira-Longatti; Leandro Marciano, Marra; Marcia, Rufini; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

276

Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea  

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Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1 present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular masses of the RNases did not significantly differ, averaging 16.3 kDa. Leaf RNase was stable up to 50masculineC while the others were inactivated at this temperature. The maximal inactivation for both stem and roots RNases was reached at 70masculineC while for leaf it occurred at 80masculineC. The addition of KCl to the assay medium caused a shift of optimal pH from 6.0 toward the range of 5.2 - 5.6 for the enzymes extracted from the different tissues. RNase activities were strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+, partially inhibited by Co2+ and Fe2+ and were not affected by EDTA, Ca2+ or Mg2+. In contrast to the leaf RNase, roots and stem enzymes were inactivated by urea and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME. Although there is a great similarity among the enzymes studied, leaf RNase appears to be more stable to heat and to chemical denaturation than root and stem RNases. The results also suggest that the enzymes extracted from different tissues of Pitiúba cowpea seedlings are ribonucleases and not nucleases.

FRANCO OCTÁVIO LUIZ

2001-01-01

277

Physiological response of cowpea seeds to salinity stress / Resposta fisiológica de sementes de feijão caupi ao estresse salino  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de três cultivares de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) ao estresse salino. As sementes das cultivares 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' e 'Pitiúba' foram submetidas ao teste de germinação em germinador a 25(0)C, em papel "germitest" embeb [...] ido em água destilada ou em soluções de NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 10, 50, 100 e 200mol m-3. Na primeira e segunda contagem do teste de germinação, as plântulas normais foram contadas, pesadas e secadas, obtendo-se dados de vigor, germinação, massa de matéria fresca e massa de matéria seca. O comprimento do hipocótilo, raiz e total foram medidos e o teor de proteínas totais nos cotilédones foi obtido em plântulas de 3, 5 e 8 dias. As concentrações de NaCl acima da 50mol m-3 afetam a germinação e o vigor das sementes, crescimento de plântulas, bem como a síntese de proteínas totais. As sementes da cultivar Pitiúba são mais tolerantes à salinidade do que as cultivares Canapu e Epace-10. Abstract in english This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds submitted to salt stress. Seeds of cultivars 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' and 'Pitiúba' of cowpea, were submitted to germination test in germinator at 25(0)C, in "germitest" papers imbibed in distilled water or in [...] 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200mol m-3 NaCl solutions. At the first and second counting of the germination test, normal seedlings were accounted, weighted and dried, obtaining data for vigor, total germination, fresh matter weight and dry matter weight. The seedlings hypocotyls, root and total length were measured total proteins content in cotyledons were obtained from germinating seeds. The presence of salt at concentrations higher than 50mol m-3 NaCl affect the germination, seedlings growth and cotyledons total protein synthesis of all cowpea cultivars. The seeds of cultivar pitiúba were is more tolerant to salinity, than the cultivars Canapu and Epace-10.

Bárbara França, Dantas; Luciana de Sá, Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto, Aragão.

278

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Co-Fermented Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea Ogi as Infant Complementary Food  

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Full Text Available This study involved formulating nutritionally suitable complementary food mixtures with locally available raw materials. Maize or sorghum was mixed with cowpea, soaked at 25 °C for 72 h, wet-milled and sieved. The sediment was sun dried, milled for analyses. Proximate, functional properties and amino acid were determined in co-fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea. Sorghum/cowpea had higher water absorption capacity, (235% than maize/cowpea (103% sorghum/cowpea and a lower value of oil absorption capacity (47.9% than, maize/cowpea of (67.6%. Oil absorption capacity of (14.7% in sorghum/cowpea was higher than (9.6% in maize/cowpea. The higher foaming capacity of maize/cowpea (40.0% than that of sorghum/cowpea of 20.0% might be due to soluble proteins and higher emulsion capacity of maize/cowpea might make it a better flavour retainer and enhanced mouth-feel. Values of foaming stability, least gelation capacity and bulk density (loose and packed were comparable. Sorghum/cowpea had higher contents of lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, cystine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, total amino acids, total sulphur amino acid, ratio of total essential amino acids/aromatic amino acids but lower values of methionine and total essential amino acids. Thus co-fermented sorghum/cowpea is of better protein quality than maize/cowpea.

M.A. Oyarekua

2009-01-01

279

Acumulación de S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn y Mn y relación con la materia seca en frijol cultivado bajo labranza mínima y convencional en un mollisol de Venezuela / Accumulation of S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn and their relatioship with dry matter production in cowpea grown under minimum and conventional tillage in a mollisol soil of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela se requiere información sobre la acumulación de nutrimentos por el frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp y su relación con la producción de materia seca (MS) para mejorar la efi ciencia de uso de los fertilizantes y la cantidad de nutrimentos a aplicar. En este estudio se evaluó la acumulac [...] ión de S, Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe y Mn por la variedad frijol Tuy, sembrada bajo labranza mínima (LM) y labranza convencional (LC), en un suelo Mollisol del estado Aragua. La concentración de los nutrimentos evaluados fue similar en LM y LC, excepto S que resultó más elevado en LC. El patrón de acumulación de nutrimentos fue semejante en LM y LC, aunque mayor en LC entre 11-32% del S, Zn, Mg y Fe, de 55-59% del Ca y Mn se acumularon en los primeros 43 días después de la germinación (DDG) y 68-89% del Ca y 45-61% del Mn se acumuló entre los 43 y 58 DDG. La mayor absorción de nutrimentos en LC, está asociado con una menor densidad aparente (Da) entre 0 y 10 cm, mejorando el desarrollo radical. En LM la función cuadrática describe mejor la relación entre MS producida y nutrimento absorbido , al contrario mientras que en LC donde la función lineal está más destacada. En LM otro factor pudo afectar la absorción de nutrimentos, que en el caso de LC la producción de MS se podría incrementar mediante el manejo de la fertilización Abstract in english In Venezuela there is a need for information regarding nutrient accumulation by cowpea, Vigna unguiculta L. Walp and their relationship with dry matter production (DM), to improve the effi ciency of use of fertilizer, and the amount of nutrient to apply. In this study the absortion of S, Zn, Ca, Mg, [...] Fe and Mn by cowpea (Tuy variety), sowed under minimum (MT) and conventional tillage (CT), was evaluated in a Molisol soil of the Aragua State. The concentration of the nutrients evaluated were similar in MT and CT, with the exception of S, which was higher in CT. The pattern of the nutrient accumulation was similar in NT and CT, althought the amount of nutrients taken up was higher in CT. Between 11-32% of the S, Zn, Mg and Fe, and between 55-59% of Ca and Mn were accumulated during the fi rst 43 days after germination (DAG), while between 68-89% of the fi rst, and 45-61% of the latter were accumulated between the 43-58 DAG. Probably in CT the higher accumulation of nutrients was associated to a lower soil bulk density in the soil layers between 0-10 cm, which improve the development of the root system. In MT there was a cuadratic relationship between DM and the amount of nutrient accumulated, which suggest that some other soil factor could affect the nutrient absorption, while in CT there was a lineal relationship, which suggest that the crop production could be increased by improvement of the fertilizer management

Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Lesce, Navarro; María, Paredes.

280

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

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greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico e potencial osmótico de feijão caupi cultivado em solos salinizados / Physiological permanent wilting point and osmotic potential of cowpea grown in saline soils  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico, a umidade foliar e o potencial osmótico no feijoeiro caupi, sob duas condições de estresses (salino e salino + hídrico), foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE [...] , Brasil). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, sendo duas classes texturais de solos (franco-arenoso e franco-argiloso) e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo, equivalentes às condutividades elétricas do extrato de saturação do solo 4, 8 e 12 dS m-1, mais testemunha, com cinco repetições. A cultura teste utilizada foi o feijoeiro caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça. O ponto de murcha permanente do feijoeiro caupi é menor quando determinado pelo método fisiológico do que o determinado na câmara de pressão de Richards; o incremento da salinidade do solo (CEes) até 12 dS m-1 não influencia a umidade foliar, independente da textura do solo; e o potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro caupi diminui com o aumento da salinidade do solo e pode ser usado como variável importante em ambientes salinizados. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the physiological wilting point, the moisture content and leaf osmotic potential in cowpea, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brazil). Two stress conditions were evaluated: salinity and salinity + water st [...] ress. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, composed of two classes of soil texture and four levels of soil salinity (control, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1), with five replications. The species cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça was used as test crop. It was concluded that the permanent wilting point of cowpea is smaller when determined by the physiological method than by Richards chamber method; the increase in soil salinity (CEes) up to 12 dS m-1 does not influence the leaf moisture content, regardless of soil texture; and the leaf osmotic potential of cowpea decreases with the increasing soil salinity, which can be used as an important variable in saline environments.

José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Edivan R. de, Souza.

282

Ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico e potencial osmótico de feijão caupi cultivado em solos salinizados / Physiological permanent wilting point and osmotic potential of cowpea grown in saline soils  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico, a umidade foliar e o potencial osmótico no feijoeiro caupi, sob duas condições de estresses (salino e salino + hídrico), foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE [...] , Brasil). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, sendo duas classes texturais de solos (franco-arenoso e franco-argiloso) e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo, equivalentes às condutividades elétricas do extrato de saturação do solo 4, 8 e 12 dS m-1, mais testemunha, com cinco repetições. A cultura teste utilizada foi o feijoeiro caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça. O ponto de murcha permanente do feijoeiro caupi é menor quando determinado pelo método fisiológico do que o determinado na câmara de pressão de Richards; o incremento da salinidade do solo (CEes) até 12 dS m-1 não influencia a umidade foliar, independente da textura do solo; e o potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro caupi diminui com o aumento da salinidade do solo e pode ser usado como variável importante em ambientes salinizados. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the physiological wilting point, the moisture content and leaf osmotic potential in cowpea, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brazil). Two stress conditions were evaluated: salinity and salinity + water st [...] ress. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, composed of two classes of soil texture and four levels of soil salinity (control, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1), with five replications. The species cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça was used as test crop. It was concluded that the permanent wilting point of cowpea is smaller when determined by the physiological method than by Richards chamber method; the increase in soil salinity (CEes) up to 12 dS m-1 does not influence the leaf moisture content, regardless of soil texture; and the leaf osmotic potential of cowpea decreases with the increasing soil salinity, which can be used as an important variable in saline environments.

José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Edivan R. de, Souza.

2014-07-01

283

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes / Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de [...] Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universid [...] ade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo, Ferreira; Elizita Maria, Teófilo.

1432-14-01

284

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes / Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de [...] Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universid [...] ade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo, Ferreira; Elizita Maria, Teófilo.

285

Caracterização fenotípica de rizóbio nativos isolados de solos da Amazônia e eficiência simbiótica em feijão caupi = Phenotypic characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from Amazonian soils and symbiotic efficiency in cowpea  

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Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio é de fundamental importância nasustentabilidade agrícola, e a caracterização fenotípica rizobial contribui para o conhecimento da sua diversidade em coleções e para a utilização posterior em sistemas agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade fenotípica de rizóbio isolados de solos da Amazônia e suas eficiências simbióticas quando inoculados em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. Os isolados nativos apresentaram diversidade quanto às características morfológicas e fisiológicas. Foi verificado que a inoculação com isolados de rizóbio nativoscontribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento da biomassa, nodulação de caupi e em eficiência simbiótica.Biological nitrogen fixation is of fundamental importance for agricultural sustainability, and the evaluation of the rhizobialdiversity contributes to the knowledge of their diversity in collections, as well as for later use in agricultural systems. The objective of this paper was to evaluate phenotype diversity and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia isolates from Amazonian soils when inoculated on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. The native isolates presented diversity regarding their morphologic and physiological characteristics. It was verified that the inoculation with isolates of native rhizobia contributed to the increase of the biomass, nodulation on cowpea and symbiotic efficiency.

Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

2010-01-01

286

Caracterização fenotípica de rizóbio nativos isolados de solos da Amazônia e eficiência simbiótica em feijão caupi / Phenotypic characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from Amazonian soils and symbiotic efficiency in cowpea  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fixação biológica do nitrogênio é de fundamental importância na sustentabilidade agrícola, e a caracterização fenotípica rizobial contribui para o conhecimento da sua diversidade em coleções e para a utilização posterior em sistemas agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade fe [...] notípica de rizóbio isolados de solos da Amazônia e suas eficiências simbióticas quando inoculados em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Os isolados nativos apresentaram diversidade quanto às características morfológicas e fisiológicas. Foi verificado que a inoculação com isolados de rizóbio nativos contribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento da biomassa, nodulação de caupi e em eficiência simbiótica. Abstract in english Biological nitrogen fixation is of fundamental importance for agricultural sustainability, and the evaluation of the rhizobial diversity contributes to the knowledge of their diversity in collections, as well as for later use in agricultural systems. The objective of this paper was to evaluate pheno [...] type diversity and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia isolates from Amazonian soils when inoculated on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). The native isolates presented diversity regarding their morphologic and physiological characteristics. It was verified that the inoculation with isolates of native rhizobia contributed to the increase of the biomass, nodulation on cowpea and symbiotic efficiency.

Aloisio Freitas, Chagas Junior; Luiz Antonio de, Oliveira; Arlem Nascimento de, Oliveira.

287

Acumulación de materia seca, N, P y K en frijol cultivado bajo labranza mínima y convencional en un mollisol de Venezuela / Acumulation of dry matter, N, P and K in cowpea grown under minumum and conventional tillage in a mollisol of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El conocimiento del patrón de acumulación de materia seca (MS), y nutrimentos en frijol, Vigna unguiculta, puede emplearse para mejorar la cantidad y épocas de fertilización y mejorar prácticas de manejo. En este estudio se evaluó la acumulación de MS, N, P, y K en hoja, tallo, grano, vaina, y área [...] foliar (ÁF) a los 15, 29, 43, 58, y 73 días después de germinación (DDG) en fríjol variedad Tuy, cultivado en labranza mínima (LM) y labranza convencional (LC), en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, en un experimento en bloques con tratamientos distribuidos aleatoreamente con 3 repeticiones. En cada unidad experimental se cosecharon 3 plantas por muestreo. El patrón de acumulación de MS, N, P, y K fue similar en LC y LM, y en promedio 69% de la MS, y 92, 79 y 78% del N, P, y del K es acumulado entre 43 y 58 DDG. La MS, N, P, y K en LC fue estadísticamente mayor que en LM a los 15 y 58 DDG para N, a los 58 DDG para P, y 43 y 58 DDG para K. La relación ÁF/MS no presentó diferencias entre LC y LM: decreció, en promedio, desde 412,95 cm2/g MS a los 15 DDG, hasta 72 cm2/g MS a los 58 DDG. El P, K, y N absorbido, de manera individual, explican entre 99 y 94%, 98 y 90%, y 73 y 37% de la variación en MS en LC y LM, respectivamente Abstract in english The knowledge of the pattern of dry matter (DM) production and nutrient uptake by -cowpea, Vigna unguiculta, could be usefull to improve the quantity and application time of fertilizers. We evaluated the acumulation of DM, N, P, and K in leaf, steam, grain, pod, and foliar area (FA) a the 15, 29, 43 [...] , 58, and 73 days after germination (DAG) in cowpea (variety Tuy), sowed under minimun (MT) and conventional tillage (CT), in a Mollisol soil located at Aragua state in Venezuela, in an experiment of Random block desing with three repetitions. In each sampler time three plants were collected in each experimental unit. We found that the patter of DM accumulation and of nutrient uptake were similar between MT and CT, and in average 69% of the DM, and 92, 79 and 78% of the N, P, and K were accumulated in the period between 43 and 58 DAG. The DM, N, P, and K in CT were statisticaly greater than in MT at the 15 and 58 DAG for N, at the 58 DAG for P, and 43 and 58 DAG for K. The ratio FA/DM were similar in CT and MT: in average, it decreased since 412.95 cm2/g DM at the 15 DAG, until 72 cm2/g DM at the 58 DAG. The P, K, and N taken up, individually, explain between 99 and 94%, 98 and 90%, and 73 and 37% of the variation in DM in CT and MT respectivelly

Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Bethsaida, Ortega; Lorenzo, Velásquez.

288

Phenotyping Cowpeas for Adaptation to Drought  

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Full Text Available Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay and fresh pea production. The strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought that is available, resistance to mid-season drought, escaping terminal drought, the delayed-leaf-senescence trait, water-use-efficiency, deeper rooting and heat tolerance are discussed. Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Use of varietal intercrops and rotations are examined. Breeding and experimental field strategies for enhancing the adaptation to drought of cowpeas are described.

AnthonyHall

2012-05-01

289

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea.Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A. Lima

2005-08-01

290

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi / Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupl [...] a difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea. Abstract in english Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) a [...] nd Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A., Lima; Aline Kelly Q., Nascimento; Gilson Soares, Silva; Rosa Felícia E. A., Camarço; M. Fátima B., Gonçalves.

2005-08-01

291

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi / Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupl [...] a difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea. Abstract in english Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) a [...] nd Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A., Lima; Aline Kelly Q., Nascimento; Gilson Soares, Silva; Rosa Felícia E. A., Camarço; M. Fátima B., Gonçalves.

292

Multiple forms of cotyledonary b-galactosidases from Vigna unguiculata quiescent seeds / Múltiplas formas de b-galactosidases cotiledonárias de sementes quiescentes de Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese b-galactosidases cotiledonárias foram isoladas e purificadas, parcialmente, de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Pitiúba. As etapas de purificação consistiram de precipitação do extrato bruto com sulfato de amônio na faixa de 20-60% de saturação, precipitação áci [...] da, cromatografia de troca-iônica em DEAE-Sephadex e cromatografia de afinidade em Lactosil- Sepharose. Esse processo de purificação deu origem a três frações ricas em b-galactosidases: b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III, as quais foram purificadas cerca de 5, 509 e 62 vezes, respectivamente. Elas atingiram máxima atividade enzimática em diferentes faixas de pH: 3,5-4,5 para b-gal I, 3,0-3,5 para b-gal II e 3,0-4,0 para b-gal III. Suas atividades máximas foram alcançadas quando a temperatura do meio de ensaio era 60° C, e a preincubação das enzimas em diferentes temperaturas mostrou que elas eram termoestáveis até 50° C. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as enzimas parcialmente purificadas no que respeita à resposta dos diferentes efetores testados, exceto para Mn2+ e EDTA, que afetaram, diferentemente, b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III. Elas foram ligeiramente afetadas por Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarato, molibdato, glicose e lactose, fortemente inibidas por Cu2+ e galactose, e inativadas por Hg2+. Essas propriedades químicas e físicas são semelhantes às encontradas para outras b-galactosidases de plantas. Embora, três isoformas dessa enzima tenham sido obtidas através desse processo de purificação, a focalização isoelétrica em placa de gel de poliacrilamida dessas proteinas enzimáticas sugere que cotilédones de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda Pitiúba possuem quatro isoformas de b-galactosidases. Abstract in english Cotyledonary b-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from Pitiúba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) quiescent seeds. The purification steps consisted of precipitation of the crude extract with ammonium sulphate in the range of 20-60% saturation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex io [...] n-exchange chromatography and Lactosyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. This purification process gave rise to three b-galactosidases-rich fractions: b-gal I, b-gal II and b-gal III, which were purified about 5, 509, and 62 fold, respectively. They reached maximal enzyme activity at different pH ranges: 3.5-4.5 for b-gal I, 3.0-3.5 for b-gal II, and 3.0-4.0 for b-gal III. Their maximal activities were reached when the temperature of the assay medium was 60° C, and preincubation of the enzymes at different temperatures has shown that they were heat-stable up to 50° C. There were no significant differences among the partially purified enzymes as far as their response to the different effectors tested, except for Mn2+ and EDTA, which affected differently b-gal I, b-gal II, and b-gal III. They were slightly affected by Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarate, molybdate, glucose, and lactose, strongly inhibited by Cu2+ and galactose, and inactivated by Hg2+. These chemical and physical properties are similar to the ones found for other plant b-galactosidases. Although through this process of purification three isoforms of this enzyme were obtained, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gel of these enzyme-proteins suggest that cotyledons of Pitiúba cowpea quiescent seeds possess four isoforms of b-galactosidases.

JOAQUIM, ENÉAS-FILHO; FABRÍCIO BONFIM, SUDÉRIO; ENÉAS, GOMES-FILHO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO, PRISCO.

2000-03-01

293

Efectos del Manejo de Suelos de Laderas en Hongos Formadores de Micorrizas Arbusculares y en Bacterias Fijadoras de Nitrógeno en Ultisoles Sujetos a erosión pluvial en la Amazonia Peruana  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En un ensayo de vivero se evaluó la colonización con micorrizas arbusculares y la nodulación, en plantas de frejol caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) en suelos de ladera bajo cultivos en callejones (alley-cropping), cultivos continuos con bajos insumos, bosque secundario y suelo sin cobertura, a los [...] 5, 15, 30 y 45 días después de la germinación de la semilla (DDGS). La colonización micorrícica y la nodulación presentaron una gran variación en los estados iniciales del crecimiento de las plantas de caupí a pesar de que ninguno de los sistemas estudiados recibieron fertilización fosfatada. A niveles similares y bajos de disponibilidad de fósforo en el suelo, en suelos diferentes, altos niveles de colonización micorrícica (sistema de cultivos continuos con bajos insumos) pueden ser ventajosos para el crecimiento de la planta y la nodulación. La nodulación estuvo ausente en las plantas de caupí que crecieron en el suelo de bosque secundario probablemente debido al efecto represivo de altos niveles de nitrógeno en el suelo o a la falta de rizobios para esta especie. En el suelo sin cobertura, las plantas de caupí tuvieron niveles muy bajos de colonización micorrícica. La formación de nódulos fue esencialmente nula, probablemente debido a los efectos de la pérdida de suelo por las lluvias. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de reintroducir los microorganismos del suelo como parte de programas de recuperación de suelos y/o revegetación de áreas severamente alteradas como los taludes de carreteras, derechos de vía de gasoductos y oleoductos, áreas expuestas por actividad minera y otras. Abstract in english Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp) plants growing in soils under alley-cropping, low-input continuous cropping, secondary forest, and bare soil on a slope were evaluated at 5, 15, 30 and 45 days after seed germination (DASG) under greenhouse condi [...] tions. Mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpeas differed greatly at their early growth stages in spite that any of the systems studied received phosphorus fertilizers. At similar low levels of soil available phosphorus in different soils, high levels of mycorrhizal colonization (low-input continuous cropping system) may be advantageous for plant growth and nodulation. Nodulation was absent in cowpeas growing in the secondary forest soil probably due to repressing effects of high levels of nitrogen in soil or to the lack of rhizobia for cowpeas. In the bare soil plot, cowpeas had a very low level of mycorrhizal colonization. Nodule formation was essentially zero, probably as effects of soil loss due to rainfall. Results obtained suggest the need for re-introduction of soil microorganisms for revegetation and land reclamation programs in severely disturbed soils like road banks, gas and oil pipelines, mining exposed areas, and others.

Pedro O, Ruiz; Charles B, Davey.

2003-01-01

294

The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

A.O. Ogaraku

2007-01-01

295

Effect of Temperature, Air Relative Humidity and Water Presence on Some Biological Parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal (Hemiptera:Coreidae, the Pod Sucking Bug of Cowpea  

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Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted on the influence of temperature, air relative humidity and water presence on some biological parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal, a major pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walpers, in West Africa. The feeding of the first-instar larvae was also studied. The aim was to provide some indicators on the insect adaptation to hot and dry conditions in Sahelian zone. Results show that increased temperature reduced embryo and larvae development length and female fertility and lifespan. Temperature fluctuations had little effect on egg viability to the extent of hatching limit around 38 ° C. A full larval development and adult reproductive activity were possible at a constant temperature of 40 ° C. Increased air relative humidity (80% improved larval survival especially under high temperatures. The presence of water was necessary for first-instar larvae development. The insect showed good adaptation to Sahelian hot and dry environment, which enables it to go through the long dry season.

C. Dabir?

2005-01-01

296

Intercropping Maize with Cowpeas and Mungbean under Rainfed Conditions  

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Full Text Available The research study was conducted at two locations i.e. Barani Agricultural Research station (Kohat and Barani Seed Farm (Hangu to ascertain the biological efficient and economic efficient intercropping system of maize with cowpeas and mungbean. The studies consisted of five intercropping systems (maize sole, cowpeas sole, mungbean sole, maize + cowpeas and maize + mungbean. The results regarding LER showed that maize + cowpeas intercrop average of two locations was 1.29 indicating 29 percent yield advantage which is also biological efficient system. The maize + mungbean indicating 4 percent yield advantage. However, the economic analysis gave a different results which showed that mungbean sole crop gain highest BCR value (return per rupee invested i.e. Rs. 4.82 followed by cowpeas sole crop (Rs. 4.13. It is concluded that apart from biological efficient different economic indices should be computed for comparison and final recommendation for wide spread adoption.

Naveed Akhtar

2000-01-01

297

Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil / Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à c [...] ultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida. Abstract in english Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in T [...] eresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After screenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

Élison Fabrício Bezerra, Lima; Lúcia da Silva, Fontes; Silvia Marisa Jesien, Pinent; Adriana Saraiva dos, Reis; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Angela Celis de Almeida, Lopes.

2013-03-01

298

Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil / Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à c [...] ultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida. Abstract in english Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in T [...] eresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After screenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

Élison Fabrício Bezerra, Lima; Lúcia da Silva, Fontes; Silvia Marisa Jesien, Pinent; Adriana Saraiva dos, Reis; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Angela Celis de Almeida, Lopes.

299

Diversidade morfológica de rizóbios isolados de caupi cultivado em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte / Morphological diversity of rhizobia from cowpea cultivated in Rio Grande do Norte State soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em função das características nutricionais e de rusticidade, o feijão-caupi tornou-se importante fonte de proteína na Região Nordeste do Brasil. O caupi se beneficia da fixação biológica de nitrogênio e pode receber parte do nitrogênio necessário para a cultura via simbiose, o que reduz os custos de [...] produção. Um experimento em condições de casa-de-vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio de nódulos de caupi em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Os nódulos foram coletados de raízes de Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., utilizada como planta-isca, sendo obtidos 304 isolados com características típicas de rizóbio. Embora todos os isolados tenham apresentado crescimento rápido e ácido em meio de cultivo, os isolados apresentaram elevada diversidade morfológica e foram agrupados em 18 grupos morfológicos. Não foi observada diferença de diversidade de isolados de rizóbio entre as diferentes amostras de solo analisadas. Abstract in english As a result of it nutritional and rustic characteristics, cowpea has become an important source protein in the Northeast region of Brazil. Cowpea may benefit from biological nitrogen fixation and can receive part of the nitrogen needed for culture from symbiosis, which reduces the cost of production [...] . An experiment in greenhouse conditions was carried out in order to assess the diversity of rhizobia isolates of the nodules of cowpea, in soils from Rio Grande do Norte State. The nodules were obtained from roots of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., a species used as trap plant; 304 isolates with typical rhizobial features were obtained. Although all isolates showed rapid and acid growth in the medium, the isolates showed high morphological diversity, forming 18 clusters. No diversity differences of rhizobial isolates were observed among the different soil samples studied.

Erika Valente de, Medeiros; Claudia Miranda, Martins; José Arcanjo Melo, Lima; Ykesaky Terson Dantas, Fernandes; Vianney Reinaldo de, Oliveira; Wardsson Lustrino, Borges.

300

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

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Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Morphology, associated protein analysis, and identification of 58-kDa starch synthase in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cv. KPS1) starch granule preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raw starch granules of mature mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cv. KPS1) seeds were prepared by two methods into crude and cesium chloride (CsCl)-washed forms. The purity, shape, size distribution, and associated protein profiles were examined. The appearance of raw starch granules showed a bimodal type distribution in which average granules had typical ovoid shapes, whereas the small ones were spherical. Abnormal granule surface with distinct tumor-like or dented hole features were also observed in raw starch granules. CsCl-washed granules had a smooth surface compared to that of the crude form. The granule size distribution ranged from 6-35 ?m; most 15-25 ?m (?53%), followed by 25-35 ?m (?26%). Small granules (granules >35 ?m consisted of ?3%. The two forms were further refined by trichloroacetic (TCA) treatment to reveal surface proteins on the crude granules or tightly bound proteins on CsCl-washed granules. In the washed-refined granules, only a few integral proteins were retained. The major 58-kDa protein was identified to be granule-bound starch synthase I by sequence homology with that in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) using MALDI-TOF mass and Mascot search. PMID:19371027

Ko, Yuan-Tih; Dong, Yu-Ling; Hsieh, Ying-Fang; Kuo, Ja-Chi

2009-05-27

302

Toxic Effects of Three Industrial Effluents on Growth and Development of Vigna unguiculata (L Walp (Cultivar it 84 E-124  

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Full Text Available The toxic effects of Paint, Battery and Textile effluents respectively on Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Cultivar It 84 E-124 were evaluated in this study. Viable seeds were planted in 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted effluents. Distilled water was used as control. The Physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Zinc being 35.6 mg L-1 in Paint effluent, copper and lead were 10.5 mg L-1 in Battery effluent were found to be above Federal Environmental Protection Agencys limit suggesting toxic impact on the seedling. Leaf size, stem length and root length were observed to be responsive to the concentration gradient of the effluents. Dry weight declined with a positive response from mean value of 1.18 g for 25% Textile to 0.11 g for 25% Key paint. The test plant indicated high concentration of heavy metals in its biomass, for instance, 75% flash battery with highest fresh weight of 1.75 g except for textile effluent with 1.45 g. Textile effluent was also found to favour chlorophyll formation leading to photosynthesis while the other effluents were found not to be in favour of chlorophyll production. The mean total chlorophyll for control is 56.43 mg g-1, Undiluted Textile being 51.45 mg g-1, while Key paint has 9.11 mg g-1. Howbeit, the severity of toxicity of the industrial effluents follow this trend; key paint higher than flash battery which is higher than textile at the different treatment concentrations of 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted. Suggesting that at very low concentration, Vigna unguiculata thrives better in textile effluents contaminated environment than battery and paint effluents. It is suggested that these parameters in cowpea may constitute methods of environmental monitoring.

T. Yahaya

2011-01-01

303

Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp. Seeds  

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Full Text Available Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole, C. elegans (sole, a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and the control which received no parasitoids. The introduction of parasitoids was repeated at 3 d interval, and all treatments were replicated 3 times. Result indicated that early introduction of the parasitoids caused significantly (P ? 0.05 higher mortality of C.maculatus than late introduction. Mix culture of both parasitoids was significantly more efficacious than sole culture. The emergence of each parasitoid and the mortality of C. maculatus in sole culture showed a highly significant (P ? 0.01 positive relationship (r = 0.487 between C. maculatus and D. basalis but non-significant (P ? 0.05 though positive association (r = 0.289 with C. elegans. A multiple regression analysis between C. maculatus mortality and the emergence of the two parasitoids in mix culture also indicated a highly positive significant (P ? 0.01 relationship (R = 0.751, R2 = 0.564. Pearson Correlation analysis also showed a significant (P ? 0.05 positive association (r = 0.464, and 0.401 between C. maculatus mortality and emergence of C. elegans and D. basalis in mix culture, respectively. However, a non significant (P ? 0.05 negative relationship (r = -0.336 was observed between the two parasitoids in their emergence in mix culture, but D. basalis contributed more to the mortality of C. maculatus than C. elegans. Data from this study showed that D. basalis and C. elegans have potentials to be deployed as biological control entities in the management of C. maculatus as a part of the integrated pest management strategies of storage pests in the tropics.

Umoetok S. B. A.

2012-08-01

304

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

305

SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped redundant clones together and illustrated that the SSHscreen plots are a useful tool for choosing anonymous clones for sequencing, since redundant clones cluster together on the enrichment ratio plots. Conclusions We developed the SSHscreen-SSHdb software pipeline, which greatly facilitates gene discovery using suppression subtractive hybridization by improving the selection of clones for sequencing after screening the library on a small number of microarrays. Annotation of the sequence information and collaboration was further enhanced through a web-based SSHdb database, and we illustrated this through identification of drought responsive genes from cowpea, which can now be investigated in gene function studies. SSH is a popular and powerful gene discovery tool, and therefore this pipeline will have application for gene discovery in any biological system, particularly non-model organisms. SSHscreen 2.0.1 and a link to SSHdb are available from http://microarray.up.ac.za/SSHscreen.

Oelofse Dean

2010-04-01

306

Key factors necessary for the development of a value-added cowpea subsector in West Africa: The case of cowpea flour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of new subsector markets in agricultural commodity chains such as cowpea flour markets is of paramount importance for poverty alleviation and economic development in West Africa. While the technical expertise exists, industrial processing of cowpeas remains largely nonexistent in West Africa with newly developed cowpea-based products such as cowpea flour confined to laboratories and rarely reaching the point of commercialization where they might alleviate poverty. ^ Thus, ...

Otoo, Miriam

2011-01-01

307

Correlations and path analysis of yield components in cowpea / Correlações e análise de trilha dos componentes de rendimento de grãos em genótipos de feijão-caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A obtenção de correlações e os efeitos diretos e indiretos dos componentes do rendimento com a produtividade de grãos são importantes para a seleção de parentais e populações segregantes promissoras. O objetivo da pesquisa foi estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas e o desdobramento dos ef [...] eitos diretos e indiretos dos componentes de rendimento com o rendimento de grãos de20 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 20 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os caracteres demonstraram baixa à moderada possibilidade de ganho por seleção indireta, havendo maior probabilidade de sucesso ao aliar múltiplos caracteres e genótipo de melhor performance. Abstract in english Obtaining correlations and direct and indirect effects of yield components is important for the selection of promising parental and segregating populations. The objective of this research was to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and to analyze the direct and indirect effects of yie [...] ld components on grain yield in 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 20 treatments and 4 replications. The character showed low to moderate possibility of gain from indirect selection, with greater possibility for success when joining multiple character and a genotype of better performance.

Adriano dos, Santos; Gessí, Ceccon; Livia Maria Chamma, Davide; Agenor Martinho, Correa; Valdecir Batista, Alves.

2014-06-01