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Sample records for del cowpea vigna

  1. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 μM) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 μM appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xavier Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  3. Early defence responses of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) induced by non-pathogenic rust fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Werner; Haug, M; Deising, Holger; Mendgen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    In cowpea (Vigna s&ensis L.) leaves the pathogenic rust fungus Uromyces vignae and the non-pathogens U. appendiculatus and U. viciae-fabae developed similarly to give rise to more than 80% haustorial mother cells. Whereas U. vignae was able to sporulate, the nonpathogens were stopped either after formation of some haustoria (U. appendiculatus) or immediately after formation of haustorial mother cells (U. viciae-fabae). Approximately 30% of the cells in contact with haustorial mother cells of ...

  4. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Alessandra; Domont, Gilberto B; Pedrosa, Cristiana; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2003-09-10

    The major storage globulins (vicilins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and a semipurified cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was prepared by isoelectric precipitation. Some of the functional properties of these proteins, including solubility, foaming, and emulsifying capacities, were investigated and compared. The solubility of purified cowpea vicilin was reduced at pH 5.0, increasing markedly below and above this value. Pea vicilin exhibited poor solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, and CPI was little soluble in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. At neutral pH, the emulsifying activity indexes (EAI) of purified pea vicilin and CPI were 194 and 291 m(2)/g, respectively, which compare quite favorably to EAIs of 110 and 133 m(2)/g for casein and albumin, respectively. Remarkably, purified cowpea vicilin exhibited an EAI of 490 m(2)/g, indicating a very high emulsifying activity. Purified cowpea and pea vicilins exhibited lower foaming capacities and foam stablity indexes (FSI) than CPI. FSI values of 80 and 260 min were obtained for purified pea and cowpea vicilin, respectively, whereas a FSI value of 380 min was obtained for CPI. These results are discussed in terms of the possible utilization of purified vicilins or protein isolates from pea and cowpea in the food processing industry. PMID:12952435

  5. Harinas de planta entera de frijol (Vigna unguiculata) y de mazorca de maz (Zea mays) como suplemento para becerros antes del destete / Flours of whole cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and cob maize (Zea mays) as supplements for suckling calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Canelones; Manuel, Castejon.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas de produccin de doble-propsito, el amamantamiento restringido mejora el ingreso por leche vendible, pero es negativo para el crecimiento de los becerros. Sin embargo, un arreglo de alimentacin agropastoril la suplementacin con cultivos podra mejorar el suministro de nutrientes. [...] Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el consumo de harinas de frijol y de mazorca de maz, el consumo de leche y el crecimiento de becerros pre-destete. El ensayo tuvo una duracin de 217 das y se usaron 30 becerros hijos de vacas mestizas de Brahmn x Holstein x Simmental. Se colocaron cinco becerros en tres tratamientos ubicados en dos bloques al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: harina de frijol (F), harina de maz (M) y harina de frijol + harina de maz (FM) todos a voluntad. Los becerros entraron al experimento entre 30 y 45 das de nacidos y despus del ordeo permanecieron 30 minutos con sus madres, para luego ser llevados a potreros de Cynodon nlemfuensis durante 6 horas/da. En la tarde fueron alojados en corrales individuales donde se les ofreci el suplemento. La produccin de leche vendible (P0,05) fueron 2,5 2,4 y 2,54 L/d; de suplementos (P0,05) 0,41 0,48 y 0,37 para F, M y FM, respectivamente. Se concluy que el aporte de la leche para suplir los requerimientos de energa y protena disminuye, debido a que su consumo permanece constante mientras que los requerimientos aumentan, pero los becerros tienen la capacidad de ajustar el consumo de los componentes de la dieta, cuando encuentran restricciones debidas a cantidad ofrecida, calidad y palatabilidad. Abstract in english In the dual purpose systems, the restricted sukling increases the income due to vendible milk, but in turn it decreases the yearling calf growth if they are not properly supplemented. An agropastoral system with crops for supplementation would improve the calf feeding. This work had as aim to study [...] milk intake, whole cowpea and whole maize cob flours intake and calves growth. The experiment lasted for 217 days and were used 30 calves, from crossbred cows (Brahman x Holstein x Simmental). There were five calves in each of the three treatments in two randomized blocks. Treatments were: cowpea flour (F), maize flour (M), and cowpea plus maize flour (FM) all of them ad libitum. Calves were incorporated to the trial at 30-45 days age. They stayed with their dams about 30 minutes after milking, thereafter were taken to paddocks of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) during 6 h/d. In the afternoon were taken into individual pens where the supplements were offered. The vendible milk (P0.05) were 25, 2.4, and 2.54 L/d; supplement intake (P>0.05) were 0.35, 0.76, and 0.52 kg DM/d, and liveweight gain (P>0.05) were 0.41, 0.48, and 0.37 for F, M, and FM treatments, respectively. It was concluded that the milk contribution to supply the requirements of energy and protein diminishes, because its consumption remains constant whereas the requirements increased, but the yearling calves have the capacity to fit the consumption of the components of the diet, when they find restrictions due to offered amount, quality and palatability.

  6. Respuestas fisiolgicas y bioqumicas del frjol caup (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) bajo dficit hdrico / Physiological and biochemical responses of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) under a water deficit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Cardona-Ayala; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Aramndiz-Tatis; Maryorik, Pea-Agresott; Csar, Vergara-Crdoba.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El frjol caup contribuye a la alimentacin humana y animal en muchas regiones del mundo, especialmente en aquellos lugares donde la sequa restringe la produccin agrcola. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar algunas respuestas fisiolgicas y bioqumicas de esta especie, bajo condiciones d [...] e estrs hdrico en fase reproductiva. Se experiment bajo un diseo completamente aleatorizado en un arreglo factorial 2x6 (2 niveles de humedad del suelo y 6 genotipos) con tres repeticiones. Se analiz la respuesta de la especie evaluando el rendimiento de la planta mediante la cuantificacin del rendimiento de grano/planta, el nmero de vainas/planta, el nmero de semillas/vaina, y la longitud de la vaina; se estim la reduccin relativa del rendimiento y la susceptibilidad a la sequa. Tambin se analiz el intercambio gaseoso, la actividad de las enzimas catalasa y ascorbato peroxidasa, as como los contenidos de clorofila, carotenoides, protenas libres, prolina y malondialdehdo. El estrs por sequa caus una disminucin en el rendimiento de grano/planta del 57,72%, nmero de vainas/planta del 49,40% y nmero de semillas/vaina del 32,07%. A los 17 das de sequa, la fotosntesis empez a registrar valores cercanos a cero cuando el contenido de humedad del suelo se redujo alrededor del 40% de la capacidad de campo, lo cual pudo ser ocasionado por limitaciones estomticas y, posiblemente, por limitaciones no estomticas. La proporcin de clorofila a/clorofila b (Chla/Chlb), fue significativamente ms baja, mientras que el contenido de malondialdehdo fue significativamente ms alto, en plantas bajo estrs hdrico. Abstract in english The cowpea bean contributes to human and animal feed in many regions of the world, especially in places where droughts restrict agricultural production. The aim of this study was to identify some physiological and biochemical responses of this species under drought stress conditions in the reproduct [...] ive phase. We used a completely randomized design with a 2x6 factorial arrangement (2 soil moisture levels and 6 genotypes) and three replicates. The grain yield/plant, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and pod length were analyzed, and the relative yield reduction and drought susceptibility index were estimated. The gas exchange and activity of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes, as well as the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, free protein, and proline, were analyzed. The drought stress caused a decrease in the grain yield/ plant of 57.72%, the number of pods/plant of 49.40% and the number of seeds/pod of 32.07%. At 17 days of drought, the photosynthesis began showing values near zero when the soil moisture content was reduced by about 40% of the field capacity, which could have been caused by stomatal limitations and possibly by biochemical limitations. The ratio of chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b (Chla/Chlb) was significantly lower and the malonaldehyde content was significantly higher in the plants under water stress.

  7. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  8. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 μmol plant-1 week-1. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N2-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N2-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW showing large variation among lines. Most of the tolerance to P deficiency was due to increase in the nodule function rather than conservation of nodule mass. In conclusion, the screening in glasshouse hydroaeroponics made it possible to sort cowpea lines in SNF potential to fix N2, and in tolerance to P deficiency. (author)

  9. Early defence responses of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) induced by non-pathogenic rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, W; Haug, M; Deising, H; Mendgen, K

    1991-09-01

    In cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) leaves the pathogenic rust fungus Uromyces vignae and the non-pathogens U. appendiculatus and U. viciae-fabae developed similarly to give rise to more than 80% haustorial mother cells. Whereas U. vignae was able to sporulate, the non-pathogens were stopped either after formation of some haustoria (U. appendiculatus) or immediately after formation of haustorial mother cells (U. viciae-fabae). Approximately 30% of the cells in contact with haustorial mother cells of the two non-pathogens showed autofluorescence and deposition of phloroglucinol/HCl-positive material. The early defence reactions of V. sinensis include induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and extracellular peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity as early as 10 h and 24 h after inoculation, respectively. Probing Western blots with heterologous monospecific anti-PAL serum showed that pathogenesis-induced increases in enzyme activity are the result of de novo synthesis. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the specific induction of two extracellular acidic POD forms in cowpea inoculated with the non-pathogens. Both PAL and apoplasmic POD activities were highest in U. viciae-fabae-, intermediate in U. appendiculatus- and low in U. vignae-inoculated or talcum-treated control plants. The timing of increasing PAL and extracellular POD activities in relation to deposition of lignin or lignin-like material in mesophyll cell walls indicates the involvement of lignification in the early defence of V. sinensis against biotrophic fungal parasites. Analysis of the substrate specificity of the inducible POD forms, separated and partially purified by chromatofocusing, showed that apoplasmic PODs preferentially oxidize the naturally occurring substrate coniferyl alcohol. These results support the assumption that POD-mediated lignification is involved in the expression of non-host resistance of cowpea to rust fungi. PMID:24186348

  10. Efecto del estrs por NaCl sobre la anatoma radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola, Garzn; Marina, Garca.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudi el efecto del estrs por NaCl sobre la anatoma de la raz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial est asociado con adaptaciones anatmicas en esos rganos. Semillas de los genotipos I [...] -484 (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e I-490 (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis das despus de la siembra se sometieron a salinizacin con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 das despus de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrs salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parnquima de la corteza de la raz, en mayor grado en I-484. La salinizacin tambin provoc reduccin en el dimetro de la estela de la raz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminucin en el nmero y dimetro de los vasos xilemticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron ms tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las clulas del parnquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En I-490 se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parnquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatmicos de adaptacin de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrs por NaCl estn relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes I-484 (moderate sensibility to sa [...] linity) and I-490 (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in I-484. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In I-490 the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

  11. [Nutritional and taste properties of canned cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. II. Effect of storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, G M; Guerra, N B; Pessoa, D C

    1992-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of storage on nutritional and sensory properties of canned cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), a batch of 180 cans was stocked at room temperature (22 degrees C to 32 degrees C) for a period of six months. At intervals of 0, 30, 90 and 180 days, 26 samples collected randomly were submitted to physicochemical, sensory and biological analyses. Significant statistical reductions (p Food Efficiency of samples stored for 180 days when compared to those freshly canned on day 0, though values for Net Protein Ratio (NPR) showed no discernible decrease; these data lead to the conclusion that canned cowpeas stored can be consumed without, restrictions, in spite of the slight decrease in biological value caused by the time of storage. PMID:1342166

  12. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  13. Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. after tannery sludge compost amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia Maral Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with tannery sludge compost (TSC. Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%. Only Cr accumulation was significant (P < 0.05 in the cowpea shoots after 3 yr of TSC amendment; accumulation increased as TSC rates were applied. However, there was no significant Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb accumulation in grains. After 3 yr of consecutive TSC soil amendments, Cr accumulated in the shoots, but it was not translocated to the grains.

  14. Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  16. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments. PMID:21732069

  17. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  19. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS. Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  1. Environmental variables affect the hard-to-cook phenomenon of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogba, S S; Abu, J D

    1999-01-01

    Changes in moisture content and cooking rate of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds which were sun-dried for 5 hours on cement, wood, or corrugated iron sheet surfaces and packaged for 6 months in jute or polythene bags were studied. Relationships and effects of interacting variables studied were examined using the contrast analysis technique. From day zero to about 2 months of storage, the sun-dried samples had significantly (p<0.01) lower moisture content and longer cooking times than the corresponding control samples. However, moisture-gain and cooking time increased progressively throughout the storage period for all samples studied. The relationship between these two variables, tested at p = 0.01 using contrast analysis technique, was dependent on the choice of packaging material. PMID:10540982

  2. Mineralization of P from 32P labelled plant residue of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the mineralization of P from 32P labelled plant material of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) added to Fatehpur sand (Typic Ustipssament) in absence or presence of applied inorganic phosphorus (20 mg P kg-1 soil). Significantly higher P mineralization occurred in P fertilized (53.7 per cent) than in low P (43.3 per cent) soil system. The half-life of P mineralized from added plant residue was 38.5 and 33 days in low and P fertilized soils, respectively. Plant residue added to soil released inorganic P on mineralization and this factor was considered for better P management practices. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  3. Genetic Mapping of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum Race 3 and Race 4, Macrophomina phaseolina Resistance and Other Traits in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp).

    OpenAIRE

    Pottorff, Marti OhMok

    2014-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a legume crop which is grown in many warm regions around the world. Genomic resources have been developed for cowpea which has enabled the identification of QTL and candidate genes which can be utilized in trait improvement.Fungal diseases cause significant constraints to cowpea yield. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot) race 3 and race 4 cause vascular wilt disease and are problematic in California. Genetic mapping identified the Fot3-1 locus which c...

  4. Biolistic-mediated genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and stable Mendelian inheritance of transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo, Nayche L; Nascimento, Cristina P; Vieira, Lívia S; Campos, Francisco A P; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2008-09-01

    We describe a novel system of exploiting the biolistic process to generate stable transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants. The system is based on combining the use of the herbicide imazapyr to select transformed meristematic cells after physical introduction of the mutated ahas gene (coding for a mutated acetohydroxyacid synthase, under control of the ahas 5' regulatory sequence) and a simple tissue culture protocol. The gus gene (under control of the act2 promoter) was used as a reporter gene. The transformation frequency (defined as the total number of putative transgenic plants divided by the total number of embryonic axes bombarded) was 0.90%. Southern analyses showed the presence of both ahas and gus expression cassettes in all primary transgenic plants, and demonstrated one to three integrated copies of the transgenes into the genome. The progenies (first and second generations) of all self-fertilized transgenic lines revealed the presence of the transgenes (gus and ahas) co-segregated in a Mendelian fashion. Western blot analysis revealed that the GUS protein expressed in the transgenic plants had the same mass and isoelectric point as the bacterial native protein. This is the first report of biolistic-mediated cowpea transformation in which fertile transgenic plants transferred the foreign genes to next generations following Mendelian laws. PMID:18587583

  5. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  6. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  7. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Joana O. Ilesanmi; Gungula, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  8. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  9. Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. SANUSI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (Achishiru, Aloka local, Borno local, Danila, Danmisira, Danwuri, Kanannado and Yambare of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg, phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113, days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301, days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958 and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096. On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011. Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

  10. Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad L. UMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (?Achishiru?, ?Aloka local?, ?Borno local?, ?Danila?, ?Danmisira?, ?Danwuri?, ?Kanannado? and ?Yambare? of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg, phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113, days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301, days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958 and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096. On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011. Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

  11. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu2+ activities as low as 1-2 μM, the effect of Cu2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu2+. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu2+ activity of 1.0 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu2+ activity of 0.2 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ≥0.77 μM Cu2+, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  12. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as trap plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  13. The Response of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes for Salt Stress during Germination and Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashebir Gogile

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most significant abiotic factors affecting growth and yield of cowpea in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Nineteen cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes were tested during germination and seedling stages of growth at 4 NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200mM. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS (version 9.1 statistical software. Germination percentage (GP, seedling shoot and root traits were evaluated. The analyzed data revealed highly significant (p<0.001 variation among cowpea genotypes, treatments and their interactions. It is found that salt stress significantly decreased root length and shoot length. The extent of decrease varied with accessions and salt concentrations. Most accessions were highly susceptible to 200 mM NaCl concentration. Genotypes 211557 and Asebot were better salt tolerant. The result showed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in cowpea genotypes for salt tolerance.

  14. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  15. Studies on the changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in drought stress induced cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akhila S; Abraham, T K; Jaya, D S

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is one of the major vegetable crops cultivated in tropical conditions. Two varieties of cowpea, i.e., Vigna unguiculata L.cv Kanakamony and cv Pusakomal were selected for the present study. The changes in lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid content and activities of enzymatic antioxidants associated with drought stress were determined. A high level of lipid peroxidation was observed in test plants subjected to water stress. The Pusakomal leaves with severe stress showed 2.7 fold increase in TBARS compared to control and 1.2 fold to that of Kanakamony The drought tolerant variety showed significant increase in the activities of peroxidase and catalase on exposure to drought stress. Kanakamony leaves in severe stress possess 1.09 times increase in peroxidase and 1.8 times increase in catalase activity than Pusakomal. The concentration of ascorbic acid in test plants depleted with increased drought stress in both varieties. While the leaves of tolerant variety in severe stress showed 1.13 times higher ascorbic acid content than Pusakomal. Among the two varieties, Kanakamony possess the best antioxidant system to tolerate drought stress. This could limit cellular damage caused by active oxygen species, during waterdeficit. The variety Pusakomal was relatively poor in these adaptations. PMID:19295066

  16. Soil compaction and gamma radiation (60Co) in the development of the cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m-3 - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m-3 - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  17. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15N sources included residual soil 15N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N2 fixed varied with the source of 15N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 15N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo; Benoît Bargui Koubala; Djilé Bouba; Germain Kansci

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%). These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain). The weevils rearing an...

  19. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y.; Kareem, Kehinde T.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar White and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar White was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures. PMID:26483824

  20. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  1. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

    2011-01-01

    Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming sig...

  2. Land race as a source for improving photosynthetic rate and productivity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata W.)

    OpenAIRE

    Suma Biradar, P.M. Salimath and B.C.Patil

    2010-01-01

    Cowpea is an important grain legume of arid and semiarid regions of Asia and Africa. Productivity of cowpea is low and stagnant.Conventional breeding approaches aimed at improvement of yield per se have not been successful so far in breaking the yieldbarrier. Manipulation of physiological processes such as photosynthesis is expected to yield positive results. A land race ‘Goalocal’ with a very high photosynthetic rate was used to improve this trait in selected cultivars, C-152, KM-1 and V-118...

  3. Genetic variability studies in F2 and F3 generations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Kurer, Gangaprasad S*, Uma M.S., Shanthakumar, G. and Salimath P.M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is a self pollinated crop and availability of variation is insufficient for further crop improvement. Two geneticallydiverse parents belonging to determinate and indeterminate were crossed (V-1188x Goa local and advanced to F2 and F3generations. The magnitude of variability observed in F2 was more than in F3.

  4. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

  5. Genetic variability studies in F2 and F3 generations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    Shashidhar Kurer, Gangaprasad S*, Uma M.S., Shanthakumar, G. and Salimath P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpea is a self pollinated crop and availability of variation is insufficient for further crop improvement. Two geneticallydiverse parents belonging to determinate and indeterminate were crossed (V-1188x Goa local) and advanced to F2 and F3generations. The magnitude of variability observed in F2 was more than in F3.

  6. Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Phulari

    2013-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v) chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length ...

  7. Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152) of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi) and mean square deviations (s2di) from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment), environment (linear) weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability a...

  8. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Ikram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

  9. Production of herbicide-resistant cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) transformed with the bar gene

    OpenAIRE

    Aasim, Muhammad; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Özcan, Sebahattin

    2013-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has opened new avenues to modify crops and has provided a powerful tool for crop improvement. The present study reports the development of regeneration and genetic transformation protocol for the Turkish cowpea cultivar Akkiz. The immature cotyledons were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.25-0.75 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine with or without 0.25 mg L-1 a-naphthalene acetic acid. Shoot regeneration varied 44.4%-83.3% with 2.1-5.0 shoots per explan...

  10. Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152 of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi and mean square deviations (s2di from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment, environment (linear weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability analysis, the genotype IL3 was found stable across the seasons fortest weight. Genotypes such as M17, Goa local and Bailhongal local were stable and superior across all the environments for seed yield.

  11. Comportamento hdrico e crescimento do feijo vigna cultivado em solos salinizados / Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egdio, Bezerra Neto; Marcus M., Correa.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinizao dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver gua o que, em geral, provoca diminuio na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino so melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmtico do que com a condutividade eltrica do extrato de saturao do solo. [...] Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspirao e potencial osmtico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetao da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil). Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro nveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 C alm da testemunha sem a adio de sais) com cinco repeties. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa reduo no consumo de gua, no potencial osmtico foliar, na altura das plantas, no nmero de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte area do feijoeiro vigna. Abstract in english Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress [...] on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil). The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 C, and the control without salt addition) with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  12. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata

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    Sule Ola Salawu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested cowpeas commonly consumed in Nigeria. The result revealed that infestation brings about an increase in the evaluated anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and alkaloids and a marked reduction in protein, carbohydrate content, whereas a marked increase was recorded for the fibre content. The result of the antioxidant activities revealed a significant reduction for total phenol, total flavonoids and reducing power and a slight reduction was recorded for the inhibitory action against lipid oxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and 1, 1-diphenyly-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities after infestation. The present investigations revealed that Callosobruchus maculatus infestation do not only affect the nutrient composition of the studied cowpeas by reducing the nutritional value, but would also have an adverse effect on their potential to prevent free radical mediated diseases.

  13. Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidase and Color Degradation of African Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis M; Njoroge, Charles K; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea leaves form an important part of the diet for many Kenyans, and they are normally consumed after a lengthy cooking process leading to the inactivation of peroxidase (POD) that could be used as an indicator for the potential shelf life of the vegetables. However, color degradation can simultaneously occur, leading to poor consumer acceptance of the product. The kinetics of POD in situ thermal (for thermal treatments in the range of 75 to 100 °C/120 min) inactivation showed a biphasic first-order model, with Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constant. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (Tref ) of 80 °C were determined for both the heat-labile phase (kref = 11.52 ± 0.95 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 109.67 ± 6.20 kJ/mol) and the heat-stable isoenzyme fraction (kref = 0.29 ± 0.07 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 256.93 ± 15.27 kJ/mol). Color degradation (L*, a*, and b* value) during thermal treatment was investigated, in particular as the "a*" value (the value of green color). Thermal degradation (thermal treatments between 55 and 80 °C per 90 min) of the green color of the leaves followed a fractional conversion model and the temperature dependence of the inactivation rate constant can be described using the Arrhenius law. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (TrefC = 70 °C) were determined as krefC = 13.53 ± 0.01 × 10(-2) min(-1) and EaC = 88.78 ± 3.21 kJ/mol. The results indicate that severe inactivation of POD (as an indicator for improved shelf life of the cooked vegetables) is accompanied by severe color degradation and that conventional cooking methods (typically 10 min/100 °C) lead to a high residual POD activity suggesting a limited shelf life of the cooked vegetables. PMID:26642260

  14. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

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    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  15. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  16. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  17. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  18. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Darfour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

  19. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Jeffrey D; Muchero Wellington; Close Timothy J; Roberts Philip A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. ...

  20. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  1. Transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 confer resistance to storage pests, bruchid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2008-12-01

    Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays. PMID:18784925

  2. The effects of sun-drying surfaces and packaging materials on the storability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogba, S S; Ugwu, F M; Abu, J D

    1999-01-01

    The effects of sun-drying cowpea seeds for three hours on cement (CS), wood (WS), and corrugated iron sheet (CIS) surfaces and packaging separately in polyethene and jute bags were studied. Moisture-gain, and resistance to insect and mold damage were monitored monthly for six months, while proximate analyses on day zero and at the 6th month were conducted. Results showed that the three-hour sun-drying of cowpea seeds on reflective surfaces (CIS and CS) enhanced the rate of moisture-reabsorption during storage and consequently, the degree of mold and insect damage irrespective of the packaging material employed. Crude fat, fiber and ash contents, unlike protein and moisture contents, remained virtually constant (p wood surface and polyethene bag were the most preferred treatments to store sun-dried cowpea seeds for about 5.7 months. PMID:10472788

  3. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Damme

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

  4. AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME COWPEA ECOTYPES (VIGNA UNGUILATA L. GROWN IN TURKEY; VEGETATION TIME, SEED AND POD CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. VURAL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to observe the yield and yield components of cowpea cultivars available and cowpea lines, which are grown in nine local areas in Turkey. The study including two cultivars and nine ecotypes, was carried out with randomizes block design with three replications in 1996-1997. Significant differences were observed between the cultivars as in the seed yield, biological yield and vegetation time, according to the two years' combined results. The data indicate great variation within the cowpea, regarding all characters. Factor analysis based principal component (PCA showed two factors, representing 99.13 % of the total variation. PC1 explaining 98.69 % of the total variance is highly correlated with seed and pod size factors. PC2 may be considered as the time of vegetation time and yield per plant. Eleven examined cultivars were separated in two groups by factor analysis and cluster analysis.

  5. Nodulao e produo do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculao Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp under inoculation and cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clepatra Saraiva do Nascimento

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado no municpio de Crato - Cear para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulao e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, submetido a diferentes inoculaes. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repeties. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculao, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetao espontnea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculao; sem inoculao + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uria; inoculao com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp. recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a regio. A partir de sete dias aps a emergncia e at a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinao do nmero de ndulos, matria seca de ndulos e matria seca da parte area. A partir dos 60 dias aps emergncia, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da rea til da subparcela, para determinao da produtividade de gros. A mucuna aumentou a nodulao do caupi no-inoculado. A inoculao do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da populao nativa, permitiu produo de biomassa e gros semelhante da adubao com 50 kg ha-1 de N.A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Cear to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under study were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

  6. Preferncia do pulgo-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes gentipos de feijo-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijo-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., presena do pulgo-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetao da Universidade Federal do Cear (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiba", "BR-10 Piau", "BR-12 Canind", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguia". O experimento constou de trs ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repeties, sendo o delineamento estatstico inteiramente casualizado. Os gentipos foram cultivados em copos plsticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafdeos. As plantas foram infestadas aps doze dias do plantio atravs da liberao de cinco fmeas adultas do pulgo-preto por planta. As avaliaes foram realizadas aps o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestao, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados atravs de anlise de varincia e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Cear Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiba, BR-10 Piau, BR-12 Canind, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

  7. USING A SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM TO MEASURE CROP COEFFICIENTS AND WATER USE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop coefficients and water use by CB46 cowpea were measured using the same field and the same "slope" procedure developed and published for cotton, using a highly-efficient subsurface drip irrigation system on sandy soil at the University of California Shafter Research and Extension Center, near Sh...

  8. Effect of De Cortication and Roasting on Trypsin Inhibitors and Tannin Contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasara Gumaa Balail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9 , for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73, for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52 for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32 for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60 for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value.

  9. Effect of Long Period Cooling Storage on the Nucleic Acid of Harvested Cowpea Seeds ( Vigna Sinensis L.) Treated by Gamma Irradiation and Micro Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea seeds ( Vigna sinensis L.) were exposed to 40 and 80 Gy gamma radiation, in order to study the effect of long period under cooling storage by using RAPD and ISSR PCR facilities. The obtained results indicated that RAPD protocol gave 65% monomorphic and 56% polymorphic fragments between the samples as compared to storage and non-storage controls. While , ISSR protocol gave 83% monomorphic and 85% polymorphic fragments. It should be mentioned that other percentage s 86% and 91% were found among samples in case of using another primers. The results could be summarized as follow: 1-Primer OP - B01 gave 7 monomorphic and 13 polymorphic fragments (65%). 2 - The Primer OP - B02 and Primer OP - B05 gave 4 monomorphic fragments with 14 polymorphic fragments (79%). 3 - The Primer HA-98 gave 4 monomorphic fragments with 19 detected polymorphic 83%. 4 - The Primer HA - 99 and HB-12 gave 3 monomorphic fragments and 17 polymorphic 85 and 86%, respectively. 5 - The Primer HB - 13 gave 2 monomorphic fragments with 21 detected polymorphic fragments 91%. 6 - The primer HA-98 gave 83% while the primer HA - 99 gave 85%. The previous results showed some polymorphism differences among the samples, while the primer HB-12 gave 86% and the primer HB-13 91% exhibited high levels of polymorphism. The DNA of stored cowpea seeds which were exposed to 80 Gy in the presence of zinc showed the highest differentiation , while radiation dose 40 Gy treated with zinc or boron, 80 Gy with boron and 40 or 80 Gy treatment alone compared to the two controls (storage and non storage)

  10. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. Conclusion Effective sources of host resistance were identified in this study. QTL mapping and synteny analysis identified genomic loci harboring resistance factors and revealed candidate genes with potential for further functional genomics analysis.

  11. Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Lucia M. J. Carvalho; Gisela M. Dellamora-Ortiz; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; José L. V. Carvalho; Viana, Daniela S.; Sidinea C. Freitas; Rocha, Maurisrael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet.Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Metho...

  12. Assessment of average exposure to organochlorine pesticides in southern Togo from water, maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawussi, G; Sanda, K; Merlina, G; Pinelli, E

    2009-03-01

    Drinking water, cowpea and maize grains were sampled in some potentially exposed agro-ecological areas in Togo and analysed for their contamination by some common organochlorine pesticides. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides were investigated in ten subsamples of maize, ten subsamples of cowpea and nine subsamples of drinking water. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues and their subsequent quantification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of pesticides were also determined. Pesticides residues in drinking water (0.04-0.40 microg l(-1)) were higher than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.03 microg l(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan levels (13.16-98.79 microg kg(-1)) in cowpea grains exceeded MRLs applied in France (10-50 microg kg(-1)). Contaminants' levels in maize grains (0.53-65.70 microg kg(-1)) were below the MRLs (20-100 microg kg(-1)) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the WHO. EDIs of the tested pesticides ranged from 0.02% to 162.07% of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). Population exposure levels of dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide were higher than the FAO/WHO standards. A comprehensive national monitoring programme on organochlorine pesticides should be undertaken to include such other relevant sources like meat, fish, eggs and milk. PMID:19680908

  13. Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders

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    F.A.Ajayi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

  14. Resistance of ?AI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jrg

    2013-08-01

    Dry grain legume seeds possessing ?AI-1, an ?-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing ?AI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to ?AI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The ?AI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control ?AI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to ?AI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures. PMID:23458831

  15. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%. These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain. The weevils rearing and some biological tests were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results showed that these extracts have anti-oviposition activity and ovicidal dose-dependent. Doses 25 and 50% of Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum have completely inhibited the spawning activity of C. maculatus 24 h after treatment. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between oviposition due to the positive control (Stargrain and that due to dose 50% of the three extracts. Compared to the negative control (ethanol 95%, all these plant extracts have significantly reduced (p<0.05 oviposition of C. maculatus female (38 eggs per 100 seeds after 4 days. The dose 10% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum showed no weevil emergency. It have been also noticed a reduction in seeds depreciation and rate attack in all the treated settings compared to the control. So the rate attack and the mass loss were proportional to the doses of B. aegyptiaca leaves extract but conversely proportional to doses of Melia azedarach and O. gratissimum leaves extracts. No depreciation of seeds was recorded at doses 10 and 15% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum. The different treatments did not affect the germination of seeds; the highest germination rate (93.67% was recorded with seeds treated with the dose 50% of O. gratissimum against only 65% with those treated with the positive control. These ethanolic extracts have shown insecticidal effect against C. maculatus and can alternatively use for the cowpea seeds preservation.

  16. Nutritional evaluation of a high-temperature dried soft wheat pasta supplemented with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, C J; Gualberto, D G; Weber, C W

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional quality of the pasta described above. The work was unique in the following aspects: 1) the drying process was a nonconventional method, consisting of a high-temperature short-time (HTST) process; 2) the nutritional quality of the wheat pasta was improved by the cowpea supplementation. Cowpea was especially chosen due to it being a staple food in the diet of the people in Northeast Brazil. Benefits attributed to the HTST drying process include a reduction in bacterial counts, shorter processing time and less energy consumption. In addition, there are reports in the literature of improved pasta firmness, color intensity, and cooking characteristics, when non Triticum durum materials plus drying are used. The pasta produced in this work was made using 100% soft wheat flour (SP), and soft wheat flour (SF) mixed supplemented with 10, 20 and 30% dehulled cowpea meal (CM); referred to as 10, 20 and 30% SP, respectively. The methods utilized in this project included: AACC methods for proximate analyses and trypsin inhibitor activity determination, atomic absorption spectrophotometry for mineral determination, a dye binding procedure for measuring available lysine, HPLC for amino acid quantification., FAO/WHO amino acid scoring patterns for chemical scores and AOAC for protein digestibility. The protein content of the past as supplemented with CM ranged from 11.3 to 14.2%, while the 100% SF pasta (SP) contained 10.9%. CM supplementation resulted in 52 to 113% more total lysine, and 26 to 82% more available lysine in the CM pasta compared to the SP. Chemical scores for SP were 45 and 59% for preschool and school-age children, respectively. Adding 30% CM to SP improved the above chemical scores to 89 and 100+, respectively. However, the addition of CM compromised the in vitro protein digestibility of SP from 4 to 6%. The addition fo 30% CM provided the SP with greater calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu): 44, 49, 91 and 402% respectively. Cooking the CM pasta resulted in a 50 to 90% retention of mineral content, with the greatest loss being for Cu. In the cooked 30% CM pasta, the contents of Fe, Zn and Ca were, respectively, 50, 67 and 243% greater than their content in the cooked SP. Of the cooked pasta, the only one displaying trypsin inhibitor activity was the 30% CM pasta, which had 0.8 TIU. PMID:9239294

  17. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  18. RESPONSE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L. GENOTYPES TO NATIVE SOIL RHIZOBIA FOR NODULATION, YIELD AND SOIL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONAM BINJOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil, on comparision of both the check varieties, COCP-702 performed significantly better than RC-101 in most of the characters under study. The highest soil microbial biomass carbon, i.e., 234.70 μg g-1, soil available N, i.e., 256.56 kg ha-1 and K, i.e., 205.00 kg ha-1 was shown by check variety COCP-702. PGCP-4 recorded significantly more number of nodules plant-1, i.e., 74.33, N concentration in grain, i.e., 4.76%. PGCP-6 gave significantly more grain yield, i.e., 1893.75 kg ha-1, plant N, i.e., 2.15 %, plant protein content, i.e., 13.43 %. This variety also recorded highest N uptake by grain, i.e., 81.81 kg ha-1 and total plant uptake, i.e., 97.64 kg ha-1. Response of COCP-702, PGCP-4 and PGCP-6 to native soil rhizobia were found to be significantly more than the other cowpea genotypes.

  19. Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Methods: The samples were cooked in both regular pans and pressure cookers with and without previous soaking. Mineral analyses were carried out by Spectrometry of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Results: The results showed high contents of iron and zinc in raw samples as well as in cooked ones, with the use of regular pan resulting in greater percentage of iron retention and the use of pressure cooker ensuring higher retention of zinc. Conclusions: The best retention of iron was found in the BRS Arac cultivar prepared in a regular pan with previous soaking. This cultivar may be indicated for cultivation and human consumption. The best retention of zinc was found for the BRS Tumucumaque cultivar prepared in a pressure cooker without previous soaking.

  20. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.; Kpodo, K.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed...... of toxin are often detected in naturally infected samples, the current results indicate that cowpea is less susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. A low susceptibility could be due to the presence in cowpea of substances that inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis. Further investigations are underway to...

  1. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.; Kpodo, K.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed...

  2. Alternativas Microbiológicas para Mejorar el Crecimiento del Caupí / Microbiological Alternatives for the Improvement of Cowpea Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P en el suelo, laineficiencia que presenta su absorción y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo, capaces de mejorar la disponibilidad y la absorción de P y la eficiencia de la fertilización con fertilizantes más económicos como la Roca Fosfórica (RP. En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de casa de malla, el efecto de un hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA (Glomus fasciculatum y un microorganismo solubilizador de  (MSP (Mortierella sp. sobre la toma de P y el crecimiento deplantas de caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., con adición detres niveles de RP (0, 100 y 300 mg de P kg-1 suelo. Los resultadosmostraron un incremento significativo (PLa adición de RP y la inoculación con MSP, no tuvo un efectoestadísticamente significativo (P>0,05 sobre las variables decrecimiento evaluadas. Sin embargo, en todos los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el MSP, se incrementó significativamente el P soluble. Con base en lo encontrado en este trabajo, se puede plantear que el hongo micorrízico arbuscular evaluado (HMA,mejora la eficiencia de absorción de P y el crecimiento del caupí bajo las condiciones evaluadas. / The low phosphorus (P availability in soil, absorption inefficiency and high costs of phosphate fertilization are limiting factors for agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative is the use of soil microorganisms, capable of improving Pdisponibility, absorption and the use of fertilizer cheaper as rock phosphate fertilization (PR. This experiment was performed under screen house conditions aiming to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (HMA (Glomus fasciculatum and a P solubilizing fungus (MSP (Mortierella sp. on P uptake and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. growth, planted with three concentrations (0, 100 and 300 mg of P per each kg of soil of PR. A significant increase (P≤0.05 in dry mass, plant height, mean stem diameter and foliar phosphorus, was observed in theHMA-inoculated plants compared with the HMA-non inoculatedplants. No significant differences were identified when PR wasadded or MSP was inoculated. The results suggest that the use of HMA may improve P absorption and cowpea growth under the evaluated conditions.

  3. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Peña P.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %. Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%. The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

  4. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  5. Valor nutricional del grano de caupì (vigna unguiculata) para cerdos en crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    López Castro, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Se realizaron varios ensayos para la valoración nutricional del grano de caupí (Vigna unguiculata) variedad CIAT-4555 para cerdos. La composición química del caupí (crudo y cocido) mostró valores de proteína bruta del 24.6 y 24.8%, valores bajos de extracto etéreo del 1.1 y 1.4%, de cenizas del 4.6 y 4.5%, y de fibra detergente ácida del 6.5% y 7.4%, respectivamente. Para la prueba de consumo, se utilizó un diseño experimental Cuadrado Latino, que incluía siete dietas o tratamientos, siete...

  6. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under water deficit / Intercambio gaseoso y distribucin de biomasa de caup (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) bajo dficit hdrico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cardona-Ayala, Carlos Enrique; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Aramndiz-Tatis; Marvin, Perneth-Montao; Csar Augusto, Vergara-Crdoba.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La tolerancia a sequa es importante para la supervivencia y productividad de las plantas en ambientes con aumentos de sequa, como resultado de la variabilidad climtica por causas naturales y, el cambio climtico por actividades humanas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las dinmicas de fot [...] osntesis (A), conductancia estomtica (gs) y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA=A/gs) en funcin del contenido de humedad del suelo durante un periodo de sequa, y la recuperacin pos-estrs en 14 genotipos de caup. Los genotipos estudiados toleraron tensiones de humedad del suelo cercanas a -2 Mpa, sin presentar marchitamiento permanente. A partir de potencial hdrico del suelo de -0,7 Mpa, fueron evidentes las disminuciones en A y gs, as como el aumento en A/gs, las cuales variaron con el genotipo; sus estimaciones con modelos de regresin permitieron discriminar grados de tolerancia a sequa entre cultivares. A los 4 das despus de reasumir la hidratacin, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medias de tales parmetros. Los genotipos L-047 y L-034 conservaron entre 4 y 6 hojas, se mostraron como los de mayor retraso en senescencia foliar durante la sequa y presentaron mayor biomasa a los 16 das de recuperacin post-stress Abstract in english Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of [...] photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

  7. Performance Characteristics and Heamatological Studies of Broiler Chickens Fed Cowpea Based Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Akanji, A. M.; A.O. Adebiyi; Adebowale, O. S.; FASINA, O; Ogungbesan, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to look at the utilization of cowpea - based diets on performance characteristics and haematology of broiler chickens. Raw cowpea ( Vigna unguigulata L.Walp), dehulled - cowpea, dehulled - cooked cowpea and dehulled - roasted cowpea grains were fed to broiler chickens in a five week feeding trial. A total of seventy five day old broiler chicks of Marshall Strain were allotted into five dietary treatments. Marginal reductions in the crude protein, crude fibre, et...

  8. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    OpenAIRE

    José B. M. Coelho; Maria de F. C. Barros; Egídio Bezerra Neto; Marcus M. Correa

    2013-01-01

    A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um experimento e...

  9. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHIL DOBIE

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

  10. NEW METHOD FOR SCREENING COWPEA GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Germplasm line, GC-86L-98, a greenhouse screening method was developed to find potential sources of CMV resistance in the USDA cowpea germplasm collection. GC-86L-98, the first CMV-resistant cowpea germplasm line, was released by ARS in August 2001. A...

  11. Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

  12. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.)}

    OpenAIRE

    PHIL DOBIE; RENNIE ROESLI

    1991-01-01

    Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp...

  13. Effect of Osmopriming Duration on Germination, Emergence, and Early Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Singh1; Rabi Dahiru; Mukhtar Musa; Bello Sani Haliru

    2014-01-01

    Seed osmopriming could be a sustainable method to increase crop establishment, uniform emergence, and growth of plant on the field. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in 2010 cropping season at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the effect of seed osmopriming duration on the germination, emergence, and growth of cowpea seeds. Treatments consisted of three osmopriming duration (soaking in 1% KNO3 salt for 6, 8, and 10?hrs), one hydroprimed control (10?hr), and an unprimed...

  14. Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes and PR-proteins in compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J T A; Andrade, N C; Martins-Miranda, A S; Soares, A A; Gondim, D M F; Arajo-Filho, J H; Freire-Filho, F R; Vasconcelos, I M

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluated the resistance and susceptibility of 10 cowpea cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita in field studies and to analyze the kinetics of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanases and cystein proteinase inhibitors in the root system of two contrasting cowpea cultivars after inoculation with M.incognita. The cultivars CE-31 and Frade Preto were highly resistant; CE-28, CE-01, CE-315, CE-237, were very resistant; CE-70 and CE-216 were moderately resistant, whereas Vita-3 and CE-109 were slightly resistant. In the roots of the highly resistant cultivar CE-31 the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase increased and catalase decreased and those of the pathogenesis-related proteins chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase and cystein proteinase inhibitor increased in comparison with the root system of the slightly resistant CE-109, during the course of M.incognita infestation. Thus the changes in the activities of these enzymes might be related to the smaller final population of M.incognita in CE-31 and may contribute to the high resistance of this cowpea cultivar against infection and colonization by this nematode species. PMID:22153251

  15. Induced mutations for the improvement of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea (L.) Thou.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation breeding programme to produce mutants with resistance to weevil damage in cowpea, high yield in bambara groundnut and erect growth habit in winged bean was started in 1985. Dry seeds were irradiated using a 60Co source of gamma rays at doses of 350, 250 and 0-350 Gy for cowpea, winged bean, and bambara, respectively. The highest percentage of germination and greatest variability in pods per plant and seed yield per plant occurred at the 150 Gy dose, while vegetative mutants were more frequent at higher doses in bambara groundnut. Several forms of abnormal stem and leaf characteristics occurring within the first to sixth leaf stages of growth were observed in M1 winged bean plants. Seeds with lighter testa colour which showed some resistance to weevil damage were observed in the M1 seed lot of the cowpea variety TVX 1843-1C. Single plant selection for the desirable agronomic traits will be done in the M2 generation for the three crop species. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  17. EFFECT OF EFFLUENT WATER ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COWPEA APHID, APHIS CRACCIVORA KOCH (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE), ON COWPEA PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    TSHWENYANE S.O.; NKETSO T.H.; TIROESELE B.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) is an important legume grown in Botswana and the main yield losses incurred are from cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch). Agriculture in Botswana is hampered by limitation in water resources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of effluent water on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth. This was randomized completely block design pot experiment conducted under net shade environment. Four treatments of 100%, 60%, 30% of effluent di...

  18. Atuação de rizóbios com rizobactéria promotora de crescimento em plantas na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. = Rhizobias performance with rhizobacteria growth promoter in plants in the cowpea crop (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nogueira da Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a potencialidade da colonização conjunta em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. por Paenibacillus e Bradyrhizobium em diferentes métodos de inoculação que proporcionam crescimento visando a uma agricultura sustentável. Os trabalhos foram realizados na Empresa Pernambucana de PesquisaAgropecuária (IPA, com Argissolo Amarelo (Itapirema, Estado de Pernambuico, dois modos de inoculação (semente e solo em cultivar de caupi (IPA-205. Foi determinado: número e matéria seca dos nódulos; matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA e raiz (MSR; relação MSPA/MSR; Nitrogênio acumulado na MSPA; altura da planta. As estirpes de rizóbios apresentaram comportamento instável nos diferentes métodos de inoculação. A eficiência simbiótica da colonização conjunta do sistema radicular por Paenibacillus e as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium nos diferentes métodos de inoculação apresentou-se variável. Os benefícios têm sido aqui evidentes e os fatos informados na literatura podem direcionar futuros estudos que ajudem a explicar os comportamentos acima relatados sobre diferentes mecanismos de ação de cada célula bacteriana.The aim of this work was to verify the cocolonization potential in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. for Paenibacillus andBradyrhizobium, using different inoculation methods to provide growth, seeking a maintainable agriculture. The study was carried out at Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária, in Yellow Argisol (Itapirema, Pernambuco State. Two methods of inoculation (seed and soil in cowpea crop (IPA-205 was used. The following aspects wereevaluated: number and dry matter nodule; shoot dry matter (SDM and root (RDM; relation SDM/RDM; nitrogen accumulated in the SDM and plant height. The rhizobial strains showed low stability in the different inoculation methods. The symbiotic efficiency of the cocolonization for Paenibacillus and the Bradyrhizobium strains in the different inoculation methods were variable. Results showed that the benefits here are evident. And, this literature review can address future studies aiming to explain the behaviors mentioned above under different mechanisms of action of each bacterial cell.

  19. Supplementation of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein with cereal proteins - supplementation of soup with a protein blend of appropriate nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the cowpea bean protein was improved through supplementations with flours from beans exposed to microwave oven treated with cereal proteins such as wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum. Biological assays results with these blends showed that the casein exceeded the other diets concerning digestibility only; however, in parameters such as biological value, net protein utilization (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutritional efficiency ratio (NER), no significant differences occurred. Among all elaborated blends, the one with irradiated beans submitted to microwave oven for 30 minutes (65%) + rice (35%) presented the best results. The soup elaborated with the best supplemented blend was satisfactory concerning color, odor, flavor and texture

  20. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  1. BIOLOGÍA DEL ÁFIDO NEGRO (Aphis craccivora: APHIDIDAE) SOBRE FRÍJOL CAUPI (Vigna unguiculata, FABACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nataly DE LA PAVA S; Paula Andrea SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo describe los parámetros biológicos y poblacionales del pulgón negro, Aphis craccivora Koch, sobre fríjol caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.)), bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los insectos se criaron sobre plántulas individualizadas a una temperatura promedio de 28 °C, humedad relativa de 70 % y fotoperiodo de 12 horas. Los parámetros medidos fueron periodo ninfal, fecundidad, supervivencia, periodo pre-reproductivo y aspectos relativos a la tasa de crecimiento del áfido. La tasa...

  2. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezkiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. PMID:25466917

  3. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaied K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer to other rhizobia, revealed that it is necessary, in view of possibility of deliberate release of a variety of recombinant rhizobia into the environment for such agricultural purposes as improving nitrogen fixation. New recombinants revealed higher amounts of indole compounds from tryptophan above the mid-parents in two out of six transconjugants resulted from the cross between P1 x P3. Significant number of nodules were developed on the root system of V2-variety in M4 generation treated with 20 krad in response to inoculation with the parental strains (P2 and P3 and also in response to inoculation with triparental transconjugants (Tr4 and Tr5, above that developed on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. The results revealed the success of rhizobial strains and their recombinants to colonize and infect roots of cowpea, because of significant dry weight of nodules per plant which can be obtained in V1-variety treated with 20 krad in M4 generation inoculated with the parental strain (P3, above that on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. Total chlorophyll formation in V1-variety inoculated with di-parental transconjugants (DPM-Tr2 and DPM-Tr3 at all doses of gamma irradiation was significantly increase above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose and the mid-parents, with the exception at 30 krad if compared with the mid-parents. Significant increase was resulted in fresh weight of pods developed per plant above the mid-parents in M3 generation of V1-variety at doses zero and 10 krad, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugant, DPM-Tr2. While, the same trend was also achieved above the full dose in M3 generation at 10 krad in response to inoculation with DPM-Tr2, DPM-Tr3, TPM-Tr4 and TPM-Tr5. The highest nitrogen content was appeared in the shoots of V1-variety at all doses of gamma irradiation in response to inoculation with diparental transconjugant (DPM-Tr2. However, V2-variety had the lowest nitrogen content in relation to the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen and to the mid-parents of rhizobial transconjugants. The genetic variability of grain-protein content appeared that V2-variety treated with 10 krad had significant increase in protein content above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N among M3 and M4 generations, in response to inoculation with parental strains and most of their transconjugants. The same trend was also shown in M4 generation of V1-variety treated with 20 and 30 krad above the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugants. All biochemical traits studied were more affected by biofertilization than the doses of gamma rays and the interaction between biofertilization x doses. This indicated that the significance of treatments was mainly due to inoculation and particularly to gamma irradiation and the interaction between both of them.

  4. Characterization of Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in Cowpea and Utilization of Cross-Species Platforms in Legume Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sayan

    2008-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food and fodder legume worldwide. Cowpea is grown extensively in sub-Saharan Africa where it is an important staple. Root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) is a significant pest in cowpea. Several sources of resistance to RKN have been identified in cowpea, including the widely used Rk gene. As part of a study to elucidate the mechanism of Rk -mediated resistance, the histological response to avirulent M. incognita feeding of a resistant ...

  5. Preparation and Nutritional Composition of a Weaning Food Formulated from Germinated Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Steamed Cooked Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    OpenAIRE

    J.N.C. Okafor; B.O. Elemo; G. N. Elemo

    2011-01-01

    Weaning food was produced from sorghum and cowpea based on a malted technology with a view to determining the amylase activity, nutritional composition/properties and its ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Malted sorghum flour was produced (steeping, germination, drying, toasting, grinding and sieving) and steamed cooked cowpea flour was produced. Both were blended in ratio 2:1 to get malted weaning food (GSC), unmalted sorghum and steamed cooked cowpea in same ratio was also ...

  6. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung Foo; Chipumuro Edmond; Bokowiec Marta T; Laudeman Thomas W; Rushton Paul J; Timko Michael P; Town Christopher D; Chen Xianfeng

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major...

  7. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FROM BLACK COWPEA AND ITS APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anuchita Moongngarm; Sirinapa Sasanam; Watcharee Pinsiri; Puttarat Inthasoi; Sakawduen Janto; Jutharat Pengchai

    2014-01-01

    Black cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is high in protein, which makes it suitable for use as a protein supplement in food products. However, direct application of cowpea flour in food products is limited as it may affect some quality aspects of foods. Protein concentrate and isolate are a form of the protein that is gaining interest in industry. Therefore, this study was carried out to compare functional properties of Cowpea Protein Concentrate (CPC) prepared using thre...

  8. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to control it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde". These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

  9. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: Report of the deliberations of an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation -...

  10. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp, Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare.

    Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta.

  11. Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna / Anlisis qumico y evaluacin nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pious, Tresina Soris; Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composicin prximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y cido ascorbico), protena y perfil de amino cidos, perfil de cidos graso [...] s y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de protena cruda que los frjoles de consumo comn en la India. Los frijoles analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos cidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino cidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptfano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontr un contenido relativamente alto de cido oleico, linoleico y linolnico. Se analiz para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, cido ftico, cido cianhidrco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of [...] lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses appeared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

  12. Performance Characteristics and Heamatological Studies of Broiler Chickens Fed Cowpea Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanji, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to look at the utilization of cowpea - based diets on performance characteristics and haematology of broiler chickens. Raw cowpea ( Vigna unguigulata L.Walp, dehulled - cowpea, dehulled - cooked cowpea and dehulled - roasted cowpea grains were fed to broiler chickens in a five week feeding trial. A total of seventy five day old broiler chicks of Marshall Strain were allotted into five dietary treatments. Marginal reductions in the crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and ash were obtained in the dehulled cowpea and dehulled - cooked cowpea grains respectively. The dehulled - roasted cowpea grains however gave slight increases in the proximate composition. Feed intake and growth was significantly reduced in birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled - cowpea respectively. The feed conversion efficiency (FCE and protein efficiency ratio (PER also followed a similar pattern. Non-significant differences were however obtained in weight gain, FCE and PER of birds fed the control diet and those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea in this study. Birds fed dehulled - roasted cowpea also had marginal reductions in weight gain, FCE and PER when compared to those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea based diet. Mortality was higher in birds fed raw cowpea - based diet.The haematological studies showed lower values of haemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume and white blood cells of birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled cowpea respectively. However, despite the better response indices, the combination of dehulling and cooking led to leaching of some water-soluble food nutrients. Hence, more studies still need to be carried out especially at other processing methods that can drastically reduce the anti-nutritional factors without necessarily leaching the food nutrients.

  13. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  14. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium

    OpenAIRE

    Zaied K.A.; F.S. Faris; A.M. Assar

    2005-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The po...

  15. Extracellular accumulation of high specific-activity peroxidase by cell suspension cultures of cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, O A; Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Nolasco, H

    1990-07-01

    Cell suspension cultures of cowpea (Vigna sp.) were able to produce extracellular peroxidase. Different growth regulator concentrations induced different peroxidase activity in callus. The crude extracellular medium after four weeks of culture showed higher (6 times) specific peroxidase activity and higher thermo stability than commercial horse-radish peroxidase. The commercial production of peroxidase enzyme from cowpea by utilizing plant cell cultures is discussed. PMID:24226600

  16. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Akinrinde; L. Iroh; G.O. Obigbesan; Hilger, T.; Neumann, G; V. Romheld

    2006-01-01

    Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al) toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0) with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contras...

  17. Effects of P on Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 and Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano symbiosis in the field of a rubber tree plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sungthongwises, K.; Poss, R.; Drevon, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of P addition and NP addition on nodulation and N fixation this study examines the nodulation of Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 (cowpea) and Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano in fertilized and unfertilized conditions in NE Thailand. Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 was studied in a NPK subtractive experiment. One year later, Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 and S. hamata cv. Verano were studied for their adaptation to low P on the top of the toposequence. The ...

  18. Effect of mulch application in combination with NPK fertilizer in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.; Leg.) on two key pests, M. vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and M. sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and their respective parasitoids

    OpenAIRE

    Zenz, Nikolaus

    1999-01-01

    Afrikanische Bauern verwenden Pflanzenmulch zur Erhaltung der Bodenfruchtbarkeit. Es konnte bisher nicht geklärt werden, ob sich Mulch auch zur Schädlingskontrolle eignet. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Beschreibung der Effekte von Mulch und NPK-Dünger auf die Kuhbohne Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Leguminosae) und zwei Schlüsselschädlinge, den Hülsenbohrer Maruca vitrata F. und den Blütenthrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom, sowie deren Parasitoide. In drei Regionen Benins wurden Versuche von ...

  19. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID with the difference methods (DM for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

  20. Effect of Water and Pests Stresses on Cowpea Yield

    OpenAIRE

    J. Abedi Koupai; M. Salehi-Sirzar; S.S. Eslamian; J. Khajeali; Y. Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of pest and water stresses on different growing stages of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and pest occurrence, an experiment was conducted in Khazaneh Research station of Isfahan University of Technology. The experiment was carried out in a factorial complete randomized block design, in two different farms, with and without insecticide application. The treatments included severe water stress (50% water requirement), moderate water stress (75% water requirement) in f...

  1. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  2. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp

    OpenAIRE

    Gakuru, S.; Buledi, MK.

    1995-01-01

    Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthosceli...

  3. Selection of Novel Cowpea Genotypes Derived through Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lydia N; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M; Shimelis, Hussein A

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) yields are considerably low in Namibia due to lack of improved varieties and biotic and abiotic stresses, notably, recurrent drought. Thus, genetic improvement in cowpea aims to develop cultivars with improved grain yield and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify agronomically desirable cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis using gamma irradiation. Seeds of three traditional cowpea varieties widely grown in Namibia including Nakare (IT81D-985), Shindimba (IT89KD-245-1), and Bira (IT87D-453-2) were gamma irradiated with varied doses and desirable mutants were selected from M2 through M6 generations. Substantial genetic variability was detected among cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis across generations including in flowering ability, maturity, flower and seed colors and grain yields. Ten phenotypically and agronomically stable novel mutants were isolated at the M6 each from the genetic background of the above three varieties. The selected promising mutants' lines are recommended for adaptability and stability tests across representative agro-ecologies for large-scale production or breeding in Namibia or similar environments. The novel cowpea genotypes selected through the study are valuable genetic resources for genetic enhancement and breeding. PMID:27148275

  4. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COWPEA COVER CROP ON PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES, WEEDS, AND PEPPER YIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field experiments with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ‘Wizard X3R’ were established (May 2003, 2004) in Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. The objective was to compare yields, nematode populations, and weeds as impacted by six soil management treatments: cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.) summer co...

  5. Evidence for participation of RNA 1-encoded elicitor in Cowpea mosaic virus-mediated concurrent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, G; Buzayan, J M; Ferreiro, C; Lim, W

    2000-01-20

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) line Arlington, inoculated with Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), showed no symptoms, and no infectivity or accumulation of capsid antigen was detected at several days after inoculation. Coinoculation, but not sequential inoculation, of CPMV with similar concentrations of another Comovirus; Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), resulted in reduced numbers of CPSMV-induced lesions. This apparent, CPMV-mediated reduction in number of CPSMV-induced infection centers was termed concurrent protection. We report results obtained by inoculating two nearly isogenic cowpea lines derived from a CPMV-susceptible cowpea crossed to Arlington, one line CPMV-susceptible and the other resistant. The CPMV virions B and M, encapsidating genomic RNAs 1 and 2, respectively, were extensively purified by gradient centrifugation. In the CPMV-resistant cowpea, either CPMV or CPMV B affected concurrent protection against CPSMV and against two distinct non-Comoviruses: Cherry leafroll virus and Southern bean mosaic virus. Adding CPMV M to the inoculum did not enhance CPMV-B-mediated protection. CPMV B was ineffective in protecting CPMV-susceptible cowpea. We postulate that CPMV-mediated concurrent protection is elicited in CPMV-resistant cowpea by a CPMV RNA-1-encoded factor and acts to reduce accumulation or spread of CPMV and certain coinoculated challenging viruses in or from the inoculated cell. Coinoculated CPMV did not protect CPMV-resistant cowpea against Tomato bushy stunt virus or Cucumber mosaic virus. PMID:10639316

  6. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  7. Irradiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds to control southern cowpea beetle Callosbruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using gamma radiation as an alternative to fumigation or direct chemical applications for the control of stored-products insects was investigated in the laboratory and in a warehouse in Cairo, Egypt. Polyethylene bags of the type used in local markets were filled with cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata] Callosobruchus maculatus and irradiated at 400, 600 or 800 Gy [4, 6 or 8 krad]. All the treatments were effective, and no living adults infested by were found in the bags until 3 months later, when adults from outside penetrated the bags with their mandibles. It is therefore recommended that 4 krad should be administered for initial control, but that treated cowpeas should be stored in polypropylene rather than polyethylene bags in order to prevent reinfestation

  8. Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, Guillaume; Haussmann, Bettina I.G.; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques...

  9. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Oelofse Dean; Gazendam Inge; Coetzer Nanette; Berger Dave K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the p...

  10. Characterization of leaf apoplastic peroxidases and metabolites in Vigna unguiculata in response to toxic manganese supply and silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Fuehrs, H.; Goetze, S; A Specht; Erban, A.; Gallien, S.; Heintz, D.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Kopka, J.; Braun, H; Horst, W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggested that the apoplastic phenol composition and its interaction with apoplastic class III peroxidases (PODs) are decisive in the development or avoidance of manganese (Mn) toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). This study characterizes apoplastic PODs with particular emphasis on the activities of specific isoenzymes and their modulation by phenols in the Mn-sensitive cowpea cultivar TVu 91 as affected by Mn and silicon (Si) supply. Si reduced Mn-induced toxicity symptom...

  11. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  12. Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA FILHO JOS MOACIR PINHEIRO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuria do Trpico Semi-rido (CPATSA at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

  13. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    OpenAIRE

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexi...

  14. Determinao da difusividade e da energia de ativao para feijo macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., variedade sempre-verde, com base no comportamento da secagem Determination of diffusivity and activation energy for cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., alwaysgreen variety, based on its drying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton P. da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, teve-se o objetivo de determinar curvas de secagem em camada fina para gros de feijo macassar, variedade sempre-verde. Visou-se, tambm, determinao da difusividade efetiva da gua no interior do produto, bem como a energia de ativao. Para tal, foram utilizadas amostras com 150 g de feijo com teor inicial de gua de 37% (bu, nas temperaturas de 40; 50 e 60 C. A velocidade do ar do secador convectivo foi mantida em 1,0 m s-1 e, durante todo o processo, os valores mdios da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar ambiente foram, respectivamente, 29 C e 58%. A difusividade efetiva da gua no produto foi determinada, em cada temperatura, por meio da lei de Fick, pressupondo um modelo esfrico para os gros. Uma expresso para a difusividade efetiva da gua em funo da temperatura foi determinada por meio do ajuste da equao de Arrhenius aos dados obtidos. A anlise dos resultados possibilita concluir que a equao de Page representa, de forma satisfatria, o processo de secagem em todas as condies estudadas. O modelo esfrico estabelecido para os gros satisfatrio, resultando em difusividade efetiva que variou de 7,13x10-11 at 14,0x10-11 ms-1, e em energia de ativao igual a 26,9 kJ mol-1. Foi observado que, para a temperatura do ar de secagem mantida em 60 C, houve a formao de fissuras em quantidade significativa de gros.In this paper it was determined the thin layer drying curves for cowpea grains, always-green variety. It was also determined the effective water diffusivity inside the product and its activation energy. For these purposes, 150 g samples of cowpea grains dried at temperatures of 40; 50 and 60 C were used. The drying air velocity was maintained constantly at 1.0 m s-1 during the drying process. The drying air temperature and relative humidity were 29 C and 58%, respectively. The effective water diffusivity inside the product was determined, for each drying temperature, by using Ficks equation assuming a spherical shape for the grains. A mathematical expression for the effective water diffusivity inside the product as a function of temperature was determined by fitting Arrheniuss equation to the observed data. According to the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that the Page equation can be used to satisfactorily represent the cowpea grains drying process for the conditions of this research. The assumption of a spherical shape for the grains was satisfactory, resulting in a water effective diffusivity varying from 7.13x10-11 to 14.00x10-11 ms-1 and activation energy equal to 26.9 kJ mol-1. It was also observed that for a drying air temperature of 60 C a significant amount of grains presented fissures.

  15. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  16. Socio-economic, agronomic and molecular analysis of yam and cowpea diversity in the Guinea-Sudan transition zone of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Zannou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp.),yam ( Dioscorea spp. ), agro-biodiversity, farmer perception, market and consumer preferences, socio-cultural preferences, human and social capitals, genotype by environment interaction, socio-technical knowledge, domestication, inter-(trans)disciplinarity / Beta-gamma science.Management and use of yam and cowpea genetic resources analysed in this thesis are important to realize agricultural development inBenin, both on the short and long run. I...

  17. Eficincia e diversidade fenotpica de bactrias diazotrficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de minerao de bauxita em reabilitao Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogrio Melloni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de minerao provoca degradao ambiental em vrias partes do mundo, e tcnicas de revegetao, empregando diversas espcies vegetais, tm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas reas. A eficincia e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactrias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN, so de extrema importncia, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas reas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficincia e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de reas mineradas, sob diferentes estratgias e cronosseqncias de reabilitao, no vero de 1999, para instalao de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espcies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na florao, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matria seca da parte area, nmero, matria fresca e atividade de ndulos. No houve influncia das diferentes estratgias de reabilitao na eficincia das populaes de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotpica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das caractersticas culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Aps a caracterizao fenotpica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulao, eficincia e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da minerao maior na diversidade fenotpica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulao das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetao contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactrias em solos de reas de minerao de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introduo de leguminosas.Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  18. Effect of Exogenous Application of Silicon with Drought Stress on Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Edible Beans (Vigna radiate & Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the impact of silicon application with different concentrations (20, 40, 60 ppm, on selected physiological characteristics of the leaves of mungbean (Vignaradiata and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata under different 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% soil moisture regimes. Stock solution (100 ppm of silicon was prepared by MgSi3 salt but apply as 20, 40, 60 ppm solution in both treated and control plants. Results showed that silicon application significantly increases total carbohydrate & protein contents in treated samples as compare to control plants. In present study we concluded that silicon promoted growth in the drought susceptible species to greater extent & it’s more beneficial for carbohydrates and protein metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as compare to mungbean (Vignaradiata plants.

  19. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 TVnu457) JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding. PMID:22242703

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga vignae Strain BR 3299T, a Novel Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Alphaproteobacterium Isolated from a Brazilian Semiarid Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson Zilli, Jerri; Ribeiro Passos, Samuel; Leite, Jakson; Ribeiro Xavier, Gustavo; Gouvea Rumjaneck, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Microvirga vignae is a recently described species of root-nodule bacteria isolated from cowpeas grown in a Brazilian semiarid region. We report here the 6.4-Mb draft genome sequence and annotation of M.vignae type strain BR 3299. This genome information may help to understand the mechanisms underlying the ability of the organism to grow under drought and high-temperatures conditions. PMID:26159523

  1. Radiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds contaminated by Callosobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) can be prevented by sterilization of the adult forms and destruction of the eggs, larvae and pupae using an ionizing treatment at doses less than 100 Gy, without causing unfavorable nutritional consequences. Storage of these cowpea seeds in polyethylene bags of a thickness greater than 100 micrometer avoids all recontamination by this weevil. Economically, the irradiation of such a foodstuff would certainly be worthwhile in Senegal on the condition that the ionizing treatment would also be profitable for other foodstuffs harvested locally, so as to attain a satisfactory utilization rate for the industrial plant which would be set up in this country

  2. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

  3. Studies on some cowpea cultivars: II - suitability for aspergillus flavus growth and Aflatoxin production

    OpenAIRE

    Zohri, A. A. [??? ?????? ???? ????

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen mycotoxin-free seed cultivar samples of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were inoculated with spores* of Aspergillus flavus Link (IMI 89717) to determine varietal differences in terms of aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analyses of chloroform extracts of the colonized seeds revealed that three cultivars were highly resistant and not shown aflatoxin accumulation while 8 cultivars showed partial resistance. The remaining 5 samples were highly susceptible to the esta...

  4. Effect of Water and Pests Stresses on Cowpea Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abedi Koupai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of pest and water stresses on different growing stages of cowpea (Vigna sinensis and pest occurrence, an experiment was conducted in Khazaneh Research station of Isfahan University of Technology. The experiment was carried out in a factorial complete randomized block design, in two different farms, with and without insecticide application. The treatments included severe water stress (50% water requirement, moderate water stress (75% water requirement in four stages of cowpea growth, the first stage (from seed germination until flower in, second stage (from flowering until pod-filling, third stage (from pod-filling until harvesting and the whole period of cowpea growth, in three replications. There was a control treatment in each farm with no stress in the whole period of cowpea growth, in three replications. The results showed that water stress had no significant effect on percentage of protein and mineral material. Result also showed that water stress had a significant effect (P≤ 0.01 on population of insects. Water stress significantly (P≤ 0.01 reduced the population of nymphs and adults of Empoasca decipiens Paoli and leaf minor damages, but water stress increased population of Thrips tabaci Lind. Considering the duration of first stage of growth (63 days, it is concluded that this stage had less sensitivity to water stress than the other stages. In regions, where farmers encounter water shortage for cowpea planting, the best performance can be obtained when moderate water stress (75% water requirement is applied at the first stage of growth.

  5. Evaluación de la composición nutricional y digestibilidad aparente e ileal en porcinos del frijol mungo (Vigna radiata o Phaseolus aureus) con y sin tratamiento térmico

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rubio, María del Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó digestibilidad ileal y fecal del frijol mungo (Vigna radiata) con y sin tratamiento térmico en cerdos, su efecto en desempeño animal, parámetros de la canal y evaluación económica. Para digestibilidad se emplearon 3 cerdos canulados y alimento marcado (Cr2O3). Dietas, colectas y excretas fueron evaluadas bromatológicamente. Se uso un diseño factorial con 3 tratamientos (crudo, cocido y tostado), 4 niveles de frijol mungo (0, 10, 20 y 30%) y 3 repeticiones. En desempeño animal se emp...

  6. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  7. Obteno de plantas de feijo-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cludia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Srgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vrus que infectam o feijo-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrncia o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feij [...] o-caupi com resistncia ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetveis. As geraes F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto resistncia por meio de inoculao mecnica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas geraes F2RC1, alm da resistncia foram avaliados os caracteres: nmero de dias para o incio da florao, comprimento das vagens, nmero de gros. vagem-1, peso de cem gros e produo de gros.planta-1. Todos os indivduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ? e se ajustaram frequncia esperada de 15 plantas suscetveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vrus. As mdias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a mdia do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as mdias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade gentica entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produo de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem caractersticas que possibilitam a seleo de linhagens com gros de bom padro comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ? test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

  8. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. PMID:26463703

  9. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. COMPORTAMIENTO AGRONMICO DE LNEAS PROMISORIAS DE FRJOL CAUP Vigna unguiculata L. Walp EN EL VALLE DEL SIN

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    Hermes Aramendiz Tatis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu el comportamiento agronmico de 12 lneas promisorias de frjol caup y la poblacin original con el fin de seleccionar genotipos superiores en atributos agronmicos teniendo en cuenta las condiciones agroecolgicas del Valle del Sin, departamento de Crdoba, Colombia. El diseo de bloques completos al azar con 13 tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones fue aplicado. Las variables de respuesta fueron el rendimiento de grano y sus componentes. La siembra se realiz en el rea experimental de la Universidad de Crdoba localizada en Montera - Colombia, en el ao 2009. El anlisis de varianza detect diferencias significativas (P ? 0,05 para el nmero de vainas por planta, vainas por metro lineal, nmero de semillas por vaina y rendimiento de grano, mientras que para el peso de semilla se presentaron diferencias altamente significativa (P ?0,01. Caso contrario ocurri para la precocidad donde el anlisis acus ausencia de significancia. La variabilidad gentica presente en las lneas endogmicas posibilita seleccionar cultivares con buenos atributos agronmicos y excelentes rendimientos de grano que mejoren los niveles de produccin de los agricultores en el Valle del Sin.

  11. Biocontrol in store : Spatial and behavioural aspects of foraging by Uscana lariophaga, egg parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    C. Stolk

    2002-01-01

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers), an important crop for West African subsistence farmers, is often infested in storage by the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) is responsible for substantial mortality of C. maculatus eggs and might therefore be used in a conservation strategy of biological control. This thesis focuses on foraging behaviour of U. lariophaga females in a spatial context. In sto...

  12. Variation in the nod gene RFLPs, nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes, Nod factors, and nodulation abilities of Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Thai Vigna plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadashi; Tomooka, Norihiko; Okabayashi, Masanori; Kaga, Akito; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Vaughan, Duncan A

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of nod genes and 16S rRNA gene regions, Nod factors, and nodulation abilities of Brady rhizobium strains isolated from tropical Thai Vigna species is reported. A total of 55 Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from two cultivated and six wild Vigna species growing in central and northern Thailand were evaluated. Thai Vigna spp. Bradyrhizobium strains showed higher levels of nod gene RFLP diversity compared with Thai soybean Brady rhizobium strains or temperate strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene region using selected strains also suggests a high genetic diversity of the Thai Vigna-Bradyrhizobium association. Based on thin-layer chromatography analysis, Nod factors produced by tropical Thai Vigna spp. Brady rhizobium strains are more diverse than temperate Japanese and US strains of B. japonicum and B. elkanii. Thai Vigna spp. Bradyrhizobium strains showed variation in nodulation ability and affinity, estimated by the number of normal nodules versus green nodules in an inoculation study. There are some Bradyrhizobium-host combinations that could not form any nodules, suggesting that some genetic differentiation has evolved in their host range. However, most of the Thai Vigna spp. Bradyrhizobium strains formed nodules on the cultigens soybean (Glycine max), mungbean (Vigna radiata), azuki bean (Vigna angularis), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). This is the first study on Bradyrhizobium strains associated with a range of cultivated and wild Vigna and reveals that these Bradyrhizobium strains are diverse and may provide novel sources of useful variation for the improvement of symbiotic systems. PMID:16541157

  13. Morphometric Analysis of some Species in the Genus Vigna (L. Walp: Implication for Utilization for Genetic Improvement

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    Jacob O. Popoola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vigna (L. Walp is a large cosmopolitan leguminous genus comprising both cultivated and wild species. Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Cowpea is an important food legume that is widely cultivated in the tropics, but its production and storage are hampered by insect pests. The present study evaluated the intra-and inter-specific morphological variabilities among 20 accessions of six Vigna species, comprising wild and cultivated species. The species are Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, V. vexillata (A. Richard, V. oblongifolia (A. Richard, V. ambacensis (Baker, V. luteola (Jacq. (Bentham and V. racemosa (G. Don (Hutch and Dalziel. Thirty-one morphological characters involving qualitative and quantitative vegetative and reproductive traits were used for the evaluation. Multivariate analysis such as Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Cluster Analysis (CA were employed to evaluate the intra and inter specific variabilities. The paired-sample T test indicated significant differences among the 20 accessions (p?0.000, df = 19 in their morphometric traits. The relative significant correlation observed among some traits such as pod length, number of locules per pod and number of seeds per pod indicated their closeness and potential for genetic improvement of cowpea. The PCA showed that reproductive traits such as days to 50% flowering (0.984, days to 50% ripe pod (0.993, number of pods per peduncle (0.340 and 100-seed weight (0.132 are the major traits that accounted for the variations among the species. The UPGMA using the average (between groups segregated the 20 accessions into two main clusters, cluster I (comprising mainly wild Vigna species and cluster II (comprising both wild and cultivated species. The taxonomic affinities and genetic diversity among the species are of great importance in the utilization of the species for food and nutrition, fodder for ruminant animals, cover crop for rotational farming and more importantly genetic improvement of cowpea.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

  15. Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca

    OpenAIRE

    Ligiane Aparecida Florentino; Pedro Martins de Sousa; Jacqueline Savana Silva; Karina Barroso Silva; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after inoculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp) in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as refere...

  16. Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO LIMA FILHO

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this p...

  17. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy onwards) had significant negative effect. Dose dependent changes in various biochemical parameters were not observed. No chlorophyll mutation was observed in the M2 generation when seeds were grown in the field. Thus, doses upto 900 Gy are safe for the seed and therefore, can be used for developing the protocols for the management of pulse beetle infesting cowpea. (author)

  18. Response of Cowpea Plants Grown Under Salinity Stress to PK-Foliar Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud M. Shaaban; Mohamed M. Hussein; El-Saady, Abdel-Kareem M.

    2008-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre to study the effect of two doses (50 and 100 mg L-1) of PK foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 on leaf nutrient concentrations and growth parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) grown under two diluted Mediterranean seawater levels (3.0, 6.0 dS m-1) in the irrigation water in addition to tap water (0.4 dS m-1) as control. Diluted seawater as irrigation led to significant decreases of macro and micr...

  19. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  20. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira; Ademir Srgio Ferreira de Araujo; Wanderley Jos de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr), which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS). Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 5 m) and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm) at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0,...

  1. Barrires pr-zygotiques chez les hybrides entre formes sauvages du nib, Vigna unguilata (L. Walp.

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    Baudoin JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids pre-zygotic barriers between wild forms of cowpea. The wild forms of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, constitute an important gene pool insufficiently exploited for the improvement of the cultivated form. In order to promote the use of these wild forms in the genetic improvement programmes, we undertook to understand the various incompatibility reactions which appear in the crosses between wild forms. Efforts were concentrated to understand the incompatibility barriers in the hybridizations between subsp. baoulensis NI 933 and the other wild forms of V. unguiculata. Thanks to the use of the aniline blue fluorescence, we observed a high frequency of pre-zygotic barriers. They appear in three sites, i.e. the higher and lower third of the style, and within the ovary. However, these incompatibility barriers are not absolute. Indeed, in our hybridizations, more than 4% of the ovules were fertilized in the various studied combinations.

  2. biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

  3. Natrum mur 200c promotes seed germination and increases total protein, chlorophyll, rubisco and sugar in early seedlings of cowpea under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Soma Sukul (nee Chunari); Nirman Chandra Sukul; Sandhimita Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Background: High level of salinity deteriorates seed germination, growth and yield of crops in cultivated lands all over the world. There is no effective remedy to mitigate this global problem. Homeopathy offers a remedy like Natrum mur which at ultra high dilution ameliorates diseases of patients having strong desire for salt consumption. The purpose of the present study is to see whether potentized Natrum mur could alleviate salt stress in germinating seeds of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) W...

  4. Analysis of radiation-induced genome alterations in Vigna unguiculata

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    van der Vyver C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Christell van der Vyver1, B Juan Vorster2, Karl J Kunert3, Christopher A Cullis41Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, and 3Department of Plant Science, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Seeds from an inbred Vigna unguiculata (cowpea cultivar were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 180 Gy in order to identify and characterize possible mutations. Three techniques, ie, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellites, and representational difference analysis, were used to characterize possible DNA variation among the mutants and nonirradiated control plants both immediately after irradiation and in subsequent generations. A large portion of putative radiation-induced genome changes had significant similarities to chloroplast sequences. The frequency of mutation at three of these isolated polymorphic regions with chloroplast similarity was further determined by polymerase chain reaction screening using a large number of individual parental, M1, and M2 plants. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the rate at which various regions of the genome is mutated in irradiation experiments differs significantly and also that mutations have variable repair rates. Furthermore, regions of the nuclear DNA derived from the chloroplast genome are highly susceptible to modification by radiation treatment. Overall, data have provided detailed information on the effects of gamma irradiation on the cowpea genome and about the ability of the plant to repair these genome changes in subsequent plant generations.Keywords: mutation breeding, gamma radiation, genetic mutations, cowpea, representational difference analysis

  5. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

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    Cheung Foo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

  6. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Cowpea Using Nitrogen 15-isotope: The Role of Water and Improved Crop Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by low productivity and is associated with variable and irregular rainfall, infertile soils, and inadequate application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (Fatokun et al., 2002). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) is a major source of dietary protein for the people, and occupies about eight million hectares of agricultural land, a majority being in Niger and Nigeria (Singh et al., 1997). The major uses include (1) food grain, (2) animal feed, and (3) source of organic N fertilizer. In Niger, cowpea production increased from 4 000 tons year-1 in the mid-fifties to a maximum of 775 000 tons year-1 in 1997, and its cultivated area is still increasing. Despite its importance, cowpea yields in Niger are very low (approximately 300 kg ha-1) relative to the production potential of between 1.5-3.0 t ha-1 (Ball et al., 2000). Yield can be substantially increased by using improved cowpea varieties and overcoming water stress. With adequate soil moisture cowpea flowers over a long period produce more seeds and yield loss is limited. On the contrary, under water deficit conditions the flowering period is cut short and the seed matures earlier, reducing yield. Overcoming water stress can also improve nutrient use efficiency of cowpea. This article summarizes the results of a field study carried out in Niger to assess the use of improved cowpea varieties and water management on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of cowpea using stable isotopes of nitrogen-15 (15N). The field experiment was carried out in the Sahelian zone of Sadore located 45 km south of Niamey, capital of Niger. Six varieties of cowpea cultivars including three widely used varieties in Niger (TN3-78, TN5-78 and KVX) improved the variety obtained from IATA, Nigeria (V499). One variety imported from Ghana (Ghana) and a non-fixing variety obtained from ICRISAAT, Niger (IC10), were used in the study. The water application includes: (a) control in which the treatment is irrigated at field capacity (I1), (b) irrigation every three days (I2), (c) irrigation every five days (I3), and (d) irrigation every seven days (I4). Each treatment received a basal application of 10 kg ha-1 as 15N-labelled urea and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 as single superphosphate. Crop yield, N uptake and 15N in plant were measured and fertilizer N use and biological nitrogen fixation were estimated. Results showed that keeping the soil water content at field capacity through regular application of water increased cowpea grain yield in all five varieties

  7. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. PMID:26644460

  8. Effets de Boscia senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur l'volution des populations de bruches dans les systmes de stockage traditionnel de nib (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp en zone sahlienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumma, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on Bruchids Populations within Storage Traditional System of Cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Sahelian Area. Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic. (Coleoptera- Bruchidae and Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera-Bruchidae are, in Sahelian area, the most important pests of cowpea beans, (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Cowpea infestation by these two species of bruchids starts in the field at the beginning of the plant fruit bearing and continues during storages where damage can be high if no control action is taken. In this study, the impact of several introductions of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae, an insecticidal plant which is usually used by farmers in Niger, on the population dynamics of the two bruchids species in traditional cowpea storage system has been investigated. The results obtained from this study point out that bruchid populations are more important in the standard jars than in the one, which have received regular inputs of B. senegalensis. Thus, preservation action by regular inputs of B. senegalensis seems to be an efficient way to control bruchids in the cowpea traditional storage system.

  9. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

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    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  10. Mineralization of phosphorus from 32P-labelled cowpea residue added to soil in presence of growing maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to study mineralization of phosphorus from 32P labelled plant residue of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L.) in presence and absence of growing maize (Zea mays L.) plant both in P fertilized and unfertilized Fatehpur sand. The presence of growing maize plant led to a significant increase in net P mineralization from cowpea plant material in unfertilized and P fertilized soil from 10-day onwards. Phosphorus uptake was higher from the incorporated plant residue at each harvest on P fertilized soil than on non P fertilized soil. Net mineralization of P from added plant material after 40 days was 14.2 per cent in the P fertilized soil in presence of maize plant and 0.60 per cent in non P fertilized soil in absence of maize plant. In the absence of growing plant, immobilization of P added through plant residue commenced after initial 20 days of mineralization process. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. The influence of increased solar UV-B radiation on magnesium-deficient cowpea seedlings: Changes in the photosynthetic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of increased solar UV-B radiation on the photosynthetic characteristics in cowpea seedlings (Vigna ungniculata) grown at optimal (Mgs) and low (Mgd) Mg levels were studied. Both higher UV-B and Mgd treatments caused significant drops of photochemical activities and net CO2 uptake rates (PN). Yet the UV-B-induced decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency was lesser in Mgd seedlings. The leaf Chl a fluorescence measurements proved that after receiving an enhanced UV-B radiation these seedlings showed a significant enhancement in their variable parts

  12. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials. PMID:11234193

  13. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

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    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  14. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas nativas de sabana en Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3

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    Juliana Mayz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ttulo en ingls: Effectiveness of savannah native rhizobial strains in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3 Resumen Se estima que la poblacin mundial se incrementar y demandar mayor cantidad de alimentos y uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados. En Venezuela, el frijol es altamente consumido y se cultiva en las sabanas orientales, cuyas caractersticas edficas pueden afectar negativamente la poblacin rizobiana. Estos planteamientos refuerzan la importancia de la evaluacin de la flora rizobiana nativa, y enfatizan la necesidad de aumentar la explotacin de la fijacin biolgica de nitrgeno. En este contexto, se evaluaron 6 cepas rizobianas en el cultivar C4A-3, aisladas, de frijol cv. Tejero Criollo y previamente catalogadas como efectivas (JV91, JV94 y JV101 e inefectivas (JV99, JV103, y JV104 en el cultivar TC9-6. El experimento se llev a cabo en umbrculo por 45 das, donde adems se incluyeron dos tratamientos control no inoculados. La suspensin de las cepas individualmente cultivadas se us para inoculacin. De acuerdo con la tipologa de la nodulacin (nmero de ndulos, peso total y por ndulo, tamao y color, los valores de los parmetros de crecimiento (peso seco, altura y nmero de hojas del vstago y los estimados de la concentracin de nitrgeno y nitrgeno total, las cepas JV91, JV99 y JV101, fueron las ms efectivas en la fijacin de nitrgeno. El nitrgeno total y la concentracin de nitrgeno tuvieron una correlacin significativa con peso seco, altura y nmero de hojas del vstago. Los resultados muestran la existencia de cepas efectivas en los suelos de sabana para este cultivar, y enfatizan la importancia de evaluar las cepas indgenas, antes de proceder a la inoculacin con forneas. Palabras clave: Rhizobium; frijol; fijacin de nitrgeno; Venezuela. Abstract It is estimated that world-wide population will increase and demand higher amount of food and use of nitrogen fertilizer. In Venezuela, cowpea is highly consumed and is cultivated in eastern savannahs, whose soil characteristics may negatively affect rhizobial population. These expositions reinforce the importance of the evaluation of the native rhizobial flora and emphasize the necessity to increase the exploitation of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation. In this context, 6 rhizobial strains isolated from cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo non-inoculated and previously catalogued as effectives (JV91, JV94 y JV101 and ineffectives (JV99, JV103, y JV104 in cultivar TC9-6 were evaluated in the cultivar C4A-3. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse by 45 days, where in addition, two non-inoculated control treatments were included. Suspension of individually cultivated strains was used for inoculation. Accordingly with nodulation typology (nodule number, total dry weight and per nodule and colour, growth parameter values (shoot dry weight, height and leaves number and nitrogen concentration and total nitrogen estimates, the strains JV91, JV99 and JV101 were the most effective in nitrogen fixation. Total nitrogen and concentration correlated significantly with dry weight and height of shoots and leaves number. The results show the existence of effective strains in savannah soils for this cultivar, and emphasize the importance of evaluating the indigenous strains, before proceeding to inoculate with foreign strains. Key words: Rhizobium; cowpea; nitrogen fixation; Venezuela.

  15. Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  17. Organisation du pool gnique de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : croisements entre les formes sauvages et cultives du nib

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    Jean-Pierre Baudoin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization of the genic pool of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : crosses between the wild and cultivated forms of cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. gene pool organization is studied on the basis of intra-specific crossing between cultivated (cv-gr. Unguiculata, cv-gr. Biflora and wild forms of the species (var. spontanea, subsp. alba, subsp. stenophylla, subsp. pawekiae, subsp. baoulensis. The rate of crosses success, the rate of the obtained pods fruitfulness and the pollinic fertility of the hybrids F1 varied according to the wild taxa used. The highest rate of success was obtained for the crossings between cultivated and annual inbred form (40-79,3%. This result confirms that var. spontanea is genetically closer to the cultivated forms than the other wild forms. Crosses between cultivated and wild allo-autogamous forms gave intermediate rates of success (17,8-57,9% and a significant reduction of the pollinic fertility of some hybrids F1. These observations suggest the existence of a genetic divergence between these two groups, however they share the same gene pool. The wild allogamous forms gave the weakest rates of success with the cultivated forms (3,1-40% showing that they are genetically more distant of these last, compared to the other wild groups. The rates of crosses success are particularly weaker when the wild form subsp. baoulensis is crossed with the cultivated forms.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  19. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  20. Induction of an anionic peroxidase in cowpea leaves by exogenous salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Clberson F; Moraes, Vadjah C P; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jos T A

    2006-10-01

    Two isoperoxidases were detected in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves. Treatment of the primary leaves with 10mM salicylic acid increased the total peroxidase activity contributed by the anionic isoform. To isolate both the anionic and cationic peroxidases the leaf crude extract was loaded on a Superose 12 HR 10/30 column followed by chromatography on Mono-Q HR 5/5. Both enzymes were stable in a pH range from 5 to 7. The optimum-temperatures for the cationic and anionic peroxidase isoforms were, respectively, 20-30 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The dependence of guaiacol oxidation rate varying its concentration at constant H(2)O(2) concentration showed, for both enzymes, Michaelis-Menten-type kinetic. Apparent K(m)(s) were 0.8 and 4.8 microM for the cationic and anionic isoperoxidases, respectively. PMID:16971216

  1. Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos

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    José Albersio Araujo Lima

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC. The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminosa no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC: CPSMV-CE - o primeiro isolado do vírus obtido no Ceará; isolados obtidos de feijão-caupi: CPSMV-AL (Alagoas and CPSMV-PE (Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - isolado de soja (Glycine max no Paraná e CPSMV-CROT - isolado de Crotalaria paulinea no Maranhão. Um isolado de CPSMV capaz de infetar o cv. Macaibo, cultivar de ffeijão-caupi imune a todos os demais isolados de CPSMV foi biológica e sorologicamente caracterizado e designado de CPSMV-MC. O CPSMV-MC obtido em janeiro de 1990 vem sendo avaliado através de estudos de gama de hospedeiro e mantido in vivo através de inoculações periódicas em feijão-caupi. Os resultados dessas avaliações revelaram que a integridade biológica e as propriedades sorológicas do CPSMV-MC foram preservadas ao longo dos anos, indicando que a preservação das propriedades genéticas de uma estirpe viral pode acontecer através dos anos. Estudos moleculares adicionais revelaram que a seqüência de nucleotídeos correspondente a parte do gene da capa protéica de cinco isolados de CPSMV, incluindo o CPSMV-MC, possui elevado grau de conservação, com 92-100% da seqüência de nucleotídeos idêntica entre os isolados.

  2. Phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anthony E

    2012-01-01

    Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay, and fresh pea production. Strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought is available and should be incorporated. The extreme ability of extra-early erect cowpea cultivars to escape terminal drought should be exploited in zones with very short rainfall seasons. In zones with the possibility of limited rainfall in the middle of the growing season, resistance to mid-season drought, and the delayed-leaf-senescence trait can be valuable. Breeding for water-use efficiency, deeper rooting, and heat tolerance are discussed. Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Resistance to the organism causing ashy stem blight disease should be incorporated because this disease can destroy cowpea seedlings under hot, dry soil conditions. The value of varietal intercrops with contrasting types of cowpea cultivars in enhancing adaptation to drought is described. Implications of cowpea/cereal rotations for cowpea breeding are discussed. Breeding strategies for enhancing cowpea adaptation to drought are described. PMID:22654769

  3. Phytostabilization of mine waste: growth and physiological responses of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Shruti; Aery, N C

    2007-07-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out for phytoremediation of the Pb/Zn abandoned tailings (pH 3.2 and high metal content) of Rampura-Agucha Mines, Rajasthan. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea) was chosen as a test crop. On unamended tailings, the seeds of the test plant showed no germination. The tailing was amended with lime (3% on weight basis), 3% lime + NPK (diammonium phosphate at 60 kg/ha, muriate of potash at 40 kg/ ha) and 3% lime + FYM at 15 t/ha and used for experiments. Quantification of various parameters viz. shoot-root length, shoot-root dry weight, chlorophyll contents (a', 'b' and total) and peroxidase activity of test crop revealed T+ S + 3% lime + NPK to be the most suitable amelioration followed by FYM. The above treatments helped in improving the growth and productivity of the test plants by providing a favorable environment. PMID:18380090

  4. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  5. Salt stress in cowpea plants on biofertilized soil = Estresse salino em plantas de feijão-caupi em solo com fertilizantes orgânicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa; Thales Vinícius de Araújo Viana; Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda; Benito Moreira de Azevedo; Giovana Lopes da Silva; Fellype Rodrigo Barroso Costa

    2014-01-01

    The use of organic fertilizer from animal waste can mitigate the harmful effects of salinity of irrigation water on the plants. This experiment was performed in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Weather Station (Estação Meteorológica), from September to November 2012, aiming at evaluate the response of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) to salinity levels and biofertilizer types in a greenhouse. The experimental design was that of completely randomized, 5x3 f...

  6. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golo, Patrcia S; Gardner, Dale R; Grilley, Michelle M; Takemoto, Jon Y; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Pires, Marcus S; Fernandes, verton K K; Bittencourt, Vnia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken) cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918) did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods. PMID:25127450

  7. Response of Cowpea Plants Grown Under Salinity Stress to PK-Foliar Applications

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    Mahmoud M. Shaaban

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre to study the effect of two doses (50 and 100 mg L-1 of PK foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 on leaf nutrient concentrations and growth parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. grown under two diluted Mediterranean seawater levels (3.0, 6.0 dS m-1 in the irrigation water in addition to tap water (0.4 dS m-1 as control. Diluted seawater as irrigation led to significant decreases of macro and micronutrients concentrations in the leaves of cowpea plants. Plant height, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights were also negatively affected with high significance (p0.05 as the plants irrigated with saline water. PK-foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 could increase P, K and other macro- and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves of the salt-stressed plants. The most effective dose was the 100 mg L-1 K2PO3 with the lower salinity level (3.0 dS m-1. Making the plants more tolerant to salinity stress, PK-foliar fertilization could improve plant growth parameters and increase plant heights, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights.

  8. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  9. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  10. Phenotyping Cowpeas for Adaptation to Drought

    OpenAIRE

    AnthonyHall

    2012-01-01

    Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay, and fresh pea production. Strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought is available and should be incorporated. The extreme ability of extra-early erect cowpea cultivars to escape terminal drought should be exploited in zones with ver...

  11. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  12. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T A; Mitchell, C A

    1996-05-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288. PMID:11539355

  13. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

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    E.A. Akinrinde

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0 with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contrasting (Al-resistant and Al-susceptible cowpea genotypes, Epace 10 (E10 and Santo Inacio (SI were studied at 0 and 0 μM Al. Root elongation was followed over the first 96 h of Al treatment and during the initial 48 hours elongation was determined daily. In addition, exudation of carboxylates in apical root zone and modifications of rhizoplane pH by the two genotypes were compared in hydroponics` culture experiments that involved +/-Al treatments at mild (14 days and severe (21 days phosphorus (P limitation stages. Differential genotypic responses were further evaluated in a rhizobox experiment, using an acidic Aerenosol from West Africa (Niger with low expression of Al toxicity. Strong Al-induced inhibition of root growth occurred at 20 μM Al without genotypic difference, suggesting the need to further test genotypic differences at lower concentrations. Under P limitation, E10 exhibited a stronger expression (relative to SI of root induced chemical changes (increased rhizoplane pH and citrate exudation in apical root zone to counteract Al toxicity. Therefore, genotypic differences in performance of E10 and SI on acid mineral soils may be associated with different expression of Al tolerance mechanisms, particularly under conditions of limited P supply.

  14. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  15. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  16. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  17. Resistncia de gentipos de feijo-de-corda ao pulgo-preto Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeft Ferreira da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistncia de gentipos de feijo-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata ao pulgo-preto (Aphis craccivora. Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetao, na Universidade Federal do Cear. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos gentipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhum, Joo Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranho, Pitiba, Quarenta Dias, Serid, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgo-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os gentipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistncia provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O gentipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetvel ao pulgo-preto.The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora. Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Cear, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhum, Joo Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranho, Pitiba, Quarenta Dias, Serid, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

  18. Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

  19. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  20. How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

  1. Ocorrncia de vrus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Serto da Paraba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraba, Brazil

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    Aurivan Soares de Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrncia de vrus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, foram realizadas visitas de inspeo a campos de produo dos municpios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas tpicos de mosaico e deformao foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto contra anti-soros especficos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difuso em gar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no municpio de Pombal na poca chuvosa foram submetidas deteco molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR para Begomovirus. A ocorrncia de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produo dos trs municpios visitados nas duas pocas de cultivo analisadas, em infeces simples e mistas. A presena de vrus do gnero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais sero necessrios para a identificao da espcie. CMV no foi detectado em nenhum dos municpios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

  2. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

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    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  3. Efficacy of wild plant in combination with microbial antagonists for the control of root rot fungi on mungbean and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work was carried out to investigate the efficacy of Aerva javanica in combination with different microbial antagonists namely Rhizobium meliloti, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger. Soil amended with A. javanica stem, leaves, flower powder at the rate1% w/w and seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were coated with microbial antagonists for the control of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn. Infection of M. phaseolina and R. solani were completely suppressed when seeds were coated with P. aeruginosa, T. harzianum, A. niger, R. meliloti and A. javanica leaves powder mixed in soil at the rate 1% w/w. All antagonists showed reduction in combination with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate1% but T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa in combination with A. javanica leaves showed promising results in complete reduction of R. solani and M. phaseolina on both crops. All growth parameters were maximum when soil was amended with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate 1% w/w and seeds were coated with T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa. (author)

  4. Field performance of new cowpea cultivars inoculated with efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains in the Brazilian Semiarid

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    Rita de Cássia Nunes Marinho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains to grain yield of new cowpea cultivars, indicated for cultivation in the Brazilian Semiarid region, in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley. Two experiments were set up at the irrigated perimeters of Mandacaru (Juazeiro, state of Bahia and Bebedouro (Petrolina, state of Pernambuco. The treatments consisted of single inoculation of five rhizobial strains - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp., and BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae -, besides a treatment with nitrogen and a control without inoculation or N application. The following cowpea cultivars were evaluated: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó, and BRS Acauã. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. Inoculated plants showed similar grain yield to the one observed with plants fertilized with 80 kg ha-1 N. The cultivars BRS Tapaihum and BRS Pujante stood out in grain yield and protein contents when inoculated, showing their potential for cultivation in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley.

  5. Impact of Different Salts in Soaking Water on the Cooking Time, Texture and Physical Parameters of Cowpeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vila, Bianca Pio; Santos Dos Santos, Magda; Nicoletti, Anglica Markus; Alves, Gabriela Dutra; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Monks, Jander; Gularte, Mrcia Arocha

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of modern life has led consumers to seek convenience and speed in food preparation, but storage, which is often prolonged, can result in grain hardening, leading to higher energy consumption during preparation, grain with increased hardness is often discarded. Due to the increasing global demand for grain, the use of alternative techniques aimed at reducing grain waste is necessary. Therefore, we studied a method that meets consumer demand and results in better use of harvested grain. The beans studied were cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata) of the BRS Guariba cultivar after 1 and 12months of storage. Sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were added to soaking water at different concentrations as a way to reduce cooking time. These beans were placed in soaking water for 12h at 3 concentrations (0, 1.0 and 2.5%). The cowpeas soaked in water containing NaHCO3 presented the highest hydration coefficient, which increased with the salt concentration; these beans also had decreased hardness, chewiness and cooking time. PMID:26249219

  6. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

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    Bruno Lima Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen. Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154 yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9 CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  7. Roots and leaves display contrasting oxidative response during salt stress and recovery in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Fabio Rossi; Lima, Joo Paulo Matos Santos; Ferreira-Silva, Srgio Luiz; Vigas, Ricardo Almeida; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we compare some antioxidative responses of leaves and roots associated to growth reduction in cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata) during short-term salt stress and recovery. The salt treatment was imposed (200 mM NaCl) for six consecutive days and the salt withdrawal after 3 d. The salt treatment caused an almost complete cessation in the relative growth rate of both leaves and roots. Although NaCl withdrawal has induced an intense reduction in the Na(+) content from the leaves and roots, the growth recovery was slight, after 3 d. The leaf lipid peroxidation was increased in salt-stressed plants and slightly reduced in recovered plants after 3 d. Surprisingly, in the salt-stressed roots it decreased markedly after 3 d treatment and in the pre-stressed/recovered roots it was restored to levels near to the control. In leaves, catalase (CAT) activity showed a rapid and prominent decrease after 1 d of NaCl treatment and salt withdrawal had no effect on its recovery. In contrast, the root CAT activity was not changed by effects of both NaCl and salt withdrawal, over time interval. Leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not change in all treatments, whereas in roots it significantly decreased after 3 d of salt treatment and recovered after NaCl withdrawal. Contrasting to the other enzymes, the guaiacol-peroxidase activity increased in leaves and roots, reaching almost 200% of control values and it significantly decreased in both organs from the pre-stressed/recovered plants. In conclusion, cowpea roots and leaves present distinct mechanisms of response to lipid peroxidation and CAT and SOD activities during salt stress and recovery. However, these responses and/or the oxidative damages caused by reactive oxygen species were not related with the growth reduction. PMID:16690169

  8. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

    2008-01-01

    greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

  9. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  10. Effect of manganese toxicity on the proteome of the leaf apoplast in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht-Christoffers, Marion M; Braun, Hans-Peter; Lemaitre-Guillier, Christelle; VanDorsselaer, Alain; Horst, Walter J

    2003-12-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) supply causes formation of visible brown depositions in the cell walls of leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), which consist of oxidized Mn and oxidized phenols. Because oxidation of Mn and phenolic compounds in the leaf apoplast was proposed to be catalyzed by apoplastic peroxidases (PODs), induction of these enzymes by Mn excess was investigated. POD activity increased upon prolonged Mn treatment in the leaf tissue. Simultaneously, a significant increase in the concentration of soluble apoplastic proteins in "apoplastic washing fluid" was observed. The identity of the released proteins was systematically characterized by analysis of the apoplast proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Some of the identified proteins exhibit sequence identity to acidic PODs from other plants. Several other proteins show homologies to pathogenesis-related proteins, e.g. glucanase, chitinase, and thaumatin-like proteins. Because pathogenesis-related-like proteins are known to be induced by various other abiotic and biotic stresses, a specific physiological role of these proteins in response to excess Mn supply remains to be established. The specific role of apoplastic PODs in the response of plants to Mn stress is discussed. PMID:14605229

  11. Effect of salicylic acid on morphological and biochemical attributes in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A; Anand, A; Dubey, A

    2007-04-01

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination, seedling growth, flowering and biochemical activities were studied out in four cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes in control environments. The results revealed that both germination and seedling growth were negatively affected by 0.02%. SA application, however did not affect the size of full expanded buds, time of 50% flowering and date of flower initiation. A maximum increase in peroxidase (EC1.11.1.7) activity was observed in UPC 4200 over other genotypes. No significant change in the content of total soluble and intercellular fluid proteins was observed except in UPC 4200 genotype. SA induced accumulation of total soluble sugars more at flowering stage than at seed setting stage. It is evident from the present study that UPC 4200 genotype was more responsive to salicylic acid both in terms of increased peroxidase activity and less negative effect on morphological attributes, thus suggesting its wider use without negative impact on environment as salicylic acid has been reported in plants. PMID:17915749

  12. Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Rose

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

  13. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea, a major crop in Oklahoma, is produced for the fresh market and canning industry. Synthetic preemergence and postemergence herbicides are the primary weed control method in conventional (non-organic) production systems. Organic weed control in organic cowpea production includes obstacles wh...

  14. Perodo de convivncia das plantas daninhas com cultivares de feijo-caupi em vrzea no Amazonas Weed coexistence with cowpea cultivars in the Amazonas floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.S. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar o perodo de convivncia das plantas daninhas com trs cultivares de feijo-caupi (Vigna unguiculata em solo de vrzea no Estado do Amazonas. A semeadura do feijo-caupi foi em outubro de 2007 no sistema convencional. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repeties. As parcelas foram constitudas por 11 perodos de convivncia entre o feijo-caupi e as plantas daninhas: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias aps sua semeadura; depois desses perodos, as plantas daninhas foram eliminadas semanalmente por capina. Nas subparcelas foram colocados os cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN V69 e BR8 Caldeiro. A interferncia das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijo-caupi reduziu o estande final, o nmero de vagens por planta e o peso de mil gros. A produtividade dos cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 Caldeiro e BR IPEAN V69 foi reduzida em 59,78, 68,18 e 90,18%, respectivamente. O perodo anterior interferncia foi de 0 a 5 dias aps a semeadura para o cultivar BR IPEAN V69, enquanto para os cultivares BR8 Caldeiro e EV x 91-2E-2 foi de at 6 e 7 DAS, respectivamente.This study aimed to determine the period of weed coexistence with three cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata in the lowlands of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Cowpea was sown in October 2007 under the conventional system. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications in split-plots. The plots consisted of eleven periods of weed coexistence with cowpea at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 days after sowing. Following these periods, weeds were manually removed every week. The cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN BR8 V69, and BR8 Caldeiro were located in the split-plots. The interference of the weeds throughout the cowpea life cycle reduced final stand, number of pods per plant, and weight of 1,000 grains. The productivity of cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 BR8 Caldeiro and BR IPEAN V69 was reduced by 59, 78, 68.18 and 90.18%, respectively. The period before interference was from 0 to 5 days after sowing for cultivar BR IPEAN V69, and from 0 to 6 and 71 days for cultivars BR8 Caldeiro and EV x 91-2E-2, respectively.

  15. Attempts to Improve the Method of Screening Cowpea Germplasm for Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of visual symptom screening for cowpea plants in field plots improved screening for Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus (BICMV)-resistance. However, the method failed to improve the speed or accuracy of screening for Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)-resistance. Plants that displayed few visual virus sympt...

  16. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Thillo, M. van

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  17. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  18. Efectos del Manejo de Suelos de Laderas en Hongos Formadores de Micorrizas Arbusculares y en Bacterias Fijadoras de Nitrgeno en Ultisoles Sujetos a erosin pluvial en la Amazonia Peruana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro O, Ruiz; Charles B, Davey.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un ensayo de vivero se evalu la colonizacin con micorrizas arbusculares y la nodulacin, en plantas de frejol caup (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) en suelos de ladera bajo cultivos en callejones (alley-cropping), cultivos continuos con bajos insumos, bosque secundario y suelo sin cobertura, a los [...] 5, 15, 30 y 45 das despus de la germinacin de la semilla (DDGS). La colonizacin micorrcica y la nodulacin presentaron una gran variacin en los estados iniciales del crecimiento de las plantas de caup a pesar de que ninguno de los sistemas estudiados recibieron fertilizacin fosfatada. A niveles similares y bajos de disponibilidad de fsforo en el suelo, en suelos diferentes, altos niveles de colonizacin micorrcica (sistema de cultivos continuos con bajos insumos) pueden ser ventajosos para el crecimiento de la planta y la nodulacin. La nodulacin estuvo ausente en las plantas de caup que crecieron en el suelo de bosque secundario probablemente debido al efecto represivo de altos niveles de nitrgeno en el suelo o a la falta de rizobios para esta especie. En el suelo sin cobertura, las plantas de caup tuvieron niveles muy bajos de colonizacin micorrcica. La formacin de ndulos fue esencialmente nula, probablemente debido a los efectos de la prdida de suelo por las lluvias. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de reintroducir los microorganismos del suelo como parte de programas de recuperacin de suelos y/o revegetacin de reas severamente alteradas como los taludes de carreteras, derechos de va de gasoductos y oleoductos, reas expuestas por actividad minera y otras. Abstract in english Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp) plants growing in soils under alley-cropping, low-input continuous cropping, secondary forest, and bare soil on a slope were evaluated at 5, 15, 30 and 45 days after seed germination (DASG) under greenhouse condi [...] tions. Mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpeas differed greatly at their early growth stages in spite that any of the systems studied received phosphorus fertilizers. At similar low levels of soil available phosphorus in different soils, high levels of mycorrhizal colonization (low-input continuous cropping system) may be advantageous for plant growth and nodulation. Nodulation was absent in cowpeas growing in the secondary forest soil probably due to repressing effects of high levels of nitrogen in soil or to the lack of rhizobia for cowpeas. In the bare soil plot, cowpeas had a very low level of mycorrhizal colonization. Nodule formation was essentially zero, probably as effects of soil loss due to rainfall. Results obtained suggest the need for re-introduction of soil microorganisms for revegetation and land reclamation programs in severely disturbed soils like road banks, gas and oil pipelines, mining exposed areas, and others.

  19. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle O.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

  20. The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

  1. Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author)

  2. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped redundant clones together and illustrated that the SSHscreen plots are a useful tool for choosing anonymous clones for sequencing, since redundant clones cluster together on the enrichment ratio plots. Conclusions We developed the SSHscreen-SSHdb software pipeline, which greatly facilitates gene discovery using suppression subtractive hybridization by improving the selection of clones for sequencing after screening the library on a small number of microarrays. Annotation of the sequence information and collaboration was further enhanced through a web-based SSHdb database, and we illustrated this through identification of drought responsive genes from cowpea, which can now be investigated in gene function studies. SSH is a popular and powerful gene discovery tool, and therefore this pipeline will have application for gene discovery in any biological system, particularly non-model organisms. SSHscreen 2.0.1 and a link to SSHdb are available from http://microarray.up.ac.za/SSHscreen.

  3. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  4. Molecular Interactions during the assembly of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Vriend, G.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of 1 H- and 13 C- NMR, EPR, ST-EPR and calculational methods to study cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. This virus consists of RNA encapsidated by 180 identical protein subunits, arranged icosahedrally. The isolated coat protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus can be brougth into several well defined states of aggregation. This study could be carried out, because these stages can be produced in quantities sufficient to allow magnetic resonance measurements....

  5. The role of hydrogen peroxide-producing and hydrogen peroxide-consuming peroxidases in the leaf apoplast of cowpea in manganese tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht-Christoffers, Marion Maria; Fhrs, Hendrik; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2006-04-01

    The apoplast is considered the leaf compartment decisive for manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Particularly apoplastic peroxidases (PODs) were proposed to be key enzymes in Mn toxicity-induced processes. The presented work focuses on the characterization of the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing (NADH peroxidase) and H2O2-consuming peroxidase (guaiacol POD) in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) of leaves for early stages of Mn toxicity and genotypic differences in Mn tolerance of cowpea. Leaf AWF of the Mn-sensitive cultivar (cv) TVu 91 but not of the Mn-tolerant cv 1987 showed an increase of guaiacol-POD and NADH-peroxidase activities at elevated AWF Mn concentrations. two-dimensional resolutions of AWF proteins revealed that cv TVu 91 expressed more and additional proteins at high Mn treatment, whereas Mn-tolerant cv TVu 1987 remained nearly unaffected. In both cultivars, NADH-peroxidase activity and accompanied H2O2 formation rate in vitro were significantly affected by Mn2+, p-coumaric acid, and metabolites occurring in the AWF. The total phenol concentration in the AWF was indicative of advanced stages of Mn toxicity but was rather unrelated to early stages of Mn toxicity and genotypic differences in Mn tolerance. The NADH oxidation by AWF PODs was significantly delayed or enhanced in the presence of the protein-free AWF from cv TVu 1987 or cv TVu 91, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of AWF indicates the presence of phenols in cv TVu 1987 not observed in cv TVu 91. We conclude from our studies that the H2O2-producing NADH peroxidase and its modulation by stimulating or inhibiting phenolic compounds in the leaf apoplast play a major role for Mn toxicity and Mn tolerance in cowpea. PMID:16489137

  6. Caracterizacin de cepas de rhizobium y bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulacin) seleccionados de los cultivos de frjol caupi (vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinculos

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadrado, Bernarda; Rubio, Guillermo; Santos, Winston

    2010-01-01

    Los suelos de Latinoamrica son cidos y deficientes en nitrgeno; por esta razn es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulacin y fijar el nitrgeno en las plantas leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opcin con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analiz la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del frjol Vigna unguiculata (frjol caup...

  7. Characterization of leaf apoplastic peroxidases and metabolites in Vigna unguiculata in response to toxic manganese supply and silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fhrs, Hendrik; Gtze, Stefanie; Specht, Andr; Erban, Alexander; Gallien, Sbastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Kopka, Joachim; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggested that the apoplastic phenol composition and its interaction with apoplastic class III peroxidases (PODs) are decisive in the development or avoidance of manganese (Mn) toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). This study characterizes apoplastic PODs with particular emphasis on the activities of specific isoenzymes and their modulation by phenols in the Mn-sensitive cowpea cultivar TVu 91 as affected by Mn and silicon (Si) supply. Si reduced Mn-induced toxicity symptoms without affecting the Mn uptake. Blue Native-PAGE combined with Nano-LC-MS/MS allowed identification of a range of POD isoenzymes in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF). In Si-treated plants Mn-mediated induction of POD activity was delayed. Four POD isoenzymes eluted from the BN gels catalysed both H(2)O(2)-consuming and H(2)O(2)-producing activity with pH optima at 6.5 and 5.5, respectively. Four phenols enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity of these isoenzymes in the presence of Mn(2+) (p-coumaric=vanillic>benzoic>ferulic acid). p-Coumaric acid-enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity was inhibited by ferulic acid (50%) and five other phenols (50-90%). An independent component analysis (ICA) of the total and apoplastic GC-MS-based metabolome profile showed that Mn, Si supply, and the AWF fraction (AWF(H(2)O), AWF(NaCl)) significantly changed the metabolite composition. Extracting non-polar metabolites from the AWF allowed the identification of phenols. Predominantly NADH-peroxidase activity-inhibiting ferulic acid appeared to be down-regulated in Mn-sensitive (+Mn, -Si) and up-regulated in Mn-tolerant (+Si) leaf tissue. The results presented here support the previously hypothesized role of apoplastic NADH-peroxidase and its activity-modulating phenols in Mn toxicity and Si-enhanced Mn tolerance. PMID:19286915

  8. Physiological response of cowpea seeds to salinity stress Resposta fisiológica de sementes de feijão caupi ao estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara França Dantas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp seeds submitted to salt stress. Seeds of cultivars 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' and 'Pitiúba' of cowpea, were submitted to germination test in germinator at 25(0C, in "germitest" papers imbibed in distilled water or in 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200mol m-3 NaCl solutions. At the first and second counting of the germination test, normal seedlings were accounted, weighted and dried, obtaining data for vigor, total germination, fresh matter weight and dry matter weight. The seedlings hypocotyls, root and total length were measured total proteins content in cotyledons were obtained from germinating seeds. The presence of salt at concentrations higher than 50mol m-3 NaCl affect the germination, seedlings growth and cotyledons total protein synthesis of all cowpea cultivars. The seeds of cultivar pitiúba were is more tolerant to salinity, than the cultivars Canapu and Epace-10.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de três cultivares de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp ao estresse salino. As sementes das cultivares 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' e 'Pitiúba' foram submetidas ao teste de germinação em germinador a 25(0C, em papel "germitest" embebido em água destilada ou em soluções de NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 10, 50, 100 e 200mol m-3. Na primeira e segunda contagem do teste de germinação, as plântulas normais foram contadas, pesadas e secadas, obtendo-se dados de vigor, germinação, massa de matéria fresca e massa de matéria seca. O comprimento do hipocótilo, raiz e total foram medidos e o teor de proteínas totais nos cotilédones foi obtido em plântulas de 3, 5 e 8 dias. As concentrações de NaCl acima da 50mol m-3 afetam a germinação e o vigor das sementes, crescimento de plântulas, bem como a síntese de proteínas totais. As sementes da cultivar Pitiúba são mais tolerantes à salinidade do que as cultivares Canapu e Epace-10.

  9. Nmero de repeties para avaliao de caracteres em gentipos de feijo-caupi / Number of replicates for the evaluation of characters in cowpea genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Eduardo, Torres; Edvaldo, Sagrilo; Paulo Eduardo, Teodoro; Larissa Pereira, Ribeiro; Alberto, Cargnelutti Filho.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o nmero de medies (repeties) necessrio para avaliar caracteres de gentipos de feijo-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Vinte gentipos de feijo-caupi de porte ereto e vinte de porte semiprostrado foram avaliados no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, em seis e qua [...] tro ensaios, respectivamente. Os dez ensaios foram conduzidos no delineamento blocos ao acaso, com quatro repeties. Foram mensurados os caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de gros por vagem, nmero de gros por vagem, massa de cem gros e produtividade de gros. Foram verificados os pressupostos do modelo matemtico, realizada a anlise de varincia, estimado o coeficiente de repetibilidade e calculado o nmero de repeties. Ensaios com quatro repeties identificam gentipos superiores de feijo-caupi em relao aos caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de gros por vagem, nmero de gros por vagem, massa de cem gros e produtividade de gros, com, respectivamente, 84,57, 75,62, 73,14, 75,25, 81,53 e 79,19% de exatido no prognstico de seu valor real. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the number of measurements (replicates) necessary to predict the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. Twenty genotypes of cowpea to growth habit erect and twenty semi-prostrate were carried out in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in six a [...] nd four trials, respectively. It was conducted ten trials in randomized complete blocks design with four replicates. The character length of pod, weight of pod, weight of grains per pod, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred grains and grain yield were measured. Assumptions of the mathematical model were examined, analysis of variance was performed, the repeatability coefficient was estimated and the number of replicates was calculated. Trials with four replicates identify superior cowpea genotypes in relation to length of pod, weight of pod, weight of grains per pod, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred grains and grain yield characters, with, respectively, 84.57, 75.62, 73.14, 75.25, 81.53 and 79.19% accuracy of the true prognostic value.

  10. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts

  11. Development and evaluation of drought resistant mutant germplasm of Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Subterranea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project was to select cowpea and bambara groundnut plants with improved levels of drought resistance without alteration to the colour of the testa or the growth form. M2 to M5 generation plants were tested. The M2 to M4 plants were evaluated in the wooden boxes in the greenhouse and the field. Six cowpea mutant lines and seven bambara groundnut lines were included in a physiological screening experiment that was conducted in the greenhouse. One cowpea line exhibited high yield under watered conditions, and three under drought stress conditions. Three bambara groundnut mutants yielded more than the parent, and one showed relatively high yield under drought stress. It proved possible to examine mutant plants at the seedling stage in wooden boxes, mature plants were screened in rain-out shelter and physiological traits were distinguished among the tested lines for drought stress. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variation could be correlated with drought tolerance. Chlorophyll fluorescence was found to be a good predictor of plant performance in drought conditions. (author)

  12. Interspecific hybridization of Vigna radiata x 13 wild Vigna species for developing MYMV donar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandiyan , N.Senthil, N. Ramamoorthi, AR.Muthiah, N.Tomooka V.Duncan and T.Jayaraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek is having a desirable characters like short duration, high protein, less anti nutritionalfactors, nitrogen fixing capacity, suitable for inter cropping, making many kinds of foods for higher human consumption andcosmetics products and some of the undesirable characters like low yield, low test weight.The aim of the study is to checkcrossabil;ity of Vigna radiata with all wild Vigna species and to create variability through wide hybridization and to developsuperior segregants for yield component coupled with pest and disease resistance. The interspecific crosses were attemptedwith thirteen wild relatives of mungbean (V. radiata were employed with V. radiata as male parent. The highest pod set of25 and crossability of 21.92 per cent was recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata and lowest pod set of2.0 per cent recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. dalzelliana in the direct cross combinations. The highest pollengermination 69.72 per cent was recorded by V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata. The estimates of pollen fertility wassufficient enough to recover F2 segregants in all the crosses combination.For all the traits in majority of the crosses, In the F2generation the skewness was positive indicating that predominance of dominant alleles. Among the direct crosses V. radiatax V. mungo var. silvestris exhibited highest value for four characters viz., number of clusters per branch, number of clustersper plant, number of pods per plant and single plant yield. The cross V. umbellata x V. radiata showed better performancefor the characters viz., number of branches and number of clusters in reciprocal direction In advanced generation of Vignaradiata x Vigna umbellata cross combination has expressed virus resistance for nine seasons. The same line was tested byagro inoculation for confirmation of resistance and was resulted found effective resistance. This line can be used MYMVdonar. Conclusion of the studies are mungbean is highly compatible with other wild Vigna species. Donor development fordifferent stress is possible in mungbean.

  13. Preliminary studies on vigna unguiculata trypsin inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation on the presence of trypsin inhibitor in vigna unguiculata at three stages of ripeness, i.e. as young beans obtained from first harvest usually consumed as vegetable, seed from beans picked two weeks after the first harvest and seed from beans picked four weeks after the first harvest, has been carried out. The conclusion drawn from this experiment showed the existence of trypsin inhibitor at those stages of ripeness. It is found that the older the stage of ripeness the greater the specific activity of trypsin inhibitor. Evidently the heated extract loss its antitryptic activity progressively with increasing heatings periods. Extract heated on a water bath at a constant temperature of 78 deg C during 20, 40 and 60 minutes, loss its antitryptic activity of about 53, 78 and 96% respectively. (author)

  14. Alternative hosts of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in sesame (Sesamum indicum) crops grown in Paraguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis R., Gonzlez-Segnana; Arnaldo, Esquivel Faria; Diego D., Gonzlez; Ana Paula O. A., Mello; Jorge A. M., Rezende; Elliot W., Kitajima.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production in Paraguay has been severely affected by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), which causes a disease known locally as ka'are. Because very little is known about the epidemiology of this disease, a survey was performed in fields surrounding a [...] ffected sesame plantations to identify CABMV-infected plants that may be acting as sources of inoculum. Samples from 48 plant species (symptomatic or asymptomatic, mostly spontaneous and a few cultivated) belonging to 17 families were evaluated by biological and serological assays. In a few select cases, confirmation of the infection was achieved by RT-PCR. The following species were found to be naturally infected by CABMV: Amaranthus hybridus, Arachis hypogaea, Crotalaria incana, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata. The absence of resistant/tolerant sesame cultivars along with the ineffectiveness of disease control through the chemical control of aphid vectors indicates that the only alternative available for disease management at present is the elimination and/or reduction of the sources of inoculum immediately before starting new plantations.

  15. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition. PMID:23768187

  16. Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Sartorato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris. Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris. Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

  17. Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P2O5/ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Effect of Rhizobium Inoculants on Cowpea under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker P. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted under rainfed condition to study the effect of Rhizobium inoculation (with or without chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer ( 0 and 50-30-20 Kg ha -1 P2O5, K2O and S on cowpea. Two sources of biofertilizer were used. Biofertilizer showed significantly higher yield attributes and seed yield of cowpea as compared to control. Biofertilizer of BARI source gave the highest cowpea seed yield (880 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (658 Kg ha -1 was obtained without biofertilizer. No significant difference was found between the two sources of bio-fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer showed better performance than control in case of seed yield and all yield contributing characters of cowpea. Interaction of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer also showed statistically significant difference. PKS with biofertilizer of both BAU and BARI sources gave the highest seed yield (987 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (525 Kg ha -1 was obtained from control treatment. Though the highest average rate of return (4556% was found using biofertilizer of BARI source but on consideration of net return and also soil health, PKS with biofertilizer of BARI source where ARR was the second highest may be suggested for growing cowpea under rainfed condition.

  19. Studies on hybrid vigour and combining ability for seed yield and contributing characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ushakumari, N.Vairam, C.R. Anandakumar and N. Malini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The combining ability aids in better selection of parents besides elucidating the nature and magnitude of gene action. Heterosisand combining ability analysis were carried out in line x tester model using five lines viz., Kanakamany, Subadra, TC 49-1,Lola and Sarika and five testers viz., CO2, CO4, CO6, CO (CP 7 and VBN 1. The results reveled that TC 49-1, Lola, Sarika,VBN1, CO2 and CO (CP7 were found to be good general combiners for seed yield. Among the parents, TC 49-1, Lola andVBN1 were found good general combiners for days to 50% flowering, plant height, cluster / plant, pods, / plant, length of podand number of seeds / plant. The crosses Lola x VBN 1, Sarika x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO (CP 7 were the best specificcombination for grain yield. The two crosses Lola x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO 4 showed significant heterosis over the standardlatest variety CO (CP7 for seed / pod, cluster / plant, pods / plant and 50% flowering. The crosses TC 49-1 x CO 2 showedhigh heterosis over standard variety for plant height and clusters/plant. Hence, these hybrids can be utilized for commercialcultivation.

  20. Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina R Drago

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación. Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante altoIn the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nutrients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

  1. Respuesta fisiológica del Frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp) a la coinoculación de bacterias Diazotróficas de los géneros Azotobacter y Rhizobium en suelos del Departamento del Cesar

    OpenAIRE

    Obando Castellanos , Dolly Melissa

    2012-01-01

    El sector agropecuario ha sido uno de los principales motores del desarrollo económico del país (Proexport, 2011), con una superficie total agropecuaria estimada en 50'900.000 hectáreas, ocupando el renglón pecuario 39'100.000 hectáreas en su mayoría dedicadas a la ganadería, contribuyendo con 51% del PIB pecuario (Fedegan, 2010). En el contexto nacional, la región Caribe reviste un papel importante en el sector, con un inventario de 6,9 millones de cabezas, que generan el 38,7% de la leche y...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  3. Effect of radio frequency treatments on cowpea weevil adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, lentils and dried peas) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. Postharvest infestation by stored product insect pests such as the cowpea weevil may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically, chemical fumiga...

  4. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva de feijo-caupi de porte semiprostrado / Yield adaptability and stability of semi-prostrate cowpea genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michel Alves, Barros; Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha; Regina Lucia Ferreira, Gomes; Kaesel Jackson Damasceno e, Silva; Ado Cabral das, Neves.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade produtiva de gentipos de feijo-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) de porte semiprostrado. Foram avaliados 20 gentipos de feijo-caupi com uso do modelo de efeitos aditivos principais e interao multiplicativa (AMMI) com gentipo e am [...] biente suplementares. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em nove ambientes (Balsas, MA, 2010; Balsas, MA, 2011; Bom Jesus, PI, 2010; Bom Jesus, PI, 2011; So Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2010; So Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2011; So Joo do Piau, PI, 2011; Campo Grande do Piau, PI, 2011; Buriti, MA, 2011), da regio Meio-Norte do Brasil, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 20 tratamentos e quatro repeties. Os efeitos de gentipos, ambientes e da interao gentipo x ambiente foram significativos. Os gentipos diferiram quanto adaptabilidade e estabilidade da produtividade. A linhagem MNC03-736F-2 apresentou genes para adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva. Entre as cultivares avaliadas, BR 17-Gurguia e Pingo-de-Ouro-1-2 so as mais previsveis, e a BRS Xiquexique a mais adaptada. Entre os locais de teste, Balsas, MA, o mais adequado para a seleo de gentipos superiores em adaptabilidade e estabilidade produtiva. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield adaptability and stability of semi-prostrate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. Twenty cowpea genotypes were evaluated using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model with supplementary genotype and environment. The [...] trials were carried out in nine environments (Balsas, MA, 2010; Balsas, MA, 2011; Bom Jesus, PI, 2010; Bom Jesus, PI, 2011; So Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2010; So Raimundo das Mangabeiras, MA, 2011; So Joo do Piau, PI, 2011; Campo Grande do Piau, PI, 2011; Buriti, MA, 2011) of the Mid-North region of Brazil in a randomized complete block design with 20 treatments and four replicates. The effects of genotypes, environments, and genotype x environment interaction were significant. Genotypes differed as to yield adaptability and stability. The line MNC03-736F-2 presented genes for yield adaptability and stability. Among the evaluated genotypes, BR 17-Gurguia and Pingo-de-Ouro-1-2 are the most predictable, and BRS Xiquexique is the most adapted. Among the test sites, Balsas, MA is the most appropriate for selection of genotypes superior for yield adaptability and stability.

  5. Distribuio espacial do pulgo preto em feijo de corda e clculo do nmero de amostras / Spatial distribution of the cowpea aphid and calculation of the sample size

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeft Ferreira da, Silva; Ervino, Bleicher; Gleidson Vieira, Marques; Valria, Silva.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a disperso espacial do pulgo preto (Aphis craccivora Koch), na cultura de feijo de corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e estabelecer o nmero de amostras necessrias para a estimativa da populao da praga para o uso em programas de Manejo Integrado de Prag [...] as. Para isso, foram cultivados dois campos experimentais na Universidade Federal do Cear, em Fortaleza. O primeiro campo tinha uma rea de 216 m, composta de 15 parcelas. O segundo campo tinha uma rea de 576 m dividida em 25 parcelas. A cultivar utilizada foi a Vita 7 com plantas espaadas em 0,25 m x 0,8 m. Foram realizadas seis coletas de dados em cada campo onde foram avaliadas dez plantas por parcela. Foi contado o nmero de colnias de pulgo presentes em toda a planta. Os resultados obtidos nos ndices de agregao utilizados indicam que a disperso do A. craccivora no campo do tipo agregada o que foi confirmado pelo ajuste dos dados distribuio de frequncia Binomial Negativa. Quarenta e cinco o nmero de amostras adequado para a estimativa da populao de A. craccivora em campos de V. unguiculata para aplicao em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the spatial dispersion of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and to determine the sample size required to estimate the pest population, for use in Integrated Pest Management programs. In order to do this, two [...] field experiments were carried out at the Federal University of Cear in Fortaleza, Brazil. The first with an area of 216 m, consisting of 15 plots. The second with an area of 576 m divided into 25 plots. The cultivar "Vita 7" was used, with plants spaced 0.25 m x 0.8 m apart. Data were collected six times for each experiment, when ten plants per plot were evaluated. The total of aphid colonies present was counted for each plant. The results obtained from the clustering indices which were employed indicate that dispersion of A. craccivora in the field is of the aggregate type, which was confirmed by fitting the data to the negative binomial distribution of frequency. Forty-five is a suitable number of samples in the estimation of the population of A. craccivora in fields planted with V. Unguiculata, for use in integrated pest management programs.

  6. Rendimento produtivo e econmico do feijo-caupi em funo de doses de potssio Productive and economic yield of cowpea bean as a function of levels of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O feijo-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp], tambm conhecido como feijo-macassar, feijo-de-corda ou fradinho uma das principais culturas do Nordeste do Brasil. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da adubao potssica sobre o rendimento produtivo e econmico do feijo-caupi, cultivar Pitiuba. O trabalho foi realizado na Universidade Federal da Paraba, em Areia (PB, em Neossolo Regoltico Psamtico tpico, no perodo de julho a setembro de 2005. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 kg ha-1 de K2O e quatro repeties. Cada parcela continha 40 plantas espaadas de 0,80 m x 0,40 m. A produo mxima de vagens por planta (285 g de gros verdes (143 g e de gros secos (120 g foram obtidas, respectivamente, com 160, 153 e 200 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de 210, 151 e 170 kg ha-1 de K2O, respectivamente, foram responsveis pelas produtividades mximas de 4,18 t ha-1 de vagens, 3,48 t ha-1 de gros verdes e de 1,89 t ha-1 de gros secos. A dose de mxima eficincia econmica para a produtividade de gros secos foi de 141 kg ha-1 de K2O, com produtividade de 1,87 t ha-1.Cowpea bean [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp] is one the main crops in the Northeast region of Brazil. With the objective of evaluating the effect of potassium fertilization on cowpea bean cv. Pitiba, an experiment was carried out at Federal University of Paraba, in Areia (PB, Brazil, on a Quartz Psamment soil, from July to September 2005. The experimental design was the randomized blocks, with six treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg ha-1 K2O, and four replications. Each plot contained 40 plants spaced 0.80 m x 0.40 m. The maximum yield of pods per plant (285 g, green grains (143 g and dry grains (120 g were obtained with 160, 153 and 200 kg ha-1 K2O, respectively. The levels of 210, 151, and 170 kg ha-1 K2O were responsible for the maximum yields of 4.18 t ha-1 of pods, 3.48 t ha-1 of green grains, and 1.89 t ha-1 of dry grains, respectively. The maximum level of economical efficiency for the yield of dry grains was 141 kg ha-1 K2O, with a yield of 1.87 t ha-1.

  7. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  8. Possible Involvement of Phage-Like Structures in Antagonism of Cowpea Rhizobia by Rhizobium trifolii

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, M. V.; Desai, J D; Desai, A J

    1985-01-01

    A reduction in the viability of cowpea rhizobia was observed when Rhizobium trifolii IARI and cowpea Rhizobium strain 3824 were inoculated together in soil. The reduction in number of cowpea rhizobia in soil was found to be associated with the reduction in number of nodules per plant and retardation in plant growth. An antimicrobial substance was isolated from R. trifolii which, on electron microscopic investigation, demonstrated the presence of several phage-like structures.

  9. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezezika Obidimma C; Daar Abdallah S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Nigeria, Africas most populous country, has been the worlds largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (BioCassava Plus). Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricu...

  10. Influence de différents traitements de prégermination des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. sur les performances germinatives et la tolérance au stress hydrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucelha, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different pre-germination treatments of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds on germination performance and water stress tolerance. Description of the subject. Priming or hardening is a pregermination treatment. This treatment consists of incorporating an osmotic seed treatment (osmopriming or a hormonal (hormopriming and/or a redehydration (hydropriming treatment. The approach allows the elimination of dormancy, homogenization (synchronization of germination, better growth, earlier flowering and a tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. In this kind of treatment, the seed is soaked and then dehydrated before radicle breakthrough, i.e. during the reversible phase of germination. Thus, the seed can return to its initial stage without any damage. Objectives. In this paper, we aimed to study the consequences of hydropriming and osmopriming (by PEG6000 at 10 and 30% on cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata, on germination performance and on the water stress tolerance of plants from these seeds. Method. Vigna unguiculata seeds were hydroprimed, hydroprimed twice or osmoprimed (with PEG6000 10 and 30%. For each treatment, germination performance (germination capacity, speed and the water stress tolerance of the plants were studied. Results. Results showed that increased hardness of the seed allowed a faster, more uniform germination and better growth of both the radicle and aerial parts. We also demonstrated that a double redehydration was more effective in improving these parameters. Conclusions. Application of these pretreatments, adapted according to the plant species, will has the capacity to improve seed germination and crop yield, as well as tolerance to water deficit.

  11. EFFECTS OF INCLUSION OF LOCAL PEPPER POWDER OR SALT TO COWPEA SEEDS DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    OGORI, A. F.; OMONIYI, S. A.; Samuel, E

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of inclusion of local pepper powder and salt admixture on cowpea seeds during storage. One gram of pepper powder was added to two kilograms (kg) of cowpea seeds and packaged inside bagco® bag, also one gram of pepper powder with one gram of salt were added to two kilogram of cowpea seeds and packaged inside bagco® bag while two kilograms of cowpea seeds only was packaged inside bagco® bag and serves as a control for aforementioned two samples. The three sampl...

  12. Macronutrientes em caupi cultivado sob duas doses de fósforo em diferentes épocas de plantio Macronutrients in cowpea cultivated under two doses of phosphorus and different planting times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Parry

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de aprimorar o efeito do sistema de preparo do solo sobre a nutrição do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. diante de alterações ambientais causadas por diferentes épocas de semeadura. O estudo foi conduzido em campo experimental em Igarapé-Açu, PA, no qual se testaram quatro épocas de semeadura e duas adubações em blocos ao acaso e parcelas subdivididas. A avaliação do estado nutricional das plantas de caupi se deu na própria colheita, quando então se determinaram as concentrações de macronutrientes nas plantas (folhas e ramos, vagens e grãos; nas plantas e nas vagens, as maiores concentrações observadas foram de K, N e Ca e, nos grãos, de N, K e P; por outro lado, as concentrações dos nutrientes foram afetadas pelas épocas de semeadura sem que este fato impedisse a observação de concentrações consideradas adequadas nas plantas e grãos de caupi para a maioria dos nutrientes avaliados. A adubação com maior quantidade de P aumentou as concentrações da maioria dos nutrientes nas diferentes partes da planta.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the soil preparation system on the nutrition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. due to environmental alterations caused by different planting times. The study was conducted in an experimental field in Igarapé-Açu, Pará. Four planting times and two fertilizations were tested, in randomized blocks and subdivided plots. The evaluation of the nutritional state of the cowpea crop was accomplished at the harvest. The macronutrient concentrations in the plants, green beans and in the grains were determined. In the plants and in the green beans, the largest observed concentrations were of K, N and Ca, while in the grains they were of N, K and P. The concentrations of the nutrients were affected significantly by the planting times, but this did not impede the observation of concentrations considered appropriate in the plants and cowpea grains for most of the appraised nutrients. The manuring with larger doses of P significantly increased the concentrations of most of the nutrients in the different parts of the plant.

  13. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  14. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado no estudo. As seis populações (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 foram avaliadas num experimento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, em Teresina - PI; o plantio foi realizado em março de 1998. Os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram variâncias fenotípica, genética total, genética aditiva e dos desvios de dominância e devido aos efeitos do ambiente, herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito, grau médio de dominância e número dos genes que controlam o caráter. O modelo aditivo - dominante ajustou-se aos dados do peso de 100 sementes, visto que a média e o efeito gênico aditivo foram os parâmetros genéticos mais importantes na determinação desse caráter. O número dos genes que controlam sua expressão é cinco. A ocorrência de alto valor para a herdabilidade no sentido restrito indicou que a seleção para o tamanho da semente pode ser realizada em gerações segregantes iniciais.

  15. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, a new species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayajirao Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  16. Caracterizacin de tres nuevas variedades de vignas (IPA 206 e IPA 207 y Guariba en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Aguila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La investigacin se desarroll sobre un suelo Pardo mullido medianamente lavado con las variedades de vignas (IPA 206, IPA 207 y Guariba de reciente introduccin en nuestro pas. Tiene como principal objetivo caracterizar las variedades (IPA 206, IPA 207 y Guariba bajo nuestras condiciones climticas. Teniendo como principales resultados que se logr incluir en el registro de variedades segn la caracterizacin desarrollada por nuestro instituto utilizando dos pocas de siembra, el hbitos de crecimiento indeterminado con vainas distribuidas por toda la planta se destaca en las variedades IPA 206 e IPA 207, mientras que en la Guariba es determinado encontrndose estas distribuidas por encima de la planta, en cuanto al rendimiento, la variedad IPA 207 es superiores que la obtenida por la 'PA 206 y Guariba, el peso de 1000 semillas en las variedades Guariba y IPA 206 son superiores al peso de la IPA 207, la variedad Guariba es econmicamente ms rentable que las IPA 206 y IPA 207 por emplear un nmero de cosechas muy inferior a las antes mencionadas. Puede sembrarse durante todas las pocas del ao, pero lo ms aconsejable es en poca de fro para la obtencin de semilla y el verano para la produccin donde es ms productiva y puede sustituir al frjol comn. Tolera estrs hdrico y rgimen de abundantes lluvias, excepto en el momento de la cosecha y no admite el encharcamiento. Characterization of three new varieties vignas (' IPA 206' and ' IPA 207' y 'Guariba' in Cuba. ABSTRACT The research was conducted on a fairly soft Brown soil washing vignas varieties ('IPA 206', 'IPA 207' and 'Guariba' recently introduced in our country. Its main objective is to characterize varieties ('IPA 206,' IPA 207 'and' Guariba ' under our climatic conditions. Having as main results achieved include in the record as the characterization of varieties developed by our institute using two seasons, the indeterminate growth habit with pods distributed throughout the plant stands in the varieties' IPA 206 'and' IPA 207 ', while the' Guariba 'is determined by finding these distributed over the plant, as regards the yield, the variety' IPA 207 'is higher than that obtained by PA 206''' and 'Guariba', the weight of 1000 seed varieties 'Guariba' and 'IPA 206' are greater than the weight of the 'IPA 207', the variety 'Guariba' is economically more profitable than the 'IPA 206' and 'IPA 207' by employing a number crop much lower than those above. It can be sown during all seasons, but it is best in cold weather to obtain seed and summer to produce where it is more productive and can replace the common bean. Tolerate wate

  17. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Junzeng; Peng Shizhang; Luo Yufeng; Jiao Xiyun

    2008-01-01

    With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001) and cowpea (2004) crop evapotranspiration (ETc) in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the tempe...

  18. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  19. Mobilization of a Sym plasmid from a fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, N.A.; Cen, Y H; Chen, H.C.; Plazinski, J; Ridge, R; Rolfe, B G

    1984-01-01

    A large Sym plasmid from a fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium species was made mobilizable by cointegration with plasmid pSUP1011, which carries the oriT region of RP4. This mobilizable Sym plasmid was transferred to a number of Rhizobium strains, in which nodulation and nitrogen fixation functions for symbiosis with plants of the cowpea group were expressed.

  20. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  1. The Genetics of Domestication of the Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the bas...

  2. Efeito da temperatura na germinao de sementes de vigna, feijoeiro e soja / Effect of temperature on germination of vigna, bean and soybean seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.R.C., Castro; A., Archila; F.F.A., Aguiar; M.de, Almeida.

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em condies controladas, o efeito das temperaturas de 14, 21 e 28C na germinao de trs cultivares de Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris e Glycine max. As sementes foram acondicionadas em placas de Petri com algodo e papel de filtro , mantidos sob alta umidade. Maior germinao foi [...] observada a 21C em relao as temperaturas de 14 e 28C, para os cultivares de vigna, feijoeiro e soja. Melhor germinao foi apresentada pelos cultivares de feijoeiro Carioca e Goiano Precoce, seguidos pelo feijoeiro 'Rosinha' , vigna ' EPACE 1' e soja 'Davis' a 21C. Os cultivares de vigna, adaptados a altas temperaturas, apresentaram problemas na germinao a 14C. Normalmente a velocidade de emergncia do hipoclito revelou-se inferior a velocidade de emergncia da radcula. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to study the effects of the temperatures of 14, 21 and 28C on germination of three cultivars of Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max. The seeds where germinated on Petri dishes provided with cotton and filter paper, maintained in incubator with high [...] humidity. The Petri dishes were maintained under controlled temperature conditions. Higher germination was observed at 21C in relation to temperatures of 14 and 28C, for Vigna, bean and soybean cultivars. Best germination were showed by 'Carioca' and 'Goiano Precoce' beans,followed by 'Rosinha' bean, 'EPACE 1' Vigna and 'Davis' soybean at 21C. Vigna cultivars adapted to high temperatures presented problems for germination at 14C. Normaly velocity of hypocotyl emergence was lower tham velocity of radicle emergence.

  3. Cowpea mosaic virus: the plant virus-based biotechnology workhorse

    OpenAIRE

    Sainsbury, F.; Cañizares, M.C.; Lomonossoff, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    In the 50 years since it was first described, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has become one of the most intensely studied plant viruses. Research in the past 15 to 20 years has shifted from studying the underlying genetics and structure of the virus to focusing on ways in which it can be exploited in biotechnology. This work led first to the use of virus particles to present peptides, then to the creation of a variety of replicating virus vectors and finally to the development of a highly efficie...

  4. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  5. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  6. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Especificidade hospedeira de variantes Bradyrhizobium spp em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu Host specificity of Bradyrhizobium spp mutants in soybean (cultivars peking and clark, cowpea and pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabola Gomes de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A expanso da cultura da soja evidenciou uma alta especificidade hospedeira, requerendo a pesquisa de novas estirpes que apresentassem capacidade de nodular a soja e bom potencial de competio com a populao de rizbios naturalizada nos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a especificidade hospedeira de variantes isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp quanto nodulao e eficincia relativa de fixao de N2 atmosfrico em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu. O experimento foi realizado sob condies controladas em cmara de crescimento por meio de testes de variantes de B. japonicum e B. elkanii e suas respectivas estirpes originais quanto habilidade de nodular soja, caupi e guandu. A colheita foi realizada aos 35 dias, sendo avaliada a nodulao (nmero, peso dos ndulos secos, produo de matria seca na parte area, eficincia relativa de fixao de N2 atmosfrico. Os variantes e estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp nodularam Glycine max (cultivares BR-16, Clark e Peking, Vigna unguiculata e Cajanus cajan, contudo, apenas para Glycine max a interao rizbio-leguminosa demonstrou eficincia simbitica significativa.The expansion of the soybean crop has evidenced a high host specificity, indicating the requirement of new strains with capacity of nodulating soybean and competition capacity with the natural soil rhizobial population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the host specificity of mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains in relation to nodulation and relative N2 fixation effectiveness in soybean (cultivars Peking and Clark, cowpea and pigeon pea. The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, where B. japonicum and B. elkanii mutants and the respective original strains were tested for their nodulation ability on soybean, cowpea and pigeon pea. The crop was harvested 35 days after planting and the nodulation (number, dry nodule weight, shoot dry matter production and relative N2 fixation effectiveness were evaluated. The mutants and strains of Bradyrhizobium spp nodulate Glycine max (cultivars BR-16, Clark and Peking, Vigna unguiculata and Cajanus cajan, however the interaction rhizobia-leguminous demonstrated significant symbiotic effectiveness for Glycine max only.

  8. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaji; R Vanitharani; A S Karthikeyan; S Anbalagan; K Veluthambi

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5′-TGTATCGGTGT-3′) iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5′-ATCGGTGT-3′) had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMV-Vig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  9. Resposta do feijo-caupi as lminas de irrigao e as doses de fsforo no cerrado de Roraima / Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela Almeida, Oliveira; Wellington Farias, Arajo; Pablo Lima Souza, Cruz; Washington Luis Manduca da, Silva; Gilvan Barbosa, Ferreira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do feijo-caupi (Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walp.) cv. BRS Novaera sob quatro lminas de gua (273; 257; 241 e 187 mm) e doses de fsforo (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados na forma de superfosfato triplo), em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento [...] experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repeties. As parcelas foram constitudas pelas lminas de gua e as sub parcelas pelas doses de fsforo, resultando em 16 tratamentos. A irrigao foi realizada por um sistema convencional de asperso, montado no campo segundo o sistema de "asperso em linha". As massas seca da parte area e de 100 gros foram influenciadas significativamente pela interao entre lminas de gua e doses de fsforo, enquanto o nmero de gros por vagem e o comprimento da vagem foram influenciados somente pelas doses de fsforo. A dose de mxima eficincia econmica foi de 89,45 kg de P2O5, com produtividade de 1.306 kg ha-1. Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation depth and phosphate fertilizer (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5) on yield and production components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cv. Novaera at the Savanna of Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was arranged in a completely [...] randomized block in split-plot and four replications. Irrigation depths were applied through a sprinkler line source system. The principal treatments constituted on the depths of irrigation and the secondary treatments by the phosphate fertilizer. Significant effects (p

  10. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  11. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africas most populous country, has been the worlds largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (BioCassava Plus. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  12. Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador B Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

  13. Eficincia da farinha desengordurada de gergelim como complemento protico da farinha extrudada de caupi1 Efficiency of defatted sesame flour as a proteic supplement of extruded cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Arraes Maia

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi promover uma avaliao nutricional da mistura protica desengordurada, obtida do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L., com a farinha extrudada do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, utilizando-se mtodos fsicos, bioqumicos, nutricionais e sensoriais. Usando-se semente integral do gergelim, com 54,08% de leo e 21,83% de protena, obteve-se a semente descascada com baixa concentrao de oxalatos, que foi usada para a produo de farinha desengordurada de gergelim (FDG contendo 2,81% de leo e 59,16% de protena. A principal caracterstica desta farinha foi sua alta concentrao de aminocidos sulfurados (30,88 mg/g protena. Esta FDG foi usada como complemento da protena da farinha do caupi obtida pelo processo de cozimento por extruso (FEC, o que ocasionou a inativao de grande parte dos inibidores de tripsina. A protena da farinha FEC mostrou uma concentrao de 24,29%, um baixo contedo de aminocidos sulfurados (17,22 mg/g protena e alto teor de lisina (58,47 mg/g protena. O alimento formulado foi considerado de boa qualidade nutricional.The purpuse of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and organoleptic efficiency of the defatted proteic mixture obtained from gergelim, with extruded flour from cowpea beans, using physical, biochemical, nutritional and sensory methods. Using integral sesame seed, with 54.08% of oil and 21.83% of protein, the dehusked seed with low concentration of oxalates, that was used in the production of defatted sesame flour (FDG with 2.81% of oil and 59.16% of protein was obtained. The main characteristic of the flour was the high concentration of sulphur amino acids (30.88 mg/g protein. The FDG was used as a complement of the protein of the cowpea flour obtained through a extrusion cooking process (FEC which inactivated the major part of the trypsin inhibitors. The protein of the flour (FEC presented a concentration of 24.29%, a low content of sulfur amino acids (17.22 mg/g protein and a high lysin content (58.47 mg/g protein. The formulated food was considered of good nutritional quality.

  14. Allelopathic effect of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf leachate of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L. The effects of leachate on germination, radicle length, plumule length, protein content and cell division in root tip meristems of seedlings of Vigna were studied. The seeds of mungbean were soaked with leaf leachate of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations for 4h. Bioassay indicated that there was dose-dependent inhibition of germination and seedling growth. Protein content was found to be reduced by the leachate of different concentrations as compared with control. The study also revealed that antioxidative enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities increased with the increase in concentration of aqueous leaf leachate. Mitotic activity in root-tip cells of mungbean was found to be reduced and the impact was dose-dependent. However, chromosomal abnormalities, viz. fragment, precocious separation, sticky chromosome, disturbed metaphase and bridge were found to be increased with increasing concentrations of leachate.

  15. The genetic diversity of the Vigna angularis complex in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xu Xiao; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Wang, Xin Wang; Han, Ouk Kyu; Vaughan, Duncan

    2003-08-01

    A selected set of accessions of components of the azuki bean (Vigna angularis) complex comprising 123 cultivated accessions and 23 wild or weedy accessions from Bhutan, China (including Taiwan), India, Japan, Korea, and Nepal was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methodology. Using 12 AFLP primer pairs, 580 unambiguous bands were generated, 313 (53.9%) of which were polymorphic among azuki bean accessions. All 580 bands were used to assess phenotypic (band) and genetic (nucleotide) diversity among the 146 azuki bean accessions. The results indicate five major groups of azuki bean germplasm primarily associated with geographic origin of accessions and their status: wild, weedy, or cultivated. These five groups are (i) Himalayan wild, (ii) Nepal-Bhutan cultivated, (iii) Chinese wild, (iv) Taiwan wild - Bhutan cultivated, and (v) northeast Asian accessions. Within the northeast Asian accessions, three subgroups are present. These consist of (v1) Japanese complex - Korean cultivated, (v2) Japanese cultivated, and (v3) Chinese cultivated accessions. The results suggest domestication of azuki bean occurred at least twice, once in the Himalayan region of southern Asia and once in northeast Asia. The remarkable diversity of azuki bean germplasm in the Himalayan region compared with other regions suggests this is a rich source of germplasm for plant breeding. The results suggest there are important gaps in the germplasm collections of azuki bean and its close relatives from various parts of Asia and that specific collecting missions for Vigna germplasm related to azuki bean in the highlands of subtropical Asia are needed. PMID:12897872

  16. Templated mineralization by charge-modified cowpea mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Evans, David J

    2014-01-01

    Templated mineralization of virus particles provides routes to narrowly dispersed nanoparticles that are not readily prepared by other means. The templated mineralization of metal or metal oxide on the external surface of wild-type cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, is facilitated by increasing the external surface negative charge. This is achieved by the chemical modification of surface lysine groups by succinic anhydride. Hence, for example, treatment of charge-modified CPMV succinamate with a 1:2 mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) salts, followed by raising the pH to 10.2, led to the formation of narrowly dispersed, CPMV-templated, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. PMID:24243242

  17. Development and performance evaluation of a cowpea harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ojomo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A cowpea harvester was designed, constructed and evaluated for its performance. The machine was fabricated with high carbon steel with an output capacity of 120kg/h. The performance of the harvester was evaluated at two crop moisture content 15.17% and 17.47% and two main shaft speeds of 540 rpm and 1000 rpm. At moisture content of 15.17% and machine speed 540rpm, the machine exhibits the highest functional efficiency of 93.75%, quality performance efficiency of 81.21%, field loss of 3.4% and shattered loss of 6.66%. The machine is statically and dynamically stable hence able to withstand vibration.

  18. Reação de genótipos de Vigna unguiculata à sarna e efeito da doença sobre componentes de produção Reaction of Vigna unguiculata genotypes to scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO D. BARRETO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Elsinoe phaseoli, agente causal da sarna, tem sido responsável por sérios prejuízos aos produtores de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata, em particular, nos cultivos que se estabelecem em regiões montanhosas e na época das chuvas, no Ceará. O presente trabalho objetivou, além de identificar fontes de resistência à sarna, avaliar os efeitos da doença sobre o rendimento agrícola e seus componentes, a qualidade do grão e o ciclo da cultura. Num ensaio delineado em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, instalado em Tianguá, CE, sob regime de irrigação e em sequeiro, por dois anos: 1995 e 1996, 16 genótipos foram avaliados quanto a variáveis relacionadas ao ciclo, rendimento de grãos e sintomas de sarna. Procederam-se análises quanto à variância, comparações entre médias dos tratamentos, correlação e regressão. Constatou-se que as plantas suscetíveis à sarna sofrem seus efeitos negativos sobre ciclo e produção de grãos; as cultivares e linhagens avaliadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto à reação à doença. A cultivar EPACE V-96, pela produtividade, precocidade e grau de resistência à sarna, é a mais indicada como genitor, visando o melhoramento genético do feijão-de-corda para o ambiente da Ibiapaba, CE.The fungus Elsinoe phaseoli is the scab agent and has been causing serious damages to the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, crop, mainly in the rainy period of Ceara State's mountainous areas. The present work aimed to identify genetic resistance sources and to evaluate the disease effects on the yield and its components, the quality of the grain and the crop cycle. To do this, in 1995 and 1996, 16 genotypes were evaluated in two experiments. One at the rainy period as a rain-fed crop and the other at the dry period as a irrigated crop, in a randomized experimental design with four replications in Tianguá County, State of Ceará. Based on statistical analysis and evaluation of the variances, comparing the treatment averages, the correlation and the regression, it was verified that: in the scab susceptible plants both the cycle and the yield are negatively affected by the disease; all evaluated genotypes have variability in relation to the disease reaction; and the EPACE V-96 cultivar performed better and so can be utilized as parental in a breeding program.

  19. Herança da inflorescência composta da cultivar de feijão-caupi cacheado Inheritance of composite inflorescence of cowpea cacheado cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Fátima Machado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] apresenta inflorescência simples. Entretanto, foram identificados dois genes mutantes recessivos ci e bp que condicionam a produção de inflorescência composta na espécie. Essa característica também foi constatada na cultivar local Cacheado. Objetiva-se com este trabalho determinar o controle genético dessa característica. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos Freezergreen x Cacheado e Bettegreen x Cacheado. Os cruzamentos e a obtenção das gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos, com ambos parentais, foram realizados em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento de campo foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi representada por uma fileira de 10,0 m, com espaçamento entre fileiras de 0,80 m e dentro da fileira de 0,50 m, sendo cultivada uma planta por cova. Esse experimento foi conduzido sob irrigação por aspersão convencional, na Embrapa Meio-Norte, em Teresina, Piauí, nos anos 1998/1999. O teste de chi2 foi usado para a análise dos dados. As segregações das gerações F2 se ajustaram à proporção de 3 inflorescências simples: 1 inflorescência composta e as dos retrocruzamentos com o parental Cacheado à proporção de 1 inflorescência simples: 1 inflorescência composta. A partir desses resultados depreende-se que a inflorescência composta presente na cultivar cacheado tem herança monogênica recessiva.Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] presents simple inflorescence. However, two recessive mutant genes ci and bp that produce composite inflorescence were identified in cowpea. This characteristic was also observed in the brazillian local cultivar Cacheado. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic control of the composite inflorescence of Cacheado Cultivar. Two crosses were performed Freezergreen x Cacheado and Bettegreen x Cacheado. The crosses and the F1, F2 and the backcrosses were obtained in greenhouse. In the field trial the randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Each plot was represented by a row of 10 m long with 20 plants. The spacing between rows was of the 0,80 m. The experiment was carried out in the field, under irrigation by conventional aspersion at Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina city, Piauí Statate, the years of 1998 and 1999. The Qui Square test was used to analyse the data. The segregation pattern in both F2 generations fitted the 3 simple inflorescences: 1 composite inflorescence ratio and the backcrosses to the Cacheado cultivar fitted the 1 simple inflorescence: 1 composite inflorescence ratio. The inheritance study showed that composite inflorescence of the Cacheado cultivar is controlled by a single recessive gene.

  20. Deficincia nutricional em plntulas de feijo-de-corda decorrente da omisso de macro e micronutrientes Nutritional deficiency in cowpea seedlings due to omission of macro and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijo-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiba uma importante cultura nos mbitos econmico e social do Nordeste do Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Cear, que considerado o maior produtor desta regio. Com a finalidade de caracterizar os sintomas de deficincias nutricionais em plntulas de feijo-de-corda, as sementes foram semeadas em areia exaustivamente lavada e, aps um perodo de cinco dias, as plntulas foram transferidas para uma soluo nutritiva completa para o perodo de aclimatao. Aps trs dias, as plntulas foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos. O experimento teve os seguintes tratamentos: soluo nutritiva completa (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S e micronutrientes e omisso individual de cada elemento -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B; -Fe, bem como ausncia de aerao. Os sintomas das deficincias foram observados, caracterizados e registrados por fotografias. No final do experimento, as medidas de comprimento e os teores de matrias fresca e seca das razes e parte area das plntulas foram analisados. Todos os macros e micronutrientes causaram sintomas de deficincia e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plntulas. Os sintomas foram desenvolvidos primeiramente em plntulas com carncia em Fe, Ca e N. A matria seca total foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com ausncia de nutrientes. A ausncia de Ca, N e Fe foi responsvel por uma maior reduo da biomassa. A ordem decrescente de reduo foi a seguinte: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aerao > B > Completo.The Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiba is an important crop in the economic and social contexts in the Northeast of Brazil, especially in the state of Cear, which is considered the largest producer of this region. With the purpose of characterizing the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in Cowpea seedlings, the seeds were sowed in washed sand and, after a period of five days, the seedlings were transferred for a complete nutrient solution for the period of acclimatization. After three days, the seedlings were submitted to the different treatments. The experiment had the following treatments: complete nutrient solution (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S and micronutrients and individual omission of each element -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B, -Fe and -aeration. The symptoms of the deficiencies were observed, characterized and registered by pictures. In the end of the experiment, the length measures and the fresh and dry matters of the root and shoot of the seedlings were analyzed. All macro and micronutrients caused deficiency symptoms and they affected the development of the seedlings. The symptoms were developed firstly in seedlings with failure in Fe, Ca and N. The total dry matter was reduced in all the treatments with absence of nutrients, but the absence of Ca, N and Fe were responsible for the larger reduction of biomass. The decreasing order of reduction was: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeration > B > Complete.

  1. Natrum mur 200c promotes seed germination and increases total protein, chlorophyll, rubisco and sugar in early seedlings of cowpea under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Sukul (nee Chunari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High level of salinity deteriorates seed germination, growth and yield of crops in cultivated lands all over the world. There is no effective remedy to mitigate this global problem. Homeopathy offers a remedy like Natrum mur which at ultra high dilution ameliorates diseases of patients having strong desire for salt consumption. The purpose of the present study is to see whether potentized Natrum mur could alleviate salt stress in germinating seeds of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Methods: Water-soaked seeds were kept over moist filter paper in covered petridishes which were divided into 5 groups: (1 unstressed and untreated control in sterile distilled water, (2 in 100mM sodium chloride solution, (3 seeds pretreated with Natrum mur 200c and then kept in sterile distilled water, (4 seeds pretreated with Natrum mur 200c and then transferred to 100mM NaCl solution and (5 seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol. Both Natrum mur 200 c and its diluent medium 90% ethanol were diluted with distilled water 1:100 before use for treatment. Results: Natrum mur 200c increased the rate of seed germination, seed water content and growth of seedlings. The drug also enhanced chlorophyll, soluble and insoluble sugar, rubisco and total protein content as compared to the untreated salt stressed group. Treatment with Natrum mur 200c increased salt tolerance in the seedlings as compared to the untreated salt stressed group. All the data were analyzed by ANOVA and the significance level was not less than 1%. Conclusion: Natrum mur 200c reversed the effects of salt stress in germinated seeds thereby providing evidence for Hahnemann’s similia principle in plants. Potentized Natrum mur could be safely used with profit on plants grown on brackish soil.

  2. Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  3. Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders

    OpenAIRE

    F.A. Ajayi; H.U. Wintola

    2006-01-01

    Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP), West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn), clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Percy), Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn.) A. Rich), Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum) and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. Ex G. Donf.) were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1...

  4. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2012-05-01

    A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase. PMID:22044136

  5. Salt stress in cowpea plants on biofertilized soil = Estresse salino em plantas de feijo-caupi em solo com fertilizantes orgnicos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizer from animal waste can mitigate the harmful effects of salinity of irrigation water on the plants. This experiment was performed in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal do Cear, Weather Station (Estao Meteorolgica, from September to November 2012, aiming at evaluate the response of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. to salinity levels and biofertilizer types in a greenhouse. The experimental design was that of completely randomized, 5x3 factorialwith five replications. The first factor consisted of electrical conductivity of irrigation water levels, as follows: 0.8 dS m-1; 1.5 dS m-1; 3.0 dS m-1; 4.5 dS m-1 and 6.0 dS m-1; and the second factor comprised three conditions: without biofertilizers (B0, with enriched crabbio fertilizer (B1 and with bovine common biofertilizer (B3. The evaluated variables were: photosynthesis, leaf temperature, transpiration, stomatal conductance, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, and shoot dry mass. The crab enriched biofertilizer more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants with biofertilizer and biofertilizer bovine common. The biofertilizer of crab enriched more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants without biofertilizer and bovine common biofertilizer. = O uso de fertilizantes orgnicos provenientes de resduos de origem animal pode atenuar os efeitos danosos da salinidade da gua de irrigao sobre as plantas. Um experimento foi conduzido na rea experimental da Estao Agrometeorolgica da Universidade Federal do Cear, Fortaleza, Cear, no perodo de setembro a novembro de 2012, objetivando-se avaliar a resposta do feijo-caupi a nveis de salinidade, sem e com dois tipos de biofertilizantes em casa de vegetao. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x3, com cinco repeties. O primeiro fator consistiu dosnveis de condutividade eltrica da gua de irrigao, sendo:0,8 dS m-1; 1,5 dS m-1; 3,0 dS m-1; 4,5 dS m-1 e 6,0 dS m-1; e o segundo fator compreendeu trs condies: sem biofertilizante (B0, com biofertilizante de caranguejo enriquecido (B1 e com biofertilizante bovino comum (B3. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variveis: fotossntese, temperatura da folha, transpirao, condutncia estomtica, altura de plantas, dimetro do caule, rea foliar e matria seca da parte area. O biofertilizante de caranguejo enriquecido atenua com mais eficincia o estresse salino sobre a altura das plantas, dimetro do caule, nmero de folhas, rea foliar, fotossntese, transpirao e condutncia estomtica do feijo-caupi cultivar BRS ITAIM em relao s plantas sem biofertilizante e com biofertilizante bovino comum.

  6. Cross species amplification of Adzuki Bean derived microsatellite markers in Asian Vigna species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srimathy and P. Jayamani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vigna is one of the important genus of grain legumes which forms the source of dietary protein and seven species of thisgenus, are domesticated as food crops in Asia. In recent years, molecular marker technology has greatly accelerated breedingprograms for the improvement of various crops. Among the different DNA markers, microsatellite or simple sequencerepeats (SSRs are the markers of choice for various genetic studies due to their co-dominant nature, loci specificity and highreproducibility. To date, only few reports are available on isolation and development of microsatellite markers in some of theVigna species. Therefore, the available SSR markers from other Vigna species should be validated for their transferabilityand utility in those species in which they are unavailable. In the present study, a set of 40 microsatellite primers pairs derivedfrom adzuki bean (Vigna angularis were used to assess the transferability and tested for their ability to amplifymicrosatellite loci in different species of Asian Vigna. The materials for this study included eleven different genotypesbelonging to seven species of Asian Vigna such as V. mungo var silvestris, V. mungo, V.umbellata, V. trilobata, V.aconitifolia, V. radiata var sublobata and V. radiata. All the 40 SSR primer pairs showed cross species amplification andproduced a total of 158 alleles in the genotypes studied. The percentage of amplification varied for each species whichranged from 37.5% (V.trilobata-2 to 100% (V. mungo var silvestris and V.mungo, while others showed more than 50%amplification. Apart from amplification, sufficient levels of polymorphism were also observed between cultivated blackgramand greengram and their progenitors V. mungo var silvestris and V. radiata var sublobata respectively. These findingssuggest that microsatellite markers from adzuki bean could be used in genomic studies of other Vigna species and thus aid intheir improvement.

  7. Reação de cultivares de feijão-caupi à mela (Rhizoctonia solani em Roraima Reaction of cowpea cultivars to web blight (Rhizoctonia solani in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Lima Nechet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Em Roraima, uma das principais doenças que incidem na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é a mela causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação a esta doença de dez cultivares de feijão-caupi em área de cerrado em Roraima, em dois anos consecutivos. As cultivares de porte ereto utilizadas foram BRS-Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1, BR02-Bragança, Pitiúba, e as de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho. Os ensaios foram instalados em 2005 e 2006, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se, semanalmente, a porcentagem de área foliar lesionada para a obtenção da área baixo da curva de progresso da doença. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que os genótipos de porte prostrado apresentaram menor severidade do que os de porte ereto, indicando uma relação da arquitetura da planta com a resistência à mela. As cultivares de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho, e as de porte ereto, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba e BR03-Bragança, foram as mais resistentes à mela e podem ser recomendadas para áreas com histórico de incidência da doença.Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani is one of most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in the state of Roraima, Brazil. Web blight severity for ten cowpea cultivars was evaluated in Roraima in two consecutive years. The erect cowpea cultivars BRS-Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1, BR02-Bragança and Pitiúba, as well as the prostrate cultivars BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, were used. The experiment was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The percentage of diseased foliage was evaluated once a week and the data were used to calculate the area under the disease progress curve. Disease severity was lower on prostrate cultivars indicating a relationship between plant architecture and web blight resistance. The prostrate cultivars, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, and erect cultivars, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba and BR03-Bragança, were more resistant to web blight and can be recommended for planting in areas where the disease is known to occur.

  8. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João H. B. da C. Campos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC, no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA, o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba.This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI. The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

  9. Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 μg g-1; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 μg g-1. These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  10. Bayesian approach increases accuracy when selecting cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Dos Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Sagrilo, E; Corrêa, C C G; Silva, F A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify that a Bayesian approach could be used for the selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability, and the study also evaluated the efficiency of using informative and minimally informative a priori distributions. Six trials were conducted in randomized blocks, and the grain yield of 17 upright cowpea genotypes was assessed. To represent the minimally informative a priori distributions, a probability distribution with high variance was used, and a meta-analysis concept was adopted to represent the informative a priori distributions. Bayes factors were used to conduct comparisons between the a priori distributions. The Bayesian approach was effective for selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability using the Eberhart and Russell method. Bayes factors indicated that the use of informative a priori distributions provided more accurate results than minimally informative a priori distributions. PMID:26985961

  11. Cowpea virus disease occurrence: implication for food security and sustainable development in Kwara State – Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu; Olusegun Samuel Balogun; Robert Omotayo Uddin II

    2013-01-01

    A virus disease survey was carried out between the months of October and November 2011, in thirty locations of the guinea savanna and rain forest agroecologies of Kwara State – Nigeria with the objective of evaluating the incidence and severity of cowpea viruses. The virus incidence (VI), on cowpea were estimated based on fifty plant observations per field and virus severity (VS), was scored on a scale of 1-5 based on the percentage number of leaves per plant showing virus symptoms. The resul...

  12. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Joseany Andrade Santos; Lus Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley Jos de Melo; Marcia Barreto do Vale Figueiredo; Rajeev Pratap Singh; Antnio Acio de Carvalho Bezerra; Ademir Srgio Ferreira de Arajo

    2011-01-01

    Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC) rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emerg...

  13. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  14. Differences Among Cowpea Rhizobia in Tolerance to High Temperature and Desiccation in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Osa-Afiana, L. O.; Alexander, Martin

    1982-01-01

    Strains of cowpea rhizobia grew in mannitol-amended, nonsterile soil at 29 to 35C but not at 40C. Little decline in numbers of these bacteria occurred in dry, nonsterile soil incubated at 42C for 7 days. Strains of cowpea rhizobia differed widely in their tolerances to drying at 30C in nonsterile and sterile soil, and from less than 1 to 50% of the bacteria were still viable after 11 days. No relation was evident between tolerance to desiccation and the degree of aridity of the site from ...

  15. Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin ?1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin ?1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin ?1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin ?1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin ?1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin ?1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin ?1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

  16. Palynological Studies on Some Nigerian Species of Vigna savi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Mbagwu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological studies on eight species of Vigna namely V. ambacensis, V. gracillis, V. racemosa, V. reticulata, V. subterranea, V. triloba, V. unguiculata and V. vexillata, was carried out. Observations from the investigation showed that the pollen grain is circular and psilate in V. reticulata, circular and echinate in V. unguiculata and V. racemosa, elliptic and monocolpate in V. ambacensis and V. vexillata, circular and polyporate in V. subterranea and circular and dicolpate in V. gracillis and V. triloba. The variation in pollen morphology showed that V. reticulata and V. subterranea can be separated from the rest of the taxa based on the shape and type of their pollen grains. Also V. unguiculata and V. racemosa, can be grouped together just as V. ambacensis and V. vexillata, V. gracillis and V. triloba based on each pair having the same shape and type of pollen grains, respectively. From this study, it is likely that the nature of pollen grains in these taxa could be an evolutionary modification often inherited to determine the mode of pollination and thereby perpetuate a particular group of plants in a given environment.

  17. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  18. The genetics of domestication of the azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A

    2008-02-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the basis of the linkage map having a pseudolinkage group and clustering of seed productivity-related QTL with large effect near the presumed breakpoints. In total, 162 QTL were identified for 46 domestication-related traits. Domestication of azuki bean has involved a trade-off between seed number and seed size: fewer but longer pods and fewer but larger seeds on plants with shorter stature in cultivated azuki bean being at the expense of overall seed yield. Genes found related to germination and flowering time in cultivated azuki bean may confer a selective advantage to the hybrid derivatives under some ecological conditions and may explain why azuki bean has evolved as a crop complex in Japan. PMID:18245368

  19. CHROMIUM INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chidambaram ، P. Sundaramoorthy ، A. Murugan ، K. Sankar Ganesh ، L. Baskaran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is known to be highly toxic to biological systems. This study was designed to determine the mutagenic effects of different concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of hexavalent chromium on root tip cells of blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper. The blackgram seeds were equi-spacially arranged in sterilized petriplates lined with filter paper and they were treated with different concentrations of chromium solution. In germination studies, the morphological growth parameters such as germination percentage, root length, shoot length fresh weight and dry weight of blackgram seedlings were decreased with increasing dose of chromium concentrations. No germination of blackgram seeds was recorded at 300mg/l chromium concentration. Chromosome aberration assay was used to determine the mitotic indices and rate of chromosome aberration in blackgram root tip cells due to chromium treatment. The results showed that the mitotic indices were complicated due to different concentrations of chromium. However, the increase in chromium concentration has led to a gradual increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberration and mitotic index. The chromosome length, absolute chromosome length and average chromosome lengths were gradually found to decrease. There was no considerable change in 2n number of chromosome with the increase in chromium concentrations. It is concluded that the hexavalent chromium has significant mutagenic effect on the root tip cells of blackgram.

  20. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 C and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 C, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 C.

  1. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Junzeng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001 and cowpea (2004 crop evapotranspiration (ETc in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the temperature inside the greenhouse and 20-cm pan evaporation outside, reaching its maximum value at the stage when plants’ growth was most active. Differences between the variation of crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation inside the greenhouse were caused by shading of the pan in the later period when the crops were taller than the location where the pan was installed, 70 cm above ground. The ratio of crop evapotranspiration to pan evaporation was not constant as reported in previous studies, and the variation of the inside ratio αin lagged behind that of the outside ratio αout. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration based on 20-cm pan evaporation inside the greenhouse is more reasonable than that based on 20-cm pan evaporation outside, although pan evaporation outside is more consistent with ETc than that inside. The value of αin, calculated based on air temperature, relative humidity, and ground temperature inside, plays a dominant role in the calculation of ETc. As the crop height increases, altering the location of the inside pan and placing it above the canopy, out of the shade, would help to achieve more reasonable values of crop evapotranspiration.

  2. Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Ileke; D. S. Bulus

    2012-01-01

    The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L), Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic) dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl. Both were able to cause 100% mortality of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 an...

  3. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  4. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseany Andrade Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emergence (DAE was greater in the TSC-amended than in the unamended soil. In the sandy soil, nodule dry weight increased with TSC application 45 DAE. In the clayey soil, 45 DAE, nodule dry weight decreased with TSC amendment levels greater than 7.5 t ha-1 compared to the unamended control. The application of TSC increased N accumulation in the cowpea plants. The results suggest that cowpea responds differently to TSC depending on the amendment rate and initial soil type.

  5. Compositional evaluation of some cowpea varieties and some under-utilized edible legumes in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A; Aladetimi, O O

    1989-01-01

    The nutritive potentials of some cowpea varieties such as Ife Brown, Ife Bimpe, IT84E-124, K59 and TVX716 and some under-utilized edible legumes grown in Nigeria such as pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), lablab bean (Dolichos lablab), mucuna bean (Mucuna sp.) and Sphenostilis sternocarpa have been evaluated with respect to their proximate chemical composition, mineral content and some endogenous toxic constituents. The cowpea varieties contained on the average 22.5 g crude protein (CP), 2.60 g crude fibre (CF), 5.89 g either extract (EE) and 3.36 g ash/100 g DM while the under-utilized legumes contained 21.7, 6.10, 2.86, and 3.56 g/100 g DM for CP, CF, EE and ash respectively. Distinct varietal differences were observed for EE values as indicated by the coefficients of variation (CV) of 102% for cowpea and 60.8% for the under-utilized legumes. The CF content of the under-utilized legumes were generally higher than those of the cowpea varieties. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in both the cowpea varieties and the under-utilized legumes with mean values of 1.45 and 1.66% respectively, while P was the least abundant with 13.1 and 8.50 ppm, respectively. There were marked intra-varietal differences in the P content as shown by the high CV of 84.0 and 73.9% for the cowpea varieties and the other legumes. The cowpea varieties generally had higher levels of thioglucosides, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and lower haemagglutinating activity (mean values of thioglucosides: 3.86%, of TIA: 13.9 mg/g protein and of haemagglutinating activity: 13.0 HU/mg N respectively), than the under-utilized legumes with mean respective values of 1.22%, 9.84 mg/g protein and 22.7 HU/mg N. The nutritional implications of these anti-nutritional components were discussed and some reasons adduced for the under-utilization of some of these legumes inspite of their apparent similarity in nutritional quality to the more commonly consumed grain legumes. PMID:2561305

  6. Efeito da varia??o de nveis de gua disponvel no solo sobre o crescimento e produo de feijo caupi, vagens e gros verdes Effect of different levels of available water in the soil on the growth and production of cowpea bean pods and green grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Tavares Nascimento

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da variao de nveis de gua disponvel no solo, sobre o crescimento e produo de vagens e gros verdes de feijo caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], cv. IPA 206. A produo de vagens e de gros verdes desta espcie uma excelente alternativa de comercializao para os agricultores do Nordeste do Brasil, visto que o seu consumo bastante significativo na regio. Instalou-se o experimento em vasos de 13 kg, em casa de vegetao na UFPB em Areia (PB, de agosto a dezembro de 2000. O delineamento estatstico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 4 tratamentos correspondentes aos nveis de gua disponvel do solo (40; 60; 80 e 100%, logo aps as irrigaes, com 6 repeties. Os resultados observados mostraram que o nvel crescente de dficit hdrico afetou drasticamente o desempenho desta cultivar em estudo em comparao testemunha. As maiores redues estimadas foram constatadas no comprimento da haste principal, 26 e 48%, no nmero de folha por planta, 23 e 35%, no nmero de vagens por planta, 32 e 49%, e na massa de vagens por planta, 23 e 30%, respectivamente para os nveis de 60 e 40% de gua disponvel do solo. Nas condies do experimento a cultivar de feijo caupi IPA 206 no tolera dficit hdrico acentuado.The effect of different levels of available water in the soil was evaluated on the growth and production of green pod and green beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp of cowpea, cv. IPA 206. Both forms of commercialization are excellent alternatives for farmers from the Northeast of Brazil. Plants were cultivated in 13 kg soil pots under green house conditions in Areia, Paraiba State, from August to December/2000. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with six replications and four treatments corresponding to 40; 60; 80 and 100% of available water in the soil, just after irrigations. The production was significantly affected by the deficit of water. Great reduction was observed in the length of the main stem (26 and 48%, in the number of leaves per plant (23 and 35%, in the number of pods per plant (32 and 49% and in the mass of pods per plant (23 and 30%, respectively, for the levels of 60 and 40% of available water in the soil. The production of green pod and green beans of cowpea cv. IPA 206 is greatly affected by deficit of water of 40 and 60%.

  7. Induced Mutagenesis in Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of viable morphological and physiological mutants were observed in M2 and M3 progenies of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) cultivars (Vaibhav and Kopargaon-1) raised from seeds treated with different concentrations of sodium azide, ethyl methane sulfonate and different doses of gamma radiation. The most striking type of mutants obtained in the M3 progeny included plant habit, leaf structure, flower type, pod type, seed type, early-maturing and high-yielding and Lhb mutants. Some of these mutants are new and are being reported for the first time in this crop. The true breeding mutant lines of M3 generation were compared with their parent cultivar (control) to assess whether the induced genetic variability was statistically significant. These mutants can be better fitted in new cropping patterns, with improved agronomic management and good yielding ability, or can be used in the genetic improvement of mungbean crop. Chemical mutagens were more efficient than physical ones in inducing viable and total number of mutations. Along with simple viable mutations, multiple mutagenic effects on two or more characters were also found in all the mutagenic treatments. Differences in the mutation frequency and spectrum depends on the interaction of three factors such as mutagen, plant genotype, and physiological state of the organism at the moment of treatment. The Kopargaon-1 cultivar was more resistant towards mutagenic treatment than Vaibhav cultivar. All mutants were analyzed for their protein, albumin and globulin contents by Lowry's method and for protein banding patterns employing SDS Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. Mungbean mutants with high as well as low protein contents ranging from 29.3% to 14.75% vis-a-vis 22.2% in the control were isolated. Results showed that early flowering mutant and Lhb mutant differed between each other as well as with other mutants and controls in their protein-banding pattern. Our results indicated that mutational breeding was effective and useful for induction of agronomically important mutants in mungbean. (author)

  8. Translocation of NopP by Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 into Vigna unguiculata Root Nodules?

    OpenAIRE

    Schechter, Lisa M.; Guenther, Jeanette; Olcay, Elizabeth A.; Jang, Sungchan; Hari B. Krishnan

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium fredii is a nitrogen-fixing legume symbiont that stimulates the formation of root nodules. S. fredii nodulation of roots is influenced by Nop proteins, which are secreted through a type III secretion system (T3SS). We demonstrate that S. fredii injects NopP into Vigna unguiculata nodules in a T3SS-dependent manner.

  9. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as β-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  10. Genetic diversity of the Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) as assessed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somta, P; Chankaew, S; Rungnoi, O; Srinives, P

    2011-11-01

    Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an important African legume crop. In this study, a collection consisting of 240 accessions was analyzed using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 166 alleles were detected, with a mean of 7.59 alleles per locus. Allelic and gene diversities were higher in the west African and Cameroon/Nigeria regions with 6.68 and 6.18 alleles per locus, and 0.601 and 0.571, respectively. The genetic distance showed high similarity between west African and Cameroon/Nigeria accessions. Principal coordinate analyses and neighbor-joining analysis consistently revealed that the majority of west African accessions were grouped with Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, but they were differentiated from east African, central African, and southeast Asian accessions. Population structure analysis showed that two subpopulations existed, and most of the east African accessions were restricted to one subpopulation with some Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, whereas most of the west African accessions were associated with most of the Cameroon/Nigeria accessions in the other subpopulation. Comparison with SSR analysis of other Vigna cultigens, i.e., cultivated azuki bean ( Vigna angularis ) and mungbean ( Vigna radiata ), reveals that the mean gene diversity of Bambara groundnut was lower than azuki bean but higher than mungbean. PMID:22017518

  11. Cowpea mosaic virus 32- and 60-kilodalton replication proteins target and change the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Carette, J.E.; van Lent, J; MacFarlance, S.A.; Wellink, J.E.; Kammen, A., van

    2002-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replicates in close association with small membranous vesicles that are formed by rearrangements of intracellular membranes. To determine which of the viral proteins are responsible for the rearrangements of membranes and the attachment of the replication complex, we have expressed individual CPMV proteins encoded by RNA1 in cowpea protoplasts by transient expression and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expression vector. The 3...

  12. Deteco de fungos endofticos em sementes de caupi provenientes de Serra Talhada e de Caruaru, estado de Pernambuco Detection of endophytic fungi in cowpea seeds from Serra Talhada and Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIA A. C. RODRIGUES

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo detectar e identificar fungos endofticos em sementes de caupi (Vigna unguiculata, IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205 e IPA-206, procedentes dos municpios de Serra Talhada e Caruaru, bem como verificar a influncia desses microrganismos na germinao das sementes. Foram analisadas 400 sementes de cada cultivar, pelo mtodo do papel de filtro, que demonstrou a presena de 71 espcies fngicas compreendidas em 23 gneros. Os mais freqentes foram Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium, correspondendo a 81,44% do total de colnias encontradas. Com relao qualidade das sementes, as maiores incidncias foram observadas nas sementes cultivadas em Serra Talhada, possivelmente pelo tempo de armazenamento. Os fungos afetaram a germinao, principalmente, nas cultivares IPA-201 e IPA-202 de Serra Talhada com percentuais de germinao correspondentes a 53,2 e 65,5%, respectivamente. A presena dos fungos foi observada nas sementes causando necrose nos cotildones, radcula e folhas primrias, originando plntulas anormais. As sementes da cultivar IPA-206 apresentaram melhor padro de sanidade e germinao.The purpose of the present work was to investigate and identify endophytic fungi in seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivars, IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205, and IPA-206 from Caruaru and Serra Talhada counties, and evaluate the influence of those microorganisms on germination. Four hundred seeds of each cultivar were analyzed by blotter test method, which revealed the presence of 71 fungus species involving 23 genera. The most prevalent genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, corresponding to 81.44% of all the colonies found. The highest contamination index was observed in the seeds from Serra Talhada, which shows an association between higher numbers of fungal colonies with longer storage time. The influence of microorganisms on germination was observed mainly in IPA-201 and IPA-202 cultivars from Serra Talhada, with a percentage corresponding to 53.25% and 65.50%, respectively. The presence of fungi was observed in the seeds, causing necrosis in cotyledon, root and primitive leaf and generating abnormal seedlings. In the IPA-206 cultivar higher performance was shown in both seed health and viability.

  13. Distribuio espacial da cigarrinha Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) no feijo-de-corda e clculo do nmero de amostras / Spatial distribution of leafhopper Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) in cowpea and calculation of number of samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valria, Silva; Gleidson Vieira, Lozano; Jeft Ferreira da, Silva; Bleicher, Ervino.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a disperso espacial da cigarrinha Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) na cultura de feijo-de-corda Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. e estabelecer o nmero de amostras necessrias para a estimativa da populao da praga para o uso em programas de manejo integrad [...] o de pragas. Foram cultivados dois campos experimentais na Universidade Federal do Cear, em Fortaleza. O primeiro campo com rea de 216 m2 composta de 15 parcelas. O segundo campo com rea de 576 m2 dividida em 25 parcelas. O cultivar utilizado foi Vita 7 com plantas espaadas em 0,25 x 0,8 m. Foram realizadas trs coletas de dados no Campo I e quatro no Campo II, sendo avaliadas dez plantas por parcela. Foi contado o nmero de adultos e ninfas de cigarrinha presentes em toda a planta. Os resultados obtidos nos ndices de agregao utilizados indicam que a disperso da E. kraemeri no campo do tipo agregada, o que foi confirmado pelo ajuste dos dados distribuio de frequncia binomial negativa. Para aplicao em programas de manejo integrado de pragas, 30 o nmero de amostras estatisticamente adequado para a estimativa da populao de E. kraemeri em campos de V. unguiculata. Abstract in english Th objective was to study the spatial dispersion of the leafhopper Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) on culture of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and to establish the number of sample necessary to estimate the population of the pest for use in integrated pest management pr [...] ograms. Two experimental fields were cultivated at the Federal University of Cear, in Fortaleza, Brazil. The area of the Field I was 216 m2, composed of 15 plots. The area of the Field II was 576 m2, divided into 25 plots. The cultivar used was Vita 7 with plants spaced 0.25 x 0.8 m. We performed three separate collections of data in Field I and four in Field II; in each plot ten plants were assessed. Th number of leafhopper nymphs and adults present in the plant was counted. The aggregate indexes used indicate that the dispersion of E. kraemeri in the fi is of the aggregate type, which was confirmed by fi the data to the negative binomial frequency distribution. To be used in integrated pest management programs, 30 is the sample number statistically suitable for the estimation of E. kraemeri population in V. unguiculata fields.

  14. Susceptibility of Six Local and Four Improved Cowpea Cultivars to Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Infestation in North Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina, Y. T.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of seeds of six local (Banjara, Borno brown, Gwallam, Kanannado brown, Kanannado white and Saddam and four improved (189KD-288, IT89KD-391, IT90K-82-2 and IT97K-499-35 cowpea cultivars that were commonly grown in north eastern Nigeria to infestation by the cowpea storage bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae was evaluated in the laboratory at 30oC - 35oC and 60% - 65% RH. Parameters tested include the number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage, seed susceptibility index and bruchid developmental period. All parameters collected were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The mean number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage and seed susceptibility index were generally significantly different amongst the ten different cowpea cultivars. Mean bruchid developmental period, was however, not significantly different amongst the cowpea cultivars tested. The seeds of all ten cowpea cultivars (local and improved were either moderately or highly susceptible to infestation by C. maculatus. Results obtained in this study indicated the need for breeders to develop high-yielding cowpea cultivars that are well adapted to cultivation in the north eastern region of Nigeria, with relatively high resistance to attack by the bruchid beetle.

  15. Bioactivity of Anacardium occidentale (L) and Allium sativum (L) Powders and Oils Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Ileke; Olotuah, O.F

    2011-01-01

    The powders and oils extracts of Anacardium occidentale (L.) seeds and Allium sativum (L.) bulbs were tested as contact insecticides against the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) in cowpea seeds. The powders were incorporated at rates 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds and acetone extracts of the plants were also applied at 0.5, 1 and 1.5ml per 20g of cowpea seeds to assess contact mortality of adult insect, oviposition, adult emergence and damage assessment. The results obtained ...

  16. Efeito de manejos do solo no dficit hdrico, trocas gasosas e rendimento do feijo-de-corda no semirido / Effect of soil management on water deficit, gas exchange and cowpea yield in the semi-arid region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Bergson Parente, Fernandes; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Eunice Maia de, Andrade; Antnia Leila Rocha, Neves; Carlos Henrique Carvalho de, Sousa.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A variabilidade das chuvas no semirido ocasiona, frequentemente, insuficincias hdricas durante o ciclo do feijo-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), afetando o seu rendimento. Objetivou-se investigar o efeito de diferentes manejos do solo no dficit hdrico do solo, nas trocas gasosas [...] foliares e no rendimento do feijo-de-corda, em regime de sequeiro no semirido. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas com cinco sistemas de manejo (tratamentos), duas camadas de solo (0,15 e 0,30 m) e quatro repeties. Os manejos investigados foram: T-P, solo mobilizado somente pela enxada; T-ESC, solo escarificado a 0,30 m; T-CS, solo com subsolagem e captao in situ; o T-CCM, subsolagem, captao in situ e cobertura morta e o T-CCO, com subsolagem, captao in situ, cobertura morta e compostagem. Os resultados mostraram que a interao das prticas da cobertura morta, compostagem, subsolagem e a tcnica de captao in situ, dotaram o T-CCO de maior capacidade de captar e armazenar gua no solo, com um consequente aumento da disponibilidade hdrica para as culturas. Tal fato aumentou o rendimento da T-CCO em relao aos demais tratamentos na ordem (1 ao 4) de 41%, 28%, 47% e 12%. Para um dficit hdrico gerado por 10 dias consecutivos sem chuvas, o T-CCO apresentou os melhores resultados na manuteno do estado fisiolgico das plantas. No entanto, quando o solo se encontra prximo capacidade de campo, as prticas de manejo do solo no mostraram diferenas significativas na condutncia estomtica, fotossntese, transpirao e na temperatura foliar. Tal fato expressa a importncia do manejo do solo em condies limitantes de umidade. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Rainfall variability in semi-arid areas often results in water shortages during the cycle of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), affecting yield. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different management practices on soil water deficit, leaf gas exchange and the yield of the [...] cowpea under rainfed conditions in a semi-arid region. The experimental design was completely randomised into split lots of five management systems (treatments) and two layers of soil (0.15 and 0.30 m), with four replications. The management systems investigated were: T-P, soil turned by hoe only; T-ESC, ploughing to 0.30 m only; T-CS, soil with subsoiling and in situ catchment; T-CCM, subsoiling, in situ catchment and mulch, and T-CCO, subsoiling, in situ catchment, mulch and compost. The results showed that the interaction of the practices of mulching, composting, subsoiling and in situ catchment, resulted in the T-CCO having a greater capacity to capture and store water in the soil, with a consequent increase in water availability for the crops. This fact increased the yield of T-CCO in relation to the other treatments by (1st to 4th) 41%, 28%, 47% and 12%. For a water deficit generated after ten consecutive days without rain, the T-CCO displayed the best results in maintaining the physiological state of the plants. However, when the soil was close to field capacity, there were no significant differences for soil management practice in stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration or leaf temperature. This fact demonstrates the importance of soil management under limiting conditions of moisture.

  17. Descrio de cultivares locais de feijo-caupi coletados na microrregio Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brasil / Description of local cowpea cultivars from the microregion of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliane de, OLIVEIRA; Eduardo Pacca Luna, MATTAR; Marlon Lima de, ARAJO; Jercivanio Carlos Silva de, JESUS; Augusto Csar Gomes, NAGY; Vanderley Borges dos, SANTOS.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuio de sementes comerciais ameaa erodir o germoplasma local em regies tradicionais de plantio de feijes-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever as cultivares locais de feijo-caupi da Resex Alto Juru e da microrregio Cruzeiro do Sul - AC. Foram conduzidos d [...] ois experimentos nos anos de 2011 e 2012, em sistema convencional e, em sistema de plantio em aleias, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental adotado nos experimentos foi de blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos (cultivares), trs repeties por tratamento, parcelas de 12 m2 e espaamento de 0,45 m entre plantas e linhas. Foram observados vinte caracteres qualitativos e 21 quantitativos. A anlise de varincia conjunta dos experimentos apresentou significativo para gentipo, sistema de plantio e interao gentipo/sistema de plantio. A caracterstica qualitativa com maior variao entre os gentipos foi subclasse comercial, seguida da cor do gro, pigmentao da vagem imatura, forma do fololo apical, cor das folhas e curvatura da vagem. O hbito da planta, tendncia a enrolar-se ao tutor, fixao da vagem ao pednculo e espessura de parede da vagem no apresentam diferenas. Dos caracteres quantitativos apenas nmero de dias at 50% das plantas em florescimento e nmero de lculos/vagem no diferiram estatisticamente entre cultivares. Os valores mdios para comprimento de vagem, comprimento do pednculo, nmero de vagens por pednculo e nmero de vagens por planta foram baixos, entretanto, o germoplasma coletado apresentou caractersticas valorizadas como ciclo precoce, arquitetura adequada da planta alm da adaptao ao plantio em vrzeas. Abstract in english Local varieties of cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata) are exposed to genetic erosion due to the introduction of commercial seeds. The aim of this study was to describe local germplasm of cowpea beans from Resex Alto Juru and microrregion of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. Two experiments were conducte [...] d either using the conventional agricultural system (in 2011), or in an alley cropping system (in 2012). The experimental was a randomized block design with nine treatments (cultivars) and three replicates per treatment. The plots were 12 m2 in size and rows were 0.45 m apart. Twenty qualitative and 21 quantitative characters were observed. The combined analysis of variance showed significant effects for genotype, agricultural system and for the interaction genotype/agricultural system. The qualitative trait with greater variation among genotypes were the commercial subclass according to the classification adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, followed by grain color, immature pod pigmentation, apical leaflet shape, leaf color and pod curvature. The plant habit, twinning tendency, pod attachment to peduncle and the pod wall thickness did not show differences. Among the quantitative traits, days to flowering and number of locules per pod did not differ between cultivars. Mean values ??for pod length, peduncle length, number of pods per peduncle and number of pods per plant were low. However, the germplasm collected showed good agronomic traits such as earliness, appropriate plant architecture, and adaptation to floodplain cultivation.

  18. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salgado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio por Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas, amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria e tipificação (difração de raio-X. Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA.This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, lipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates by difference, total starch, reductor glícids and non reductor by oxid-reduction in Fehling solution. The isolated starch of the distinct samples was analyzed as to the resistant starch (based in the use of amylolytic enzymes, amylose and amylopectin (by spectrophotometry and typification (X-ray diffraction. The results obtained showed that the fractions of carbohydrates differed according to the stage of maturation of the grains. The starch of the unripe bean showed a higher content of resistant starch (RS type 2 in relation to total starch and low content of amylose. Maturation influenced the crystallinity patterns, type C was found for the unripe bean and type A for the ripe bean. The stage of the maturation influenced the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the constituents of the beans. The morphologic aspect of the granules of starch was not influenced by the stage of maturation of the grains. The unripe bean showed a percentage of soluble alimentary fiber compatible with the FDA standards.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimjel Zalkuwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

  20. Yield trials of cowpea mutant lines targeted for resistance to bacterial leaf blight Xanthomonas Vignicolar Burk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During dry season in 1992, 12 cowpea mutant lines selected from 20 kr, 40 kr, 60 kr and 80 kr radiation treatments along with the original parents (Red Cowpea 6-1 U.S.) and KKU 264-1-3-2 by planting KKU 402-6 as a check. They were tested for yield and resistance to bacterial blight and found that mutant line KKM 40-5-2-1-1-1 gave the highest yield. In comparison to the original parents, all the mutants yielded higher ranging from 7.6 to 32%. High yields were attributed to number of pod per plant, 100 seed weight, number of seed per pod and shelling percentage. Under natural field condition, no bacterial blight symptom was observed on all tested lines

  1. Induction of tolerance to water stress in the cowpea seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Agostini Colman; Cássio Miranda Nunes; Gabrielle de Lima Masson; Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa; Anísio da Silva Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Studies in several species have been conducted under conditions of water stress. However, the germination and young seedlings, there are few studies aimed at developing techniques that seek a future tolerance and acclimation of plants to water stress. Given the above, the objective of this study was to simulate drought stress on seed germination of cowpea and evaluate the thermal shock applied during hydration can lead to culture to acquire stress tolerance. Seeds were subjected to the pro...

  2. Studies on the movement of cowpea mosaic virus using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, J; Wellink, J; Van Lent, J; Gopinath, K; Van Kammen, A

    1998-03-01

    The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence was used to replace the coat protein (CP) genes in a full-length cDNA clone of CPMV RNA-2. Transcripts of this construct were replicated in the presence of RNA-1 in cowpea protoplasts, and GFP expression could be readily detected by fluorescent microscopy. It was not possible to infect cowpea plants with these transcripts, but combined with a mutant RNA-2, in which the 48-kDa movement protein (MP) gene has been deleted infection did occur. With this tripartite virus (CPMV-TRI) green fluorescent spots were visible under UV light on the inoculated leaf after 3 days and a few days later on the higher leaves. These results show that the polyproteins encoded by RNA-2 do not possess an essential function in the virus infection cycle and that there is, contrary to what we have found so far for the proteins encoded by RNA-1, no need for a tight regulation of the amounts of MP and CPs produced in a cell. Subsequently, the GFP gene was introduced between the MP and CP genes of RNA-2 utilizing artificial proteolytic processing sites for the viral proteinase. This CPMV-GFP was highly infectious on cowpea plants and the green fluorescent spots that developed on the inoculated leaves were larger and brighter than those produced by CPMV-TRI described above. When cowpea plants were inoculated with CPMV RNA-1 and RNA-2 mutants containing the GFP gene but lacking the CP or MP genes, only single fluorescent epidermal cells were detected between 2 and 6 days postinoculation. This experiment clearly shows that both the capsid proteins and the MP are absolutely required for cell-to-cell movement. PMID:9501035

  3. Salt stress tolerance in cowpea is poorly related to the ability to cope with oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Praxedes, Sidney C.; Damatta, Fabio M.; Lacerda, Claudivan F. de; Prisco, Jose T.; Gomes-Filho, Eneas

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that salt tolerance in cowpea could be associated with lesser impairments of the photosynthetic capacity. Taking into account that photosynthesis is the main sink for reducing power consumption, our central working hypothesis is that a salt- sensitive cultivar is more prone to suffer from oxidative stress. We analyzed the long-term effects of salt stress on oxidative damage and protection against reactive oxygen species in both leaves and roots of a salt-tolera...

  4. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Residues, dissipation, and risk assessment of spinosad in cowpea under open field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2015-11-01

    The dissipation and residues of an eco-friendly bio-pesticide, spinosad, in cowpea under field conditions were studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS) after Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction. The method exhibited good linearity with respect to spinosyn A and spinosyn D in solvent or blank cowpea matrix with correlation coefficients>0.99. Additionally, matrix effects were not significant in the range 0.987-1.014, and the average recoveries at three concentration levels were 75.1-91.1 and 79.4-90.5% for spinosyn A and spinosyn D, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 2.5-9.3 and 7.8-9.8% for spinosyn A, respectively, and 4.1-7.9 and 6.6-8.3% for spinosyn D, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.005 and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively, for spinosyn A, and 0.002 and 0.005 mg kg(-1), respectively, for spinosyn D. The dissipation of spinosad (sum of spinosyn A and spinosyn D) fitted well to first-order kinetics with half-lives of 0.9-1.5 days. The highest residue (HR) at pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 12 h was 0.321 mg kg(-1). Compared with the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by Codex, a PHI of at least 24 h was recommended. The estimated daily chronic intake of spinosad from cowpea was less than 0.14% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Therefore, the risk of consuming cowpea sprayed with spinosad under recommended field conditions was considered acceptable for the Chinese population. PMID:26502727

  6. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COWPEA GERMPLASMS DIVERSITY FROM GHANA AND MALI USING MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

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    Ibrahima Z. Doumbia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea improvement can be enhanced by knowledge of genetic diversity available between and within local and regional gene banks. This variability is the foundation of all cowpea improvement programs. A total of 94 accessions (47 from Ghana and 47 from Mali was used for this study. Twelve qualitative and twenty quantitative traits such as flower color, growth habit, raceme position, seed shape, day 50% flowering, day 50% maturity, plant height, seed length and seed weight were used to assess collections. Data collected from different morphological traits were analyzed using XLSTAT 2013. Principal component analysis, scatter plot matrix and clustering separated the accessions according to some qualitative and quantitative traits. Accessions were classified based on their morphological relationships using un-weighted pair-group average Cluster Analysis. Results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity between and within both germplasm; levels of similarity ranged between 0.95 to 0.069 for combined qualitative and quantitative data. However, some morphological traits discriminated more efficiently between the accessions than others. Few groups of the accessions were different from other accessions for someimportant traits. Implications of the variability in cowpea improvement are discussed.

  8. Impacts of certain biofertilizers on cowpea plants in sludge amended sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge from El-Gabal EI-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 percent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 percent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 percent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 percent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK) or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application

  9. Resource Use Efficiency for Cowpea Production in Akatsi District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoh, F.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas have been identified as one of the crops with the highest and cheapest source of protein which can be relied on to help curb malnutrition problem in most developing countries. Farmers in most farming communities in Ghana, such as Akatsi in the Volta region, still practice the ‘tradition bound’ agriculture. The returns from such production system are estimated to be below potential levels. Assessment of the productivity of major inputs employed in the production of cowpeas in the study area indicates that outputs are below maximum potentials. The level of inputs such as farm size, labour, pesticide, and ploughing (land preparation were found to be positively related to output, while quantity of seed was negatively related to output. The marginal value products (MVPs of the inputs were lower than their unit costs. It is anticipated that farmers could increase production beyond current levels, if the resources employed are utilized efficiently. Among the problems identified to affecting the production of cowpeas in the study area include: unfavorable climate, incidence of pests and diseases, land tenure problem, lack of credit for operation, lack of storage facility, transportation and lack of ready market for the produce. To help improve the production, and hence farmers’ income and their living standards, there is the need for an accelerated education programme to provide information on the appropriate methods of production, especially on how inputs could be allocated by the resource-poor farmers.

  10. Carotenoids retention and in vitro iron bioavailability of traditional cowpea leaf dishes of rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mduma, I; Msuya, J; Mwanri, A W; Yang, R Y

    2012-05-01

    Food preparation methods play a role in micronutrient retention and ultimately intake. Analyses for carotenoids retention and in vitro iron bioavailability of five cowpea leaf dishes prepared according to the traditional methods of rural Tanzania were carried out. All the five dishes are commonly eaten as relishes for staple meals of maize or rice. Laboratory analyses were carried out at the Nutrition Laboratory of the World Vegetable Centre in Taiwan. Carotenoids were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography while iron bioavailability was analysed by an in vitro method. Results showed that traditional cowpea leaf dish consisting of sunflower oil, onion, tomatoes and coconut milk cooked for 30 min had the highest retention of ?-carotene (40.83 7.00%) and lutein (34.60 3.30%) compared to other traditional recipes (p < 0.05). The highest iron bioavailability (10.04 0.49%) was observed in the traditional recipe which involved boiling fresh cowpea leaves for 15 min. Although recipe variation can affect carotenoids retention and iron bioavailability, simple practices such as reduced cooking time and avoiding direct sun drying also need to be promoted. PMID:21942714

  11. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  12. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop. PMID:16932883

  13. Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) using AFLP and transferable microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2009-02-01

    Genetic diversity in 20 elite blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes was studied using microsatellite and AFLP markers. Thirty-six microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) were successfully amplified across the 20 blackgram genotypes and 33 microsatellite markers showed polymorphism. A total of 137 microsatellite alleles were generated with an average of 4.1 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from two to nine and the polymorphic information content value for the microsatellite markers varied from 0.10 to 0.87 with an average of 0.49. Microsatellite markers were highly informative and a combination of only three microsatellite markers (CEDG264, CEDG173, and CEDG044) was sufficient to discriminate all 20 blackgram genotypes. In the case of AFLP, 11 primer pairs generated 324 polymorphic marker fragments. The polymorphic information content values for AFLP primer combinations ranged from 0.21 to 0.34 with an average of 0.29. Similarity measures and clustering analyses were made using microsatellite and AFLP data separately. The resulting dendrograms distributed the 20 blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The dendrograms were comparable with each other with the Mantel test between the cophenetic matrices of microsatellite data and AFLP data showing moderate correlation (r = 0.64). The results of the principal components analysis were well congruent with the dendrograms. In the dendrograms as well as in the principal components analyses, genotype Trombay wild (Vigna mungo var. silvestris) was placed separately from rest of the genotypes. This study demonstrated that the azuki bean microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and informative and can be successfully used for genome analysis in blackgram. Results indicate that sufficient variability is present in the blackgram genotypes and would be helpful in the selection of suitable parents for breeding purposes and gene mapping studies. PMID:19234560

  14. Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphological traits (mucous production and colony morphology, genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias, genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p < 0,05 do índice de diversidade de Shannon-Waver com o número de cultivos de leguminosas (caupi e soja. Os dados de ARDRA mostraram que no Cerrado nativo somente foram observados isolados de Bradyrhizobium elkanii, corroborando com dados da literatura. Nas áreas onde haviam sido cultivadas leguminosas ocorreram dois fatos distintos; onde somente cultivou-se soja houve maior proporção de B. japonicum e onde cultivou-se soja e caupi, ocorreu maior proporção de B. elkanii. A análise de resistência a antibióticos mostrou cinco diferentes perfis de resistência. Maior resistência de Bradyrhizobium spp. foi encontrada em áreas cultivadas há mais tempo, e menor na área nativa e/ou áreas com poucos cultivos. De forma geral, pode-se observar uma relação inversa entre a diversidade de rizóbios e a resistência a antibióticos. Como a menor diversidade foi observada em áreas com maior número de cultivos de leguminosas, sugere-se que a presença da leguminosa pode favorecer condições ecológicas específicas, nas quais determinados grupos de rizóbios adquirem características competitivas importantes para seu estabelecimento.

  15. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandiê Araújo da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL. As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas.Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L, compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  16. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.

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    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh *, Sudhir K. Upadhyay and A.P. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%, shoot length (up to 56.91%, root dry weight (up to 94.42%, and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09% was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control.

  17. La collection de base des espces sauvages de Phaseolus et Vigna : historique, gestion et conservation

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    Thierry Vanderborght

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The base collection of wild species of Phaseolus and Vigna: history, management and conservation.The National Botanic Garden of Belgium ensures the management of a base collection of botanical and wild forms in the tribe Phaseoleae and the sub-tribe Phaseolinae. The main objective is to conserve on a long terni basic the largest possible genetic diversity through seed semples stored at - 20C. The collection provided the basic material for the investigations conducted at the University Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of Gembloux in fields as diverse as taxonomy, genome analysis, definition of genetic rservoirs, agronomie and chemical evaluations, interspecific hybridization and plant breeding. The results have allowed to becter understand the organization of genetic diversity in the studied plant material and to highlight the wealthy genetic potentiel of the collection. The latter should be preserved and valorized for the genetic improvement of food legumes, in particular within the two genera Phaseolus and Vigna.

  18. Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de Suelos de la Costa Caribe Colombiana en Vigna unguiculata

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    Jonathan Alberto Mendoza Labrador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study in Colombia which covers an evaluation of native rhizobium associated to the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in the departaments of Cesar and Guajira. In this research it was demonstrated that the use of native rhizobium isolated from nodes, improved the development of the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., being this bacteria more efficient than the chemical and absolute treatments (without inoculum and fertilization also improving the biological nitrogen fixation and the photosynthetic rate. As contribution of the study, it was determined that in greenhouse conditions and according to the results obtained from differents measured agronomic variables, this could influence positively in the nutritional performance of the crop, basis of food of the cattle system of this regions of the country and the food source of the indigenous community of low economic income.

  19. Screening of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity of Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra

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    T. Murenje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the total phenolics content and the antioxidant activities from methanolic extracts of Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were studied using DPPH and reducing power assays, a?-carotene linoleic acid model system and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain. Phenolic compounds were also quantified using HPLC. Total phenolic compounds for Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra were 1136.6033.869 g g-1, 1102.7972.239 mg g-1 and 1327.3331.658 mg g-1 dry mass, respectively. All three vegetable extracts contained vanillin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. There was an increase in the reducing power effects and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in all samples. All samples showed a time dependent decrease in radical scavenging of DPPH and?-carotene.

  20. EVALUATION OF SEDATIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF VIGNA TRILOBATA (L. VERDC. LEAVES

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    Ahir Chetan D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to evaluate the sedative activity of aqueous extract of Vigna trilobata (L verdc. Leaves using experimental animal models. In the present study aqueous extract of the Vigna trilobata leaves (AEVTL was used to investigate the sedative activity using Rotarod apparatus and Photoactometer in mice at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight and compared to standard diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.. The result obtained from this study revealed that AEVTL possessed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 sedative activity at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg by reducing locomotor activity and fall off time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study justify the use of the leaves as sedative in traditional medicine. Further studies may be directed at characterizing the bioactive ingredients that are responsible for the observed sedative activity in the plant.

  1. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of cowpea effect of variet and locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous seeds belong to plant foods which are generally rich in phenolic compounds. Cowpea seeds are a major source of plant proteins and vitamins for man, feed for animals. Polyphenolic compounds are secondary metabolites of amino acids present in many plant species, including legume. Their content depends on various factors, such as cultivar, pedoclimatic and cultivation conditions. The influence of cultivar, locality on the total polyphenols (TPC and antioxidant activity (TAC of Cowpea seeds was studied. Cowpea cultivars were cultivated under different climatic conditions in Iraq Republic. The main objective of the present work was to consider the changes of total polyphenols content in dependence on variety and to evaluate an antioxidant potential of three Cowpea varieties (white, light brown and red color in different localities of Erbil City in Kurdistan Region Iraq and to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds (polyphenolics in legumes commonly utilized in the human diet in Iraq, to compare their antioxidant capacity and to evaluate the influence of grown locality on observed parameters. Total polyphenols were determined by the Lachman´s method and expressed as mg of Gallic acid equivalent per kg dry matter. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by the Brand-Williams method using a compound DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (p0.05 among locality and color for phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. The various varieties of white color cowpea had significant influence on TPC and TAC and affected by locality too. From tested seeds the highest polyphenol content was measured in red color (802.323 ±15.937 - 825.700 ±8.494 mg.kg-1 GAE. The lowest value was in white color (480.195 ±15.286 - 721.952 ±25.004 mg.kg-1GAE.The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest TAC value was determined in red color (28.709 ±15.937 - 34.777 ±8.494% DPPH. The lowest value was in white color (6.065 ±0.836% - 9.578 ±0.884% DPPH. The various varieties had significant influence on TPC and TAC according to used statistical analyses. Correlation between the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity was significantly positive (r = 0.783645. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition.

  2. Effect of Arsenic on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Blackgram (Vigna mungo)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Santi M.; Gouri, Samiran S.; De, Debasis; Das, Bidus K.; Mondal, Keshab C.; Pati, Bikas R.

    2011-01-01

    Rhizobium–legume symbiotic interaction is an efficient model system for soil remediation and reclamation. We earlier isolated an arsenic (As) (2.8 mM arsenate) tolerant and symbiotically effective Rhizobium strain, VMA301 from Vigna mungo and in this study we further characterized its efficacy for arsenic removal from the soil and its nitrogen fixation capacity. Although nodule formation is delayed in plants with As-treated composite when the inoculum was prepared without arsenic in culture m...

  3. Genetic diversity as assessed by ISSR markers in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadarajan N; Jayamani P; Kanimozhi M

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on a collection of 23 blackgram genotypes involving 16 releasedvarieties, six pre release cultures and one wild species Vigna mungo var. silvestris to study the genetic diversityusing twelve ISSR primers. The number of alleles produced by different ISSR primers ranged from eight to 17with an average of 11.5 per primer and the level of polymorphism was found to be 82.05 percent. Similaritymeasures and clustering analyses were made using ISSR data. The resulting...

  4. Synergistic effect of kinetin and spermine on some physiological aspects of seawater stressed Vigna sinensis plants

    OpenAIRE

    Alsokari, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of kinetin, spermine and their combination on growth vigor, photosynthetic pigments, some metabolites, some enzymes, polyamines and productivity of salt-stressed Vigna sinensis plants was investigated. Salt stress reduced all evaluated growth criteria and yield components of used plants. Chlorophyll (CHL (a, b, carotenoids, carbohydrates, protein, spermidine and spermine level as well as and amylase activity were also decreased in response to salinity. On the other hand, proline, K...

  5. Effect of nanoparticles suspension on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata) seedlings by foliar spray method

    OpenAIRE

    Shailesh K Dhoke; Pramod Mahajan; Rajashri Kamble; Anand Khanna

    2013-01-01

    The present experimental investigation demonstrates the effect of nano-ZnO, nano-FeO and nano-ZnCuFe-oxide particles on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata) seedling. The study was carried out by spraying optimum concentrations of nanoparticles in suspension form on hydroponically grown test units and examining the effect on the shoot growth of seedlings. Based on biomass assay, it was found that the seedlings displayed good growth over control, demonstrating a positive effect of the nanopartic...

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD MARKERS LINKED TO MYMV RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L). WILCZEK)

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVEEN HOLEYACHI; D L SAVITHRAMMA

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker associated with mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) by employing bulk segregant analysis in recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Out of 20 random decamers, only ten primers viz; OPA-03, A-06, A-03, OPA-09, A-09, OPB 7, UBC-391, OPC-08, UBC 499 and A-04 showed polymorphism between parents Chinamung and BL 849. Out of these ten primers only one ...

  7. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm) and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp) were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sand...

  8. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Voandzou (Vigna Subterranea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigna subterranea, known as voandzou or Bambara groundnut as an African indigenous crop which is often neglected or under-used in African subsistence agriculture. Preliminary research and country perceptions have shown its agronomic and nutritional properties, in particular under atypical climates of arid and tropical areas, and in saline soils. There is a high potential to increase the production by optimizing symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) through effective inoculation even in nitrate-rich environments. In this study, Vigna subterranea inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 was studied in order to assess the symbiotic fixation potential of different cultivars and landraces of Madagascar, Niger and Mali under low-P and sufficient-P conditions. Six voandzou cultivars inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756, were grown under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks supplied with four phosphorus levels of 15, 30, 75 and 250 μmol plant-1 week-1 in order to establish the response curve of voandzou to P supply, and to induce P deficient and sufficient levels. In another experiment five tolerant cultivars with high SNF and five sensitive cultivars with low SNF were chosen after a preliminary screening of 54 voandzou genotypes, including 50 landraces from Madagascar, Niger and Mali supplied with 2 P levels as P deficient and P sufficient (30 and 75 μmol plant-1 week-1 ) under hydroaeroponic conditions. Genotypic variation in SFN for the high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) was observed among the 54 cultivars and landraces. Variability was especially related to the nodule and shoot biomass, nodule permeability, nodule respiration and gene phytase expression. Contrasting cultivars and landraces in terms of PUE for SNF were selected for further evaluation under field conditions. (author)

  9. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Shefali Srivastava; Kumkum Mishra; Pramod Kumar Tandon

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent con...

  10. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain...

  11. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  12. Vitamin A Activity of Rice-based Weaning Foods Enriched with Germinated Cowpea Flour, Banana, Pumpkin and Milk Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N; Pongjata, J

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea flour consisted of original cowpea flour, 24 h germinated cowpea flour. Each treated flour was mixed separately with the other ingredients and cooked into a slurry. Each mixture was either oven-dried or freeze-dried to produce a dry flaky mixture. The carotenoid composition of the product was determined by HPLC. Vitamin A activity of oven-dried weaning food was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to freeze-dried weaning food. The freeze-dried weaning foods showed a higher retinol equivalent than oven-dried weaning foods for all treatments. The results of the study found that an intake of 100 g of freeze-dried weaning foods enriched with banana-pumpkin and cowpea flour provided an adequate amount of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin A for infants. PMID:22692393

  13. Effects of Intercropping Pattern and Planting Date on the Performance of Two Cowpea Varieties in Dalwa, Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degri, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out in Dalwa, Maiduguri to investigate the effects of intercropping pattern and planting date on the performance of two cowpea varieties with sorghum. The experiment was laid in split-plot design each replicated three times including control. The factorial experiment consisted of two varieties of cowpea (Borno brown and Banjiram, two planting dates (early and late planting and three intercrop patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The results showed that cowpea flower count per plant were significantly higher (p<0.05 in Borno brown cowpea variety, late planting and 1:1 intercrop pattern. It further showed that cowpea pods count per plant was significantly higher in varieties, early planting date and 1:1 intercrop pattern. Grain yields were significantly higher in both varieties and not significantly different from one another, but higher in early planting date and higher in 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns. Farmers in the Maiduguri Northern eastern region of Nigeria could therefore adopt early planting of the two varieties at 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns.

  14. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difo, V H; Onyike, E; Ameh, D A; Njoku, G C; Ndidi, U S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work. PMID:26345026

  15. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate leaf smut severity in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J. Michereff

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O carvão da folha, causado pelo fungo Entyloma vignae, é uma doença comum do caupi no Nordeste brasileiro. Considerando a inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis 1,5; 3,5; 7,0; 14,5; 27,0 e 45,0% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade do carvão da folha com e sem a utilização desta. Na validação da escala diagramática, 48 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCAD®, foram avaliados por 10 pessoas, sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foram determinadas por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real, mensurada eletronicamente, e a estimada pelo avaliador. Sem a escala, a maioria dos avaliadores superestimou a severidade da doença. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram boa repetibilidade (90% e reprodutibilidade (84% das estimativas com a utilização da escala. A escala diagramática proposta demonstrou ser adequada para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi.The leaf smut, caused by the fungus Entyloma vignae, is a common disease of cowpea in the Brazilian Northeast. Considering the inexistence of standard methods for assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic key was developed with 1.5, 3.5, 7.0, 14.5, 27.0 and 45.0% of diseased leaf areas and tested for accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimatives of leaf smut severity with and without using the key. The diagrammatic key was validated by 10 raters, with and without the key, using 48 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software AutoCAD® for Windows. Two evaluations were performed with the diagrammatic key at 7-day interval where different sequences of the same leaves were visually estimated by the same raters. The accuracy and precision of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual, evaluated electronically, and estimated severity. Without the diagrammatic key most of raters overestimated disease severity. With the key raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrated around 10%. Raters showed good repeatability (90% and reproducibility (84% of estimative by using the key. The proposed diagrammatic key was suitable for the evaluation of severity of leaf smut on cowpea.

  16. Preferência do pulgão-preto e da cigarrinha-verde em diferentes genótipos de feijão-caupi em Roraima = Preference of the black aphid and green leafhopper in different genotypes of cowpea in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Falkyner da Silva Bandeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de insetos praga está entre os fatores que mais afetam a produtividade do feijão-caupi. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a resistência de nove genótipos de feijão-caupi ao ataque do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, e da cigarrinha-verde, (Empoasca sp., e a flutuação populacional de A. craccivora sobre a cultura, em condições de campo. Foram selecionados nove genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, a saber: BR-17 Gurgueia, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé, Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, Cara-Preta e Sempre Verde. O delineamento experimental foi realizado em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. Cada variedade foi plantada em quatro linhas paralelas, considerando as duas fileiras centrais como área útil. A contagem dos pulgões foi feita diretamente na última folha trifoliolada completamente aberta, enquanto que a das cigarrinhas foi realizada pelo método da batida de plantas em bandeja com água. Nos genótipos BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e Pretinho Precoce 1 foram observados os menores índices de infestação por A. craccivora, apresentando, portanto, resistência do tipo não preferência em relação aos demais avaliados. O genótipo Apiaú mostrou-se suscetível a Empoasca sp., e os BR-17 Gurgueia, Cara-Preta, Sempre Verde, UFRR Grão Verde e BRS Cauamé foram os mais resistentes, em função da menor preferência pelas cigarrinhas, registrada, principalmente, aos 28 e 35 dias após a emergência das plantas. = The occurrence of insect pests is among the most important factors affecting cowpea productivity. This study aimed at evaluating the resistance of nine genotypes of cowpea attack in black aphid Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, and of green leafhopper (Empoasca sp., and the population fluctuation of A. craccivora on culture, under field conditions. Nine cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp genotypes were chosen: BR-17 Gurgueia, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé, Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, Cara-Preta, and Sempre Verde. The experimental design was carried out in randomized blocks with four replications. Each variety was planted in four parallel lines, considering the two central rows as the useful area. Counting of aphids-black was taken directly across the last fully open leaf, whereas the leafhoppers leaf stage was performed by the method of beating plants on tray with water. The genotypes BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba, and Pretinho Precoce 1 had the lowest levels of infestation by A. craccivora, presenting, therefore, a nonpreference resistance compared to the others assessed. The genotype Apiaú was susceptible to Empoasca sp. and the genotypes BR-17 Gurgueia, Cara-Preta, Sempre Verde, UFRR Grão Verde, and BRS Cauamé were the most resistant, since they were least preferred by leafhoppers at 28 and 35 days after plant emergence.

  17. Identificação de Genótipos de Feijão-caupi Tolerantes a Acidez em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Estado de Roraima = Identification of cowpea genotypes sensitivity to acidicy conditions in an Oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cátia Pereira Uchôa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp., tolerantes à acidez. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação localizada no Campus do Cauamé, da Universidade Federal de Roraima, utilizando um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de Boa Vista-RR. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental de Blocos Inteiramente Casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 10 com três repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram de duas formas de localização do calcário (localizada e não-localizada, 5 profundidades (0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15-20; 20-25 cm e 10 genótipos de feijão-caupi(IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM; Apiaú; Hikari Graúdo; Pretinho Precoce 1; IT85D-3428-4-3-HP; USA; UFRR Grão Verde; BRS-Mazagão; Canapum e Sempre Verde. A unidade experimental foi constituída por 2dm3 de solo, dispostos em tubo de PVC com 25cm de altura,10cm de diâmetro e duas plantas de feijão. Os tubos foram confeccionados por meio da junção de 5 anéis com 5 cm cada, sendo que no anel inferior foi colocada uma placa delgada de isopor para permitir a acomodação do solo. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo determinada à produção de matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea. Os genótipos IT85D-3428-4-3-HP e UFRRGRÃO VERDE foram classificados como sendo de baixa tolerância, os genótipos USA, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM e Sempre Verde, medianamente tolerantes e os genótipos Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1 e Canapum, tolerantes à acidez.= This research was carried out objecting to identify the sensibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp genotypes to acidity conditions. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse located at Campus of Cauamé (Universidade Federal de Roraima in an oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil. The experimental design adopted was a completely andomized blocks in a factorial scheme 2 x 5 x 10 with three replicates. The terms of this factorial refers to two forms of lime applying (localized and uniform, five depths of soil (0-5; 5-10; 10-15;15-20; 20-25 cm, and ten genotypes of cowpea (IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM, Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1, IT85D-3428-4-3-HP, USA, UFRR Grão Verde, BRS-Mazagão, Canapum, and Sempre Verde. The experimental unity consisted of 2 dm3 of soil inside PVC tube 25 cm in height and diameter of 10 cm with two cowpea plants. Forty days after the germination, the plants were collected and the dry matter yield was determined. The genotypes IT85D-3428-4-3-HP and UFRR Grão Verde showed high sensibility to acidity, the genotypes USA, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM, and Sempre Verde presented medium sensibility to acidity and the genotypes Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1, and Canapum presented sensibility to acidity.

  18. Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligiane Aparecida Florentino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after inoculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as references, were from the Amazon and are currently recommended as cowpea inoculants. Genetic diversity was analyzed by amplifying repetitive DNA elements with the BOX primer, revealing high genetic diversity with each strain presenting a unique band profile. Leonard jar assays showed that the strains UFLA 03-30 and UFLA 03-38 had the highest N2-fixing potentials in symbiosis with cowpea. These strains had more shoot and nodule dry matter, more shoot N accumulation, and a higher relative efficiency than the strains recommended as inoculants. All strains grew in media of pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. The strains with the highest N2-fixing efficiencies in symbiosis with cowpea were also tolerant to the greatest number of antibiotics. However, these strains also had the lowest tolerance to high salt concentrations. All strains, with the exceptions of UFLA 03-84 and UFLA 03-37, tolerated temperatures of up to 40 ºC. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the eight strains isolated from soils of the same region were highly variable, as well as their symbiotic efficiencies, despite their common origin. This variability highlights the importance of including these tests in the selection of cowpea inoculant strains.Dez estirpes de rizóbios, sendo oito isoladas de amostras de solos coletadas próximo ao sistema radicular de Sesbania virgata, no Sul de Minas Gerais, e duas recomendadas como inoculante para o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. usadas como referências, foram avaliadas quanto a: diversidade genética, eficiência simbiótica em caupi, tolerância a altas temperaturas e concentrações salinas, valores extremos de pH e 15 tipos de antibióticos. A análise de diversidade genética utilizando a técnica do Rep-PCR, com o primer BOX, revelou alta diversidade, pois cada estirpe apresentou perfil único de DNA. O teste de eficiência simbiótica conduzido em vasos de Leonard indicou que as estirpes UFLA 03-30 e UFLA 03-38 demonstraram alto potencial em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi, proporcionando resultados de matéria seca da parte aérea e dos nódulos, eficiência relativa e acúmulo de N na parte aérea superiores aos das estirpes recomendadas como inoculantes. Todas as estirpes cresceram em meios com valores de pH variando de 4,0 a 9,0. Em relação à tolerância aos antibióticos, foi observado que as estirpes eficientes em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi foram as que apresentaram tolerância a um maior número desses compostos. No entanto, estas estirpes mostraram comportamentos semelhantes em relação a tolerância a salinidade, constituindo o grupo de maior sensibilidade. Com exceção das estirpes UFLA 03-84 e UFLA 03-37, as demais toleraram até 40 ºC. Embora as estirpes estudadas tenham sido isoladas de solos da mesma região, com exceção das recomendadas para inoculante oriundas da Amazônia, foi observado que elas apresentaram comportamentos distintos quando submetidas aos diferentes testes de diversidade genética, fenotípica e simbiótica, justificando a importância de incluir estes testes no processo de seleção de estirpes simbióticas em caupi.

  19. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Awosanya; A. Sebiomo; J.I. Idiagi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491) were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were ...

  20. Reao de gentipos de feijo-caupi revela resistncia s coinfeces pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cludia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijo-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espcies de vrus que infectam o feijo-caupi, no Brasil, so: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reao de gentipos de feijo-caupi quanto resistncia infeco simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinaes CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram includos 57 gentipos, sendo trs avaliaes em gaiolas com tela antiafdeos sob infeco controlada, e uma em condio de campo sob infeco natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 gentipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafdeos sob infeco controlada, e um em campo sob infeco natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infeces. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o nmero de plantas assintomticas, comprimento de vagem, nmero de gros por vagem, massa de cem gros e produtividade. As coinfeces reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Alm disso, nas infeces envolvendo os trs vrus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns gentipos. Os gentipos BR17-Gurguia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, alm de bom comportamento diante das coinfeces virais, tm sementes com padro comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.

  1. The NTP-binding motif in cowpea mosaic virus B polyprotein is essential for viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S A; Verver, J; Nollen, E A; van Lent, J W; Wellink, J; van Kammen, A

    1994-11-01

    We have assessed the functional importance of the NTP-binding motif (NTBM) in the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) B-RNA-encoded 58K domain by changing two conserved amino acids within the consensus A and B sites (GKSRTGK500S and MDD545, respectively). Both Lys-500 to Thr and Asp-545 to Pro substitutions are lethal as mutant B-RNAs were no longer replicated in cowpea protoplasts. Transiently produced mutant proteins were not able to support trans-replication of CPMV M-RNA in cowpea protoplasts in contrast to transiently produced wild-type B proteins. Therefore loss of viral RNA synthesis was a result of a protein defect rather than an RNA template defect. Mutant B polyproteins were correctly processed in vitro and in vivo and the regulatory function of the 32K protein on processing of B proteins was not affected by these mutations. Since regulation of processing by the 32K protein depends on interaction with the 58K domain, the mutations in the NTBM apparently do not interfere with this interaction. The Asp-545 to Pro substitution left intact the binding properties of the 84K precursor of the 58K protein, with respect to ATP-agarose, whereas the Lys-500 to Thr substitution decreased the binding capacity of the 84K protein, suggesting that the Lys-500 residue is directly involved in ATP binding. The Lys-500 to Thr substitution in the 58K domain resulted in an altered distribution of viral proteins, which failed to aggregate into large cytopathic structures as observed in protoplasts infected with wild-type B-RNA. However viral proteins containing the Asp-545 to Pro substitution showed a normal distribution in protoplasts. PMID:7964626

  2. Evaluation and Characterization of Mutant Cowpea Plants for Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation-induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim of the project was to select mutant cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the color of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variations observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well-watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterize the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiological techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress. The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defense/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dry land as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  3. Evaluation and characterisation of mutant cowpea plants for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim project was to select cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the colour of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variation observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterise the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiologically techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress.The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defence/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dryland as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  4. Improvement of pigenonpea and cowpea for drought, disease and insect pest tolerance through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeonpea and cowpea are widely grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of Kenya by small scale farmers. The average yields are usually low due to insect pests, diseases and long growth duration of the local land races. Little success has been achieved through conventional breeding methods for tolerance to insect pests and diseases despite the development of high yielding and early maturing lines. Therefore, mutation induction was initiated to widen the genetic variability in the improved lines. Seeds of three promising pigeonpea cultivars KAT 60/8, KAT 777 and KAT E31/4 and of cowpea KAT 419, K80 and M66 were subjected to three doses of gamma rays; 80, 120 and 150 Gy for pigeonpea and 160, 200 and 250 Gy for cowpea. In M1 generation, doses of 150 Gy and 250 Gy reduced emergence by about 50% and increased seedling deformities in both crops. In M2 generation of KAT 60/8, high yielding mutants with oval shaped seeds (T1 P58) and branching (T3 P28) were identified. Two progenies of KAT 777 (T1 P7 and T1 P11) had small slender leaves. Selected plant progenies in M3, M4 and M5 generation gave some promising high yielding variants. Although, the difference in days to flower and maturity of mutant progenies and untreated bulk were small, some mutant progenies of KAT 777 and KAT 60/8 showed tolerance to Fusarium wilt. None of the progenies of KAT E31/4 gave better score for Cercospora leaf-spot compared to the check. (author). 2 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo MA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were significantly higher than those of the virus inoculated plants. Inoculation of plants at an early age of 10 DAP resulted in more severe effect than inoculations at a later stage of 30 DAP. The average values of plant height and number of leaves produced by plants inoculated 30 DAP were higher than those produced by plants inoculated 10 DAP. Most of the plants inoculated 10 DAP died and did not produce seeds. However, " OLOYIN" cultivar was most tolerant and produced reasonable yields when infected 30 DAP. The effect of single viruses on growth and yield of cultivars showed that CABMV caused more severe effects in IT86D-719, SBMV had the greatest effect on "OLO II" while CMeV induced the greatest effect on "OLOYIN". Yield was greatly reduced in double infections involving CABMV in combination with either CMeV or SBMV in "OLOYIN" and "OLO II", however, there was complete loss in yield of IT86D-719. Triple infection led to complete yield loss in all the three cultivars.

  6. Detection of Genome Donor Species of Neglected Tetraploid Crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (Crole Bean), and Genetic Structure of Diploid Species Based on Newly Developed EST-SSR Markers from Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were ...

  7. Engineering Cowpea Mosaic Virus RNA-2 into a vector to express heterologous proteins in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kodetham Gopinath; Wellink, J; Porta, C.; Taylor, K. M.; Lomonossoff, G P; Kammen, van, A.

    2000-01-01

    series of new cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-2-based expression vectors were designed. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced between the movement protein (MP) and the large (L) coat protein or downstream of the small (S) coat protein. Release of the GFP inserted between the MP and L proteins was achieved by creating artificial processing sites each side of the insert, either by duplicating the MP-L cleavage site or by introducing a sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth d...

  8. Response of Cowpea Breeding Lines and Cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, T L; Moreflock, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four cowpea breeding lines and four cultivars were tested for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Gall and egg mass ratings indicated a range of responses from susceptible to highly resistant. Five breeding lines - VS84-2, VS84-8, VS84-12, VS84-14, and VS84-22 - and the cultivar Erectset had gall and egg mass ratings comparable to the M. incognita-resistant cultivar Mississippi Silver. All of these were also resistant to M. arenaria. Significantly fewer M. incognita ...

  9. Invalidity of the Concept of Slow Growth and Alkali Production in Cowpea Rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Blanca S.; Focht, Dennis D.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 103 rhizobial strains representing the cowpea miscellany and Rhizobium japonicum were studied with regard to growth rate, glucose metabolic pathways, and pH change in culture medium. Doubling times ranged from 1.4 0.04 to 44.1 5.2 h; although two populations of fast-growing and slow-growing rhizobia were noted, they overlapped and were not distinctly separated. Twenty-four strains which had doubling times of less than 8 h all showed NADP-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogen...

  10. Vigna unguiculata reduces aortic intima-media thickness and increases aortic diameter and angiogenesis in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Yulinda; Yuyun Yueniwati; Tatit Nurseta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether Vigna unguiculata is able to affect aortic intima media thickness, aortic diameter and aortic VEGF expression among ovariectomized rats. Methods: Thirty female rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 each) including 1 control group (sham), one ovariectomized (OVX) group, and three test groups. The test rats were OVX group received 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW), 2.5 mg/kg BW and 5 mg/kg BW of Vigna unguiculata extract. Aortic intima-media thickne...

  11. Estudo do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) minimamente processado Study of the green bean ( Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp ) minimally processed

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa A FURTUNATO; MAGALHÃES Margarida M. dos A; Zilda Luiz MARIA

    2000-01-01

    Visando definir tecnologias alternativas de processamento do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp), estudou-se o processo de congelamento do mesmo. Este consistiu na recepção da matéria prima, seleção dos grãos de coloração e tamanho uniformes, seguida de lavagem em água corrente e branqueamento por imersão em água a 90ºC. Os grãos foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos e congelados em freezer doméstico a -18ºC, sendo armazenados a essa temperatura. Foi realizado o estudo de vida de prat...

  12. Produccin de vaina verde en frijol chino y tipo de espaldera en clima clido / Green pod production in cowpea and support systems in warm climate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricio, Apez-Barrios; Jos Alberto Salvador, Escalante-Estrada; Ma. Teresa, Rodrguez-Gonzlez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El frijol chino (FCH) es importante en la alimentacin humana, consumido en grano y vaina verde. La especie tiene cultivares de crecimiento determinado e indeterminado. Estos ltimos requieren de espaldera convencional, lo cual incrementa los costos de produccin, por lo que se requieren alternativa [...] s para reducir estos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar en diferentes tipos de espaldera, el crecimiento y rendimiento de vaina verde y la rentabilidad econmica del FCH. La siembra se realiz el 8 de junio de 2009 en Cocula, Guerrero. Se evalu el tiempo de ocurrencia de las fases fenolgicas, rendimiento de vaina verde (RVV), nmero de vainas (NV), longitud y dimetro de vaina (LV y DV), nmero de hojas verdes (NHV), ndice de rea foliar (IAF), duracin del rea foliar (DAF), eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA), evapotranspiracin (ETc) y rentabilidad econmica, en espaldera convencional (FS), de maz (FM) y girasol (FG). Durante el ciclo del cultivo, la media de la temperatura mxima fue de 38 C y mnima de 20 C, y la precipitacin, de 738 mm. Con FS se logr el RVV (1,501 gm?2), NV (149 m?2) y EUA (5.4 gm?2mm?1) ms alto, que se relacion con un mayor NH (334 m?2), IAF (1.3) y DAF (57 das). Con FM se logr el mayor ingreso neto ($ 28,784.00). La produccin de vaina verde en este lugar se logr con 278 mm de evapotranspiracin del cultivo y 1,770 C de calor acumulado de siembra a ltimo corte. Abstract in english The cowpea is an important human food crop, eaten as grain and green pods. The species has determinate and indeterminate growth cultivars. The latter require a conventional trellis, which increases production costs and thus creates the need for cheaper alternatives. The aim of the study was to deter [...] mine, in different types of trellises, green pod growth and yield and cowpea profitability. Planting took place on June 8, 2009 in Cocula, Guerrero. The following were evaluated: time of occurrence of the phenological phases, green pod yield (GPY), pod number (PN), pod length and diameter (PL and PD), number of green leaves (NGL), leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), water use efficiency (WUE), evapotranspiration (ETc) and economic profitability in conventional, maize and sunflower trellises (CT, MT and ST, respectively). During the crop cycle, the average maximum temperature was 38 C and the minimum was 20 C, with 738 mm of precipitation. CT presented the highest GPY (1,501 gm?2), PN (149 m?2) and WUE (5.4 gm?2mm?1), which was associated with greater NGL (334 m?2), LAI (1.3) and LAD (57 days). MT achieved the highest net income ($ 28,784.00), followed by MT and ST. Green pod production at the site was achieved with 278 mm of crop evapotranspiration and 1,770 C of heat units accumulated from planting to final cut.

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for a new source of resistance to bruchids in the wild species Vigna nepalensis Tateishi & Maxted (Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somta, Prakit; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2008-08-01

    Azuki bean breeders have long been interested in producing azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi] varieties with bruchid resistance. A new bruchid (Callosobruchus spp.) resistance source was found in V. nepalensis Tateishi & Maxted, a species that is cross compatible with azuki bean. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis for resistance to C. chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.) was conducted using F2 (V. nepalensisxV. angularis) and BC1F1 [(V. nepalensisxV. angularis)xV. angularis] populations derived from crosses between the bruchid resistant species V. nepalensis and bruchid susceptible species V. angularis. Resistance was measured using two traits, percentage of seeds damaged by bruchids and the time taken for adult bruchids to emerge from seeds. Based on the results from both populations seven QTLs were detected for bruchid resistance; five QTLs for resistance to C. chinensis and two QTLs for resistance to C. maculatus. The different locations found for some resistance QTL to the two bruchid species suggests different resistance mechanisms. QTLs on linkage group (LG) 1 and LG2 for bruchid resistance to C. chinensis co-localized with seed size QTLs suggesting that incremental increase in seed size accompanied susceptibility to C. chinensis. Based on linked markers the QTL on these two linkage groups appear to be the same as previously reported in other Asian Vigna. However, several other QTLs were newly detected including one on LG4 that appears unrelated to seed size. Transfer of these new sources of bruchid resistance from V. nepalensis to azuki bean will be aided by the progress being made in azuki genome mapping. PMID:18563309

  14. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates. PMID:23596454

  15. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Awosanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

  16. Cowpeas as growth substrate do not support the production of aflatoxinby Aspergillus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Schnidt-Heydt, M.; Geisen, R.; Fandohan, P.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    A number of 21 Aspergillus sp. strains isolated from cowpeas from Benin (Africa) were characterizedby RAPD methodology. Seven of these strains grouped with A. flavus in the dendrogram generated with the RAPD data. Only three were able to produce aflatoxin in significant amounts. Twelve other...

  17. Enhanced Synthesis of Antioxidant Enzymes, Defense Proteins and Leghemoglobin in Rhizobium-Free Cowpea Roots after Challenging with Meloydogine incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T. A. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloydogine spp., particularly Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica species, parasitize several plant species and are responsible for large annual yield losses all over the world. Only a few available chemical nematicides are still authorized for RKN control owing to environmental and health reasons. Thus, plant resistance is currently considered the method of choice for controlling RKN, and research performed on the molecular interactions between plants and nematodes to identify genes of interest is of paramount importance. The present work aimed to identify the differential accumulation of root proteins of a resistant cowpea genotype (CE-31 inoculated with M. incognita (Race 3 in comparison with mock-inoculated control, using 2D electrophoresis assay, mass spectrometry identification and gene expression analyses by RT-PCR. The results showed that at least 22 proteins were differentially represented in response to RKN challenge of cowpea roots mainly within 4–6 days after inoculation. Amongst the up-represented proteins were SOD, APX, PR-1, β-1,3-glucanase, chitinases, cysteine protease, secondary metabolism enzymes, key enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, proteins involved in MAPK pathway signaling and, surprisingly, leghemoglobin in non-rhizobium-bacterized cowpea. These findings show that an important rearrangement in the resistant cowpea root proteome occurred following challenge with M. incognita.

  18. Isolation and characterization of nodulation genes from Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) strain IRc 78

    OpenAIRE

    Noti, John D.; Dudas, Brigitta; Szalay, Aladar A.

    1985-01-01

    An 11.76-kilobase-pair (kb) segment of DNA from Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) strain IRc 78 that hybridizes to nodulation genes of Rhizobium meliloti strain 41 was isolated. Hybridization of the 11.76-kb DNA fragment to DNA from other Bradyrhizobium species revealed a high degree of sequence conservation in this region. Transfer of the 11.76-kb segment to nodulation-defective (Nod-) mutants of R. meliloti restored their ability to induce nodules on Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Mutants of strain IR...

  19. A Determination of Potential ?-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Azuki Beans (Vigna angularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guixing Ren; Suhua Wang; Xuzhen Cheng; Lixia Wang; Yang Yao

    2011-01-01

    A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis) was extracted further with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH2Cl2-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guide fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. We further evaluated the interaction between the...

  20. Influence of altitudinal variation on the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Wang, Lixia; Ren, Guixing

    2012-02-01

    The individual phenolic acids, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties from 13 provinces of China were investigated. Eight phenolic compounds were analysed on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. The results obtained suggest that the azuki beans can be considered as a good source of phenolic compounds, and growing the azuki beans at high altitude may be an effective way to enhance the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the beans. PMID:21809904

  1. Growth and nodulation of mungbean (Vigna radiata [L.] wilczek) as affected by sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth and nodulation of Vigna radiata were compared at four levels (0-0.3% NaCl added to garden soil) of salinity in pot experiments. Dry mass of plants, 7 and 11 weeks after the commencement of salinity treatment, decreased with increasing salinity levels. Number of nodules and fresh weight of nodules per plant decreased with increasing salinity. As the number of nodules decreased, average size of the nodules increased with increasing salinity levels. Reproductive growth was also adversely affected by the salinity as the number and fresh weight of pods per plant decreased with increasing salinity. (author)

  2. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

  3. Phosphorus utilization by maize from 32P labelled plant material of cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to assess P utilization by maize plants raised on Fatehpur sand amended with varying levels of 32P labelled cowpea plant material. Increasing level of plant material enhanced drymatter yield and phosphorus uptake by maize plant, which were higher with the application of inorganic-P (20 mg P kg-1 soil) fertilizer. P utilization by maize crop was highest (14.36 per cent) in non-P fertilized pot amended with 0.062 per cent plant residue and lowest (10.59 per cent) in P fertilized pot (20 mg P kg-1 soil) amended with 0.500 per cent plant residue. Reutilization of P by maize plants declined with increasing level of plant residue and with application of inorganic phosphorus. The results of this paper suggest that cowpea plant residue could contribute to P nutrition of maize and this factor should be considered for better P management practices. (author). 6 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Characterization and genetic relatedness among 37 yardlong bean and cowpea accessions based on morphological characters and RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinich Saereeprasert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four yardlong bean and 13 cowpea accessions were planted in the field to characterize their morphology and genetic relatedness. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replicationswas used. Growth habit, days to flowering, pod color, pod length, number of pods/plant, yield/plant and consumption quality were recorded. The results showed that pod length, number of pods/plant and podyield/plant among 37 accessions were highly significant differerence. Mean pod yield and pod length of 24 yardlong bean accessions were 212.1 g/plant and 48.7 cm, respectively, while mean pod yield and pod lengthof 13 cowpea accessions were 117.4 g/plant and 21.3 cm, respectively. Twenty two yardlong bean accessions exhibited indeterminate growth habit while 10 of 13 cowpea had determinate growth habit and the restsexhibited semi-determinate growth. Genetic variation and relationships among accessions were investigated based on RAPD technique. Total DNA was extracted from young leaf samples of all accessions using CTAB buffer. One hundred and twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened and 5 primers (OPC-06,OPR-12, OPZ-03, OPZ-08, OPZ-13 were chosen for further evaluation. A dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed based on 23 polymorphic bands obtained from 5 primers using UPGMA in SPSS program,which revealed separate groups between yardlong bean and cowpea. The similarity coefficient among yardlong bean and cowpea accessions ranged from 0.515 to 1.000 and 0.548 to 1.000, respectively.

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  6. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  7. Genetic diversity as assessed by ISSR markers in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadarajan N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on a collection of 23 blackgram genotypes involving 16 releasedvarieties, six pre release cultures and one wild species Vigna mungo var. silvestris to study the genetic diversityusing twelve ISSR primers. The number of alleles produced by different ISSR primers ranged from eight to 17with an average of 11.5 per primer and the level of polymorphism was found to be 82.05 percent. Similaritymeasures and clustering analyses were made using ISSR data. The resulting dendrogram distributed the 23blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The highest genetic similarity coefficient was measured betweengenotypes CBG 671 and CBG 632. The results of PCoA were comparable to that of grouping based on UPGMAand 23 genotypes were grouped into four groups. Genotype Vigna mungo var. silvestris was placed separatelyfrom rest of the genotypes in both the analyses. Grouping of varieties using ISSR markers did not show anyrelevance to their pedigree. All the pre release cultures in one group revealed that only a portion of geneticvariation has been exploited. The results revealed that, genetic diversity is low among the varieties releasedfrom the respective institute and hence genotypes were grouped according to the research institutes from whichthey released. It suggests that the research institutes have to enlarge the genetic base for variety development.

  8. Morphology of seeds and seedlings of four species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae

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    Fabiana Soledad Ojeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four neotropical species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae have potential value as forage crops or ornamentals and could be cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas, even on floodplains. In order to obtain useful data for their culture and taxonomy, the seed morphology, germination pattern (hypogeal or epigeal and seedling development were studied. The studied species belong to different sections of the genus: V. adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Leptospron; V. candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Sigmoidotropis; V. caracalla (L. Verdc. (Sect. Caracallae and V. luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Sect. Vigna. The seeds were collected during fieldwork conducted in northwestern and northeastern Argentina. The qualitative and quantitative characters of the seeds were registered, after which they were sown. The development of the emerged seedlings was followed, first in a greenhouse and thereafter in open field. We recorded the type of germination, the thigmotropic movements of the hypocotyl and of the stem, seedling architecture and plant longevity. These traits allowed us to differentiate the species and construct an identification key that could be useful for agronomic or floricultural purposes. The data obtained partially support the current taxonomic treatment of the genus.

  9. A genetic linkage map for azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, O K; Kaga, A; Isemura, T; Wang, X W; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2005-11-01

    To make progress in genome analysis of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) a genetic linkage map was constructed from a backcross population of (V. nepalensis x V. angularis) x V.angularis consisting of 187 individuals. A total of 486 markers-205 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 187 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 94 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. This map spans a total length of 832.1 cM with an average marker distance of 1.85 cM and is the most saturated map for a Vigna species to date. In addition, RFLP markers from other legumes facilitated finding several orthologous linkage groups based on previously published RFLP linkage maps. Most SSR primers that have been developed from SSR-enriched libraries detected a single locus. The SSR loci identified are distributed throughout the azuki bean genome. This moderately dense linkage map equipped with many SSR markers will be useful for mapping a range of useful traits such as those related to domestication and stress resistance. The mapping population will be used to develop advanced backcross lines for high resolution QTL mapping of these traits. PMID:16193342

  10. Short term exposure of UV-V radiation enhances salinity tolerance in vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic radiation (7%) emitted from the sun is in the UV range (200-400) nm. Several morphological and anatomical changes have been reported from plants grown under long-term UV-B regimes. The effect of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) and salinity alone and in combination were studied. Fifteen days old seedlings of Vigna radiata were exposed to UV-B radiation for 10, 20 and 30 minutes and salinity treatment was given to the plants 3 days before the UV-B treatment. UV radiation was artificially provided by Esco Airstream Vertical Laminar Flow Cabinet (AVC-4AI). Significant decrease (p<0.05) in root and shoot length, specific leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid content of in all UV-B and salinity treatments was observed as compared to control. The reduction was more pronounced in salinity treatment as compared to UV-B alone and combination of UV-B with salinity. It is concluded that the short term exposure of UV-B radiation enhances the salinity tolerance in Vigna radiata. (author)

  11. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated. PMID:15586693

  12. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sandy texture, highest level of available phosphorus among the soils investigated in the study and moderate level of other plant nutrients (Mg and K enhanced nodulation, which supported N-fixation. Soil type also influenced the quantity of N accumulated by each species, but had no effect on nitrogen concentration in the different plant parts. Desmodium ramississimon had higher nodule weight and accumulated more nitrogen and fixed more N2 than Vigna unquiculata in the three soils. The mean nodule dry weights were in the ranges of 61.6- 239.2 mg/plant for Dm in the three soils as compared to the range 3.2-31.4 mg/plant for Cp. Symbiotic dependence of DM varied with soil type ranging from 63.62% in Adani soil to 88% in Nkpologu soil, whereas Cp had the least symbiotic dependence value. These trends were confirmed in the field thereby indicating that Desmodium ramississimon had greater N2- potential than the cultivated legume studied.

  13. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  14. Evidence that the 32,000-dalton protein encoded by bottom-component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus is a proteolytic processing enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, H.; Moerman, M; Rezelman, G.; Goldbach, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Translation of middle-component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus in vitro produced two polypeptides of 95 and 105 kilodaltons (95K and 105K, respectively) with overlapping amino acid sequences, which were specifically cleaved by a protease encoded by the bottom-component RNA. The proteolytic cleavage was studied by the addition of antibodies raised against various bottom-component RNA-encoded proteins to extracts prepared from bottom-component RNA-inoculated cowpea protoplasts. Since antiserum to t...

  15. Genetic and Symbiotic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soils in the Western Amazon by Using Cowpea as the Trap Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Azarias Guimares, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simo Abraho Nbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The...

  16. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and Other Stored-product Pests on Cowpea in Local Markets in Accra: Management Strategies Employed by Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Ayertey; I.N. Egbon

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as S...

  17. Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gmez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseo fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro rplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interaccin altamente significativa (p < 0,001 en el rendimiento de semilla de las gramneas, as como en el rendimiento de grano de las leguminosas; con resultados sobresalientes en los policultivos de estas con P. maximum cv. Likoni, para el primer caso, y en V. radiata (frijol chino combinada con P. maximum cv. Likoni y Ch. gayana cv. Callide, para el segundo. Todas las combinaciones presentaron ventajosos ndices equivalentes del uso de la tierra, con valores superiores a uno. Se concluye que el uso de las leguminosas temporales en policultivo con las gramneas no afect su establecimiento, y que la cosecha de la semilla y de los granos mejor la eficiencia biolgica durante el proceso.

  18. Resposta do feijão-caupi as lâminas de irrigação e as doses de fósforo no cerrado de Roraima Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do feijão-caupi (Vigna ungüiculata (L. Walp. cv. BRS Novaera sob quatro lâminas de água (273; 257; 241 e 187 mm e doses de fósforo (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados na forma de superfosfato triplo, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas lâminas de água e as sub parcelas pelas doses de fósforo, resultando em 16 tratamentos. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema convencional de aspersão, montado no campo segundo o sistema de "aspersão em linha". As massas seca da parte aérea e de 100 grãos foram influenciadas significativamente pela interação entre lâminas de água e doses de fósforo, enquanto o número de grãos por vagem e o comprimento da vagem foram influenciados somente pelas doses de fósforo. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi de 89,45 kg de P2O5, com produtividade de 1.306 kg ha-1.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation depth and phosphate fertilizer (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5 on yield and production components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Novaera at the Savanna of Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was arranged in a completely randomized block in split-plot and four replications. Irrigation depths were applied through a sprinkler line source system. The principal treatments constituted on the depths of irrigation and the secondary treatments by the phosphate fertilizer. Significant effects (p < 0.05 of the depth of irrigation and phosphate fertilizer interaction with aerial mass production and mass of 100 grains were observed. The number of grains per pods and size of pod were affected by the phosphate fertilizer only. The highest economical yield (1,306 kg ha-1 was obtained by 89.45 kg of P2O5.

  19. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  20. Yield and biological nitrogen fixation of cowpea varieties in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea is an important crop in small properties of the Brazilian semi-arid region, where it is cultivated without fertilizer application. In spite of the fundamental role played by biological Nitrogen fixation (BNF), little is known of the symbiosis between cowpea varieties and native rhizobia or recommended rhizobia strains. A field experiment was conducted aiming to estimate BNF and productivities of local varieties, in association with two previously described bradyrhizobial inoculant strains and native rhizobia (no inoculation). The plants received 20 kg ha−1 of enriched 15N fertilizer to allow the use of the isotopic dilution method. After harvest (80 days) straw and grain biomass was determined. The varieties differed in grain and straw productivity and in N and N derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa). Corujinha had the highest grain productivity (1147 kg ha−1), followed by Sempre Verde (920 kg ha−1), Azul (912 kg ha−1) and Cariri (889 kg ha−1). Costela de Vaca had the highest straw productivity (2258 kg ha−1), highest N content in the straw (28 g ha−1) and highest BNF (79 %Ndfa, corresponding to 45 kg ha−1 of N for total aboveground biomass and 39 kg ha−1 for the straw), but the lowest grain productivity (381 kg ha−1) and the lowest harvest index (0.14). The inoculations did not significantly alter productivities, N contents or %Ndfa but there was a tendency of lower grain productivities in the non-inoculated plants, which was reflected in lower total and biologically fixed N quantities, indicating that the native strains may be slightly less efficient. -- Highlights: ► We estimate N fixation and productivities of local cowpea varieties in Brazil. ► Plants were inoculated or not with two recommended rhizobia strains. ► All local varieties had high proportions of their N derived from the air (%Ndfa). ► They differed in BNF in grain and straw productivity. ► Inoculation did not alter productivities or %Ndfa but decreased fixed N amounts.

  1. Phytoremediation potentials of cowpea (Vigina unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) for hydrocarbon degradation in organic and inorganic manure-amended tropical typic paleustults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jidere, C M; Akamigbo, F O R; Ugwuanyi, J O

    2012-04-01

    A field study on phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil was designed to assess the effects of organic manures (poultry droppings and cassava peels) and NPK fertilization on the potentials of cowpea (Vigina unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to stimulate hydrocarbon degradation in soil. Cowpea and maize crops were established on the hydrocarbon contaminated soil amended with three rates (0, 4, and 8 ton/ha) of the soil amendments, and arranged in 3 x 3 x 3 factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design. Hydrocarbon was significantly (P amendments. While the treatment combinations of 8 t/ha Poultry Droppings (PD) + 8 t/ha Cassava Peels (CP) + 4 t/ha NPK fertilizer was optimal for hydrocarbon degradation in the cowpea plots, 4 t/ha PD + 8 t/ha CP + 8 t/ha NPK fertilizer was the most preferred in the maize plot. Cowpea showed greater potential for hydrocarbon degradation at the first year. The mean values of hydrocarbon concentrations at the cowpea and maize plots indicated no significant difference at the second year. Grain yield of cowpea increased by 87% at the second year, while maize was unable to grow to maturity in the first year. PMID:22567717

  2. USE OF OIL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF NEEM SEEDS, AZADIRACHTIN AND ACEPHATE TO CONTROL COWPEA BLACK APHID LEO E EXTRATO AQUOSO DE SEMENTES DE NIM, AZADIRACTINA E ACEFATO NO CONTROLE DO PULGO-PRETO DO FEIJO-DE-CORDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Teixeira Gomes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    In this research, different trademarks and an aqueous neem seed extract were used to control the cowpea black aphid. The experimental unit consisted of a plant in a 300 mL disposable plastic cup, under greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were applied: 1 Absolute control (water; 2 Acephate (Orthene 750 BR, 1.0 g of the commercial product (c. p. L-1; 3 Natuneem (10 mL c. p. L-1; 4 Neemazal T/S 1.0% (10 mL c. p. L-1; and 5 Aqueous seed extract (100 g L-1. Six adult apterous females were used to infest 15-days-old plants and pulverization took place 17 days after planting. Two days later, all living black aphids were counted. All azadiracthin treatments differed statistically from the control and the acephate. The seed aqueous extract was the least efficient one (44.8%, followed by Nattuneen (81.15%, while Neenmazal T/S 1.0% was the most efficient azadiracthin trademark (91.35%. Azadiracthin products were efficient to control cowpea black aphid, under greenhouse conditions.

    KEY-WORDS: Vigna unguiculata; Azadiracta indica; Aphis craccivora Koch; botanical insecticides; alternative control.

    Avaliou-se a eficcia de diferentes formulaes comerciais e extrato aquoso da semente de nim (Azadiracta indica, no controle do pulgo

  3. Effects of Processing (Boiling and Roasting) on the Nutritional and Antinutritional Properties of Bambara Groundnuts (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.) from Southern Kaduna, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uche Samuel Ndidi; Charity Unekwuojo Ndidi; Idowu Asegame Aimola; Obed Yakubu Bassa; Mary Mankilik; Zainab Adamu

    2014-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of processing (boiling and roasting) on the proximate, antinutrient, and mineral composition of Vigna subterranea seeds. The proximate composition analysis showed significant difference (P

  4. Sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis for genetic diversity and micronutrient content among gene pools in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

    OpenAIRE

    Aneja, Bharti; Yadav, Neelam R.; Yadav, Ram C; Kumar, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, commonly called mungbean is an important pulse crop. Commercial cultivars contain low levels of iron and zinc and it is important to assess genetic variability in the available germplasm for improving micronutrient content in commercial cultivars. The present study was undertaken to study molecular diversity using Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) among 21 Vigna radiata genotypes. Twenty nine SRAP primer combinations produced a total of 121 amplified b...

  5. Chickpea and cowpea grain improvement using mutation and other advanced genetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of genetic engineering methodologies in breeding programmes seems to be very promising to find new resistance-related genes present in other phyla, to clone and transfer them into plants; and, to shorten the time to obtain an improved genotype since only a single gene is involved in this process. The main ''bottle-neck'' to apply this scheme in chickpea and cowpea is the absence of a reliable protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation. In this frame, following some pilot experiments on these grain legumes to induce regeneration and gene transfer, we attempted to find a regeneration medium, assay the effect of different hormones on young tissues; and, to select the best procedures for transfer of genes into the plant genome

  6. Biochemical Basis for Bruchid Resistance in Cowpea, Chickpea and Soybean Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruchi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are rich and varied source of secondary plant metabolites which are toxic or anti metabolic towards insect pests, possibly by virtue of these toxic substances they show resistance and susceptibility against stored grain pest species. Despite the potential nutritional and health promoting value the presence of antinutritional factors limit biological value and usage of legumes as food. Antinutritional factors interfere with digestion and also make the seeds unpalatable when consumed in raw form. Based on these possibilities the biochemical basis of bruchid resistance has been studied in different legume genotypes and the results recorded revealed that highly resistant soybean genotypes possesed high amount of fats, proteins and antinutritional factors (phenols and 4-5 times more trypsin inhibitors than cowpea and chickpea (kabuli>desi genotypes which contain high amount of carbohydrates and low amount of antinutritional factors and were susceptible towards Callosobruchus species.

  7. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  8. Induced mutations for improvement of chick-pea, lentil, pea and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is among the leading countries in grain legume production and is also a well recognized centre for mutation research on cultivated plants. Mutation induction experiments on various grain legume species have been carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute for a number of years, all aimed at improving the germplasm available for the development of better varieties. As a result, a number of high yielding and disease resistant induced mutant varieties in chick-pea - Pusa-408 (Ajay), Pusa-413 (Atul) and Pusa-417 (Girnar); in pea - L-116 (Hans); and in cowpea - V-16 (Amba), V-38 (Swarna) and V-240, have been developed, identified and released for cultivation by farmers in India. (author). 20 refs, 13 tabs

  9. Induction of tolerance to water stress in the cowpea seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Agostini Colman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies in several species have been conducted under conditions of water stress. However, the germination and young seedlings, there are few studies aimed at developing techniques that seek a future tolerance and acclimation of plants to water stress. Given the above, the objective of this study was to simulate drought stress on seed germination of cowpea and evaluate the thermal shock applied during hydration can lead to culture to acquire stress tolerance. Seeds were subjected to the process of soaking and remained in BOD at 25ºC for 24 hours. After this part has been kept at this temperature part and transferred to the thermal shock to 7°C for 24 hours. Both plots that have gone through shock, as the others were transferred to the substrate moistened with mannitol at concentrations of 0, 22.29, 44.58, 66.87 and 89.17 g L-1, simulating the osmotic potential of 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa in BOD at 25ºC. Were evaluated: germination, speed of germination, abnormal seedlings, shoot length, primary root length, total length and relative seedling root/shoot. The best performance in germination was obtained by the seeds that passed hrough the thermal shock to 7ºC for 24 hours, which allows us to affirm that there was an induction of cross-tolerance and that this can be activated at the beginning of the imbibition in seeds of cowpea.

  10. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e FMA em rotação cultural milho/feijão-de-corda utilizando-se águas salinas Biomass, microbial activity and AMF in crop rotation system of maize/cowpea using saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloneide de Jesus Bezerra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de alta e baixa salinidade sobre variáveis microbiológicas do solo em área submetida à rotação de cultura entre milho (Zea Mays L. e feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.. A área destinada ao experimento foi dividida em duas subáreas, sendo realizados quatro cultivos: dois cultivos irrigados na estação seca e dois de sequeiro na estação chuvosa. O estudo foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Nos cultivos irrigados foram usadas água com as seguintes condutividades elétricas (CEa: 0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. Os cultivos de sequeiro foram realizados nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas na estação seca, as quais permaneceram demarcadas e identificadas. No início e ao final de cada cultivo, foram coletadas amostras em duas subáreas na região radicular das plantas, no terço médio da fileira central de cada parcela. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação promoveu aumento do número total de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares FMA e reduziu a respiração basal do solo, o carbono da biomassa e o coeficiente metabólico microbiano (qCO2, principalmente na área cultivada com feijão-de-corda. O gênero Glomus respondeu por mais de 70% dos esporos totais encontrados, sendo que essa percentagem aumentou nos tratamentos com maior salinidade nos cultivos da estação seca. Os dados não evidenciaram qualquer efeito negativo da salinidade residual sobre as variáveis microbiológicas avaliadas, em função da irrigação com água salina durante os cultivos da estação seca.This work carred out the influence of irrigation with water of high and low salinity on soil microbial variables in area under the crop rotation between maize (Zea Mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. The area for the experiment was divided into two sub areas being made four crops, two crops irrigated in the dry season and two dry in the rainy season. The study was conducted under field conditions using a randomized block design with five replications. In irrigated crops were used the following water with electrical conductivity (ECw: 0.8; 2.2; 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The rainfed crops were conducted on the same plots that were cultivated during the dry season, which remained demarcated and identified. At the beginning and end of each crop were collected samples in two subareas in the region of root system plant, in the middle third of the central row of each plot. Increasing of salinity in irrigation water led to increase in the total number of spores and reduced soil basal respiration, biomass carbon and microbial metabolic coefficient (qCO2, mainly in the area cultivated with cowpea. The genus Glomus accounted for more than 70% of total spores found, and this percentage increased in treatments with high salinity in dry season crops. The data reveal no residual negative effect of salinity on the microbial variables assessed in function irrigation with saline water during the dry season crops.

  11. Estimation of N-fixed by cowpea as influenced by two phosphorus sources using N-15 dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non conventional phosphorus fertilizers have the potential to be used under different soils. Their effect on the biological nitrogen fixation by legumes is not clear. This greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate two p -sources, namely super phosphate (SSP), and the partially acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR) on nitrogen fixed by Cowpea, using N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Acid soil was limed with Ca C O3, treated with P(as SSP or PAPR), at rates of 0, 50, and 150 mg P/Kg soil, and planted with Cowpea. Results showed that, application of P as PAPR or SSP significantly increased the dry matter content of the whole plant, as well as the total nitrogen uptake. Significant biological nitrogen fixation was found as result of P application. Percentage Ndfa ranged from 28.3 to 70.1 depending on the rate and type of P source, also most of Ndfa was translocated to the seeds. 3 tab

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Three Plants Extracts on the Cowpea Pod Sucking Bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis, STÄL (Hemiptera: Coreidae

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    N.M. BA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, farmers commonly use insecticidal plants for crop protection. To understand how insecticidal plant works (their mode of action, we carried out a bioassay on Clavigralla tomentosicollis, the cowpea pod sucking bugs with three insecticidal plants, Cassia nigricans V., Cymbopogon schoenanthus S. and Cleome viscosa L. Three modes of exposures (1 direct contact application, (2 stomach poisoning activity (3 and inhalation toxicity activity, were tested. The results showed a potent contact and stomach toxicity on 1st instars larvae regardless of the three crude extracts. But the plant extracts was less effective with older stages of the insects. A highest effectiveness was recorded with inhalation of vapours of crude extracts regardless of insect stages and type of plants. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding the use of plant extract for controlling pod sucking bugs in cowpea fields.

  13. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis; Mejoramiento de Frijol Chino [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], Mediante Mutagenesis Radioinducida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Solis M, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Iguala (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad (Mexico); Cruz T, E. de la [ININ, Carretera Mexico-La Marquesa S/N, La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Mexico. C.P. 52750 (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-07-01

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  14. Asymbiotic Acetylene Reduction by a Fast-Growing Cowpea Rhizobium Strain with Nitrogenase Structural Genes Located on a Symbiotic Plasmid

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Gregory L.; Plazinski, Jacek; Rolfe, Barry G.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was designed which enabled the detection of ex planta nitrogenase activity in the fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium strain IHP100. Nitrogenase activity in agar culture under air occurred at a rate similar to that found for Bradyrhizobium strain CB756 but lower than that for Rhizobium strain ORS571. Hybridization studies showed that both nod and nif genes were located on a 410-kilobase Sym plasmid in strain IHP100.

  15. Probing plasma membrane microdomains in cowpea protoplasts using lipidated GFP-fusion proteins and multimode FRET microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; Munster, van, B.C.; Vischer, N O; Gadella, Th.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy was applied to study the plasma membrane organization using different lipidated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins co-expressed in cowpea protoplasts. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to the hyper variable region of a small maize GTPase (ROP7) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was fused to the N-myristoylation motif of the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (LeCPK1) of tomato. Upon co-expressing in cowp...

  16. Screening of Cowpeas for Resistance to the Flower Bud Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mumuni Abudulai; A.B. Salifu; Mohammed Haruna

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen cowpea cultivars were screened for resistance to the flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom in field trials during 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the results showed that ITH 98-20 and TVu 1509 (resistant control) supported significantly (p<0.05) lower thrips populations than Vita 7 (susceptible control) and most of the cultivars except ITH 98-49 and Sanzi. Significantly lower thrips damage ratings were recorded for 11 cultivars including TVu 1509 and Sanzi than Vita 7. Sanzi...

  17. Integration of organic and inorganic sources of phosphorus for increased productivity of mungbean (vigna radiata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic sources of phosphorous on the growth and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.). FYM, poultry manure and chemical fertilizer were accumulated at various concentrations to formulate different treatments. Analysis of data revealed significant differences with respect to plant height, number of plants m/sup -2/, leaf area (cm/sup 2/), root length (cm), number of pod bearing branches plant/sup -1/, number of pods plant/sup -1), number of seeds pod/sup -1/, pod size (cm), number of seeds plant /sup -1/, 1000 seed weight (g), biological yield (Kg ha/sup -1/), seed yield (Kg ha/sup -1/), harvest index (%) and grain protein contents (%) indicating primacy of integration of the two sources in having improved mungbean productivity. (author)

  18. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation. (Author)

  19. Growth Stimulatory Effects of Azospirillum Strains on Triticum aestivum and Vigna radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Munir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Five bacterial strains of Azospirillum (As-2, As-4, As-5, As-6 and As-8 were used both as monocultures and mixed cultures (twenty-six combinations for each plant for the inoculation of Triticum aestivum (non leguminous and Vigna radiata (leguminous seeds. Inoculated as well as non inoculated seeds were germinated and grown under controlled temperature and light conditions for 10 days. Growth parameters revealed that in both plants, mono culture inoculations manifested the better growth as compared to non inoculated treatments. Mixed cultures inoculation 3j (three strain combination and 4a (four strain combination in T. aestivum and 4a (four strain combination and 3i (three strain combination in V. radiata exhibited synergistic responses as compared to control treatment. Stimulatory effects were more pronounced in non leguminous seedlings relative to leguminous one.

  20. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%. PMID:25482817

  1. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from azuki beans (Vigna angularis) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Y; Sato, S; Hatai, A

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial property of azuki beans (Vigna angularis). The water extracts of green, black and red colored azuki beans showed antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In contrast, the extract of white azuki beans showed no inhibition towards any of the microorganisms examined. The extracts of colored azuki beans contained larger amounts of polyphenols including proanthocyanidins than the extracts of white azuki beans. The counts of S. aureus cells, inoculated in the medium containing the extracts of colored azuki beans, were significantly reduced in comparison with those of control and white azuki beans after 24 h (p azuki beans may be responsible for their antibacterial activity. PMID:16444673

  2. A Determination of Potential ?-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Azuki Beans (Vigna angularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis was extracted further with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH2Cl2-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guide fractionation method from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. We further evaluated the interaction between the flavonoid compounds and ?-glucosidase by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.4 mgmL?1 and 4.8 mgmL?1, respectively. This is the first study of the active compositions of azuki beans against ?-glucosidase.

  3. A determination of potential ?-glucosidase inhibitors from Azuki Beans (Vigna angularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2011-01-01

    A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guide fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. We further evaluated the interaction between the flavonoid compounds and ?-glucosidase by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 0.4 mgmL(-1) and 4.8 mgmL(-1), respectively. This is the first study of the active compositions of azuki beans against ?-glucosidase. PMID:22072898

  4. Estudo do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) minimamente processado

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa A FURTUNATO; MAGALHÃES Margarida M. dos A; Zilda Luiz MARIA

    2000-01-01

    Visando definir tecnologias alternativas de processamento do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp), estudou-se o processo de congelamento do mesmo. Este consistiu na recepção da matéria prima, seleção dos grãos de coloração e tamanho uniformes, seguida de lavagem em água corrente e branqueamento por imersão em água a 90ºC. Os grãos foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos e congelados em freezer doméstico a -18ºC, sendo armazenados a essa temperatura. Foi realizado o estudo de vida de prat...

  5. Effect of nanoparticles suspension on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata seedlings by foliar spray method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh K Dhoke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental investigation demonstrates the effect of nano-ZnO, nano-FeO and nano-ZnCuFe-oxide particles on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata seedling. The study was carried out by spraying optimum concentrations of nanoparticles in suspension form on hydroponically grown test units and examining the effect on the shoot growth of seedlings. Based on biomass assay, it was found that the seedlings displayed good growth over control, demonstrating a positive effect of the nanoparticle treatment. The best performance was observed for nano-ZnCuFe-Oxide followed by nano-FeO and nano-ZnO. Absorption of nanoparticles by plant leaves was also detected by inductive coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD MARKERS LINKED TO MYMV RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L. WILCZEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN HOLEYACHI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker associated with mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek by employing bulk segregant analysis in recombinant inbred lines (RILs. Out of 20 random decamers, only ten primers viz; OPA-03, A-06, A-03, OPA-09, A-09, OPB 7, UBC-391, OPC-08, UBC 499 and A-04 showed polymorphism between parents Chinamung and BL 849. Out of these ten primers only one primer i.e. UBC 499 amplified a single 700 bp band in the genotype BL 849 (resistant parent and MYMV resistant bulk which was absent in Chinamung (susceptible parent and MYMV susceptible bulk. PCR amplified 700 bp marker band was detected in individuals of F5 RILs constituting the MYMV resistant bulk indicating that primer UBC 499 was linked to MYMV resistance. This marker can be used in screening mungbean genotypes for resistance to MYMV disease.

  7. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  8. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  9. Estimation of N2-fixation in cowpea grown in monoculture or in mixture with maize using 15 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was carried out under natural climatic conditions to determine the proportion of different nitrogen sources (air, soil, fertilizer) in cowpea and maize grown alone or in mixture using 15 N isotope dilution technique. On average, the proportion of N derived from fixation by cowpea grown in mixed culture was 55% lower than that derived by the sole cropped cowpea (77%). Dry matter produced by one plant of maize grown in mixed culture was twice as much as that produced by a plant grown in mono culture. Moreover, total nitrogen content in one maize plant grown in mixed culture was 213 mg higher than that determined by two plant of maize grown in mono culture (171 mg). However, the amount of nitrogen derived from soil by maize grown in mixed culture was equal or even higher than that taken up by two plants of maize grown in mono culture. This indicates a better utilization of soil N by the maize in mixed culture. This data emphasize the crucial role of interspecific competition in soil N uptake. Data from this study do not support the hypothesis of N transfer from the legume to the cereal because no significant differences were found between mixed and pure maize in terms of 15 N in excess content. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  10. Biological and physicochemical properties of cowpea severe mosaic comovirus isolated from soybean in the State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula V. Bertacini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean plants with symptoms of bud blight were growing close to cowpea with severe symptoms of mosaic associated with blisters in the leaves. A group of plants of both species were collected and used for etiological studies. This kind of symptom in soybeans was common in certain areas of the State of Paraná, induced by tobacco streak ilarvirus. Host range, serological reaction, particle morphology and size, protein and nucleic acid analysis, and transmission by beetles from species Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. showed that the virus involved was cowpea severe mosaic comovirus. This is the first report on the occurrence of this virus in soybean plants in the State of Paraná. Results using indirect ELISA showed that in cowpea the relative virus concentration was higher in green leaf areas than in chlorotic ones. Also, virus concentration, determined through indirect ELISA was much higher in plants kept at diurnal regime of 25º C x 23º C (12 x 12 h than at 30º C x 28º C.

  11. The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha-1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha-1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha-1. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  12. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of the seven cultivated Vigna species (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, C-W; Jiang, X-H; Ou, L-J; Liu, J; Long, K-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, W-T; Zhao, W; Hu, J-C

    2015-01-01

    The genomic organisation of the seven cultivated Vigna species, V. unguiculata, V. subterranea, V. angularis, V. umbellata, V. radiata, V. mungo and V. aconitifolia, was determined using sequential combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. For phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomic in situ hybridisation (cGISH) onto somatic chromosomes and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 45S rDNA were used. Quantitative karyotypes were established using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands and rDNA FISH signals. All species had symmetrical karyotypes composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Distinct heterochromatin differentiation was revealed by CPD staining and DAPI counterstaining after FISH. The rDNA sites among all species differed in their number, location and size. cGISH of V. umbellata genomic DNA to the chromosomes of all species produced strong signals in all centromeric regions of V. umbellata and V. angularis, weak signals in all pericentromeric regions of V. aconitifolia, and CPD-banded proximal regions of V. mungo var. mungo. Molecular phylogenetic trees showed that V. angularis and V. umbellata were the closest relatives, and V. mungo and V. aconitifolia were relatively closely related; these species formed a group that was separated from another group comprising V. radiata, V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis and V. subterranea. This result was consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the heterochromatin and cGISH patterns; thus, fluorochrome banding and cGISH are efficient tools for the phylogenetic analysis of Vigna species. PMID:24750425

  13. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (crole bean), and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of crole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of crole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented. PMID:25153330

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of mungbean Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 and a phylogenetic analysis of crops in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The entire mitogenome of the Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 was identified as a circular molecule of 401 262 bp length (DDBJ accession number: AP014716). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the NM92 mitogenome were found to be 27.48%, 27.41%, 22.63%, and 22.48%, respectively. The NM92 mitogenome encoded 3 rRNAs, 16 tRNAs and 33 proteins. Eight protein-coding genes (nad1, nad2, nad4, nad5, nad7, rps3, and rps10) centain introns. Among them, three (nad1, nad2, and nad5) are trans-spliced genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the 21 protein-coding genes of 16 crops. A species of gymnosperms, Cycas, was selected as the outgroup. This complete mitogenome sequence provides useful information to understand the cultivation of Vigna radiata and other crops. PMID:26469726

  15. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Bayala, Jules

    2011-01-01

    shade of six randomly selected Parkia biglobosa trees during one season in south-central Burkina Faso. The area under the canopy of each tree was divided into four main plots according to cardinal directions, and sub-divided into three concentric zones. Control plots were established outside the tree...... canopy. The crops were intercropped in two different proportions using the replacement method and compared to sole crops. Days to flowering were noted and yields were measured, and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) and Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) calculated. Flowering was earlier outside than under the...

  16. Physiological Responses of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to Short Periods of Water Stress During Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vurayai; V. Emongor and B. Moseki

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to short periods of water stress imposed at different growth stages, and the recuperative ability of the species from drought stress. A major problem associated with Bambara groundnut production is its very low yields due to intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability in rainfall in semi-arid regions. The response pattern of physiological processes to water stress imposed at different growth ...

  17. Experimental effects of sand-dust storm on tolerance index, percentage phototoxicity and chlorophyll a fluorescence of Vigna radiata L.

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi, M; Mozafar Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid parts of the world excessive mineral aerosol carried by air parcels is a common climatic incident with well-known environmental side effects. In this way, we studied the role of sand-dust accumulation on various aspects of productivity of Vigna radiata L. including dry mass (DM), chlorophyll (Chl) a, b, Chlorophyll a fluorescence (effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (?PSII), maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and electron transport rate (ETR)...

  18. De novo assembly of the complete organelle genome sequences of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) using next-generation sequencers

    OpenAIRE

    Naito, Ken; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kawase, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Since chloroplasts and mitochondria are maternally inherited and have unique features in evolution, DNA sequences of those organelle genomes have been broadly used in phylogenetic studies. Thanks to recent progress in next-generation sequencer (NGS) technology, whole-genome sequencing can be easily performed. Here, using NGS data generated by Roche GS Titanium and Illumina Hiseq 2000, we performed a hybrid assembly of organelle genome sequences of Vigna angularis (azuki bean). Both the mitoch...

  19. Effect of some organic wastes on the absorption and translocation of 32P in Vigna mungo (L.) hepper seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous extracts of all the organic wastes namely Lantana camara, Chromalaena odoratum and Trifolium spp. in general inhibited the uptake of 32P in Vigna mungo seedlings. The aqueous extract of all these organic wastes at all concentrations, on the other hand, promoted significantly the distribution of 3'2P to stem and leaves than roots. The extent of distribution in stem and leaves, however, varied with the organic wastes and its concentrations. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  20. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L.) DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L.) YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

    OpenAIRE

    K Agung Sudewa; D. N. Suprapta; Dan M S Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung mar...

  1. Effect of Tannery Industrial Effluents on Crop Growth and Vam Colonization in Vigna radiata (L Wilczek and Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Javaid

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot growth and pod yield was decreased while root growth was stimulated when Vigna radiata (L Wilczek was grown in Tannery Effluent Contaminated Soil (TECS. Nodulation in V. radiata was also adversely affected in TECS. In maize (Zea mays L root length was increased significantly while shoot length and root / shoot biomass were nonsignificantly affected in TECS. VA mycorrhizal colonization was suppressed in TECS in both the test species. Arbuscular infection was severely arrested in TECS.

  2. Impact of αAI-1 expressed in genetically modified cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests. PMID:23840776

  3. Fluxo de calor sensvel em cultivo de feijo-caupi Sensible heat flux in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos R. de S Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o fluxo de calor sensvel obtido pelo mtodo do balano de energia-razo de Bowen (H_B e pelo mtodo aerodinmico (H_A, em uma rea de 4 ha cultivada com feijo-caupi em Areia-PB (6 58' 12" S e 35 42' 15" O, 620 m. Foram coletados dados de saldo de radiao, fluxo de calor no solo, temperatura e umidade do solo, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitao pluvial, os quais eram lidos a cada minuto, e armazenados, em uma central de aquisio de dados, como mdias a cada 30 min, com exceo da pluviometria, cujo valor foi totalizado no perodo. Obteve-se excelente concordncia entre H_A e H_B, com um ndice "d " de 0,980, um erro padro (EP de 14,88 W m-2, e sem diferena significativa entre H_A e H_B, pelo teste t-Student. Deste modo, o mtodo aerodinmico pode ser usado em conjunto com medidas de saldo de radiao e de fluxo de calor no solo, para se estimar o fluxo de calor latente e, consequentemente, a evapotranspirao da cultura do feijo-caupi, para as condies edafoclimticas do Brejo Paraibano.A study was performed to compare the bulk aerodynamic (H_A and Bowen ratio energy balance (H_B methods in the estimation of the sensible heat flux in a cowpea crop. Data of net radiation, soil heat flux, soil water content, soil temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall were collected on 30-min time intervals in an area of 4 ha belonging to the municipality of Areia, PB (6 58' 12" S e 35 42' 15" W, 620 m. Results showed that there was a good agreement between H_A and H_B with an index "d" of 0.98 and standard error of estimate (SEE of 14.88 W m-2, no significant difference between H_A H_B, by the t-Student test. Thus, the bulk aerodynamic method can be used in conjunction with measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux to estimate the evapotranspiration of the cowpea under soil and climatic condition of the "Brejo Paraibano".

  4. Sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis for genetic diversity and micronutrient content among gene pools in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Bharti; Yadav, Neelam R; Yadav, Ram C; Kumar, Ram

    2013-07-01

    Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, commonly called mungbean is an important pulse crop. Commercial cultivars contain low levels of iron and zinc and it is important to assess genetic variability in the available germplasm for improving micronutrient content in commercial cultivars. The present study was undertaken to study molecular diversity using Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) among 21 Vigna radiata genotypes. Twenty nine SRAP primer combinations produced a total of 121 amplified bands which were polymorphic with an average of 4.65 bands per primer. The size of amplified bands ranged from 70 bp to 3,000 bp and 6 out of 29 SRAP primers were most useful in fingerprinting Vigna radiata genotypes under study. The similarity coefficients between different genotypes ranged from 0.45 to 0.96 with an average similarity value of 0.71. At an arbitrary cut-off at 60 % similarity level on a dendrogram, the Vigna radiata accessions were categorized into two major clusters. ML1108 and 2KM115 were found to be genetically similar. SMH99-1A and ML776 showed high iron and zinc content while Satya was poor in iron as well as zinc content. Mapping population involving ML776 and Satya could be used for tagging gene(s) for micronutrient content. The results indicated that SRAP markers were efficient for identification of Vigna radiata genotypes and assessment of the genetic relationships among them. PMID:24431508

  5. Genetics of induced mutant genes for resistance to aphids in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The cowpea aphid is a serious pest, particularly in Africa and Asia. Aphids damage the crop by sucking sap from the terminal shoot and from petioles of the young leaves. An indirect and often more serious damage is caused by the transmission of mosaic viruses. Several resistant lines have been identified at IITA and were used in breeding. More recently, two resistant varieties ICV11 and ICV12 were developed at ICIPE, which derive their aphid resistance from mutation induction by gamma irradiation. Backcrossing the mutants with the susceptible original variety ICV1 indicated monogenic-dominant inheritance of the resistance. Other resistant cultivars included in the genetic study were ICV10, an improved breeding line from landraces in Kenya and Tvu 310, a breeding line from IITA. Crosses between these resistant cultivars led to conclude that ICV10 and Tvu 310 contain the same dominant gene for resistance and that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant gene for resistance, which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and Tvu 310. The genes were designated as Rac1 (in ICV10 and Tvu 310) and Rac2 (in induced mutants). (author)

  6. Homofarnesals: female sex attractant pheromone components of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kenji; Nojima, Satoshi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2008-04-01

    The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major pest of stored legumes in warm temperate and tropical climates. The female sex attractant pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from containers that housed virgin females. The extracts were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active components in the fractions were screened by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis with male antennae. Two compounds that elicited electrophysiological responses were isolated, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and micro-chemical analyses suggested that the active compounds were homofarnesals, (2Z,6E)- and (2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienals. Males of C. chinensis were significantly attracted to filter paper discs loaded with the synthetic compounds at 0.01-0.1 ng compared to solvent control in a Y-tube olfactometer assay. These pheromone components represent unique chemical structures within the genus Callosobruchus. PMID:18351422

  7. Engineering cowpea mosaic virus RNA-2 into a vector to express heterologous proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K; Wellink, J; Porta, C; Taylor, K M; Lomonossoff, G P; van Kammen, A

    2000-02-15

    A series of new cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-2-based expression vectors were designed. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced between the movement protein (MP) and the large (L) coat protein or downstream of the small (S) coat protein. Release of the GFP inserted between the MP and L proteins was achieved by creating artificial processing sites each side of the insert, either by duplicating the MP-L cleavage site or by introducing a sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A catalytic peptide. Eight amino acids derived from the C-terminus of the MP and 14-19 amino acids from the N-terminus of the L coat protein were necessary for efficient processing of the artificial Gln/Met sites. Insertion of the FMDV 2A sequence at the C-terminus of the GFP resulted in a genetically stable construct, which produced particles containing about 10 GFP-2A-L fusion proteins. Immunocapture experiments indicated that some of the GFP is present on the virion surface. Direct fusion of GFP to the C-terminus of the S coat protein resulted in a virus which was barely viable. However, when the sequence of GFP was linked to the C-terminus by an active FMDV 2A sequence, a highly infectious construct was obtained. PMID:10662612

  8. Cowpea mutation breeding for resistance to bacterial blight Xanthomonas vignicola (Burk.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, seeds of the variety ''Red Cowpea 6-1 US'' were treated with gamma rays (20, 40, 60 and 80 kR). In M3, the treated material segregated into erect and semi-spreading plant types, light green and green pod colours, and red, brown and creamy seed coats. There was further segregation in M4 for a larger pod size and better tolerance to diseases. In M5, some of the lines segregated into early and late maturity and it was found that resistance to diseases was, to some degree, associated with late maturity. Only slight changes in these characters were found in M6. Sixty mutant lines with desirable characteristics were established. Most of the mutant lines flowered synchronously, and had a long peduncle and all the pods above the plant canopy. Moreover, they were superior in plant type, pod size, seed size and tolerance to bacterial blight and other diseases. In 1989, they were tested for yield; most had a 20-46% higher yield than the blight susceptible parent. (author). 2 tabs

  9. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  10. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, P. H.; Wen, A. M.; Sheen, M. R.; Fields, J.; Rojanasopondist, P.; Steinmetz, N. F.; Fiering, S.

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The ‘in situ vaccination’ immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic antitumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic antitumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the antitumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic antitumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.

  11. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  12. Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in ?C strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations

  13. Crystal Structure and Proteomics Analysis of Empty Virus-like Particles of Cowpea Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nhung T; Hesketh, Emma L; Saxena, Pooja; Meshcheriakova, Yulia; Ku, You-Chan; Hoang, Linh T; Johnson, John E; Ranson, Neil A; Lomonossoff, George P; Reddy, Vijay S

    2016-04-01

    Empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) are currently being utilized as reagents in various biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMV eVLPs determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.3 Å resolution and compare it with previously reported cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of eVLPs and virion crystal structures. Although the X-ray and cryo-EM structures of eVLPs are mostly similar, there exist significant differences at the C terminus of the small (S) subunit. The intact C terminus of the S subunit plays a critical role in enabling the efficient assembly of CPMV virions and eVLPs, but undergoes proteolysis after particle formation. In addition, we report the results of mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of coat protein subunits from CPMV eVLPs and virions that identify the C termini of S subunits undergo proteolytic cleavages at multiple sites instead of a single cleavage site as previously observed. PMID:27021160

  14. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations

  15. Screening of Cowpeas for Resistance to the Flower Bud Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumuni Abudulai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen cowpea cultivars were screened for resistance to the flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom in field trials during 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the results showed that ITH 98-20 and TVu 1509 (resistant control supported significantly (p<0.05 lower thrips populations than Vita 7 (susceptible control and most of the cultivars except ITH 98-49 and Sanzi. Significantly lower thrips damage ratings were recorded for 11 cultivars including TVu 1509 and Sanzi than Vita 7. Sanzi and ITH 98-47 also had significantly lower yield losses due to thrips compared with Vita 7, the susceptible control. In 2004, no significant differences in thrips populations were detected among the cultivars. However, thrips damage ratings were significantly lower in 5 cultivars including Sanzi and TVu 1509 than Vita 7. Significantly lower yield losses also were recorded for 8 cultivars including Sanzi than Vita 7, the susceptible control. There were positive, but nonsignificant, correlations between thrips populations and damage ratings and also between damage ratings and yield loss in both years. The above results show the potential of finding resistance sources in the cultivars tested.

  16. Effect of Chinese traditional cooking on eight pesticides residue during cowpea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Jiang, Wayne; Chen, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinhui

    2015-03-01

    Thermal processing can concentrate residues or convert residues to more toxic metabolites in food. Chinese traditional cooking pays more attention to thermal processing and more vegetables were eaten after thermal processing. In this study, the effect of Chinese traditional cooking (washing, blanching, stir-frying, frying and combined operations) on eight pesticides residues (pyridaben, procymidone, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, α-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, S-fenvalerate and λ-cyhalothrin) in cowpea which was one of the most important legume crops in China was examined. Result showed washing and blanching could reduce residues with low Kow while stir-frying and frying were more effective to residues with high Kow; stir-frying and frying could concentrate residues with low Kow; the residue levels in oil increased following increasing frying time and frequency especially the residues with high Kow; one metabolite studied in this paper was not detected. Blanching (5 min) followed by stir-frying (3 min) was the most effective combined operation. PMID:25306325

  17. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  18. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%. Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%, and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker-assisted selection in rice bean and other Vigna species.

  19. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou cultivars for the phosphorus use efficiency for N2 fixation as a mechanism of adaptation to phosphorus deficiency. This works open new perspectives of improved germplasm of legumes in the condition of high P adsorption soils as Ferralsol in tropical regions.

  20. Isotope techniques for assessment of water and Nitrogen use efficiency in cowpea and maize intercropping systems in Arid and Semi-arid Lands of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is being conducted at Kampi ya Mawe KARI Agricultural field station in Makueni district. The treatments available are: Tillage (tied ridges, subsoilng and ripping, ox ploughing), Cropping systems (maize monocrop, cowpea monocrop, maize-cowpea intercrop), and Manure (0 and 5 t ha-1). The experimental design is split-split plot experimental design with tillage techniques as main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots. There is application of N15 fertilizer to measure N uptake. Measurements of soil moisture using HP 504 Neutron Probe gauge for soil water balances determination

  1. Impact of αAI-1 Expressed in Genetically Modified Cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Its Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control ...

  2. Infectious in vitro transcripts from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus cDNA clones and exchange of individual RNA components with brome mosaic virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, R F; Janda, M.; Ahlquist, P

    1988-01-01

    Complete cDNA copies of genomic RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) were cloned 1 base downstream from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The mixture of capped in vitro transcripts from all three clones produced normal CCMV infections in barley protoplasts and cowpea plants. By using transcripts from these clones and from a similar set of biologically active clones of the related brome mosaic virus (BMV), all possible single component exchanges between the BMV and CCMV tri...

  3. Complete nucleotide sequences of the coat protein messenger RNAs of brome mosaic virus and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus.

    OpenAIRE

    DasGupta, R; Kaesberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the subgenomic coat protein messengers (RNA4's) of two related bromoviruses, brome mosaic virus (BMV) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), have been determined by direct RNA and CDNA sequencing without cloning. BMV RNA4 is 876 b long including a 5' noncoding region of nine nucleotides and a 3' noncoding region of 300 nucleotides. CCMV RNA 4 is 824 b long, including a 5' noncoding region of 10 nucleotides and a 3' noncoding region of 244 nucleotides. The encode...

  4. Impact of chemical- and bio-pesticides on bacterial diversity in rhizosphere of Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2013-12-01

    To study the effects of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan), and a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin) on bacterial diversity in rhizospheric soil, a randomized pot experiment was conducted on mung bean (Vigna radiata) with recommended and higher doses of pesticides. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze such effects on both resident and active bacterial communities across two time points. It was observed that higher doses of azadirachtin mimicked the effects of chlorpyrifos on bacterial diversity. Both azadirachtin and chlorpyrifos showed a dose- and time-dependent effect, which was observable only at the RNA level. Endosulfan treatments showed dissimilar profiles compared to control. Most of the bands showed high sequence similarities to known bacterial groups, including many nitrogen-fixing, phosphate-solubilizing, and plant-growth-promoting bacteria. This study indicates that pesticides display non-target effects on active microbial populations that serve important ecosystem functions, thereby emphasizing the need to critically investigate and validate the use of bio-pesticides in agriculture before accepting them as safe alternatives to chemical pesticides. PMID:24085606

  5. Crystal structure of Vigna radiata cytokinin-specific binding protein in complex with zeatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Oliwia; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Jelen, Filip; Otlewski, Jacek; Sikorski, Michal M; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2006-10-01

    The cytosolic fraction of Vigna radiata contains a 17-kD protein that binds plant hormones from the cytokinin group, such as zeatin. Using recombinant protein and isothermal titration calorimetry as well as fluorescence measurements coupled with ligand displacement, we have reexamined the K(d) values and show them to range from approximately 10(-6) M (for 4PU30) to 10(-4) M (for zeatin) for 1:1 stoichiometry complexes. In addition, we have crystallized this cytokinin-specific binding protein (Vr CSBP) in complex with zeatin and refined the structure to 1.2 A resolution. Structurally, Vr CSBP is similar to plant pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) proteins, despite low sequence identity (CSBP molecules, there is a zeatin ligand located deep in the cavity with conserved conformation and protein-ligand interactions. In three cases, an additional zeatin molecule is found in variable orientation but with excellent definition in electron density, which plugs the entrance to the binding pocket, sealing the inner molecule from contact with bulk solvent. PMID:16998071

  6. Biochemical Changes under Chromium Stress on Germinating Seedlings of Vigna radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavin SUTHAR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalant chromium is considered the most toxic form because of its high solubility in water. Cr is known to induce production of elevated concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulted in macromolecule damage. Plants are having unique mechanisms to overcome ROS induced damage by accumulation of proline, ascorbate and glutathione and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, and ascorbate peroxidaes (APX, peroxidise (POX. In the present investigation effects of chromium on seed germination of Mung bean (Vigna radiata 'Gujarat Mung-4’ were studied. Seeds were treated with different Cr concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 4M for seven days. On 7th day root and shoot length was measured and activities of antioxidant enzyme SOD, APX, POX, CAT and GR were checked along with protein, proline and lipid peroxidation. It was observed that there is gradual decrease in shoot and root length with respect to the increase in Cr concentration. Level of lipid peroxidation significantly increased along with proline and antioxidant enzyme activity at higher Cr concentration. Lipid peroxidation is an indication of membrane damage due to elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. To combat oxidative damage by ROS antioxidant enzyme activity increased significantly, which indicates that antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR play a crucial role during Cr stress during germination of V. radiata.

  7. Effect of gamma-radiation treatment on germination parameters and seedling photosynthetic pigments in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Vigna radiata cv. PDM 84-139 were exposed to different doses of Y-rays i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 kR and the treated seeds were used for study of effects in terms of different germination parameters and photosynthetic pigment content of 8-days old seedlings. Exposure to y-rays caused inhibition of per cent germination, germination rate, per cent emergence, emergence rate and seedling vigour. Germination rate and per cent germination were markedly inhibited at 80 kR whereas emergence and seedling vigour showed a linear decrease with increase in y-ray dose. Photosynthetic pigments (total chl, chla, chlb and carotenoids) were inhibited by kR dose whereas higher doses caused stimulation in total chl, chl a and b content. The carotenoid content showed a fluctuating trend with increase in radiation dose. The physiological change in photosynthetic pigments due to y-ray exposure is a significant observation and indicates towards y-ray mediated switching on/stimulation of pigment biosynthesis

  8. Reduction in flatulence factors in mung beans (Vigna radiata) using low-dose gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungbeans (Vigna radiata), control and gamma-irradiated at insect disinfestation dose levels (0.25 and 0.75 kGy) were germinated (0-6 Bays) and the qualitative and quantitative changes in soluble carbohydrates were studied in detail. The key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides inmungbeans were degraded in the irradiated samples at the onset of the germination (0-2 days) compared to the control where it occurred much later (>4days). However, the reducing sugars, mainly glucose, fructose and galactose, which are metabolised easily, were enhanced in the irradiated samples. At low dose (0.25 kGy), irradiation had no effect on germination and sprout length, indicating that irradiated beans are suitable for use as sprouted beans. These observations clearly indicate that gamma-irradiation at insect disinfestation dose levels improved the digestibility and nutritional quality of mung beans by reducing the content of oligosaccharides responsible for intestinal gas production. (C) 1999 Society of Chemical Industry

  9. The genetically unstable dwarf locus in azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Satoshi; Onishi, Kazumitsu; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2011-01-01

    We characterized a spontaneous dwarf mutant showing extremely short internodes and dark green leaves originating from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) cultivar "Erimo-shouzu." F(1) plants of 3 cross combinations between the dwarf mutant and several representative wild-type plants, Erimo-shouzu, V. angularis accession Acc2265 and wild relative V. riukiuensis accession Acc2482, supported the dwarf genotype being recessive. In a total of 3328 F(2) progeny of these 3 crosses, 65 dwarfs (2.0%) and 5 chimeric dwarfs (0.2%) segregated and the remainder were wild-type plants (97.8%). In F(3) progeny derived from self-pollinated dwarf F(2) plants, we observed wild type (54.3%), dwarf (39.1%), and chimeric dwarf (6.5%) plants. Two types of chimeric plants were observed: dwarf branches on the axils of wild-type plant stems and wild-type branches on the axils of dwarf stems. In 21 dwarf F(2) plants, the dwarf trait cosegregated with simple sequence repeat marker CEDG154 on chromosome 4. Conversely, homozygote F(2) plants at this chromosomal segment from the dwarf mutant frequently (>90%) expressed the wild-type phenotype. We concluded that the dwarf phenotype is mitotically and meiotically inheritable and controlled by a single genetically unstable locus, designated Azuki Dwarf1 (AD1), which converts between 2 phenotypic states bidirectionally. PMID:21724968

  10. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  11. Phytochemical Composition and Nutritional Quality of Glycine max and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Orji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research discussed the nutritive value and phytochemical composition of three cultivars of Vigna unguiculata and Glycine max grown in Nigeria. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of bioactive compounds comprising flavonoids (2.36-6.28 mg 100 g-1, alkaloids (1.28-1.64 mg 100 g-1, tannins (0.38-0.77 mg 100 g-1, saponins (0.11-0.23 mg 100 g-1. The protein, carbohydrate, lipids and fiber content were 19.69-39.08, 32.78-67.26, 2.70-21.08 and 1.78-4.68%, respectively. The food energy value ranges from 363.71-477.16 cal g-1. The grains are rich in B-vitamins such as niacin (1.85-4.01 mg 100 g-1, thiamin (0.46-1.72 mg 100 g-1, riboflavin (0.22-170 mg 100 g-1 and ascorbic acid content ranges from (5.20-55.44 mg 100 g-1. These grains are good sources of minerals comprising calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium while sodium content was low. The legumes can be considered as sources of quality raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Pattern of 32P incorporation in DNA and RNA by root forming hypocotyl cuttings of vigna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both etiolated (OL+24D) and light grown (12L+12D) seedings of Vigna catjang Endl. exhibited five distinct anatomical stages (stage 1 to stage v) of equal durations at the base of their hypocotyl cuttings during adventitious root formation. The dimensions of rooting priomordia only varied in these two sets of experiments. Furthermore, the etiolated cuttings produced lesser amount of roots as compared to light grown cuttings. Modifications of rooting behaviour by promotive and inhibitive IAA and GA3 was more or less identical in both the sets of experiments. 32P in corporation studies revealed stage III (Just disorganisation stage) as the period of highest metabolic activity, the efficiency, however, depdnding on the age of the cuttings. Patterns of 32P incorporation by nucleic acids, indicated clearly that both DNA and RNA synthesis increased during adventitious root formation, the maximum intensity of synthetic events taking place during just disorganisation stage (i.e. stage III). By comparing the rates of synthesis of RNA and DNA, at hypocotyl bases, the former proved to be significantly higher as compared to DNA synthesis. (author)

  13. Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Yang, Ray-Yu; Easdown, Warwick J; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A; Keatinge, J D H Dyno

    2013-06-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in South, East and Southeast Asia. It provides significant amounts of protein (240 g kg(-1)) and carbohydrate (630 g kg(-1)) and a range of micronutrients in diets. Mungbean protein and carbohydrate are easily digestible and create less flatulence than proteins derived from other legumes. In addition, mungbean is lower in phytic acid (72% of total phosphorus content) than pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and cereals; phytic acid is commonly found in cereal and legume crops and has a negative impact on iron and zinc bioavailability in plant-based diets. Owing to its palatable taste and nutritional quality, mungbean has been used as an iron-rich whole food source for baby food. The wide genetic variability of mineral concentrations (e.g. 0.03-0.06 g Fe kg(-1), 0.02-0.04 g Zn kg(-1)) in mungbean indicates possibilities to improve its micronutrient content through biofortification. Therefore biofortification of existing mungbean varieties has great potential for enhancing the nutritional quality of diets in South and Southeast Asia, where protein and micronutrient malnutrition are among the highest in the world. This review paper discusses the importance of mungbean in agricultural production and traditional diets and the potential of enhancing the nutritional quality of mungbean through breeding and other means, including agronomic practices. PMID:23426879

  14. The effect of sodium chloride salinity on germination and productivity of mung bean (Vigna Mungo Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The germination was significantly declined at salinity levels of 5.0 dSm/sup -1/ and above in the laboratory experiment while in the pot experiment germination significantly reduced at salinity levels of 7.5 dSm/sup -1/ and above. Radicle and plumule lengths were also significantly reduced at 5.0 dSm/sup -1/ and higher levels of NaCl. Plant height, number of branches and number of leaves significantly decreased at 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ and higher levels of salinity. The number of seeds was significantly dwindled at 7.5 dSm/sup -1/ and above. Similarly, chlorophyll contents were also significantly low at 7.5 dSm/sup -1/ and higher concentrations. It was concluded that Vigna mungo might not show promising growth and productivity in saline habitats. However, under mild saline conditions it might be grown not only to supplement the crop yield, but also as a source of fodder and soil reclamation measure. (author)

  15. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  16. Vigna subterranea ammonium transporter gene (VsAMT1: Some bioinformatics insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole T. Adetunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium transporters (AMTs play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Vigna subterranea (VsAMT1 and Solanum tuberosum (StAMT1 AMT1s were characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. AMT1-specific primers were designed and used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned VsAMT1 and StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that VsAMT1 is 92% and 89% similar to Phaseolus vulgaris PvAMT1.1 and Glycine max AMT1 respectively, while StAMT1 is 92% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, and correspond to the 5th–10th trans-membrane domains. Residues VsAMT1 D23 and StAMT1 D15 are predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of VsAMT1 W1A-L and S87A and StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport. In addition to nitrogen uptake from the roots, VsAMT1 may also contribute to interactions with rhizobia.

  17. Genetic diversity in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) landraces revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, F J; Dickinson, M; Roberts, J A; Azam-Ali, S N

    2002-12-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc), an African indigenous legume, is popular in most parts of Africa. The present study was undertaken to establish genetic relationships among 16 cultivated bambara groundnut landraces using fluorescence-based amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seven selective primer combinations generated 504 amplification products, ranging from 50 to 400 bp. Several landrace-specific products were identified that could be effectively used to produce landrace-specific markers for identification purposes. On average, each primer combination generated 72 amplified products that were detectable by an ABI Prism 310 DNA sequencer. The polymorphisms obtained ranged from 68.0 to 98.0%, with an average of 84.0%. The primer pairs M-ACA + P-GCC and M-ACA + P-GGA produced more polymorphic fragments than any other primer pairs and were better at differentiating landraces. The dendrogram generated by the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging) grouped 16 landraces into 3 clusters, mainly according to their place of collection or geographic origin. DipC1995 and Malawi5 were the most genetically related landraces. AFLP analysis provided sufficient polymorphism to determine the amount of genetic diversity and to establish genetic relationships in bambara groundnut landraces. The results will help in the formulation of marker-assisted breeding in bambara groundnut. PMID:12502264

  18. A commercial cultivar suited to rainfed arid lands induced in dew bean (Vigna aconitifolia Jacq Marechal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew bean (Vigna aconitifolia [Jacq] Marechal) an important arid legume, is known for high degree of adaptation towards drought prone situations. The crop however, warrants its genetic improvement in growth period, disease resistance and grain yield under prevailing rainfed conditions. A semi-erect mutant CAZRI Moth-l induced from dew bean cv. Jadia at 30 kR dose of 60Co gamma-rays was evaluated for economic traits under rainfed conditions for five years. The mutant, matured 10 days earlier and had bolder grain (l000-grain weight 32g) and more pods/plant (67) than the parental variety (85 days, 28.0 g and 53, resp.). Furthermore, three years field evaluation of the mutant at this location revealed that CAZRI Moth-1 grain yield was 24.7% higher compared to the parental check. This mutant when evaluated along with 15 promising strains and checks in All India Coordinated Trials for a period of 3 years (1995 to 1997) representing 6 to 7 distant locations each year, confirmed its best performance. For instance, mean grain yield potential of CAZRI Moth-l was realized almost 10.5% higher over the national and 22.0% higher over the regional checks, respectively. This mutant also had higher grain protein (25%) than the national check Maru Moth-l (22.7% ). The mutant appreciably exerted far more resistance potential towards Yellow Mosaic Virus disease than the checks. (author)

  19. Effect of simulated acid rain (sar) on some morphochemical aspects of mash (vigna mungo l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of simulated acid rain (SAR) at early plant growth on some morphochemical characters of two varieties of Mash (Vigna mungo L.) namely Mash 97 and Var. 95009. Different pH values were made by using H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, HNO/sub 3/, and combination of both. The data revealed that low pH (3.5) of either sulphuric acid or the combination of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ affected more severely at all parameters including number of leaves, shoot: root ratio, water contents of shoot and Potassium ion concentration. Whereas for a few parameters like plant height and number of branches the simulated acid rain of solution of pH 4.5 and 3.5 by using HNO/sub 3/ proved a bit better for plant growth, the root length was increased in case of SAR of solution of pH 3.5 by using H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/+HNO/sub 3/. Foliar application of SAR of solution of pH greater than 4.5 showed some improvement in crop growth due to fertilizer effect of solution's components. (author)

  20. Synergistic effect of kinetin and spermine on some physiological aspects of seawater stressed Vigna sinensis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsokari, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of kinetin, spermine and their combination on growth vigor, photosynthetic pigments, some metabolites, some enzymes, polyamines and productivity of salt-stressed Vigna sinensis plants was investigated. Salt stress reduced all evaluated growth criteria and yield components of used plants. Chlorophyll (CHL (a, b, carotenoids, carbohydrates, protein, spermidine and spermine level as well as and amylase activity were also decreased in response to salinity. On the other hand, proline, K+, Na+ and putrescine concentration, and peroxidase activity were increased in the salt-stressed plants. Exogenous application of kinetin and spermine mitigated the deleterious effects of salinity stress on growth and yield of the used plants. Conversely, the combined treatment of kinetin and spermine induced additional reduction in growth and yield of the stressed plants, and the effect appeared to be constitutive. The protective effect of kinetin and spermine on V. sinensis plants appeared mainly due to the enhancement effect of these growth regulators on chlorophylls and protein content and polyamines titer. PMID:23961102

  1. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = ?0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  2. Fluxograma de beneficiamento para sementes de feijão-mungo-verde (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fontes Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O beneficiamento é componente fundamental em qualquer programa organizado de produção de sementes e visa aprimorar características do lote. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estabelecer um fluxograma de beneficiamento para sementes de feijão-mungo-verde (Vigna radiata L.. Utilizaram-se sementes dois lotes. O primeiro lote foi proveniente de colheita parcelada das vagens, em três épocas, e o segundo de colheita de toda a planta, com a maioria das vagens secas. Foram testados 13 fluxogramas de beneficiamento, com a utilização da máquina de ventilador e peneiras, separador pneumático, mesa de gravidade e classificador de peneiras. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto a sua qualidade física, fisiológica e sanitária. O fluxograma de beneficiamento ideal para lotes de sementes de feijão-mungo-verde provenientes de colheita parcelada das vagens é composto pela máquina de ventilador e peneiras, seguida da mesa de gravidade. Quando os lotes de sementes forem provenientes de colheita única das vagens o ideal é o uso da máquina de ventilador e peneiras, seguida do separador pneumático e da mesa de gravidade.

  3. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    OpenAIRE

    Z.M. Peña P.; G Trujillo

    2006-01-01

    En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta f...

  4. PRODUCCIÓN Y COMPOSICIÓN BROMATOLÓGICA DE HARINAS DE VIGNA: DE FORRAJES, INTEGRALES Y DE GRANOS Production and bromatological composition of Vigna flour meals: forage, integral, and grain

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA F DÍAZ; Padilla, C.; González, A.; Mora, C.

    2002-01-01

    En un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones se evaluó el comportamiento de cinco variedades de Vigna. unguiculata: V. blanca, V. negra, Habana 82, Viñales 144A e INIFAT 93) y una variedad de V. radiata (V. verde) en producción de harinas de granos, harinas de forrajes (floración) y harinas integrales (plantas con vainas en estado lechoso). Se determinó su composición bromatológica y contenido de factores antinutricionales (taninos e inhibidores de tripsina). V. blanca alcanzó l...

  5. Capsid protein properties of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus confirm the existence of two major subgroups of aphid-transmitted, legume-infecting potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenot, C; Furneaux, M T; Hamilton, R I

    1994-12-01

    A study of the capsid proteins of different legume-infecting potyviruses using specific monoclonal antibodies on immunoblots of crude extracts from infected plants revealed that cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) have coat protein M(r) values of 32K and 35K, respectively. Immunoblot comparisons of BICMV, peanut stripe mosaic virus (PStV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and azuki bean mosaic virus (AzMV) revealed equal reactivity of their 35K coat proteins. Similar comparisons between CAMV and the necrotic strain of BCMV (isolate NL3) showed a serological relationship between their 32K coat proteins, results providing the first evidence of a possible similarity between CAMV and BCMV NL3. Peptides from trypsin digests of the coat proteins of several of these legume-infecting potyviruses were analysed by HPLC. Comparison of the peptide profiles confirmed the serological results in distinguishing the two subgroups. Peptide profiles of coat protein from BICMV, PStV, AzMV and BCMV were almost identical, results suggesting that they could be considered as strains of one virus. In contrast, peptide profiles of various CAMV serotypes and BCMV NL3 were distinct from the first group and exhibited limited similarities to each other. PMID:7996147

  6. The role of VuMATE1 expression in aluminium-inducible citrate secretion in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) roots

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mei Ya; Chen, Wei Wei; Xu, Jia Meng; Wei FAN; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium (Al)-activated citrate secretion plays an important role in Al resistance in a number of plant species, such as rice bean (Vigna umbellata). This study further characterized the regulation of VuMATE1, an aluminium-activated citrate transporter. Al stress induced VuMATE1 expression, followed by the secretion of citrate. Citrate secretion was specific to Al stress, whereas VuMATE1 expression was not, which could be explained by a combined regulation of VuMATE1 expression and Al-specif...

  7. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated acc...

  8. Genetical analysis of the induced variation by gamma radiation in quantitative characters of Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetical analysis procedures of the cobalt 60 gamma radiation effects in the induced mutations in quantitative characters of Caupi BR-1 Poty. The following characters were evaluated: day to first flower (FI), number of pods per plant (NVP), pod lenght (CMV), number of suds per pod (NSV), 100 seed wright (PCS), seed yield per plant (PSP) and seed yield per plant estimated by yield components (PSPE). The resistance of irradiated populations to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CpAMV)was also evaluated. (L.M.J.)

  9. Cowpea mosaic virus 32- and 60-kilodalton replication proteins target and change the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carette, Jan E; van Lent, Jan; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Wellink, Joan; van Kammen, Ab

    2002-06-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replicates in close association with small membranous vesicles that are formed by rearrangements of intracellular membranes. To determine which of the viral proteins are responsible for the rearrangements of membranes and the attachment of the replication complex, we have expressed individual CPMV proteins encoded by RNA1 in cowpea protoplasts by transient expression and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expression vector. The 32-kDa protein (32K) and 60K, when expressed individually, accumulate in only low amounts but are found associated with membranes mainly derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). 24K and 110K are freely soluble and accumulate to high levels. With the TRV vector, expression of 32K and 60K results in rearrangement of ER membranes. Besides, expression of 32K and 60K results in necrosis of the inoculated N. benthamiana leaves, suggesting that 32K and 60K are cytotoxic proteins. On the other hand, during CPMV infection 32K and 60K accumulate to high levels without causing necrosis. PMID:12021362

  10. Caracterizacin agronmica de 20 cultivares de frijol mungo, Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek, en tres pocas de siembra, en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela Agronomic characterization of 20 cultivars of mungbean, Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek during three seasons, in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M Madriz Istriz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron 20 cultivares de frijol mungo, Vigna radiata (L Wilczek, en tres pocas de siembra: poca de lluvias (mayo a agosto de 1994 y poca de salida de lluvias (octubre 1994 a enero 1995 y poca seca (febrero a abril 1995 en el Campo Experimental del Instituto de Agronoma, Facultad de Agronoma, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, estado Aragua; con la finalidad de evaluar su comportamiento en las diferentes condiciones ambientales. El diseo experimental fue bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables medidas fueron: altura de planta, nmero de racimos/planta, nmero de vainas/planta, longitud de vaina, nmero de semillas/vaina, rendimiento de granos por planta y en kg/ha. Se realizaron anlisis de varianza y pruebas de medias de Duncan. Cada ensayo se analiz individualmente, al ser significativa la prueba de homogeneidad de los errores de las varianzas de Bartlett. Hubo diferencias altamente significativas entre cultivares para las variables. El rendimiento promedio por poca fue 1342,58 kg/ha, de lluvias; 953,5 kg/ha, salida de lluvias y 536,25 kg/ha, seca. Los cultivares de mejor comportamiento fueron: VC 1973C, Acriollado, VC 1973A, VC 2768A, VC 1178B y ML 267, recomendndose segn la poca. Las condiciones agroecolgicas de la poca de lluvia favorecieron la expresin del potencial de rendimiento de los cultivares, siendo diferente en las otras pocas.20 mungbean cultivars were proven Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek at three times of sowing: rainy season (May to August of 1994, rainy season ending (October 1994 to January 1995 and dry season (February to April, 1995 in the Experimental Field of the Agronomy Institute, Agronomy Faculty, Central university of Venezuela, Maracay, Aragua state; with the purpose of evaluating its behaviour in the defferent envioronmentel conditions. The experimental design was blocks at random, with four repetitions. The measured variables were: height of plant, number of cluster/plant, number of pods/plant, longitude of case, number of seeds/pods, grain yield by plant and yield in kg/ha. Analyses of variance, and evidence of averages of Duncan were made. Each test was analyzed individually, to the significant being the evidence of homogeneity of the errors of the variances of Bartlett. There were highly significant differences between you will cultivate for the variables. The yield average per time was 1342.58 kg/ha, of rains; 953.5 kg/ha, exit of rains and 536.25 kg/ha, dry. You will cultivate them of better behaviour were: VC 1973C, Creole VC 1973A, VC 2768A, VC 1178B and MILILITER 267, recommending itself according to the season. The Agroecological characteristies during rain season fovoured the expression of the potential of yield of the cultivar being different the other seasons.

  11. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Ral; Fernndez, Juan; Faz Cano, ngel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities ?-glucosidase and ?-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and ?-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C in plant. Crop production was significantly different in terms of genotype, with higher values under organic management. We observed that soil total N was significantly correlated with the most labile C fraction, MBC and ?-glucosidase activity. Thus, it seems that increments in N concentration in soil are stimulating microbial growth with the release of enzyme activities to degrade organic compounds. As a consequence, the most labile organic fractions are increasing. These results seem to suggest that the cultivation of Vigna unguiculata may increase N content in soil, independently of the management practices tested, and stimulate microbial populations which can release nutrients to soils by degradation of soil organic matter. Despite no great effects of management practice were observed with regard to soil properties, the organic management favored higher crop production, encouraging the adoption of this type of fertilization. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  12. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 {mu}L. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  13. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Upreti, Raj K. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)], E-mail: upretirk@rediffmail.com

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6 h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  14. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of