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Sample records for del cowpea vigna

  1. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Floral Biology and Pollination Ecology of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    Ige, O. E.; O. F. Olotuah; Akerele, V.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the floral biology and pollination ecology of three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were carried out. The varieties studied were Var. Oloyin, Var. Sokoto, and Var. Drum. Cowpea is a self pollinated crop which is encouraged by the arrangements of the floral parts. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:30am and closes between 11:30am...

  3. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Xavier Filho.

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Six DNA Extraction Methods in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    Huaqiang Tan; Haitao Huang; Mamman Tie; Jianyao Ma; Huanxiu Li

    2013-01-01

    High quality DNA extractions are a prerequisite for genetic studies of a variety of plants including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Nowadays, there are a great number of plant DNA extraction methods, and commercially available extraction kits are also becoming more and more popular. It appears that different procedures work best for different plant groups. Thus in the genetic studies of cowpea, which DNA extraction method to choose becomes a concern. To solve this problem, five classic plant DNA...

  5. Efecto del consumo de dietas con frijol blanco (Vigna unguiculata) con y sin cáscara sobre los lípidos plasmáticos en ratas hipercolesterolémicas / Effect of consumption of diets with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with and without hull on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mirla C, Morón T; Ana V, Ávila A; Pablo I, Hernández R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas constituyen un componente importante de la dieta regular del venezolano. Algunos estudios han demostrado que los granos de varias leguminosas tienen un efecto hipocolesterolémico. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del consumo de frijol blanco Vigna unguiculata con y sin cáscara sob [...] re los lípidos plasmáticas en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. Treinta ratas machos adultas, cepa Sprague Dawley, fueron estudiadas en dos etapas. Una primera de tres semanas en la que mediante manipulación dietética, se transformaron ratas normales en hipercolesterolémicas. En la segunda etapa se diseñaron 4 grupos, un control normocolesterolémico sin dieta experimental, un hipercolesterolémico sin dieta experimental, un hipercolesterolémico alimentado con frijol con cáscara y uno hipercolesterolémico alimentado con frijol sin cáscara durante tres semanas. Las dietas con frijol blanco Vigna unguiculata produjeron una disminución significativa de colesterol total y triglicéridos de un 35.01% y 39.48% respectivamente, en comparación con el grupo hipercolesterolémico sin frijol. Para la fracción del colesterol-LDL la disminución fue de 59%, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas entre los grupos alimentados con frijol con y sin cáscara. Un hallazgo interesante fue el incremento significativo del colesterol-HDL de 29.66% en el grupo alimentado con frijol con cáscara, lo cual es un factor de prevención para la aparición de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares. Los resultados de este estudio señalan que el consumo de frijol blanco con o sin cáscara tuvo efecto beneficioso en el perfil lipídico, en este modelo experimental. En estudios futuros podría considerarse su uso en la dietoterapia de las hiperlipidemias. Abstract in english Legumes are important components of Venezuelan diet. Several studies have shown that grains of legumes have a hypocholesterolemic effect. This study evaluated the effect of consumption of white beans Vigna unguiculata with and without hull on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty adult [...] male Sprague-Dawley rats, were studied in two stages. The first of three weeks, by means of dietary manipulation, normal rats became hypercholesterolemic. In the second stage, 4 groups were designed, one normocholesterolemic control without experimental diet, one hypercholesterolemic without experimental diet, one hypercholesterolemic fed with bean with hull and one hypercholesterolemic fed with bean without hull for three weeks. Diets with white beans Vigna unguiculata produced a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides of 35.01% and 39.48% respectively, compared with the hypercholesterolemic group without beans. The fraction of LDL-cholesterol showed a reduction of 59%, without significant differences between the groups fed with beans with and without hull. An interesting finding was the significant increase of HDL-cholesterol of 29.66% in the group fed with bean with hull, which is a preventive factor for cardiovascular diseases. The results of this study indicate that consumption of white beans with or without hull had beneficial effect on lipid profile, in this experimental model. In future studies it could be considered for using in diet therapy of human hyperlipidemia.

  6. Harinas de planta entera de frijol (Vigna unguiculata) y de mazorca de maíz (Zea mays) como suplemento para becerros antes del destete / Flours of whole cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and cob maize (Zea mays) as supplements for suckling calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Canelones; Manuel, Castejon.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas de producción de doble-propósito, el amamantamiento restringido mejora el ingreso por leche vendible, pero es negativo para el crecimiento de los becerros. Sin embargo, un arreglo de alimentación agropastoril la suplementación con cultivos podría mejorar el suministro de nutrientes. [...] Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el consumo de harinas de frijol y de mazorca de maíz, el consumo de leche y el crecimiento de becerros pre-destete. El ensayo tuvo una duración de 217 días y se usaron 30 becerros hijos de vacas mestizas de Brahmán x Holstein x Simmental. Se colocaron  cinco becerros en tres tratamientos ubicados en dos bloques al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: harina de frijol (F), harina de maíz (M) y harina de frijol + harina de maíz (FM) todos a voluntad. Los becerros entraron al experimento entre 30 y 45 días de nacidos y después del ordeño permanecieron 30 minutos con sus madres, para luego ser llevados a potreros de Cynodon nlemfuensis durante 6 horas/día. En la tarde fueron alojados en corrales individuales donde se les ofreció el suplemento. La producción de leche vendible (P0,05) fueron 2,5 2,4 y 2,54 L/d; de suplementos (P0,05) 0,41 0,48 y 0,37 para F, M y FM, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el aporte de la leche para suplir los requerimientos de energía y proteína disminuye, debido a que su consumo permanece constante mientras que los requerimientos aumentan, pero los becerros tienen la capacidad de ajustar el consumo de los componentes de la dieta, cuando encuentran restricciones debidas a cantidad ofrecida, calidad y palatabilidad. Abstract in english In the dual purpose systems, the restricted sukling increases the income due to vendible milk, but in turn it decreases the yearling calf growth if they are not properly supplemented. An agropastoral system with crops for supplementation would improve the calf feeding. This work had as aim to study [...] milk intake, whole cowpea and whole maize cob flours intake and calves growth. The experiment lasted for 217 days and were used 30 calves, from crossbred cows (Brahman x Holstein x Simmental). There were five calves in each of the three treatments in two randomized blocks. Treatments were: cowpea flour (F), maize flour (M), and cowpea plus maize flour (FM) all of them ad libitum. Calves were incorporated to the trial at 30-45 days age. They stayed with their dams about 30 minutes after milking, thereafter were taken to paddocks of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) during 6 h/d. In the afternoon were taken into individual pens where the supplements were offered. The vendible milk (P0.05) were 25, 2.4, and 2.54 L/d; supplement intake (P>0.05) were 0.35, 0.76, and 0.52 kg DM/d, and liveweight gain (P>0.05) were 0.41, 0.48, and 0.37 for F, M, and FM treatments, respectively. It was concluded that the milk contribution to supply the requirements of energy and protein diminishes, because its consumption remains constant whereas the requirements increased, but the yearling calves have the capacity to fit the consumption of the components of the diet, when they find restrictions due to offered amount, quality and palatability.

  7. Composition and Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp) Flour and Protein Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Elkhalifa; S.B. Elhardallou; I.I. Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Protein isolates from dehulled defatted cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L.) seeds were prepared using isoelectric (CPIA) precipitation and micellization (CPIB) procedures. Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA) and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB).The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF) and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea...

  8. Respuestas fisiológicas y bioquímicas del fríjol caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) bajo déficit hídrico / Physiological and biochemical responses of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) under a water deficit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Cardona-Ayala; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Araméndiz-Tatis; Maryorik, Peña-Agresott; César, Vergara-Córdoba.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El fríjol caupí contribuye a la alimentación humana y animal en muchas regiones del mundo, especialmente en aquellos lugares donde la sequía restringe la producción agrícola. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar algunas respuestas fisiológicas y bioquímicas de esta especie, bajo condiciones d [...] e estrés hídrico en fase reproductiva. Se experimentó bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado en un arreglo factorial 2x6 (2 niveles de humedad del suelo y 6 genotipos) con tres repeticiones. Se analizó la respuesta de la especie evaluando el rendimiento de la planta mediante la cuantificación del rendimiento de grano/planta, el número de vainas/planta, el número de semillas/vaina, y la longitud de la vaina; se estimó la reducción relativa del rendimiento y la susceptibilidad a la sequía. También se analizó el intercambio gaseoso, la actividad de las enzimas catalasa y ascorbato peroxidasa, así como los contenidos de clorofila, carotenoides, proteínas libres, prolina y malondialdehído. El estrés por sequía causó una disminución en el rendimiento de grano/planta del 57,72%, número de vainas/planta del 49,40% y número de semillas/vaina del 32,07%. A los 17 días de sequía, la fotosíntesis empezó a registrar valores cercanos a cero cuando el contenido de humedad del suelo se redujo alrededor del 40% de la capacidad de campo, lo cual pudo ser ocasionado por limitaciones estomáticas y, posiblemente, por limitaciones no estomáticas. La proporción de clorofila a/clorofila b (Chla/Chlb), fue significativamente más baja, mientras que el contenido de malondialdehído fue significativamente más alto, en plantas bajo estrés hídrico. Abstract in english The cowpea bean contributes to human and animal feed in many regions of the world, especially in places where droughts restrict agricultural production. The aim of this study was to identify some physiological and biochemical responses of this species under drought stress conditions in the reproduct [...] ive phase. We used a completely randomized design with a 2x6 factorial arrangement (2 soil moisture levels and 6 genotypes) and three replicates. The grain yield/plant, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and pod length were analyzed, and the relative yield reduction and drought susceptibility index were estimated. The gas exchange and activity of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes, as well as the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, free protein, and proline, were analyzed. The drought stress caused a decrease in the grain yield/ plant of 57.72%, the number of pods/plant of 49.40% and the number of seeds/pod of 32.07%. At 17 days of drought, the photosynthesis began showing values near zero when the soil moisture content was reduced by about 40% of the field capacity, which could have been caused by stomatal limitations and possibly by biochemical limitations. The ratio of chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b (Chla/Chlb) was significantly lower and the malonaldehyde content was significantly higher in the plants under water stress.

  9. Nutritional aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fortified cookies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defatted cowpea flour was used to replace 10%, 20% and 30% of wheat flour in cookies. The wheat flour and cowpea-fortified cookies were prepared with standardized levels of ingredients. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and sensory characteristics of the different cookies were investigated. The fortification with cowpea flour increased the contents of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus and reducing non-reducing and total sugars. The fortification resulted in slight reduction in the in vitro digestibility. The products were accepted by the panelists who gave high scores for most of the attributes, although the fortification with more than 10% cowpea flour significantly (P<0.05) affected those attributes when compared with the control sample.(Author)

  10. Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) after tannery sludge compost amendment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Doroteia, Marçal Silva; Ademir Sérgio, Ferreira Araújo; Luís Alfredo, Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José, de Melo; Rajeev, Pratap Singh.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with ta [...] nnery sludge compost (TSC). Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%). Only Cr accumulation was significant (P

  11. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 ?mol plant-1 week-1. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N2-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N2-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW showing large variation among lines. Most of the tolerance to P deficiency was due to increase in the nodule function rather than conservation of nodule mass. In conclusion, the screening in glasshouse hydroaeroponics made it possible to sort cowpea lines in SNF potential to fix N2, and in tolerance to P deficiency. (author)

  12. Nucleotide sequence of a genomic clone encoding a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) trypsin inhibitor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulraj Kirubakaran, Lawrence; Jayaveeramuthu, Nirmala; Kripa Ram, Koundal.

    2001-04-15

    Full Text Available A protease inhibitor gene has been isolated from native cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. 130 from lambda-ZAP II genomic library. The nucleotide sequence of this genomic clone shared 86% homology with a cowpea trypsin inhibitor f IV mRNA, and 81% with Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor genes of soybean. [...] The isolated gene had TATA and CAT signals in the 5' upstream region. The longest open reading frame had 504 bases, encoding 167 amino acids from the predicted coding region. The active serine centers of this protein was found between 105-158 amino acid residues, with a 69 amino acids long signal peptide in its N terminal.

  13. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. PMID:25142352

  14. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Terezinha Ferreira, Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de, Lima; José de Paula, Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo, Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biologi [...] cal nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Six DNA Extraction Methods in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available High quality DNA extractions are a prerequisite for genetic studies of a variety of plants including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Nowadays, there are a great number of plant DNA extraction methods, and commercially available extraction kits are also becoming more and more popular. It appears that different procedures work best for different plant groups. Thus in the genetic studies of cowpea, which DNA extraction method to choose becomes a concern. To solve this problem, five classic plant DNA isolation methods, including three CTAB methods and two SDS methods, were compared and evaluated while isolation using a commercial kit was also undertaken. The DNA extracted by these six methods from two-week-old cowpea seedlings were analyzed according to their cost and time, yield, purity, integrity, and functionality in restriction endonuclease digestion and PCR (polymerase chain reaction based downstream analysis. After the evaluation, one most suitable method, described by Dellaporta et al. (1983 was selected and chosen for isolating DNA from young leaves of cowpea seedlings. The cost and time required in this method was relatively low. In addition, the quantity and the quality of the DNA extracted by this method were high enough to perform hundreds of PCR-based reactions.

  16. Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola, Garzón; Marina, García.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ‘I [...] -484’ (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ‘I-490’ (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ‘I-484’. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ‘I-490’ se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ‘I-484’ (moderate sensibility to sa [...] linity) and ‘I-490’ (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ‘I-484’. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ‘I-490’ the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

  17. Composition and Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp Flour and Protein Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Elkhalifa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolates from dehulled defatted cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. seeds were prepared using isoelectric (CPIA precipitation and micellization (CPIB procedures. Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB.The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF, protein isolates showed 75 and 76% for CPIA and CPIB, respectively. The minimum protein solubility for CPIA was at pH 5.0 and for CPIB at pH 4.0. Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions. For water and oil absorption capacity, DDCF gave 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample, respectively; while CPIA gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.93 mL oil g-1 sample, CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 sample. Thus CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein at pH 2.0 The emulsion capacity for both cowpea protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. Least gelation concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF and both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and (CPIB was noted at 12.0% (w/v at both pH 4.0 and 7.0.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  19. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS. Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  1. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  2. Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concentration as low as 1 ?M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb2+ activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and at a Pb2+ activity of 0.06 ?M for the roots. The primary site of Pb2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and 0.06 ?M for the roots

  3. A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Venâncio; Oliveira, A.E.A.; Silva, L. B.; O.L.T. Machado; K. V. S. FERNANDES; Xavier-Filho, J.

    2003-01-01

    Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest...

  4. Allantoin and Allantoic Acid in the Nitrogen Economy of the Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herridge, David F.; Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Rainbird, Ross M.

    1978-01-01

    The ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid, represented major fractions of the soluble nitrogen pool of nodulated plants of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. cv. Caloona) throughout vegetative and reproductive growth. Stem and petioles were the principal sites of ureide accumulation, especially in early fruiting. Labeling studies using 14CO2 and 15N2 and incubation periods of 25 to 245 minutes indicated that synthesis of allantoin and allantoic acid in root nodules involved currently delivered photosynthate and recently fixed N, and that the ureides were exported from nodule to shoot via the xylem. From 60 to 80% of xylem-borne N consisted of ureides; the remainder was glutamine, asparagine, and amino acids. Allantoin predominated in the soluble N fraction of nodules and fruits, allantoin and allantoic acid were present in approximately equal proportions in xylem exudate, stems, and petioles. Extracts of the plant tissue fraction of nitrogen-fixing cowpea nodules contained glutamate synthase (EC 2.6.1.53) and glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2), but little activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.3). High levels of uricase (EC 1.7.3.3) and allantoinase (EC 3.5.2.5) were also detected. Allantoinase but little uricase was found in extracts of leaflets, pods, and seeds. Balance sheets were constructed for production, storage, and utilization of ureide N during growth. Virtually all (average 92%) of the ureides exported from roots was metabolized on entering the shoot, the compounds being presumably used as N sources for protein synthesis. PMID:16660546

  5. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu2+ activities as low as 1-2 ?M, the effect of Cu2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu2+. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu2+ activity of 1.0 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu2+ activity of 0.2 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ?0.77 ?M Cu2+, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  6. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.V., Silva; J.L., Simões-Araújo; J.P., Silva Júnior; G.R., Xavier; N.G., Rumjanek.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhi [...] zobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  7. Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanamaker Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an important food and fodder legume of the semiarid tropics and subtropics worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High density genetic linkage maps are needed for marker assisted breeding but are not available for cowpea. A single feature polymorphism (SFP is a microarray-based marker which can be used for high throughput genotyping and high density mapping. Results Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%. Conclusion We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.

  8. Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) / Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Elisa, Rivas-Vega; Ofelia, Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe, Salazar-García; Josafat Marina, Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto, Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto, Civera-Cerecedo.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata) como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC), de [...] corticado (DC), cocido (CC), germinado (GC) y extruido (EXC). Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g) usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos. Abstract in english The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled [...] (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g) to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.

  9. Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC, dehulled (DC, cooked (CC, germinated (GC and extruded (EXC. The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC, decorticado (DC, cocido (CC, germinado (GC y extruido (EXC. Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos.

  10. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Madode, Y. E.; Nout, M. J. R.; Bakker, E. J.; Linnemann, A. R.; Hounhouigan, D. J.; Boekel, M. A. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their galactose-oligosaccharide content, the amount of gas produced by Clostridium perfringens using in-vitro cowpea digests as main carbohydrate substrate (in-vitro fermentability index) and the alveolar hydro...

  11. Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata Genetic variability and correlations of agronomic characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Celis de Almeida Lopes

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial genético de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%, e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%. O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73% e da produtividade (19,77%. As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%, e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%. Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp is an important food crop for human population in northeastern Brazil. Studies aiming to increase its yield as well as to improve the grain quality and the insect and diseases resistance are needed. This work aimed to accomplish genetic studies in twenty-eight cowpea advanced lines. The studied lines were chosen after selection for seed color and size and plant viruses resistance. The degree of genetic determination ranged from 4.51% (in pods/peduncle to 81.74% (in 100-seed weight. The seed yield degree of genetic determination was 34.15%. The highest estimates of genetic gain were 21.73% to 100-seed weight and 19.77% to seed yield. The genotypical correlations were higher than phenotypical and environmental ones. High correlations were found between fruiting branches/plant and seed yield (68.13% and between agronomic value and seed yield (100%. This result indicates the selection feasibility for most of the studied traits.

  12. COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.) / COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús Rafael, Méndez-Natera; Víctor Alejandro, Otahola-Gómez; Rubén E, Pereira-Garantón; José A, Simosa-Mallé; Luis, Tellis; Enrique, Zabala.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP) base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ) para l [...] os caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa) y vega (textura franco-arcillosa). Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a) Sin fertilizante; b) FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c) DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d), con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreció el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF) on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF) for the above characters. Two soil types were used: sa [...] vanna (sand lime texture) and “vega” (lime clay texture). Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a) without fertilizer; b) CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c) WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS), with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor for average number of total germination days and germ

  13. COMPARACIÓN DEL DESECHO DE UN FLUIDO DE PERFORACIÓN BASE AGUA NO DISPERSO CON LA FERTILIZACIÓN QUÍMICA EN EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL (Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP. COMPARISON BETWEEN BASED-WATER PERFORATION FLUID AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION IN COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L. WALP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rafael Méndez-Natera

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del desecho de un fluido de perforación (DFP base agua no disperso sobre la germinación de semillas, caracteres vegetativos y de la nodulación de plántulas en el cultivo de frijol y comparar este DFP con un fertilizante químico (FQ para los caracteres anteriores. Se utilizaron dos tipos de suelos: sabana (textura franco-arenosa y vega (textura franco-arcillosa. Los suelos se colocaron en bandejas de aluminio donde se sembró el cultivar de frijol Tejero Criollo. Los tratamientos de fertilización consistieron en: a Sin fertilizante; b FQ equivalente a 300 kg de 15-15-15/ha y c DFP base agua no disperso equivalente a la dosis del tratamiento b. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, las parcelas principales estuvieron constituidas por los dos tipos de suelos y las subparcelas por los tres tratamientos de fertilización. Las diferencias entre tratamientos se detectaron mediante la prueba de la Mínima Diferencia Significativa. El nivel de probabilidad usado fue 0,05. Se caracterizó químicamente el DFP base agua no disperso para realizar la aproximación al FQ utilizado, el DFP no contenía elementos pesados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la germinación a los 3 y 4 días después de la siembra (d, con promedios de 86,17 y 95,17%, respectivamente, ni para el número medio de días a germinación y la velocidad de germinación, cuyos promedios fueron 3,2 días y 7,9, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de germinación a los 8, 12, 24 y 36 d se obtuvo con el DFP, siendo estadísticamente similar a aquel del FQ, pero superior al tratamiento sin fertilizar. La mayor altura a los 8, 20, 28 y 36 d se obtuvo para el suelo de sabana, mientras que para los 12 d el suelo de sabana con el DFP o FQ desarrollaron las plantas más altas. A los 28 y 36 d, la altura de las plantas fue mayor en el suelo con FQ y con el DFP en comparación con los suelos sin fertilizar. El mayor número de hojas y mayor diámetro de tallo se obtuvieron en el suelo de sabana con el DFP. La longitud, volumen y peso seco de las raíces no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. Los vástagos más pesados se encontraron en el suelo de sabana con ambos, DFP y FQ. Los tratamientos de fertilización y los tipos de suelos no afectaron los caracteres de la nodulación, los promedios generales fueron: peso fresco y seco de nódulos de 0,41 y 0,14 g, respectivamente, y número de nódulos totales, rosados y blancos de 47,4; 32,3 y 15,0 nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican el uso potencial del desecho del fluido de perforación base agua no disperso como posible fertilizante en el cultivo de frijol debido a que estimuló la germinación de las semillas, favoreci?? el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas y no tuvo un efecto negativo sobre los caracteres de la nodulación.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of a waste of nondisperse water-based drilling fluid (WDF on seed germination, vegetative traits and nodulation traits in the cowpea crop and to compare WDF with a chemical fertilizer (CF for the above characters. Two soil types were used: savanna (sand lime texture and “vega” (lime clay texture. Soils were put in aluminum trays where cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo was sowed. Fertilization treatment were: a without fertilizer; b CF equivalent to 300 kg 15-15-15/ha and c WDF equivalent to dosage of treatment b. A split-plot design was used with four replications, the two soil types were main plots and the three fertilization treatments were subplots. The Least Significant Difference Test was used and the probability level was 0.05. The WDF was characterized chemically to approximate it to CF used, WDF did not have heavy metals. There were not significant differences found neither for germination at 3 and 4 days after sowing (DAS, with averages of 86.17 and 95.17%, respectively, nor for average number of total germination days and germination velocity, whit averages of 3.2 and 7.9,

  14. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15N sources included residual soil 15N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N2 fixed varied with the source of 15N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 15N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

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    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  16. Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in the Tropics / Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. en los Trópicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Geraldo, Donizetti dos Santos; Alana das Chagas, Ferreira Aguiar; Edilson Máximo, Silva Junior; Danubia, Lemes Dadalto; Merijane, Rodrigues Sousa; Gustavo, Ribeiro Xavier; Emanoel, Gomes de Moura.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En los trópicos húmedos, el mayor obstáculo para la aplicación de sistemas de agricultura sostenible es la reducción de la eficiencia del uso de nutrientes por los cultivos. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de cinco cepas de rizobios seleccionados en simbiosis con frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. [...] ), con el objetivo de sustituir la fertilización nitrogenada en el sistema de uso de suelo predominante utilizado por los pequeños agricultores. El estudio se llevó a cabo en tres zonas adyacentes de distintos usos agrícolas: labranza convencional, agricultura itinerante, y un sistema de no laboreo. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete tratamientos: cinco cepas de rizobios (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B y UFLA 3-84) y dos controles sin inocular (uno sin N mineral y otro fertilizado con 74 kg de N ha-1). Se midió el peso en seco de 100 granos, de los nódulos y de los brotes, así como los rendimientos de frijol y se calcularon los índices de eficiencia relativa y absoluta para la producción de biomasa seca de los brotes de frijol. El sistema de uso del suelo afecta el número y peso en seco de los nódulos y, en consecuencia, la masa de la materia vegetal seca y el rendimiento del frijol. En términos de rendimiento, hubo una gran diferencia entre el convencional y los sistemas itinerantes. La productividad fue alrededor de cuatro veces mayor en la agricultura itinerante (1009,9 kg ha-1 en comparación con 243,7 kg ha-1). En condiciones de suelos propensos a la cohesión, el sistema de labranza convencional reduce la posibilidad de cultivo de una segunda cosecha en el año, incluso con la inoculación o la fertilización nitrogenada. Abstract in english In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), with the objective of r [...] eplacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage, itinerant agriculture, and a no-till system. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates and seven treatments: five rhizobia strains (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B, and UFLA 3-84) and two controls without inoculation (one without mineral N and another fertilized with 74 kg N ha-1). We measured the dry mass of 100 grains, nodules and shoots, as well as cowpea yields and calculated relative and absolute efficiency indices for dry biomass production of cowpea shoots. Agricultural uses affected the number and dry mass of the nodules and, consequently, the mass of the dry plant matter and bean yield. In terms of yield, there was a major difference between the conventional and the itinerant systems. Yield was around four times as high in the itinerant system (1009.9 kg ha-1 compared to 243.7 kg ha-1). Under conditions of cohesion-prone soils, the system of conventional tillage reduces the possibility of cultivation of a second harvest in the year even with inoculation or N fertilization.

  17. Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices for Monocultural Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Production in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria

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    Ndaeyo, NU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-season (rainy and dry study was conducted in 1993 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the most productive tillage practice for monocultural cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp production. Completely randomised block design with four replications was used and tillage treatments were : No till-Slash and Burn (NSB, No till-Herbicide applied (NH, Conventional-ploughed and harrowed (CT, and Minimum-ploughed only (MT. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on percentage emergence, leaf and branch number in both seasons. In the first season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by tillage treatments at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing (WAS with NH showing superiority over the other treatments. In the second season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 higher in NSB and MT treatments at 6 and 8 WAS, respectively. Pod and grain yield (t ha-1 were not affected by tillage treatments in the first season but in the second season, NSB (1.84 t ha-1 and MT (1.53 t ha-1 showed significant superiority over other treatments. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while CT produced the highest economie returns. Some soil properties were also influenced with NSB treatment having a higher soil bulk density at sowing and 6 WAS than the other treatments, while NH recorded a higher soil moisture content at 6 WAS than the other treatments. The study also suggests that with optimum precipitation, CT appears a better land preparation option for cowpea production.

  18. Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea from Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Y. Abubakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%, seedling weight change (1.52 g, shoot length (25.81 cm, root length (23.12 cm was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

  19. Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata) / Genetic variability and correlations of agronomic characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ângela Celis de Almeida, Lopes; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Ranyse Barbosa Querino da, Silva; Francilene Leonel, Campos; Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial gené [...] tico de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%), e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%). O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73%) e da produtividade (19,77%). As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%), e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%). Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important food crop for human population in northeastern Brazil. Studies aiming to increase its yield as well as to improve the grain quality and the insect and diseases resistance are needed. This work aimed to accomplish genetic studies in twenty-eight co [...] wpea advanced lines. The studied lines were chosen after selection for seed color and size and plant viruses resistance. The degree of genetic determination ranged from 4.51% (in pods/peduncle) to 81.74% (in 100-seed weight). The seed yield degree of genetic determination was 34.15%. The highest estimates of genetic gain were 21.73% to 100-seed weight and 19.77% to seed yield. The genotypical correlations were higher than phenotypical and environmental ones. High correlations were found between fruiting branches/plant and seed yield (68.13%) and between agronomic value and seed yield (100%). This result indicates the selection feasibility for most of the studied traits.

  20. Morfología profunda del gineceo en Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) / Gynoecium deep morphology in Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana Inés, Drewes; Cecilia, Gamba.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la morfología del gineceo en especies de Vigna nativas de Argentina, utilizando microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB). En las flores al comienzo de la antesis, el ovario está revestido por dos tipos de tricomas, posee un disco nectarífero basal y el estilo rostrado o no, puede ser ape [...] nas curvo, con curvatura sigmoidea o con hasta cinco vueltas completas de espiralización, presenta un cepillo estilar en la porción apical introrsa, y termina en un estigma húmedo, que puede estar rodeado por tricomas. En las especies examinadas se encontraron variaciones en cuanto a: tipos de tricomas del indumento del ovario; forma del disco nectarífero basal; largo y curvatura del estilo; presencia, forma y posición del rostro; ubicación del cepillo estilar; esculturación de los tricomas del cepillo estilar; posición y forma del estigma; forma y ubicación del anillo peristigmático y disposición, longitud y esculturación de los tricomas del anillo peristigmático. Se brinda la descripción comparativa de los estados de carácter que presenta el gineceo en cada una de las especies, siendo ésta la primera observación de la esculturación de los tricomas en el género Vigna. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos con respecto a algunos aspectos de la biología floral de las especies estudiadas. Abstract in english The deep morphology of gynoecium in species of Vigna from Argentina was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the beginning of anthesis, the ovary presents two types of trichomes; has a basal nectar disc; and the style beaked or not, can appear scarcely curved, sigmoid or curved up to [...] five complete turns of spiraling; presents a distal stylar brush, and an apical wet stigma, which can be surrounded by trichomes. Among the species examined, variation was found in: types of trichomes of ovary indumentum; nectar disc shape; length and curvature of the style; presence, shape and position of the stylar beak; location of the stylar brush; sculpturing of the stylar brush trichomes; position and form of the stigma; form and location of the peristigmatic ring and disposition and length of its trichomes. Based on the variations in these characters, a comparative description of the gineceum of each species is provided. This is the first description of the sculptured trichomes in Vigna. The results are discussed in relation to some aspects of the floral biology of the species.

  1. A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venâncio T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

  2. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation. PMID:25601371

  3. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.

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    Naheed Ikram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

  4. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados / Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Marcus M., Correa.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. [...] Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil). Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais) com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna. Abstract in english Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress [...] on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil). The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition) with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  5. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  6. Transport and utilization of 14C photosynthate in cowpea (Vigna uniquiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out to study the transport and distribution patterns of 14C assimilate during the reproductive phase of cowpea var. Pusa dofashali. The pattern of 14C distribution and relative transport from different leaf positions were assessed. The effect of 'Source' and 'Sink' size on movement and distribution of assimilates was also studied. During the reproductive phase, a considerable amount of 14C assimilates was trans-located to pod (34%) and to stem and branches (25.5%). Roots gained little amount of assimilate when whole plant was exposed to 14CO2. The export of 14C assimilates from middle leaf on plant without pod as well as from leaf at node bearing pod was of greater maqnitude as compared with the lowest leaf on the main stem. Export of 14C photosynthates was highest from 'source leaf' when all other leaves were removed and a higher proportion of 14C was recovered in stem and pods. When pods were removed the export of assimilate from source leaf was reduced. On depodded plants the stem and roots accumulated considerably larger amounts of 14C assimilates than normal plants. The assimilate requirements by pods determined the degree of diversion of assimilate into the vegetative parts during the reproductive ohase. Thus source sink relationships in varietal improvement programmes with cowpea merit consideration. (auth.)ation. (auth.)

  7. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F.) and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Darfour; F.C.K. Ocloo; D.D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infeste...

  8. Reaction of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Cultivars to Yellow Mosaic Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Ali

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at three different locations of Punjab with twenty-four genotypes of cowpea under natural field conditions where yellow mosaic virus disease is a serious problem. Yellow mosaic virus infestation was rated after 4-5 weeks of sowing. Results indicated that genotypes 1T-95k-1156-3, 1T-94k-137-6, 1T-97k-9042-8,1T-97k-499-4, 1T-97k-497-2, 1T-93k-452,1T-97-k-350-4, SA Dandy, p-518, Elite, No.44 and 1T-84-552 showed highly resistant to resistant reaction, 1T-94k-440-3, 1T-95k-627-34, 1TK-238-3 gave tolerant to moderately tolerant reaction and 11-97k-461-4, 1T-97k-1021-15 showed moderately tolerant to susceptible reaction.

  9. Identification of Novel Resistance Gene Sources to Cowpea Aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Ishiyaku; H. Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p

  10. Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walison Fabio, Rogério; Ralf, Greiner; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Sabrina, Feitosa; Dalva Maria da Nóbrega, Furtunato; Deusdélia Teixeira de, Almeida.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed c [...] oats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

  11. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Ola Salawu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested cowpeas commonly consumed in Nigeria. The result revealed that infestation brings about an increase in the evaluated anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and alkaloids and a marked reduction in protein, carbohydrate content, whereas a marked increase was recorded for the fibre content. The result of the antioxidant activities revealed a significant reduction for total phenol, total flavonoids and reducing power and a slight reduction was recorded for the inhibitory action against lipid oxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and 1, 1-diphenyly-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities after infestation. The present investigations revealed that Callosobruchus maculatus infestation do not only affect the nutrient composition of the studied cowpeas by reducing the nutritional value, but would also have an adverse effect on their potential to prevent free radical mediated diseases.

  12. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cowpea Mutant (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp as Revealed by RAPD Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarajan Dhanavel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is examine the effect of different doses gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and combination of both gamma rays with EMS on cowpea seeds and to identify DNA polymorphism among the mutants through a RAPD marker analysis. The mutants showing the differences in morphological traits showed DNA polymorphism in PCR profile amplified by RAPD marker. Ten random decamer primers revealed a high DNA polymorphism among the mutant populations like tall, dwarf, leaf; flower and seed mutants were analyzed. Ten primers produced a total of 60 amplified products. Among these 48 were monomorphic with an average of 53.84 per cent polymorphism. Only five primers (PG-04, PG-05, PG-07, OPA-05 and OPA-07 showed highest polymorphism. The primer OPA-02 gave the lowest polymorphism (22.27%. Highest genetic coefficient similarity (0.76 was observed between leaf and tall; whereas least similarity (0.58 was observed between control and leaf. In a Dendrogram constructed based on genetic similarity coefficients, t

  13. Physiological and Biochemical Effects of ?-Irradiation on Cowpea Plants (Vigna sinensis under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa M. MOGAZY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the possible role of ?-irradiation in alleviating soil salinity stress during plant growth was investigated. Increasing salinity in the soil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl decreased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total carbohydrate content and mineral uptake compared to control, while increased total phenol content, proline, total free amino acids and lipid peroxidation. Seed irradiation with gamma rays significantly increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrate, total phenol, proline, total free amino acids and the contents of N, P, K +, Ca+2 and Mg+2 compared to non irradiated ones under salinity. On the other hand, irradiation with gamma rays decreased lipid peroxidation, Na+ and Cl- contents which may contribute in part to activate processes involved in the alleviation of the harmful effect of salt at all concentrations used (25, 50 and 100 mM except at the high concentration (200 mM. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities among all treatments.

  14. Alternativas Microbiológicas para Mejorar el Crecimiento del Caupí / Microbiological Alternatives for the Improvement of Cowpea Growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín Guillermo, Ramírez Gil; Laura, Osorno Bedoya; Nelson Walter, Osorio Vega; Juan Gonzalo, Morales Osorio.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P) en el suelo, la ineficiencia que presenta su absorción y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo, capaces de m [...] ejorar la disponibilidad y la absorción de P y la eficiencia de la fertilización con fertilizantes más económicos como la Roca Fosfórica (RP). En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de casa de malla, el efecto de un hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) y un microorganismo solubilizador de P (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) sobre la toma de P y el crecimiento de plantas de caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), con adición de tres niveles de RP (0, 100 y 300 mg de P kg-1 suelo). Los resultados mostraron un incremento significativo (P0,05) sobre las variables de crecimiento evaluadas. Sin embargo, en todos los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el MSP, se incrementó significativamente el P soluble. Con base en lo encontrado en este trabajo, se puede plantear que el hongo micorrízico arbuscular evaluado (HMA), mejora la eficiencia de absorción de P y el crecimiento del caupí bajo las condiciones evaluadas. Abstract in english The low phosphorus (P) availability in soil, absorption inefficiency and high costs of phosphate fertilization are limiting factors for agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative is the use of soil microorganisms, capable of improving P disponibility, absorption and the use of fertili [...] zer cheaper as rock phosphate fertilization (PR). This experiment was performed under screen house conditions aiming to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) and a P solubilizing fungus (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) on P uptake and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) growth, planted with three concentrations (0, 100 and 300 mg of P per each kg of soil) of PR. A significant increase (P-?0.05) in dry mass, plant height, mean stem diameter and foliar phosphorus, was observed in the HMA-inoculated plants compared with the HMA-non inoculated plants. No significant differences were identified when PR was added or MSP was inoculated. The results suggest that the use of HMA may improve P absorption and cowpea growth under the evaluated conditions.

  15. Efecto del procesamiento sobre las propiedades funcionales de Vigna Sinensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marisela, Granito; Marisa, Guerra; Alexia, Torres; Julieta, Guinand.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-corda (Vigna sinensis) é uma leguminosa de origem tropical que forma parte dos hábitos alimentícios de muitas regiões latino americanas, onde se consume basicamente em forma de grão integral. Devido seu alto potencial nutricional é importante incrementar seu consumo e diversificar seu us [...] o como ingrediente no desenvolvimento de produtos alimentícios. Para isto é necessário conhecer suas propriedades funcionais, tanto na matéria prima crua, como processada. Neste trabalho se avaliaram propriedades tais como absorção de água e gordura, capacidade emulsificante, espumante e gelificante em farinhas de duas variedades de feijão-de-corda venezuelano. Encontrou-se que o processamento térmico úmido, assim como a fermentação natural, incrementam a capacidade para absorver água e gordura, mas diminuem a capacidade espumante, assim como a estabilidade da espuma. A fermentação natural por 48h a 42ºC não altera a capacidade emulsificante das farinhas cruas. Com base nos resultados se sugere a incorporação de farinhas fermentadas e cozidas de feijão-de-corda para a elaboração de alimentos viscosos tais como sopas, molhos, massas e produtos assados no forno, assim como para produtos emulsionados tais como maioneses, molhos, sobremesas congeladas e embutidos. Também cabe sugerir sua incorporação a produtos fritos tais como empanadas, croquetes ou roscas. Abstract in spanish El frijol (Vigna sinensis) es una leguminosa de origen tropical que forma parte de los hábitos alimenticios de muchas regiones latinoamericanas, donde se consume básicamente en forma de grano integral. Dado su alto potencial nutricional es importante incrementar su consumo y diversificar su uso como [...] ingrediente en el desarrollo de productos alimenticios. Para ello es necesario conocer sus propiedades funcionales, tanto en la materia prima cruda, como procesada. En este trabajo se evaluaron propiedades tales como absorción de agua y grasa, capacidad emulsificante, espumante y gelificante en harinas de dos variedades de frijol venezolano. Se encontró que el procesamiento térmico húmedo, así como la fermentación natural, incrementan la capacidad para absorber agua y grasa, pero disminuyen la capacidad espumante, así como la estabilidad de la espuma. La fermentación natural por 48h a 42ºC no altera la capacidad emulsificante de las harinas crudas. Con base en los resultados se sugiere la incorporación de harinas fermentadas y cocidas de frijol para la elaboración de alimentos viscosos tales como sopas, salsas, masas y productos horneados, así como para productos emulsionados tales como mayonesas, salsas, postres congelados y embutidos. También cabe sugerir su incorporación a productos fritos tales como empanadas, croquetas o donas. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) is a tropical legume that is part of the daily diet of many Latin American regions, where it is mostly consumed as whole grain. Given its nutritional potential, it is important to increase its consumption and diversify its use as an ingredient in foodstuff development. To ach [...] ieve this, it is important to know the functional properties of the raw material as well as those of the processed one. In this work, properties such as water and fat absorption, emulsifying, foaming and jelling capacities of flours of two varieties of a Venezuelan cowpea were evaluated. It was found that wet thermal processing, as well as natural fermentation, increased the capacity to absorb water and fat, but decreased foaming capacity as well as the foam stability. Natural fermentation for 48h at 42ºC does not alter the emulsifying capacity of the raw flours. Based on the results, the incorporation of fermented and cooked bean flours for the manufacture of viscous foodstuffs such as soups, sauces, dough and baked products, as well as emulsified products such as mayonnaise, sauces, frozen desserts and sausages, is suggested. Its use for the manufacture of fried foodstuffs such as patties, croquettes and doughnuts could also be s

  16. Mecanismos de adaptación a sequía en caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Una revisión / Drought adaptation mechanisms in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.). A review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CARLOS, CARDONA-AYALA; ALFREDO, JARMA-OROZCO; HERMES, ARAMÉNDIZ-TATIS.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de los mecanismos de adaptación a sequía observados en fríjol caupí, mostrando las respuestas morfológicas, las relaciones hídricas e intercambio gaseoso, el ajuste osmótico, el sistema antioxidante y la actividad molecular. Se describen algunos indicadores que pe [...] rmiten la aproximación a un diagnóstico del nivel de estrés de las plantas tales como la relación raíz/parte aérea, densidad y profundidad de raíces, materia seca radical, área foliar específica, número de hojas y flores, senescencia foliar y abscisión foliar, componentes del rendimiento, conductancia estomática, transpiración, eficiencia en el uso del agua, contenido de osmolitos: prolina, glicina betaína y azucares; actividad de enzimas antioxidantes involucradas en procesos de detoxificación de las especies reactivas de oxígeno: catalasa, ascorbato peroxidasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión reductasa, así como la visualización de la frontera del conocimiento en este aspecto de gran importancia para el mejoramiento de la especie y los avances en biología molecular. Abstract in english This article presents a review of the drought adaptation mechanisms observed in the cowpea bean, providing the morphological responses, water and gas exchange ratios, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant system and molecular activity. Furthermore, the indicators that allow for the diagnosis of the plant [...] stress level are described, such as the root / shoot ratio, density and root depth, root dry-matter, specific leaf area, number of leaves and flowers, leaf senescence and abscission, yield components, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water-use efficiency, contents of the osmolytes: proline, glycine-betaine and sugars; activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification processes of the oxygen-reactive species: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, as well as the visualization of the knowledge-frontiers in this area that are of great importance to the improvement of the species and advances in molecular biology.

  17. The extrafloral nectaries of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp): I. Morphology, anatomy and fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, J; Pate, J S

    1985-09-01

    The cowpea bears two distinctive types of extrafloral nectaries. One, on the stipels of trifoliolate leaves, consists of a loosely demarcated abaxial area (1-2 mm diameter) of widely-spaced trichomes (papillae) borne on a stomata-free epidermis, and lacking a specific vascular supply. Each trichome has up to eight apical (head) cells, two to four intermediate cells, and a single large stalk cell. The secretory faces of the apical cells bear wall ingrowths and an easily detached cuticle. The wall separating the stalk cell and the underlying epidermal cell(s) has a mean plamodesmatal frequency of 25/?m(2). The second type of nectary consists of a large elliptical mound of tissue (short and long axes about 2 mm and 4 mm) formed between a pair of flowers on an inflorescence stalk. It comprises four to eight cone-shaped subnits of secretory tissue, each with a circular secretory orifice and an individual supply of phloem, but not of xylem. Cells of the secretory tissue of the nectary subunits separate as they mature, and nectar flows to the orifice through the resulting intercellular spaces. Intact secretory cells and cellular debris are extruded into the nectar. Some of the sieve elements terminating in the inner secretory tissue exhibit open sieve pores. Each mature secretory cell contains many small (2 ?m diameter) spherical protein bodies and one to three large (up to 2-3 ?m diameter 15 ?m long), paracrystalline bodies. These inclusions are absent or not fully developed in inner, less mature regions of the secretory tissue. Mechanisms of secretion are proposed for the two classes of nectary, including estimates of flux of sugar into the trichomes of the stipel nectary. PMID:24241307

  18. Association analysis in the Inter subspecific crosses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and Yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. spp. sesquipedalis)

    OpenAIRE

    G Selvakumar, R. Ushakumari

    2013-01-01

    Thirty hybrids involving six cowpea genotypes and five yard long bean and cowpea were evaluated and subjected to correlation and path analyses. The characters viz., number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster and 100 grain weight were significantly positive correlation with single plant yield. The direct effect of number of clusters per plant and 100 grain weight on single plant yield was high. Number of pods per clusters and number of seeds per pod recorded moderate and low leve...

  19. Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) Grains using Botanicals

    OpenAIRE

    Reuben, Shazia O. W. M.; Minza Masunga; Rhodes Makundi; Misangu, Robert N.; Bukheti Kilonzo; Maulid Mwatawala; Lyimo, Herman F.; Ishengoma, Christine G.; Msuya, Dastun G.; Mulungu, Loth S.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no prot...

  20. Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.P., Sales; P.P., Pimenta; N.S., Paes; M.F., Grossi-de-Sá; J., Xavier-Filho.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicil [...] ins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  1. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  2. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

  3. Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Janaína da Silva, Morais; Ivano Alessandro, Devilla; Daiane Assis, Ferreira; Itamar Rosa, Teixeira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de [...] feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains [...] were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature was analysed by the Arrhenius equation, which allowed determination of the activation energy. The Henderson and Modified Pabis model best represented the drying process of the cowpea. The diffusion coefficient presented values of between 8.84 x 10-8 and 20.17 x 10-8 m² s-1. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation, having an activation energy of 27.16 kJ mol-1.

  4. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Kano, northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, P.; Sampers, W.; Pauwels, F.

    1986-01-01

    The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when th...

  5. Fresh Pod Yield and Some Pod Characteristics of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Aysun Peksen

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the fresh pod yield, some plant and pod characteristics of eight local cowpea genotypes and two registered cowpea cultivars as control during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 plant growth season in Samsun. Plant height, number of branches per plant, days to first pod setting, fresh pod harvest period, number of pods per plant, average pod weight, pod length, width, thickness, flesh thickness and seed coat, flower and pod colour were determined. Simple correlations ...

  6. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Darfour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

  7. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Damme

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

  8. Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp under inoculation and cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleópatra Saraiva do Nascimento

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp. recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N.A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under study were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

  9. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  10. MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM

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    Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

  11. Effect of De Cortication and Roasting on Trypsin Inhibitors and Tannin Contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Seeds

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    Nasara Gumaa Balail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9 , for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73, for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52 for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32 for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60 for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value.

  12. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

    2001-04-01

    Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

  13. Applicability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determination of crude protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towett, Erick K; Alex, Merle; Shepherd, Keith D; Polreich, Severin; Aynekulu, Ermias; Maass, Brigitte L

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty on how generally applicable near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations are across genotypes and environments, and this study tests how well a single calibration performs across a wide range of conditions. We also address the optimization of NIRS to perform the analysis of crude protein (CP) content in a variety of cowpea accessions (n?=?561) representing genotypic variation as well as grown in a wide range of environmental conditions in Tanzania and Uganda. The samples were submitted to NIRS analysis and a predictive calibration model developed. A modified partial least-squares regression with cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. Calibration statistics for CP suggests that NIRS can predict this parameter in a wide range of cowpea leaves from different agro-ecological zones of eastern Africa with high accuracy (R2cal?=?0.93; standard error of cross-validation?=?0.74). NIRS analysis improved when a calibration set was developed from samples selected to represent the range of spectral variability. We conclude from the present results that this technique is a good alternative to chemical analysis for the determination of CP contents in leaf samples from cowpea in the African context, as one of the main advantages of NIRS is the large number of compounds that can be measured at once in the same sample, thus substantially reducing the cost per analysis. The current model is applicable in predicting the CP content of young cowpea leaves for human nutrition from different agro-ecological zones and genetic materials, as cowpea leaves are one of the popular vegetables in the region. PMID:24804013

  14. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

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    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. Conclusion Effective sources of host resistance were identified in this study. QTL mapping and synteny analysis identified genomic loci harboring resistance factors and revealed candidate genes with potential for further functional genomics analysis.

  15. Determination of Genotypical Differences for Leaf Characteristics in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Erkut Peksen; Cengiz Artik; Burcu Palabiyik

    2005-01-01

    Leaf characteristics of ten cowpea genotypes, including registered Cv. Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, from diverse locations in Turkey and relationships among leaf characteristics such as length of leaf, petiole, petiolule and terminal leaflet, terminal leaflet width and leaf area were determined. Significant differences were found among genotypes in terms of leaf and petiole length while highly significant differences found for petiolule length. There were no significant differences among genotype...

  16. Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea) from Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, B. Y.; Wada, B. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory ...

  17. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25524889

  18. Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.Ajayi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

  19. Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), cultivar BRS-Milênio / Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), BRS-Milênio cultivar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves, Frota; Rosana Aparecida Manólio, Soares; José Alfredo Gomes, Arêas.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio) foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando [...] -se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1): 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1): ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra). O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados. Abstract in english Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio) was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty [...] acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1): 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1) were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample). The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

  20. Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, cultivar BRS-Milênio Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, BRS-Milênio cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando-se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1: 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1: ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra. O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados.Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1: 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1 were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample. The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

  1. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), coletados em Roraima / Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata) blight in Roraima, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kátia L., Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris) é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com si [...] ntoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata) e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado). Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani. Abstract in english The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris) is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected i [...] n two ecosystems (savannah and forest) in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG) and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates) and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates). Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

  2. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, coletados em Roraima Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata blight in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia L. Nechet

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com sintoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado. Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani.The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected in two ecosystems (savannah and forest in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates. Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

  3. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Márquez; T, Córdova; L, Castejón; A, Higuera.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  4. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Márquez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6, en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor, tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1, el mejor control de malezas (72,1% y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%. Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela using cowpea mutant ON-30(6 and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor, weeds control every 15 days (three times using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1. A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1, the best weed control (72,1% and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22% were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  5. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%. These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain. The weevils rearing and some biological tests were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results showed that these extracts have anti-oviposition activity and ovicidal dose-dependent. Doses 25 and 50% of Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum have completely inhibited the spawning activity of C. maculatus 24 h after treatment. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between oviposition due to the positive control (Stargrain and that due to dose 50% of the three extracts. Compared to the negative control (ethanol 95%, all these plant extracts have significantly reduced (p<0.05 oviposition of C. maculatus female (38 eggs per 100 seeds after 4 days. The dose 10% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum showed no weevil emergency. It have been also noticed a reduction in seeds depreciation and rate attack in all the treated settings compared to the control. So the rate attack and the mass loss were proportional to the doses of B. aegyptiaca leaves extract but conversely proportional to doses of Melia azedarach and O. gratissimum leaves extracts. No depreciation of seeds was recorded at doses 10 and 15% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum. The different treatments did not affect the germination of seeds; the highest germination rate (93.67% was recorded with seeds treated with the dose 50% of O. gratissimum against only 65% with those treated with the positive control. These ethanolic extracts have shown insecticidal effect against C. maculatus and can alternatively use for the cowpea seeds preservation.

  6. Transcriptional profiling of root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sayan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. Results Responses to M. incognita infection in roots of resistant genotype CB46 and a susceptible near-isogenic line (null-Rk were investigated using a soybean Affymetrix GeneChip expression array at 3 and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi. At 9 dpi 552 genes were differentially expressed in incompatible interactions (infected resistant tissue compared with non-infected resistant tissue and 1,060 genes were differentially expressed in compatible interactions (infected susceptible tissue compared with non-infected susceptible tissue. At 3 dpi the differentially expressed genes were 746 for the incompatible and 623 for the compatible interactions. When expression between infected resistant and susceptible genotypes was compared, 638 and 197 genes were differentially expressed at 9 and 3 dpi, respectively. Conclusions In comparing the differentially expressed genes in response to nematode infection, a greater number and proportion of genes were down-regulated in the resistant than in the susceptible genotype, whereas more genes were up-regulated in the susceptible than in the resistant genotype. Gene ontology based functional categorization revealed that the typical defense response was partially suppressed in resistant roots, even at 9 dpi, allowing nematode juvenile development. Differences in ROS concentrations, induction of toxins and other defense related genes seem to play a role in this unique resistance mechanism.

  7. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-floweringfixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  8. A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.M., Venâncio; A.E.A., Oliveira; L.B., Silva; O.L.T., Machado; K.V.S., Fernandes; J., Xavier-Filho.

    1167-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of c [...] owpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein) of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

  9. Leaf Photosynthetic Metabolism and N2 Fixation at the Flowering Stage in Three Genotypes of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Teixeira Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in cultivars of cowpea is not yet understood. The hypothesis proposed by this study is that lack of basic technology, including sufficient mineral nutrition, combined with periods of water shortage during the crop cycle leads to insufficient photosynthetic metabolism in the flowering stage in nodulated plants. Two experiments were conducted in northeastern Brazil, one under field conditions and another in a greenhouse at near optimal conditions. Two of the principal cultivars selected for northeastern (Mulato and Gurguéia and one for northern Brazil (Milênio were evaluated regarding physiological, biochemical and biometric variables between the late vegetative and early reproductive stages under mineral nutrition and BNF treatments. Gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, proteins and chlorophyll of inoculated plants were similar to plants fertilized with mineral nitrogen, in the three cultivars in both experiments, with emphasis on Gurguéia. Leaf nitrogen concentrations and the number and dry weight of nodules were higher in Mulato and Gurguéia compared to Milênio. Milênio and Gurguéia under BNF showed higher total dry weight compared to controls; however, the number of pods per plant was higher in inoculated plants compared to controls. In conclusion, based on these results under non-stressful conditions, cultivars selected for the northeastern region inoculated with an effective rhizobia strain and receiving a mild dose of mineral nitrogen can ensure development similar to that verified in plants fertilized only with correct nitrogen fertilization.

  10. RESPONSE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L. GENOTYPES TO NATIVE SOIL RHIZOBIA FOR NODULATION, YIELD AND SOIL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONAM BINJOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil, on comparision of both the check varieties, COCP-702 performed significantly better than RC-101 in most of the characters under study. The highest soil microbial biomass carbon, i.e., 234.70 ?g g-1, soil available N, i.e., 256.56 kg ha-1 and K, i.e., 205.00 kg ha-1 was shown by check variety COCP-702. PGCP-4 recorded significantly more number of nodules plant-1, i.e., 74.33, N concentration in grain, i.e., 4.76%. PGCP-6 gave significantly more grain yield, i.e., 1893.75 kg ha-1, plant N, i.e., 2.15 %, plant protein content, i.e., 13.43 %. This variety also recorded highest N uptake by grain, i.e., 81.81 kg ha-1 and total plant uptake, i.e., 97.64 kg ha-1. Response of COCP-702, PGCP-4 and PGCP-6 to native soil rhizobia were found to be significantly more than the other cowpea genotypes.

  11. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside the shade of six randomly selected Parkia biglobosa trees during one season in south-central Burkina Faso. The area under the canopy of each tree was divided into four main plots according to cardinal directions, and sub-divided into three concentric zones. Control plots were established outside the tree canopy. The crops were intercropped in two different proportions using the replacement method and compared to sole crops. Days to flowering were noted and yields were measured, and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) and Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) calculated. Flowering was earlier outside than under the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate that intercropping could improve the system’s productivity, increase the income for farmers, and compensate losses in pearl millet under the canopy.

  12. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Jose? B. M.; Barros, Maria F. C.; Egídio Bezerra Neto; Correa, Marcus M.

    2013-01-01

    A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um ...

  13. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  14. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed for the two periods. About 23 fungal species were identified on cowpea seed samples across zones of which Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that produces aflatoxins, was most frequently encountered. Fusarium species shown to produce fumonisins were not recorded from cowpea seeds. Overall incidence of A. flavus infection was found to increase after storage from 7.6% at T0 to 28.25% at T3. In spite of this natural infection of cowpea, very low levels of fumonisin and aflatoxin were detected. Only three out of the 92 cowpea samples, all collected at T0, were found to be fumonisin B1 positive with a mean level of 0.03 mg/g. Similarly, only six samples out of the 92, all collected at T3, were aflatoxin B1 positive with mean levels of 3.58 µg/kg. Fumonisin (B2 and B3) and aflatoxin (B2, G1 and G2) were not detected in any of the samples. Contrary to the situation with maize and groundnut where high levels of toxin are often detected in naturally infected samples, the current results indicate that cowpea is less susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. A low susceptibility could be due to the presence in cowpea of substances that inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis. Further investigations are underway to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under water deficit / Intercambio gaseoso y distribución de biomasa de caupí (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) bajo déficit hídrico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cardona-Ayala, Carlos Enrique; Alfredo, Jarma-Orozco; Hermes, Araméndiz-Tatis; Marvin, Perneth-Montaño; César Augusto, Vergara-Córdoba.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La tolerancia a sequía es importante para la supervivencia y productividad de las plantas en ambientes con aumentos de sequía, como resultado de la variabilidad climática por causas naturales y, el cambio climático por actividades humanas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las dinámicas de fot [...] osíntesis (A), conductancia estomática (gs) y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA=A/gs) en función del contenido de humedad del suelo durante un periodo de sequía, y la recuperación pos-estrés en 14 genotipos de caupí. Los genotipos estudiados toleraron tensiones de humedad del suelo cercanas a -2 Mpa, sin presentar marchitamiento permanente. A partir de potencial hídrico del suelo de -0,7 Mpa, fueron evidentes las disminuciones en A y gs, así como el aumento en A/gs, las cuales variaron con el genotipo; sus estimaciones con modelos de regresión permitieron discriminar grados de tolerancia a sequía entre cultivares. A los 4 días después de reasumir la hidratación, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medias de tales parámetros. Los genotipos L-047 y L-034 conservaron entre 4 y 6 hojas, se mostraron como los de mayor retraso en senescencia foliar durante la sequía y presentaron mayor biomasa a los 16 días de recuperación post-stress Abstract in english Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of [...] photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

  16. Evaluación de altura de plantas y componentes del rendimiento de seis genotipos del género Vigna en dos localidades de Venezuela Plant height and yield components of six genotypes of the genus Vigna in two locations of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M Flores M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar el comportamiento agronómico, los componentes del rendimiento y su correlación con el rendimiento en genotipos del género Vigna, identificados como JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016, MS-01-00-09 y la variedad comercial `Tuy', se llevaron a cabo ensayos en las localidades de Samán Mocho, estado Carabobo y en Maracay, estado Aragua, entre los meses de noviembre de 2001 y febrero 2002. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En este trabajo se describen brevemente los genotipos y se evalua la altura de las plantas, en cinco estadios fenológicos durante el ciclo del cultivo; así como también el rendimiento y sus componentes, al momento de la cosecha. El genotipo que alcanzó mayor altura de planta en ambas localidades fue MEM-02-00-19, por su hábito de crecimiento indeterminado trepador. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de medias de Duncan detectaron diferencias significativas para el rendimiento en Maracay. Los materiales con mayor rendimiento fueron de la especie Vigna unguiculata: MS-01-00-09 (2114,1 kg/ha y JA-01-00-05 (1605,6 kg/ha. Las vainas de mayor longitud y total de semillas por vainas se observaron en MS-01-00-09, con 14,2 cm de longitud y 10,9 semillas/vainas. En el genotipo de Vigna umbellata, MEM- 02-00-19 se obtuvo el mayor número de vainas por planta con 17,5. El rendimiento se correlacionó positivamente con la longitud de vaina y número de semillas por vaina. Los genotipos: JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MS-01-00-09, Vigna unguiculata, y AM-02-00-016, Vigna radiata, fueron de mejor manejo en campo; no así el genotipo MEM-02-00-19, Vigna umbellata, cuyo uso es más para cultivos asociados, por su hábito de crecimiento trepador.With the purpose of characterizing agronomic behaviour, yield components and their correlations with yield for six genotypes of Vigna identified as JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016 and MS-01-00-09, and a commercial variety, `Tuy', experiments were conducted in Saman Mocho, Carabobo State and Maracay, Aragua state, during the period November 2001 to February 2002. The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. In this paper, genotypes are briefly described, plant height is measured at five phenological stages during growth cycle, and yield and its components are evaluated at harvest. For both sites, MEM-02-00-19 had the tallest plants due to its indeterminate climbing growth habit. Results of the variance analysis and Duncan´s Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences for yield in Maracay. Treatments with highest yields, belonging to the species Vigna unguiculata, were MS-01-00-09 (2114.1 kg/ha and JA-01-00-05 (1605.6 kg/ha. MS-01-00-09 (Vigna unguiculata also had longest pods (14.2 cm and greatest number of seeds per pod (10.9 seeds/pod. The genetic material belonging to the species Vigna umbellata, MEM-02-00-19, exhibited the greatest number of pods per plant (17.5 pods/plant. Yield was positively correlated with pod length and number of seeds per pod. Because of differences in growth habits, genotypes belonging to species Vigna unguiculata (JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05 and MS-01-00-09 and species Vigna radiata (AM-02-00-016 were easier to handle in field conditions than Vigna umbellata, which had a climbing behaviour and is better suited for mixed cropping systems.

  17. Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

  18. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    OpenAIRE

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.; Nyang'or, RA.; Saxena, KN; Seshu Reddy, KV.

    1994-01-01

    The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercro...

  19. Eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma spp. em diferentes cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no cerrado (Savana Brasileira) / Efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobia and Trichoderma spp. in different cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the “cerrado” (Brazilian savanna)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aloisio F. Chagas, Junior; Ariádila G., Oliveira; Higor B., Reis; Gil R., Santos; Lillian F. B., Chagas; Luciane O., Miller.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da inoculação combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Foram utilizadas três cultivares de feijão-caupi, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ e ‘Sempre Verde’. O ensaio foi conduzido no campo com delineamento experimental em blocos [...] ao acaso e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados consistiram em inoculações simples e combinada de rizóbio e Trichoderma na semente e no solo, no plantio e aos 15 dias após o plantio (DAP). Foram também incluídos um controle adubado com azoto e uma testemunha sem inoculação. Foram inoculadas estirpes de Bradyrhizobium sp., e para os tratamentos com a utilização de Trichoderma, foi utilizado o inoculante comercial Trichoplus JCO em pó. Foram avaliadas à biomassa, nodulação, produtividade, eficiência simbiótica e teor de azoto e fósforo. A aplicação de Trichoderma aos 15 DAP, tanto na semente quanto no solo, apresentou os melhores resultados na maioria das cultivares analisadas, superando os demais tratamentos. A cultivar ‘Corujinha’ apresentou os melhores resultados para produção de biomassa. A aplicação de Trichoderma não prejudicou o processo de nodulação, sendo que os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando o fungo foi inoculado com rizóbio. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of combined inoculation of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Three cultivars of cowpea, ‘Corujinha’, ‘Fradinho’ and ‘Sempre Verde’ were assayed. The experiment was conducted in a field in a randomized block design with four replication [...] s. The treatments used were simple and combined inoculations of Rhizobia and Trichoderma in the seed and in the soil, at planting and 15 days after planting (DAP). It was also included a control over fertilized with nitrogen and a non-inoculated control. Strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. were used for inoculation. Trichoplus JCO inoculant powder was used for treatments with Trichoderma. The parameters evaluated were biomass, nodulation, productivity, efficiency and symbiotic nitrogen content and phosphorus. The application of Trichoderma at 15 DAP in both the seed and in the soil showed the best results in most of the cultivars analyzed, overcoming the other treatments. Cultivar ‘Corujinha’ showed the best results for biomass production. The application of Trichoderma did not inhibit the nodulation process, and the best results were obtained when the fungus was inoculated with Rhizobia.

  20. Micronisation of cowpeas : the effects on sensory quality, phenolic compounds and bioactive properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kayitesi, Eugenie

    2013-01-01

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are legumes recognised as a good source of proteins in developing countries. Cowpeas are mostly utilised as cooked whole seeds. This is often achieved only after boiling for up to 2 hours, resulting in high energy consumption and a long time for food preparation. Micronisation of pre-conditioned cowpeas (± 41 % moisture at 153 °C) reduces their cooking time. During micronisation, cowpea seeds are exposed to electromagnetic radiation with a wa...

  1. Supplementation of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein with cereal proteins - supplementation of soup with a protein blend of appropriate nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the cowpea bean protein was improved through supplementations with flours from beans exposed to microwave oven treated with cereal proteins such as wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum. Biological assays results with these blends showed that the casein exceeded the other diets concerning digestibility only; however, in parameters such as biological value, net protein utilization (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutritional efficiency ratio (NER), no significant differences occurred. Among all elaborated blends, the one with irradiated beans submitted to microwave oven for 30 minutes (65%) + rice (35%) presented the best results. The soup elaborated with the best supplemented blend was satisfactory concerning color, odor, flavor and texture

  2. Evaluación de la fertilización biológica del frijol con cepas nativas de Rhizobium aisladas de un ultisol de la altiplanicie del estado guarico / Evaluation of the biological fertilization on cowpea with nativa Rhizobium strains isoleted from an ultisol in landplane guarico state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Belkys, Rodríguez; Marisol, López.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización biológica en frijol, Vigna unguiculata L., con cepas nativas de Rhizobium aisladas de un Ultisol de la altiplanicie en condiciones de mesa del estado Guárico sobre la producción de materia seca (MS), porcentaje de nódulos (PN), masa nodular (MN), actividad nod [...] ular, (AN), absorción de nitrógeno (N) y absorción de fósforo (P), en condiciones de invernadero. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: sin biofertilizante, biofertilización con la cepa 1, biofertilización con cepa 2 y biofertilización con una combinación de las cepas 1 y 2, conjuntamente con la aplicación de una fertilización basal de N, P y K reducida, obteniéndose a partir de las variables medidas que la cepa 1 mostró una alta capacidad para colonizar el cultivo, lo cual la convierte en el biofertilizante con mayor potencial para gestionar la fertilización del frijol en los conucos llaneros presentes en la altiplanicie Abstract in english The effect of biological fertilization on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L., with native Rhizobium strains isolated from an ultisol in landplane condition of Guárico state, Venezuela, was evaluated on dry matter production (MS), nodules percentage (PN), nodular mass (MN), nodular activity (AN), nitrogen [...] uptake (N) and phosphorus uptake (P), in an experiment carried out in greenhouse conditions. The evaluated treatments were: without biofertilization (control), biofertilization with strain 1, biofertilization with strain 2 and biofertilization with consortium strains 1 + 2, jointly with the application of a reduced basal fertilization of N, P and K. the strain1 showed high capacity to colonize the crop, which turn it into biological fertilizer with the greatest potential to manage cowpea fertilization in llaneros homegarden in landplane conditions

  3. Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) par rapport au maïs (Zea mays L.) sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé

    OpenAIRE

    Osiru, DSO.; Ocaya, CP.; Adipala, E.

    2002-01-01

    Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Relative to Maize (Zea mays L.) on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yie...

  4. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from cowpea mosaic virus-infected cowpea leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Dorssers, L. C. J.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was the purification and identification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase engaged in replicating viral RNA in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)- infected cowpea leaves.Previously, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with CPMV, was partially purified (Zabel, 1978). This enzyme was thought to be responsible for the replication of viral RNA and believed to be encoded, at least in part, by the virus genome...

  5. Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela / Identification of seed borne viruses in growing areas of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z, Peña; G, Trujillo.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose [...] los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de estabilidad en savia, se estudió la transmisión a través de insectos, se estudió el rango de hospedantes, microscopía electrónica y se realizaron pruebas serológicas con los antisueros disponibles. En tres aislamientos virales de caraota se identificó, el virus del mosaico sureño de la caraota (BSMV) en muestra del Valle de Tucutunemo, estado Aragua, en un material procedente de Colombia colectado en Sanare, estado Lara, se detectó infección viral simple con el BSMV y doble el BSMV y el virus del mosaico común de la caraota (BCMV) . En fríjol se identificó el virus del mosaico severo del frijol (CpSMV) a partir de semilla de los estados Portuguesa y Falcón. Con este estudio se ratifica la necesidad del control fitosanitario para la exclusión de materiales nacionales o importados no aptos para la siembra y se corrobora la importancia de la certificación de semillas. Abstract in english With the purpose of knowing the incidence of seed borne viruses in production areas of beans and cowpea, 53 materials used as seed were evaluated. Viral isolations coming from seeds sowed in shelter protected against insects; being identified the beans isolations like: "Colombian 1", "Colombian 2" a [...] nd "Tucutunemo"; and those of cowpea like "Black Eye", were selected. Material was multiplied, stability test in sap were carried out, vector transmission was studied, the hosts range was determined, serological tests with the available antibody were carried out. In three viral isolations of beans, the bean southern mosaic virus (BSMV) was identified in a sample of Tucutunemo Valley, Aragua state. In the material coming from Colombia collected in Sanare, Lara state, it was detected simple viral infection BSMV and double infection BSMV and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). In cowpea, it was identified the cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) from seed of Portuguese and Falcon states. Through this essay was corroborated the necessity of establishing a phytopathological control, for the exclusion of national or imported seed materials not suitable for sows, and also the importance of seed certification.

  6. Evaluación de altura de plantas y componentes del rendimiento de seis genotipos del género Vigna en dos localidades de Venezuela / Plant height and yield components of six genotypes of the genus Vigna in two locations of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M, Flores M; P.M, Madriz I; R, Warnock de Parra; A, Trujillo de Leal.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar el comportamiento agronómico, los componentes del rendimiento y su correlación con el rendimiento en genotipos del género Vigna, identificados como JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016, MS-01-00-09 y la variedad comercial `Tuy', se llevaron a cabo ensayos e [...] n las localidades de Samán Mocho, estado Carabobo y en Maracay, estado Aragua, entre los meses de noviembre de 2001 y febrero 2002. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En este trabajo se describen brevemente los genotipos y se evalua la altura de las plantas, en cinco estadios fenológicos durante el ciclo del cultivo; así como también el rendimiento y sus componentes, al momento de la cosecha. El genotipo que alcanzó mayor altura de planta en ambas localidades fue MEM-02-00-19, por su hábito de crecimiento indeterminado trepador. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de medias de Duncan detectaron diferencias significativas para el rendimiento en Maracay. Los materiales con mayor rendimiento fueron de la especie Vigna unguiculata: MS-01-00-09 (2114,1 kg/ha) y JA-01-00-05 (1605,6 kg/ha). Las vainas de mayor longitud y total de semillas por vainas se observaron en MS-01-00-09, con 14,2 cm de longitud y 10,9 semillas/vainas. En el genotipo de Vigna umbellata, MEM- 02-00-19 se obtuvo el mayor número de vainas por planta con 17,5. El rendimiento se correlacionó positivamente con la longitud de vaina y número de semillas por vaina. Los genotipos: JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MS-01-00-09, Vigna unguiculata, y AM-02-00-016, Vigna radiata, fueron de mejor manejo en campo; no así el genotipo MEM-02-00-19, Vigna umbellata, cuyo uso es más para cultivos asociados, por su hábito de crecimiento trepador. Abstract in english With the purpose of characterizing agronomic behaviour, yield components and their correlations with yield for six genotypes of Vigna identified as JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016 and MS-01-00-09, and a commercial variety, `Tuy', experiments were conducted in Saman Mocho, Carabo [...] bo State and Maracay, Aragua state, during the period November 2001 to February 2002. The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. In this paper, genotypes are briefly described, plant height is measured at five phenological stages during growth cycle, and yield and its components are evaluated at harvest. For both sites, MEM-02-00-19 had the tallest plants due to its indeterminate climbing growth habit. Results of the variance analysis and Duncan´s Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences for yield in Maracay. Treatments with highest yields, belonging to the species Vigna unguiculata, were MS-01-00-09 (2114.1 kg/ha) and JA-01-00-05 (1605.6 kg/ha). MS-01-00-09 (Vigna unguiculata) also had longest pods (14.2 cm) and greatest number of seeds per pod (10.9 seeds/pod). The genetic material belonging to the species Vigna umbellata, MEM-02-00-19, exhibited the greatest number of pods per plant (17.5 pods/plant). Yield was positively correlated with pod length and number of seeds per pod. Because of differences in growth habits, genotypes belonging to species Vigna unguiculata (JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05 and MS-01-00-09) and species Vigna radiata (AM-02-00-016) were easier to handle in field conditions than Vigna umbellata, which had a climbing behaviour and is better suited for mixed cropping systems.

  7. Parámetros productivos y química sanguínea en pollos de engorde alimentados con tres niveles diéticos de harina de granos de fríjol (vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp.) Durante la fase de crecimiento. / Productive Parameters and Blood Chemistry in Broiler Chickens Fed With Three Dietary Levels of Cowpea Grain Meal (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) During Growth Phase.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio, Miranda-López; Hirwin, Rincón-Reyes; Rafaela, Muñoz; Atilio, Higuera; Ana María, Arzálluz-Fischer; Hermógenes, Urdaneta.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el efecto de tres niveles de inclusión dietética de harina de granos de fríjol, variedad “Catatumbo” (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) (VU), sobre los parámetros productivos tales como, ganancia de peso corporal (GPC), consumo de alimento (CA), conversión al [...] imenticia (CVA) y la química sanguínea medida a través de las concentraciones plasmáticas de glucosa (G), proteínas totales (PT), albúmina plasmática (AP) y alanina amino transferasa (ALT) en pollos de engorde hasta la tercera semana de edad. 500 pollos machos (Ross-Cobb) de un día de edad se distribuyeron al azar en 4 grupos, de 125 pollos cada uno: G1= alimento sin VU, G2= alimento con 5% de VU, G3= alimento con 10% de VU y G4= alimento con 15% de UV. Cada grupo incluyó 5 repeticiones. Las aves se alojaron en 20 corrales de 3 mt² c/u (25 pollos/corral), con una densidad de 8,3 ave/mt², por un periodo de 21 días. Durante las tres semanas evaluadas, las aves de los G1, G2, y G3 tuvieron mejores (P Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of cowpea grain meal (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) (CGM) on productive parameters such as weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC) and blood chemistry such as plasma concentrations of glucose (G), [...] total proteins (TP), albumin (A) and alanine-amino-tranferase (ALT) of growing broiler chicks until 3 weeks of age. Five hundred male broiler chicks (Ross-Cobb) one day of age were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 125 each (G1= feed no CGM, G2= feed with 5% CGM, G3= feed with 10% de CGM and G4= feed with 15% CGM). Each group included 5 repetitions. All chicks were housed into 20 pens of 3 mt² keeping a density of 8.3 chicks/mt² during 21 d. Chicks from G1, G2, y G3 had better (P

  8. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. PMID:25466917

  9. Identificação de genótipos de caupi Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. resistentes a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Identification of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. genotypes resistant to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCILEYNE P. L. DE, LIMA; JOSÉ V, OLIVEIRA; REGINALDO, BARROS; JORGE B., TORRES.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar fontes de resistência em 30 genótipos de caupi, provenientes da Embrapa - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Norte, ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). Em teste sem chance de escolha, confinaram-se dois casais em 30 grãos de cada genótipo, [...] efetuando-se cinco repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Para verificar a resistência avaliaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: número de ovos/fêmea, viabilidade de ovos, duração e viabilidade da fase imatura, taxa de aumento da população e índice de resistência. Foram classificados como moderadamente resistentes os genótipos IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 e BR17-Gurguéia; como suscetíveis CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E e TE87-98-9G-2, e como altamente suscetíveis Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F, TE90-180-13E. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e CNCx 955-1F apresentaram não-preferência para oviposição, sendo o primeiro classificado como resistente, devido à menor taxa de aumento da população, menor viabilidade e maior duração da fase imatura, indicando a ocorrência de antibiose. Abstract in english The present work aimed to identify sources of resistance in 30 cowpea genotypes, from EMBRAPA Meio-Norte, to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). In a no choice test, two pairs of the insect were confined in 30 grains of each genotype, in a completely randomized design with five repli [...] cations. To evaluate the resistance of the genotypes, the parameters: number of eggs/female, viability of eggs, duration and viability of the immature phase, natural rate of population increase, and resistance index were used. By this index the genotypes IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 and BR17-Gurguéia were classified as moderately resistant; CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E and TE87-98-9G-2 as susceptible, and Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F and TE90-180-13E as highly susceptible. The genotypes IT89KD-245 and CNCx 955-1F showed non-preference for oviposition. The genotype IT89KD-245 was the only one classified as resistant, showing the least natural rate of population increase, the smallest viability and the largest duration of the immature phase, expressing antibiosis.

  10. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaied K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer to other rhizobia, revealed that it is necessary, in view of possibility of deliberate release of a variety of recombinant rhizobia into the environment for such agricultural purposes as improving nitrogen fixation. New recombinants revealed higher amounts of indole compounds from tryptophan above the mid-parents in two out of six transconjugants resulted from the cross between P1 x P3. Significant number of nodules were developed on the root system of V2-variety in M4 generation treated with 20 krad in response to inoculation with the parental strains (P2 and P3 and also in response to inoculation with triparental transconjugants (Tr4 and Tr5, above that developed on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. The results revealed the success of rhizobial strains and their recombinants to colonize and infect roots of cowpea, because of significant dry weight of nodules per plant which can be obtained in V1-variety treated with 20 krad in M4 generation inoculated with the parental strain (P3, above that on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. Total chlorophyll formation in V1-variety inoculated with di-parental transconjugants (DPM-Tr2 and DPM-Tr3 at all doses of gamma irradiation was significantly increase above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose and the mid-parents, with the exception at 30 krad if compared with the mid-parents. Significant increase was resulted in fresh weight of pods developed per plant above the mid-parents in M3 generation of V1-variety at doses zero and 10 krad, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugant, DPM-Tr2. While, the same trend was also achieved above the full dose in M3 generation at 10 krad in response to inoculation with DPM-Tr2, DPM-Tr3, TPM-Tr4 and TPM-Tr5. The highest nitrogen content was appeared in the shoots of V1-variety at all doses of gamma irradiation in response to inoculation with diparental transconjugant (DPM-Tr2. However, V2-variety had the lowest nitrogen content in relation to the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen and to the mid-parents of rhizobial transconjugants. The genetic variability of grain-protein content appeared that V2-variety treated with 10 krad had significant increase in protein content above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N among M3 and M4 generations, in response to inoculation with parental strains and most of their transconjugants. The same trend was also shown in M4 generation of V1-variety treated with 20 and 30 krad above the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugants. All biochemical traits studied were more affected by biofertilization than the doses of gamma rays and the interaction between biofertilization x doses. This indicated that the significance of treatments was mainly due to inoculation and particularly to gamma irradiation and the interaction between both of them.

  11. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  12. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) / Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco de A. C., Almeida; Silvana A. de, Almeida; Nilene R. dos, Santos; Josivanda P., Gomes; Maria E. R., Araújo.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espéc [...] ies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable [...] species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  13. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

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    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4% among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively. All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

  14. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação / Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves, Frota; Marcelo Antonio, Morgano; Marta Gomes da, Silva; Marcos Antonio da Mota, Araújo; Regilda Saraiva dos Reis, Moreira-Araújo.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC), avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo) e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina). [...] Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%), dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente). Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável. Abstract in english This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll) with cowpea flour (CF) to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). Three fo [...] rmulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4%) among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

  15. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and; Sanjay R. Maske2

    2012-01-01

    The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpure...

  16. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung Foo; Chipumuro Edmond; Bokowiec Marta T; Laudeman Thomas W; Rushton Paul J; Timko Michael P; Town Christopher D; Chen Xianfeng

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major...

  17. A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic map...

  18. COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS / COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omar Eduardo, García; Benito, Infante; Carlos Julio, Rivera.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy") analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutr [...] o (FDN) produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3%) en relación a "Unare" (27,1%). El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5%) y "Unare", (21,7%) eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI) (15,4%) y fibra dietética total (16,1%) de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF. Abstract in english Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy") analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed the [...] highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3%) compared to "Unary" (27.1%). The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (15.5%) and "Unare" (21.7%) were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) (15.4%) and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF) (16.1%) higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.

  19. Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ileke, K. D.; Odeyemi, O. O.; Ashamo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control) 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w) concentration. The ability of the plant powders to p...

  20. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de 15N / Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como planta [...] s-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante) no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI) com o método da diferença (MD) para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2) compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS), o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas. Abstract in english Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, throug [...] h the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

  1. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID with the difference methods (DM for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

  2. Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna / Análisis químico y evaluación nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pious, Tresina Soris; Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composición próximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascorbico), proteína y perfil de amino ácidos, perfil de ácidos graso [...] s y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de proteína cruda que los fríjoles de consumo común en la India. Los frijoles analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos ácidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino ácidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptófano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontró un contenido relativamente alto de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolénico. Se analizó para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, ácido fítico, ácido cianhidríco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of [...] lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses appeared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

  3. GREEN EAR YIELD IN CORN GROWN AFTER COWPEA INCORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Under irrigation, maize (Zea mays L. can be grown throughout the year in Northeastern Brazil, which in many areas results in soil degradation. The renewed interest in the study of crop rotations with legumes is targeted at reducing this degradation. The objective of our work was to evaluate the green ear yields of three maize cultivars (AG 8080, AG 9010 and DKB 333B, after growing the Sempre-verde cowpea cultivar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., incorporated at three different moments. Two sprinklerirrigated experiments (one involving cowpea and the other with maize were conducted. The following treatments were applied to the cowpea experiment, in a random block design with ten replicates: no cowpea cultivation; cowpea cultivation and incorporation into the soil at bloom time; or after four green bean harvests; or after three mature bean harvests (dry grains. The maize cultivars were grown in each of the four areas of each block in the cowpea experiment. Therefore, the maize experiment followed a split-plot design with treatments arranged as random blocks with ten replicates. In spite of the differences between the amounts of cowpea matter incorporated to the soil, there were no differences between the chemical characteristics of the soil at maize planting. The incorporation of cowpea at any time, or not, did not have an influence on the total number and weight of green ears and on the number and weight of marketable maize ears, both unhusked and husked. Cultivar AG 8080 presented the highest green ear yields.

  4. Effect of Native Soap on Insect Pests and Grain Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Asaba and Abraka during the Late Cropping Season in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Egho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of native soap against cowpea insect pests during the late cowpea cropping season in two agro-ecological zones-Asaba and Abraka, Delta State. Four major insect pests, namely the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, the legume flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb, the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fab and pod sucking bugs were studied. The experiment was made up of five treatments-1, 2 and 3 percent concentrations of native soap, cypermethrin (as conventional chemical and check and a control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was arranged into a randomised complete block design (RCBD. The results showed that all the major insect pests occurred in the study areas but were more at Asaba compared to Abraka. Native soap was effective against A. craccivora and flower bud thrips population at Asaba. Maruca vitrata was not affected by soap application. Grain yield was high at Abraka and significantly (P<0.05 higher than Asaba. The use of native soap as non-conventional insecticide in cowpea insect pests management appears promising, more so as it is not expensive and safe to handle. Farmers may prefer it to synthetic chemical pesticides with their associated dangers.

  5. Cowpea Crude Protein as Affected by Cropping System, Site and Nitrogen Fertilization

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    E. T. Sebetha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. is considered as major advantage for its use in nutritional components. In this way, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cropping system, site, and nitrogen fertilization on cowpea crude protein. The study comprised of three cropping systems (Maize-cowpea rotation, monocropping cowpea and intercropped cowpea, three sites (Potchefstroom, Taung, and Rustenburg, South Africa and two rates of nitrogen fertilizers applied in kg ha-1 at each site (0 and 20 at Potchefstroom, 0 and 17 at Rustenburg, 0 and 23 at Taung. Moreover, a factorial experiment randomized in complete block design with three replications was conducted during 2011/12 and 2012/13 planting seasons. The protein content was determined from green leaves harvested before flowering, immature green pods and seeds during reproductive stage and maturity. Results showed that cropping system had significant effect on cowpea leaf protein content (P < 0.05. Intercropped cowpea significantly gave higher leaf protein (26.7% more content than rotational cowpea. Cowpea planted at Taung had significantly higher leaf protein (30.1% more content as compared to cowpea planted at other sites. Application of nitrogen fertilizer contributed to higher protein content of immature pods. Moreover, cowpea protein content differs among the different locations due to different soil types and climatic conditions.

  6. Nutritional efficiency of cowpea varieties in the absorption of phosphorus / Eficiencia nutricional de variedades caupí en la absorción del fósforo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érica, de Oliveira Araújo; Elcio, Ferreira dos Santos; Gabriel, Queiroz de Oliveira; Marcos Antonio, Camacho; Daiane, Mugnol Dresch.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El uso de genotipos o variedades eficientes en la absorción y la utilización del fósforo pueden ser una solución complementaria para aumentar la productividad y reducir los costos de producción de los cultivos. Así, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el contenido, la acumulación y la efi [...] ciencia de absorción, transporte y utilización del fósforo por variedades caupí cultivado en un suelo de orden Ultisol. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con distribuición factorial 2 x 4, con dos niveles de fósforo (0 y 300 mg kg-1 de suelo), cuatro variedades de caupí (BRS Tumucumaque, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé y BRS Itaim) y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados concluyen que la variedad BRS Itaim presentóun comportamiento diferencial en relación con la altura de planta, diámetro del tallo y producción de materia seca total. Las variedades BRS Tumucumaque y BRS Guariba fueron superiores en la producción de materia seca total, absorción, transporte y utilización de fósforo en las condiciones de bajo suministro de este nutriente. La producción de materia seca de la parte aérea y el contenido de fósforo fueron más sensibles a la deficiencia de fósforo, lo que permitió demostrar que son los más adecuadas para la evaluación de las variedades de fríjol caupí en el uso del fósforo Abstract in english The use of genotypes and/or varieties that are efficient in the absorption and use of phosphorus can be a complementary solution to increase productivity and reduce the cost of production in the crops. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the content, accumulation, and the efficiencies of uptak [...] e, transport and utilization of phosphorus by cowpea varieties cultivated in an Ultisol soil. The experiment used a completely randomized design in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two levels of phosphorus (0 and 300 mg kg-1 soil), four varieties of cowpea (BRS Tumucumaque, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé and BRS Itaim) and five replications. The results led to the conclusion that the variety BRS Itaim presented differentiated behaviors in relation to plant height, stem diameter and dry mass production. The varieties BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba were superior in total dry mass production, uptake, transport and utilization of phosphorus in low nutrient supply conditions. The aboveground production of dry mass and its phosphorus content were more sensitive to phosphorus deficiency in the three varieties, which shows that they were more appropriate for the use of phosphorus

  7. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp

    OpenAIRE

    Gakuru, S.; Buledi, MK.

    1995-01-01

    Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthosceli...

  8. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  9. Identification and comparative analysis of drought-associated microRNAs in two cowpea genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts Philip A; Ehlers Jeffrey D; Wu Zhigang; Diop Ndeye N; Gao Lei; Barrera-Figueroa Blanca E; Close Timothy J; Zhu Jian-Kang; Liu Renyi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop in arid and semi-arid regions and is a good model for studying drought tolerance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in plant stress responses, but drought-associated miRNAs have not been identified in cowpea. In addition, it is not understood how miRNAs might contribute to different capacities of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes. Results We generated deep sequencing small RNA reads from two co...

  10. Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp par rapport au maïs (Zea mays L. sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé

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    Osiru, DSO.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Relative to Maize (Zea mays L. on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yield of cowpea. Simultaneous planting generally showed a yield advantage (LER> 1 of the cowpea/ maize intercropping systems irrespective of the cowpea varieties used, but LER declined when time of introducing cowpea into maize was delayed being as low as 0.76 when cowpea was planted four weeks after planting maize. The reduction in the growth and yield of cowpea was due to increased shading from the maize plants especially when cowpea was introduced at the fourth week. Therefore, to achieve yield benefit simultaneous planting of maize and cowpea recommended.

  11. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    OpenAIRE

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU; Adekunle ADELUSI

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrie...

  13. Irradiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds to control southern cowpea beetle Callosbruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using gamma radiation as an alternative to fumigation or direct chemical applications for the control of stored-products insects was investigated in the laboratory and in a warehouse in Cairo, Egypt. Polyethylene bags of the type used in local markets were filled with cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata] Callosobruchus maculatus and irradiated at 400, 600 or 800 Gy [4, 6 or 8 krad]. All the treatments were effective, and no living adults infested by were found in the bags until 3 months later, when adults from outside penetrated the bags with their mandibles. It is therefore recommended that 4 krad should be administered for initial control, but that treated cowpeas should be stored in polypropylene rather than polyethylene bags in order to prevent reinfestation

  14. Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada / Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) culture under the chopped secondary forest system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.J.P., Marques; M.R.M., Silva; M.S., Araújo; G.S., Lopes; M.J.P., Corrêa; A.C.R., Freitas; F.H., Muniz.

    Full Text Available O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio diret [...] o na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m) lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância). Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) e Rubiaceae (4). No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo. Abstract in english The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon. Since weed management is an essential part of the production process, this study aimed to survey the flora in no-tillage areas of a chopped [...] secondary forest cultivated with cowpea. This work was conducted in a rural farming area in the municipality of Zé Doca, MA in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. The preparation of the area was carried out with a wheel tractor using the implement ahwi FM600. The area was originally planted with maize followed by BRS Guariba cowpea for two years.Weed evaluation was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m), launched 30 times. Evaluation was performed every time, with the aerial parts of the weeds being harvested for counting, identification, and drying, to obtain the phytosociological indices (frequency, density, dominance index, and importance value). The families with the most weed species were Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) and Rubiaceae (4). In the agricultural years 2006/2007, the species with the highest IVI were: Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata and Cyperus sp. In the agricultural years 2007/2008, the main species were: Digitaria horizontalis, followed by C. diffusus, Pavonia cancellata and F. dichotoma. The secondary forest plants originated from sprouting presented the highest IVIs in the agricultural year 2006/2007 and suffered a drastic reduction in 2007/2008. Thus, it can be concluded that progressive cultivation reduces secondary forest plant sprouting and increases the herbaceous extract.

  15. Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata culture under the chopped secondary forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.P. Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio direto na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância. Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7, Fabaceae (7, Poaceae (6, Malvaceae (5 e Rubiaceae (4. No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo.The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon. Since weed management is an essential part of the production process, this study aimed to survey the flora in no-tillage areas of a chopped secondary forest cultivated with cowpea. This work was conducted in a rural farming area in the municipality of Zé Doca, MA in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. The preparation of the area was carried out with a wheel tractor using the implement ahwi FM600. The area was originally planted with maize followed by BRS Guariba cowpea for two years.Weed evaluation was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m, launched 30 times. Evaluation was performed every time, with the aerial parts of the weeds being harvested for counting, identification, and drying, to obtain the phytosociological indices (frequency, density, dominance index, and importance value. The families with the most weed species were Cyperaceae (7, Fabaceae (7, Poaceae (6, Malvaceae (5 and Rubiaceae (4. In the agricultural years 2006/2007, the species with the highest IVI were: Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata and Cyperus sp. In the agricultural years 2007/2008, the main species were: Digitaria horizontalis, followed by C. diffusus, Pavonia cancellata and F. dichotoma. The secondary forest plants originated from sprouting presented the highest IVIs in the agricultural year 2006/2007 and suffered a drastic reduction in 2007/2008. Thus, it can be concluded that progressive cultivation reduces secondary forest plant sprouting and increases the herbaceous extract.

  16. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

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    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  17. Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds

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    K. D. Ileke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w concentration. The ability of the plant powders to protect cowpea seeds was assessed in terms of mortality rates after 24 - 96 hours post treatment, oviposition and adult emergence, percentage weight loss and damage after the first filial generation (F1. All the tested plant part powders significantly (P<0.05 reduce the longevity of adult C. maculatus on treated cowpea seeds. From the study, the plant powders could be ranked in order of effectiveness thus; stem bark > leaf > root. Alstonia boonei can be used as biopesticide against C. maculatus and its incorporation into traditional storage pest management is strongly recommended.

  18. Determinação da difusividade e da energia de ativação para feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., variedade sempre-verde, com base no comportamento da secagem Determination of diffusivity and activation energy for cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., alwaysgreen variety, based on its drying behavior

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    Wilton P. da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, teve-se o objetivo de determinar curvas de secagem em camada fina para grãos de feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde. Visou-se, também, à determinação da difusividade efetiva da água no interior do produto, bem como a energia de ativação. Para tal, foram utilizadas amostras com 150 g de feijão com teor inicial de água de 37% (bu, nas temperaturas de 40; 50 e 60 ºC. A velocidade do ar do secador convectivo foi mantida em 1,0 m s-1 e, durante todo o processo, os valores médios da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar ambiente foram, respectivamente, 29 ºC e 58%. A difusividade efetiva da água no produto foi determinada, em cada temperatura, por meio da lei de Fick, pressupondo um modelo esférico para os grãos. Uma expressão para a difusividade efetiva da água em função da temperatura foi determinada por meio do ajuste da equação de Arrhenius aos dados obtidos. A análise dos resultados possibilita concluir que a equação de Page representa, de forma satisfatória, o processo de secagem em todas as condições estudadas. O modelo esférico estabelecido para os grãos é satisfatório, resultando em difusividade efetiva que variou de 7,13x10-11 até 14,0x10-11 m²s-1, e em energia de ativação igual a 26,9 kJ mol-1. Foi observado que, para a temperatura do ar de secagem mantida em 60 ºC, houve a formação de fissuras em quantidade significativa de grãos.In this paper it was determined the thin layer drying curves for cowpea grains, always-green variety. It was also determined the effective water diffusivity inside the product and its activation energy. For these purposes, 150 g samples of cowpea grains dried at temperatures of 40; 50 and 60 ºC were used. The drying air velocity was maintained constantly at 1.0 m s-1 during the drying process. The drying air temperature and relative humidity were 29 ºC and 58%, respectively. The effective water diffusivity inside the product was determined, for each drying temperature, by using Fick’s equation assuming a spherical shape for the grains. A mathematical expression for the effective water diffusivity inside the product as a function of temperature was determined by fitting Arrhenius’s equation to the observed data. According to the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that the Page equation can be used to satisfactorily represent the cowpea grains drying process for the conditions of this research. The assumption of a spherical shape for the grains was satisfactory, resulting in a water effective diffusivity varying from 7.13x10-11 to 14.00x10-11 m²s-1 and activation energy equal to 26.9 kJ mol-1. It was also observed that for a drying air temperature of 60 ºC a significant amount of grains presented fissures.

  19. Efeitos das culturas de milho (Zea mays), feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris) e caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na agregação de valor ao cultivo da bananeira 'Terra', em Teolândia, litoral sul da Bahia / Effects of corn (Zea mays), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in addition of values plantains 'Terra', in Teolândia, South Coast of Bahia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Bezerra, Lima; Élio José, Alves; Ana Lúcia, Borges; Frederico Hilário de Azevedo, Nascimento.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados pertinentes às culturas do milho (Z. mays), feijão (P. vulgaris) e caupi (V. unguiculata) consorciados com bananeira 'Terra' (Musa AAB) em Teolândia, Litoral Sul da Bahia, em cultivo simultâneo, no estabelecimento da bananeira e sucessivo logo após a colheita do primeiro. [...] Os espaçamentos utilizados foram o 4,0 x 2,0 x 3,0 m, 4,0 x 2,0 x 2,6m e 4,0 x 2,0 x 2,8m em fileira dupla, o que permitiu melhor proveito da área pelas culturas intercalares. O milho, ou o feijão, ou o caupi ocupou apenas as ruas entre as fileiras duplas de bananeiras, ficando livres as ruas formadas pelas fileiras duplas, devido ao seu sombreamento pela bananeira ser mais rápido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho das culturas do milho, feijão e caupi na agregação de valor à bananeira 'Terra', quando consorciadas com esta cultura. Nos melhores tratamentos (T9, T6, T8 e T4), o índice de rentabilidade-IR (receita total ÷ custos) alcançou valores expressivos, de 3,36 até 6,68, resultando em efeitos altamente positivos em decorrência das tecnologias e insumos utilizados, o que vai permitir a agregação de um elevado valor à bananeira e, conseqüentemente, uma boa remuneração ao produtor. Estes resultados indicam que, para cada real investido, houve um retorno de R$ 3,36 e R$ 6,68, respectivamente. O IR 0,91 (T2), relativo à cultura do milho, implica que houve prejuízo, o que significa que a receita líquida deste tratamento vai reduzir e não incrementar a receita líquida proporcionada pela cultura da bananeira. Abstract in english Results are presented of a intercropping system of corn (Z. mays), beans (P. vulgaris) and cowpea (V. unguiculata) with plantains (Musa AAB) in Teolandia, South Coast of Bahia region in two successive plantations of these crops, being one simultaneous to the establishment of the plantain and the oth [...] er right after the first harvest. Plants spacing in double rows were used (4.0 x 2.0 x 3.0 m, 4.0 x 2.0 x 2.6 m and 4.0 x 2.0 x 2.8 m) and were the most efficient space arrangements of intercropping for a longer period of time. Corn, beans or the cowpea, occupied only the rows between the double rows of the plantains, whereas the interrows remained free in order to avoid shading effect of the plantain. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the performance of corn, beans and cowpea crops in addition of values in plantains. Rentability index - RI (total income ÷ costs) for the best treatments, (T9, T6, T8 and T4), reached significant values of 3.36 (T4) up to 6.68 (T9) resulting in positive effects due to technology and fertilizers applied, which allow greater addition of values to the banana crop and, consequently, increase the producers income. A RI of 3.36 and 6.68 means that for each Real (R$) invested there was a return of R$ 3,36 and R$ 6,68, respectively. RIs lower than 1.0 indicate that the effect of intercrops on the addition of values of bananas crops was negative, resulting in a decrease of net income, which occurred in treatment T2 that presented RI 0.91.

  20. Efeitos das culturas de milho (Zea mays, feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e caupi (Vigna unguiculata na agregação de valor ao cultivo da bananeira 'Terra', em Teolândia, litoral sul da Bahia Effects of corn (Zea mays, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in addition of values plantains 'Terra', in Teolândia, South Coast of Bahia

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    Marcelo Bezerra Lima

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados pertinentes às culturas do milho (Z. mays, feijão (P. vulgaris e caupi (V. unguiculata consorciados com bananeira 'Terra' (Musa AAB em Teolândia, Litoral Sul da Bahia, em cultivo simultâneo, no estabelecimento da bananeira e sucessivo logo após a colheita do primeiro. Os espaçamentos utilizados foram o 4,0 x 2,0 x 3,0 m, 4,0 x 2,0 x 2,6m e 4,0 x 2,0 x 2,8m em fileira dupla, o que permitiu melhor proveito da área pelas culturas intercalares. O milho, ou o feijão, ou o caupi ocupou apenas as ruas entre as fileiras duplas de bananeiras, ficando livres as ruas formadas pelas fileiras duplas, devido ao seu sombreamento pela bananeira ser mais rápido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho das culturas do milho, feijão e caupi na agregação de valor à bananeira 'Terra', quando consorciadas com esta cultura. Nos melhores tratamentos (T9, T6, T8 e T4, o índice de rentabilidade-IR (receita total ÷ custos alcançou valores expressivos, de 3,36 até 6,68, resultando em efeitos altamente positivos em decorrência das tecnologias e insumos utilizados, o que vai permitir a agregação de um elevado valor à bananeira e, conseqüentemente, uma boa remuneração ao produtor. Estes resultados indicam que, para cada real investido, houve um retorno de R$ 3,36 e R$ 6,68, respectivamente. O IR 0,91 (T2, relativo à cultura do milho, implica que houve prejuízo, o que significa que a receita líquida deste tratamento vai reduzir e não incrementar a receita líquida proporcionada pela cultura da bananeira.Results are presented of a intercropping system of corn (Z. mays, beans (P. vulgaris and cowpea (V. unguiculata with plantains (Musa AAB in Teolandia, South Coast of Bahia region in two successive plantations of these crops, being one simultaneous to the establishment of the plantain and the other right after the first harvest. Plants spacing in double rows were used (4.0 x 2.0 x 3.0 m, 4.0 x 2.0 x 2.6 m and 4.0 x 2.0 x 2.8 m and were the most efficient space arrangements of intercropping for a longer period of time. Corn, beans or the cowpea, occupied only the rows between the double rows of the plantains, whereas the interrows remained free in order to avoid shading effect of the plantain. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the performance of corn, beans and cowpea crops in addition of values in plantains. Rentability index - RI (total income ÷ costs for the best treatments, (T9, T6, T8 and T4, reached significant values of 3.36 (T4 up to 6.68 (T9 resulting in positive effects due to technology and fertilizers applied, which allow greater addition of values to the banana crop and, consequently, increase the producers income. A RI of 3.36 and 6.68 means that for each Real (R$ invested there was a return of R$ 3,36 and R$ 6,68, respectively. RIs lower than 1.0 indicate that the effect of intercrops on the addition of values of bananas crops was negative, resulting in a decrease of net income, which occurred in treatment T2 that presented RI 0.91.

  1. Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem no calor latente de vaporização de água em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde / Influence of the temperature on the latent heat of vaporization of moisture from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), always-green variety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilton P. da, Silva; Cleide M. D. P. S. e, Silva; Jürgen W., Precker; Diogo D. P. S. e, Silva.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Em cálculos da quantidade de energia requerida em processos de secagem artificial de um produto agrícola, é necessário o conhecimento de uma expressão para a determinação do calor latente de vaporização (H) de água no produto. Normalmente, as expressões para H, encontradas na literatura, são dadas p [...] elo calor latente de vaporização (h) de água livre multiplicado por funções que dependem apenas do teor de água do produto. Isso significa que a relação H/h, para um dado produto, só depende do teor de água, o que é uma simplificação, pois se sabe que tal relação depende também da temperatura. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma expressão para o cálculo de H para feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde, levando em consideração a dependência de H/h com a temperatura. Para tal, foi desenvolvido e utilizado um programa computacional que ajusta, de forma automática, cerca de 500 funções contidas em sua biblioteca, com uma e duas variáveis independentes, a dados experimentais. O programa, que usa regressão não-linear, classifica as melhores funções ajustadas pelo critério do menor qui-quadrado reduzido. O conjunto de testes estatísticos realizados indica que a expressão apresentada neste artigo produz resultados mais precisos na determinação de H para feijão macassar que os de outras equações normalmente encontradas na literatura. Abstract in english In order to determine the energy needed to artificially dry an agricultural product the latent heat of vaporization of moisture in the product, H, must be known. Generally, the expressions for H reported in the literature are of the form H = h(T)f(M), where h(T) is the latent heat of vaporization of [...] free water, and f(M) is a function of the equilibrium moisture content, M, which is a simplification. In this article, a more general expression for the latent heat of vaporization, namely H = g(M,T), is used to determine H for cowpea, always-green variety. For this purpose, a computer program was developed which automatically fits about 500 functions, with one or two independent variables, imbedded in its library to experimental data. The program uses nonlinear regression, and classifies the best functions according to the least reduced chi-squared. A set of executed statistical tests shows that the generalized expression for H used in this work produces better results of H for cowpea than other equations found in literature.

  2. Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds

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    A. Olonisakin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = < 0.1 mg/10 g seed > Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed. Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

  3. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

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    Rogério Melloni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN, são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas.Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  4. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação / Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério, Melloni; Fátima Maria de Sousa, Moreira; Rafaela Simão Abrahão, Nóbrega; José Oswaldo de, Siqueira.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fi [...] xam N2 (BNLFN), são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas. Abstract in english Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, [...] nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB) are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  5. Incidência de fungos e germinação de sementes de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) tratadas com óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) / Incidence of fungi and germination of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) treated with neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.C., Silva; C.C., Santos; D.P, Gomes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito do óleo de nim no controle de fungos associados às sementes de feijão caupi e a influência deste produto na germinação de três cultivares (Serrinha, BR 17, e Maranhão). Foram preparadas diluições de 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0 g dm 3-do óleo de nim em água destilada e teste [...] munha, só com água. Os fungos foram identificados pelo método do papel de filtro e a germinação das sementes foi avaliada considerando as informações das Regras para Análise de Sementes. Foram utilizadas sementes de três cultivares de feijão-caupi: a cultivar Serrinha, proveniente da cidade de Timon-MA, a cultivar Maranhão, da cidade de Viana - MA, e a cultivar BR 17, obtida junto à Embrapa Meio Norte, na cidade de Teresina-PI. O crescimento de Fusarium sp. nas cultivares Maranhão e Serrinha foi reduzido em 52 e 53%, respectivamente e o índice de redução de Aspergillus sp. foi de 14 e 20% nas mesmas cultivares. Em relação aos fungos M. phaseolina e Phoma sp., observa-se que não foram inibidos em nenhuma das três cultivares. No que se refere à germinação das sementes nota-se que na cultivar Maranhão houve aumento no índice da germinação de 13 e 17,5% em relação à testemunha e, na cultivar Serrinha, somente a concentração 0,5% diferiu da testemunha com redução no índice de germinação de 6,49%. Conclui-se que o óleo de nim reduz a incidência de Fusarium sp. e Aspergillus sp. e é indiferente na redução de M. phaseolina e Phoma sp. O índice de germinação aumentou na cultivar Maranhão e diminuiu na cultivar Serrinha. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of neem oil on germination and fungi incidence on the seeds of three cowpea cultivars (Serrinha, BR 17 and Maranhão). Dilutions of 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, 4.0 g dm-3 of neem oil were prepared in water. The fungi incidence was evaluated by the filter paper test, and the [...] germination was evaluated according to the Rules for Seeds Testing ("Regras para Análise de Sementes," in Portuguese). Seeds of three cowpea cultivars were used: Serrinha and Maranhão, from the cities of Timon and Viana, respectively, state of Maranhão, Brazil, and BR 17, from Embrapa Meio Norte (Terezina, state of Piaí, Brazil). The growth of Fusarium sp. on the seed of the Maranhão and Serrinha cultivars was reduced in 52 and 53%, respectively, and the reduction rate of Aspergillus sp. was 14 and 20%, on the same cultivars. However, the neem oil did not inhibit the growth of the fungi Macrophomina phaseolina and Phoma sp. in any of the three cultivars. With regard to the seed germination, an increase of 13 and 17.5% was observed in the Maranhão cultivar compared to control, while for the Serrinha cultivar, only the 0.5% concentration differed from the control, reducing the germination rate by 6.49%. We conclude that the neem oil was effective in controlling Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. On the other hand, it was ineffective against Phoma sp. and M. phaseolina. The germination increased in the Maranhão cultivar and decreased in the Serrinha cultivar.

  6. Descomposición de Vigna unguiculata (caupí en un Argiudol Típico de Colonia Benítez, Chaco

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    PRAUSE, J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn los últimos años, esencialmente motivos ambientales han llevado a renovar el interés por el uso de leguminosas herbáceas como abonos verdes, puesto que su empleo supone un ahorro económico importante para el agricultor y por sus efectos benéficos sobre las propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo.Para que los abonos verdes sean considerados una efectiva fuente de nutrientes para los cultivos que se implanten posteriormente, deben estar disponibles en los momentos de mayor demanda del cultivo y para ello se hace necesario conocer la velocidad de descomposición de la biomasa vegetal aportada al suelo y la subsiguiente liberación de nutrientes. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la velocidad de descomposición del caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp y calcular la tasa de liberación de N, P y K, en las condiciones agroecológicas de Colonia Benítez, Chaco. En un Argiudol Típico se realizó la incorporación de caupí a los 74 días después de su siembra, se determinó su tasa de descomposición empleando la técnica de litterbags y cada 30 días se determinaron peso seco y N, P y K foliar. Se calcularon los porcentajes de masa seca remanente (%MSR, la tasa de descomposición y liberación de los nutrientes analizados. La producción promedio de caupí fue de 7603 kg MS ha-1, correspondiendo el 63,9% a las hojas y el 36,1% a tallos. La velocidad de descomposición durante los 30 días iniciales fue rápida con un %MSR = 36; que posteriormente se estabiliza. La tasa de liberación de N, P y K es máxima también durante los primeros 30 días. Para las condiciones edafoclimáticas de Colonia Benítez, es necesario continuar con los ensayos con el fin de establecer una precisa sincronización entre la liberación de los nutrientes del abono verde con la máxima demanda del cultivo.AbastractIn recent years, mainly for environmental reasons has led to renewed interest in the use of herbaceous legumes as green manure, as their employment is a significant cost savings for farmers and for their beneficial effects on physical, chemical and biological soil properties. For green manure are considered an effective source of nutrients for crops that are in place then, should be available in times of increased demand for the crop and it is necessary to know the rate of decomposition of plant biomass to the soil and subsequent release of nutrients.The objective was to determine the rate of decomposition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, and calculate the rate of release of N, P and K in the agroecological conditions of the Colonia Benítez, Chaco. In a Typic Argiudol was the addition of cowpea at 74 days after sowing and determined the rate of decompositionusing litterbags technique, and every 30 days were determined dry weight and N, P and K leaf. We calculated the percentages of mass remaining (%MSR, rate of decomposition and release of nutrients analyzed. The average yield of cowpea was 7603 kg DM ha-1, corresponding to 63,9% and 36,1% leaves to stems. The rateof decomposition during the initial 30 days was quick with a %MSR = 36, which was subsequently stabilized.The release rate of N, P and K was also high during the first 30 days and for the soil and climate of Colonia Benítez, one should proceed with testing for the purpose of establishing a precise synchronization between the release of nutrients from fertilizer full green crop demand.

  7. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun Adekunle Olapade; Mary Abimbola Adeyemo

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An in...

  8. Exploring Possibilities to Enhance Food Sovereignty within the Cowpea Production-Consumption Network in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, W.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years an important focus in the combat of hunger and malnutrition,particularly in Africa has been food security. This article explores possibilities for enhancing food sovereignty, as an alternative concept to food security and an alternative strategy for reversing hunger and malnutrition trends in developing countries. A combination of literature review, participatory appraisal and conventional survey methodologies are used to investigate the relevance of local cowpea (Vigna un...

  9. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  10. 18F used as tracer to study water uptake and transport imaging of a cowpea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water uptake ability of cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) which has been regarded as one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops is presented. It has been suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. It was confirmed by neutron radiography that in this tissue, water amount was high compared to the other stems. Then the water uptake manner was measured by positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) using 18F labeled water produced by a cyclotron. Comparing the water uptake manner of cowpea plant with that of common bean, cowpea plant was found to maintain high water uptake activity after drying treatment, suggesting the high drought resistant character. (author)

  11. Impact of cowpea adition on the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score and other protein quality parameters of traditional African foods made from non-tannin and tannin sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Anyango, Joseph Ochieng; Kock, Henrietta Letitia; Taylor, J. R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Protein malnutrition is a problem in Africa where sorghum is a staple foodstuff. Improvement in the protein quality of traditional African sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) foods through the addition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), an indigenous African legume, was investigated. Two sorghum cultivars, a red, tannin-type (NS 5511) and a white tan-plant, non-tannin type (Orbit) were complemented with cowpea (70:30 ratio). Ugali (thick porridge), uji (fermented thin porridge...

  12. Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes P. Assunção

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV, família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV, family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

  13. Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

  14. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?rquez, R.; Co?rdova, T.; Castejo?n, L.; Higuera, A.

    2003-01-01

    A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación ...

  15. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Sérgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijã [...] o-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

  16. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Root N turnover in cowpea-millet rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of N from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to a succeeding millet crop grown in rotation was studied in 15 kg soil pot culture using the 15N isotope. The proportion of N in the roots differed significantly between cowpea varieties, ranging between 19.4 and 31.6%, but was not related to the N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa), which ranged between 885.4 and 1346.2 mg N/pot. Of the four varieties of cowpea, TN7575-80 and KVX309-66 had a positive N balance of 73.3 and 25.5 mg/pot, respectively, and TN3-78 and TN88-63 had a negative N balance of 15 and 108 mg/pot, respectively. The N balance was not related to the N yield or Ndfa, but was related to the proportion of N found in the roots - varieties with a high proportion of N in their roots had a positive N balance and varieties with a low proportion of N in their roots had a negative N balance. Fallowed soil gave the highest millet shoot dry weight (50.7 g/pot) and N yield (437.7 mg/pot). The soil planted with the four cowpea varieties had a significantly higher shoot dry matter and N yield in the subsequent millet crop than the soil planted with millet. The percentage and amount of N derived from the roots (Ndfr) or the preceding crop was higher for cowpea than for millet, and was positively correlated with Ndfa, indicating the importance of fixing legumes in crop rotations. The percentage recovery of root N was quite low, ranging between 3.9 for millet and 23.2 for the cowpea variety or millet and 23.2 for the cowpea variety TN3-78. It is concluded that residual root N is not important as a source of N for a succeeding cereal crop in a rotation but it is maintaining a favourable soil N balance. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Radiation induced promising mutants in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crop of the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa and America. Breeding objectives in recent years have been to combine high yields with upright growth habit, bushy dwarf determinate plant type, early maturity and large seed size in addition to resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. With a view to achieving these objectives and creating additional - variability, the seeds of an elite variety V-130 were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma rays, and a number of morphological mutants were isolated. The mutants with desirable characters like erect growth habit, dwarf, large seed size, and high pod number were isolated in the M2 generation and studied further in subsequent generations for their yield potential and other characteristics. The dwarf plant mutant TCM 77-4, characterised by reduced plant height, bushy growth, large seed size and absence of tendril bred true when grown in rabi seasons, but behaved like parent in respect of growth habit in kharif season. It was far superior to the parent in respect of seed size in all the seasons. The mutant is envisaged to be the most suitable for rice fallows. Among the several promising mutants with large seed size, the mutant TCM 13-5 showed a test weight of 16.8 g against 8.8 g of the parent. A mutant with large pod number designated as TCM 121-8 showed promise with its very high yield, when grown in summer albeit with delayed maturity. Several mutants wi with delayed maturity. Several mutants with maturity similar to that of the parent have shown higher seed yield. The variability generated through the radiation- induced mutation is being utilised for creating novel high yielding early maturing varieties of cowpea. (author)

  19. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses and Micro Elements on Some Physical, Chemical and Crop Parameters of Vigna sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aim to expose Vigna sinensis L. (cowpea) seeds to gamma rays at dose levels 40, 80 and 120 Gy and to spray the growing plants with micro elements; boron (B) and zinc (Zn) after one month of planting; until harvest date, for increasing crop quality and quantity. Some physical parameters, some chemical analysis, the yield and net percentage of the produced crop were evaluated. The result obtained refer that, the 40 Gy dose enhanced most of physical, chemical and yield parameters of cowpea crop. Moreover, the harvested crop was increased and improved in case of those produced from plants sprayed with different concentrations of B or Zn plus 40 Gy dose as compared with the other treatments used followed by the dose of 80 Gy. Meanwhile, the dose of 120 Gy gave the least enhancement on the quality and quantity of the aforementioned treatments in cowpea crop

  20. Comparison of Shoot Regeneration on Different Concentrations of Thidiazuron from Shoot Tip Explant of Cowpea on Gelrite and Agar Containing Medium

    OpenAIRE

    O?zcan, Sebahattin; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Aasim, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume grown all over the world as grain crop, animal fodder, cover crop, gren manure and vegetable. The present study compares effects of agar and gelrite on micropropagation from shoot tip explant of two Turkish cowpea cultivars Akkiz and Karagoz using 0.15, 0.15, 0.35 mg/l Thidiazuron (TDZ), 3 g/l activated charcoal, 2 mg/l yeast extract with and without 1.25 mg/l Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). To overcome problem of endogenic bacterial conta...

  1. Analysis of radiation-induced genome alterations in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vyver C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Christell van der Vyver1, B Juan Vorster2, Karl J Kunert3, Christopher A Cullis41Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, and 3Department of Plant Science, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Seeds from an inbred Vigna unguiculata (cowpea cultivar were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 180 Gy in order to identify and characterize possible mutations. Three techniques, ie, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellites, and representational difference analysis, were used to characterize possible DNA variation among the mutants and nonirradiated control plants both immediately after irradiation and in subsequent generations. A large portion of putative radiation-induced genome changes had significant similarities to chloroplast sequences. The frequency of mutation at three of these isolated polymorphic regions with chloroplast similarity was further determined by polymerase chain reaction screening using a large number of individual parental, M1, and M2 plants. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the rate at which various regions of the genome is mutated in irradiation experiments differs significantly and also that mutations have variable “repair” rates. Furthermore, regions of the nuclear DNA derived from the chloroplast genome are highly susceptible to modification by radiation treatment. Overall, data have provided detailed information on the effects of gamma irradiation on the cowpea genome and about the ability of the plant to repair these genome changes in subsequent plant generations.Keywords: mutation breeding, gamma radiation, genetic mutations, cowpea, representational difference analysis

  2. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  3. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy onwards) had significant negative effect. Dose dependent changes in various biochemical parameters were not observed. No chlorophyll mutation was observed in the M2 generation when seeds were grown in the field. Thus, doses upto 900 Gy are safe for the seed and therefore, can be used for developing the protocols for the management of pulse beetle infesting cowpea. (author)

  4. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

  5. Emission of methane and nitrous oxide from Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes in India during the dry cropping seasons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y. V., Swamy; G. N., Nikhil; R., Venkanna; S. N., Das; G., Roy Chaudhury.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hicieron estimaciones de la emisión de metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O) de las legumbres Vigna mungo y Vigna radiata. Para evaluar estas emisiones se estudió el potencial de óxido reducción (redox) y la temperatura del suelo. El CH4 fue negativo y el N2O positivo para Vigna mungo a lo largo de [...] casi todo el período de cultivo. El potencial redox fue de más de +100 mV durante todo el período de cultivo con un flujo máximo de N2O de 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. El incremento de la temperatura del suelo y del potencial redox durante la cosecha incrementó aún más el flujo de N2O a 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. El flujo integrado estacional E(SIF) de CH4 y N2O para Vigna mungo se calculó en -4.06 g m-2 y 3.38 mg m-2, respectivamente. De manera simmilar los valores E(SIF) estimados para Vigna radiata durante la estación de cultivo fueron de 0.009 g m-2 y -7.6 mg m-2, mientras que para el período post cosecha fueron de 0.02 g m-2 y 4.06 mg m-2 para CH4 y N2O, respectivamente. Durante la estación de cultivo se evaluaron los parámetros del suelo carbón orgánico y nutrimentos como el amonio, nitratos y nitritos. La emisión de gases de efecto invernadero también se correlacionó con varios parámetros fisicoquímicos del suelo. Abstract in english Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates were made for Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes. The affecting soil parameters like redox potential, soil temperature were studied to evaluate CH4 and N2O emissions. The CH4 was negative and N2O was positive for Vigna mungo, almost through [...] out the cropping period. The redox potential was more than +100 mV during the entire cropping period with a maximum N2O flux of 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. The raise in soil temperature and the redox potential during harvest further increased the N2O flux to 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. The seasonally integrated flux E(SIF) for CH4 and N2O for Vigna mungo was calculated to be -4.06 g.m-2 and 3.38 mg m-2 respectively. Similarly E(SIF) values estimated for Vigna radiata cropping season were 0.009 g m-2 and -7.6 mg m-2, whereas for the post harvesting period the fluxes were 0.02 g m-2 and 4.06 mg m-2 for CH4 and N2O respectively. The soil parameters like organic carbon and nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite during the cropping season were evaluated. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) was also correlated to various physico-chemical parameters of soil.

  6. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas de frijol bajo diferentes regímenes de fósforo / Effectiveness of cowpea rhizobial strains under different phosphorus regimes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana, Mayz Figueroa.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, el frijol representa una alternativa a la proteína animal, debido a su alto consumo y valor nutritivo, por ello se ha estimulado la implementación de programas para reactivar la economía de los pequeños y medianos productores, a fin de incrementar su producción y así tener mayor dispon [...] ibilidad de proteína de alta calidad a bajo costo; de manera que, los estudios encaminados a mejorar su cultivo, son acertados. Se evaluó la efectividad de cepas rizobianas de crecimiento lento (cl) y rápido (cr) en frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivar TC9-6 en varios regímenes de fósforo (0, 20, 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial. Las plantas se cultivaron en 4 kg de suelo de sabana 45 días y las cepas en caldo de levadura y manitol: 5 (cr: JV91) y 10 (cl: JV94) días. La inoculación (2 ml cada vez) fue aplicada a la siembra y 6 días más tarde. La utilización de fósforo (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) incrementó la nodulación (número, peso seco total e individual de nódulos) y favoreció la aparición de nódulos rojos; así mismo, acrecentó el peso de la materia seca, la altura, el número de hojas y la concentración de nitrógeno del vástago. Los valores fueron similares con ambos tipos de cepas (efectividad similar) y para las dos concentraciones (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con las menores estimaciones para 0 y 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . De acuerdo con los resultados las concentraciones de 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 fueron las más favorables para el crecimiento y la nodulación de frijol. Abstract in english In Venezuela, cowpea is an alternative to animal protein due to its high consumption and nutritious value, so it has stimulated the implementation of programs to reactivate the small and medium producers economy, in order to increase its production and to have major high quality protein availability [...] at low cost; so that, the studies carry on to improve its cultivation, are well-aimed. The effectiveness of slow (sg) and fast (fg) growing rhizobial strains was evaluated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) cultivar TC9-6 at various phosphorus regimes (0, 20, 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ): randomized block design with factorial arrangement. Plants were cultivated in 4 kg savannah soil: 45 days, and the strains in yeast and mannitol broth: 5 (fg: JV91) and 10 (sg: JV94) days. The inoculation (2 ml each time) was applied at sowing time and 6 days later. Phosphorus utilization (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) increa- sed nodulation (nodule number, total and individual dry weight) and favoured nodule red colour appearance; also, incremented shoot dry matter weight, height, leaves number and nitrogen concentration. Values were similar with both strain types (similar effectiveness) and to the two doses (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), with lower estimations to 0 and 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . Accordingly with the results, the doses of 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 were the most favourable to cowpea growth and nodulation.

  7. Sequence variability in the coat protein gene of Cowpea severe mosaic virus isolates from northeastern Brazil / Variabilidade de sequências do gene da proteína do capsídeo de isolados do Cowpea severe mosaic virus do Nordeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Evando A., Beserra Jr.; Eduardo C., Andrade; Rosa F.R. Araújo, Camarço; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; José Albérsio A., Lima.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O comovírus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causa a doença em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) conhecida como mosaico severo, mas, apesar de sua importância, não há estudos de diversidade genética de populações virais. Foram determinadas as sequências nucleotídicas de parte do gene da proteína do [...] capsídeo (CP) de seis isolados brasileiros de CPSMV. Os fragmentos genômicos (521 nucleotídeos) foram amplificados por RT-PCR, clonados e suas sequências foram comparadas entre si e com as sequências de outros comovírus. As comparações de sequências indicaram um elevado grau de conservação para o gene CP, com identidade de 92-100% (nucleotídeos) e 97-100% (aminoácidos) entre os isolados. Não houve correlação entre origem geográfica e identidade de sequência ou filogenia entre os isolados. Abstract in english The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of six Brazilian isolates [...] of CPSMV. Genomic fragments (521 nucleotides) were RT-PCR amplified, cloned, and their sequences were compared with each other and with other comoviruses. Sequence comparisons indicated a high degree of conservation for the CP gene, with 92-100% nucleotide and 97-100% amino acid sequence identity among the isolates. There was no correlation between geographical origin and sequence identity or phylogeny among the isolates.

  8. Sequence variability in the coat protein gene of Cowpea severe mosaic virus isolates from northeastern Brazil Variabilidade de sequências do gene da proteína do capsídeo de isolados do Cowpea severe mosaic virus do Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando A. Beserra Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of part of the coat protein (CP gene of six Brazilian isolates of CPSMV. Genomic fragments (521 nucleotides were RT-PCR amplified, cloned, and their sequences were compared with each other and with other comoviruses. Sequence comparisons indicated a high degree of conservation for the CP gene, with 92-100% nucleotide and 97-100% amino acid sequence identity among the isolates. There was no correlation between geographical origin and sequence identity or phylogeny among the isolates.O comovírus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV causa a doença em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata conhecida como mosaico severo, mas, apesar de sua importância, não há estudos de diversidade genética de populações virais. Foram determinadas as sequências nucleotídicas de parte do gene da proteína do capsídeo (CP de seis isolados brasileiros de CPSMV. Os fragmentos genômicos (521 nucleotídeos foram amplificados por RT-PCR, clonados e suas sequências foram comparadas entre si e com as sequências de outros comovírus. As comparações de sequências indicaram um elevado grau de conservação para o gene CP, com identidade de 92-100% (nucleotídeos e 97-100% (aminoácidos entre os isolados. Não houve correlação entre origem geográfica e identidade de sequência ou filogenia entre os isolados.

  9. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Foo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

  10. Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui / Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jony Koji, Dairiki; Rafaella Barbosa, Correa; Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki, Inoue; Irani da Silva de, Morais.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alo [...] cados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocat [...] ed in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and productive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

  11. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Cowpea Using Nitrogen 15-isotope: The Role of Water and Improved Crop Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by low productivity and is associated with variable and irregular rainfall, infertile soils, and inadequate application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (Fatokun et al., 2002). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) is a major source of dietary protein for the people, and occupies about eight million hectares of agricultural land, a majority being in Niger and Nigeria (Singh et al., 1997). The major uses include (1) food grain, (2) animal feed, and (3) source of organic N fertilizer. In Niger, cowpea production increased from 4 000 tons year-1 in the mid-fifties to a maximum of 775 000 tons year-1 in 1997, and its cultivated area is still increasing. Despite its importance, cowpea yields in Niger are very low (approximately 300 kg ha-1) relative to the production potential of between 1.5-3.0 t ha-1 (Ball et al., 2000). Yield can be substantially increased by using improved cowpea varieties and overcoming water stress. With adequate soil moisture cowpea flowers over a long period produce more seeds and yield loss is limited. On the contrary, under water deficit conditions the flowering period is cut short and the seed matures earlier, reducing yield. Overcoming water stress can also improve nutrient use efficiency of cowpea. This article summarizes the results of a field study carried out in Niger to assess the use of improved cowpea varieties and water management on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of cowpea using stable isotopes of nitrogen-15 (15N). The field experiment was carried out in the Sahelian zone of Sadore located 45 km south of Niamey, capital of Niger. Six varieties of cowpea cultivars including three widely used varieties in Niger (TN3-78, TN5-78 and KVX) improved the variety obtained from IATA, Nigeria (V499). One variety imported from Ghana (Ghana) and a non-fixing variety obtained from ICRISAAT, Niger (IC10), were used in the study. The water application includes: (a) control in which the treatment is irrigated at field capacity (I1), (b) irrigation every three days (I2), (c) irrigation every five days (I3), and (d) irrigation every seven days (I4). Each treatment received a basal application of 10 kg ha-1 as 15N-labelled urea and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 as single superphosphate. Crop yield, N uptake and 15N in plant were measured and fertilizer N use and biological nitrogen fixation were estimated. Results showed that keeping the soil water content at field capacity through regular application of water increased cowpea grain yield in all five varieties

  12. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment / Metais pesados e produtividade de caupi cultivado sob aplicações de lodo de curtume compostado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Ademir Sergio Ferreira, Araújo; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal, Nunes; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Wanderley José de, Melo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados (Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb) em folhas e grãos, e produtividade em caupi (Vigna unguiculata L) em solo após a adição de lodo de curtume compostado (LCC) por dois anos consecutivos. Os experimentos foram realizados em 2009 e 2010 em solo com adi [...] ção de LCC a doses de 0, 5, 10, 20 e 40 Mg ha-1. A adição de LCC em doses acima de 10 Mg ha-1, por dois anos consecutivos, aumentou a concentração de Cr nas folhas do caupi. Não houve aumento na concentração de metais no grão de caupi após dois anos de aplicação. Em 2009, a aplicação de LCC não aumentou a produtividade da planta. Entretanto, em 2010, o LCC nas doses de 10 e 20 Mg ha-1 aumentou a produtividade do caupi. A aplicação de lodo de curtume compostado aumentou linearmente a concentração de Cr nas folhas do caupi após dois anos. O lodo de curtume compostado promoveu aumento na produtividade de grãos. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS) for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 [...] in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  13. Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping / Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO, LIMA FILHO.

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) em Petrolina, PE, o efeito do plantio consorciado sobre o comportamento hídrico, trocas gasosas e produtividade do milho (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, e do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba, em condiç [...] ões semi-áridas. Os tratamentos foram: milho e caupi em cultivos isolados na população de 40.000 plantas ha-1, e consorciados na população de 20.000 plantas ha-1. No sistema de consórcio, o milho obteve valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, condutância estomática, transpiração e fotossíntese, em relação ao cultivo isolado. Com o caupi, observaram-se valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, porém menor condutância, transpiração e fotossíntese em relação ao cultivo isolado. Observou-se incremento de 18% na produtividade do milho, enquanto a do caupi foi reduzida em 5%, em relação aos respectivos sistemas de monocultivo. Entretanto, o índice de equivalência da terra obtido foi de 1,13, o que indica vantagens do consórcio sobre os sistemas isolados. O maior índice parcial de equivalência de terra foi obtido com o milho, sugerindo que esta espécie foi o principal componente a influenciar a produtividade final do sistema estudado. Abstract in english The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petr [...] olina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

  14. Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

  15. Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, Guillaume; Haussmann, Bettina I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques to trace the amount of deposition and its transfer to associated and subsequent crops. Half of the total cowpea crop N was located below-ground at plant maturity, which exceeded 20 kg?N ha?1 when intercropped with millet. Only 15% of the below-ground cowpea N was recovered in roots, while 85% was found in the rhizodeposited pools. The experiment demonstrated that direct below-ground N transfer occurred from cowpea to millet in intercrop at a rate of 2 kg?N ha?1 over the growing season. Forty percent of the 25 kg below-ground N that the cowpea crop left at harvest were identifiable in the top 0.30 m soil in the beginning of the next planting season 7 months later; a pool still present at the end of that second season. Thus, the subsequent crop of millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) only recovered 2.5 kg?N ha?1 from the below-ground cowpea pre-crop N during this growth season. The role and potential of cowpea as N provider has been underestimated in the past by ignoring the large proportion of N contained in its rhizodeposits. However, information is needed to determine how losses of the rhizodeposited N can be minimized to fully harness the potential of cowpea as N provider in agro-ecosystems of the region.

  16. Caracterización de cepas de Rhizobium y Bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulación) seleccionados de los cultivos de fríjol caupi (Vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinóculos / Characterization of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiu´s strains (with ability of nodulation) selected from bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultures as a potentials bioinoculants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernarda, Cuadrado; Guillermo, Rubio; Winston, Santos.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos de Latinoamérica son ácidos y deficientes en nitrógeno; por esta razón es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulación y fijar el nitrógeno en las plantas [...] leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opción con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analizó la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del fríjol Vigna unguiculata (fríjol caupí) cultivado en el norte del departamento de Bolívar (Colombia). Se identificaron aislados capaces de crecer mejor en ambientes hostiles (los cuales tienen un uso potencial como bioinoculantes). Se describe además un acercamiento a la taxonomía de estas bioespecies. Se caracterizaron 52 cepas de rizobios (basados en sus características morfológicas, requerimientos de cultivo, metabólicas, resistencia a metales y antibióticos y de autenticación). De acuerdo con sus propiedades de crecimiento, el 63,5% fueron de cepas de lento, mientras que el 36,5%, de rápido crecimiento. Prevalecieron las de lento crecimiento con un 63,5% del total sobre un 36,5% de rápido crecimiento. Los aislados fueron caracterizados de acuerdo con sus patrones de asimilación de carbohidratos, y se encontraron microorganismos de los géneros Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium y Mesorhizobium (12 cepas identificadas como potenciales bioinoculantes). Abstract in english Latin America´s soils are acidic and nitrogen-deficient, for this reason is necessary to explore new alternatives in order to modulate in the development of plants, specially the leguminous plants. The use of bacteria´s potential to induce nodulation and to fix nitrogen in leguminous plants has been [...] studied as an option with potential impact. In our study, we analyzed the diversity of rhizobial isolated of the bean Vigna unguiculata (beans cowpea) cultured in the north of Bolivar department (Colombia). We identified strains able of growing in hostile environment (which have a potential use like bioinoculants). Additionally, we described an approach to taxonomy of these biospecies. We reached the characterization of 52 rhizobial strains (based on their morphologic, requires of culture, metabolic, resistance to metals and antibiotics and authentication characteristics). According with their growing properties, 63.5 % were slow growth strains while the 36.5 % were of rapid growth. The isolates were characterized according to their assimilation carbohydrate´s pattern, finding microorganism as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium (12 of which were identified as potential bioinoculants).

  17. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

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    Adelusi Ajayi ADELUSI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  19. Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage. PMID:24322505

  1. Impact of Combined Industrial Effluent on Metal Accumulation, Nitrate Reductase Activity and Yield of Two Cultivars of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Umebese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined industrial effluent from Ikeja Central Treatment Plant, Lagos, was used to irrigate Vigna unguiculata L. Walp (cowpea, cultivars IT89KD-349 (white and IT84E-124 (red. The effluent was alkaline (pH 9.8 and had a significantly higher concentration of Ca (11.53 mg L-1, NO3 (83.20 mg L-1, SO4 (22.73 mg L-1, Cl (15.45 mg L-1 and Cd (2.16 mg L-1 than the experimental soil. Nitrate reductase activity was enhanced almost throughout the period of growth of both treated cultivars but for the peak at 35 DAP shown by control white. There was a corresponding increase in the net assimilation rate and a significant increase (p?0.05 in the biomass of leaves and pods of treated red cowpea but only the pods of treated white cowpea. Heavy metal uptake by seeds of treated plants was negligible and this may be attributed to the high accumulation of Ca by these seeds. Undiluted combined industrial effluent has good agro potential in the cultivation of red cowpea.

  2. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi

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    José Albersio Araujo Lima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV.

  3. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes / Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo, Ferreira; Elizita Maria, Teófilo.

    1432-14-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de [...] Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universid [...] ade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

  4. Use of 15N in determining the influence of fertilizer potassium on nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency in cowpea and finger millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted using 15N enriched fertilizer to determine the impact of potassium (K) on the nitrogen (N) nutrition of two popular annual crops grown in the region. The species used were cowpea (Vigna unguiculata WALP) and finger millet (Elucine coracana L), and the study included two soil moisture regimes. The plant N content, N uptake and efficiency of utilization of fertilizer N were affected by potassium fertilizer and soil moisture. The plant N content of cowpea was greater than that of millet. In contrast, the response of all other parameters were greater in millet at all levels of fertilizer K. Soil moisture also had a significant impact on the measured parameters, and cowpea required greater quantities of fertilizer K to utilize applied N more efficiently under dry conditions. The response of millet in terms of fertilizer N utilization increased up to the highest level of K, irrespective of soil moisture status. In addition, N fertilizer uptake and utilization efficiency was greater than in cowpea at all levels of K. The results are presented in relation to the N fertilizer use patter of these species under low and high soil moisture levels. The study also presents the positive interactions between N and K, and possible implications for fertilizer programmes. (author). 16 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Ultrastructural alterations into chloroplasts and root nodules of cowpea plants grown under saline stress conditions / Alteraciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos y nódulos de las raíces de plantas de frijol Caupí desarrolladas bajo condiciones de estrés salino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto, Gómez Padilla; Raúl, López Sánchez; Beatriz, Ruiz-Diez; Mercedes, Fernández-Pascual; Susana, Fajardo; Bettina, Eichler-Loebermann.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado el efecto del estrés salino sobre la ultraestructura de los cloroplastos y los nódulos radicales de plantas de frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión TEM. Las plantas se sometieron a 150 y 0,02 mM de NaCl, siendo [...] considerado este último como control. La cepa VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense), aislada de suelos salinos del Valle del Cauto (Cuba), fue inoculada en el momento de la siembra. Cuarenta días después de la germinación se tomaron muestras de hojas y nódulos de la misma posición y edad para realizar observaciones microscópicas. Se han puesto en evidencia modificaciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos, provocadas principalmente por el incremento de tamaño de los gránulos de almidón. Estas modificaciones produjeron alteraciones en la distribución normal de los granos. En la ultraestructura del nódulo se produjo un debilitamiento de la membrana peribacteroidal y se incrementó el número de vesículas de las células infectadas, al ser aplicado el tratamiento salino. Los simbiosomas comenzaron a degradarse al romperse la membrana peribacteroidal. Dentro de las células no infectadas se observó una alta vesiculación y la degradación de algunos orgánulos celulares. Abstract in english The ultrastructure of leaves chloroplast and root nodules from cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, subjected to saline stress was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Plants were exposed at 150 and 0,02 mM of NaCl treatments, considering 0,02 mM salt level [...] as control. Native strain VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense) isolated from saline soils of Cauto Valley (Cuba) was inoculated at sowing. Forty days after germination, samples of the same age and position from leaves and root nodules were taken for microscopy observations. Some ultrastructural modifications were detected by the salt effect in chloroplasts, mainly triggered by the great increase in the size of the starch granules. These modifications produced altered grana distribution. In nodule structure, when saline stress was applied, a weakness of peribacteroid membrane and high number of vesicles into infected cells were noted. Symbiosomes started deteriorating with some broken peribacteroidal membranes. A high vesiculation and degradation of some cellular organelle into uninfected cells were observed.

  6. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

  7. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 renefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  8. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Germination on Anti oxidative activity of Cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti oxidative activity (AOA) of cowpea (Vigna unquiculata L.) methanolic extracts was investigated. AOA of crude methanolic extracts (CME's) for embryo was the strongest (81.4%) followed by seed coat (testa) (80.0%) and whole seed (13.95% of AOA for ?-tocopherol at 120 hr storage period: while AOA of seed coat and whole seed were 98.6, 86.15% respectively at 168 hr. AOA increased for CME's of seed coat (from 80 to 89.76%) and whole seed (from 13.95 to 83.72%), as irradiation dose increased up to 7.5 KGy. In the first 24 hr germination, AOA declined for seed coat from 40 to 20.46% then start to increase to reach 73.02% at the end of germination period. AOA for whole seed as well increased in the first 48 hr from 13.95 to 44.18% then decreased to 37.5% of AOA for ?-tocopherol. The research proved the commercial importance of cowpea seed as natural source for antioxidants, and investigated the role of gamma irradiation and germination in increasing the anti oxidative activity

  9. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golo, Patrícia S; Gardner, Dale R; Grilley, Michelle M; Takemoto, Jon Y; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Pires, Marcus S; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken) cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918) did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods. PMID:25127450

  10. Response of Cowpea Plants Grown Under Salinity Stress to PK-Foliar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Shaaban

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre to study the effect of two doses (50 and 100 mg L-1 of PK foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 on leaf nutrient concentrations and growth parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. grown under two diluted Mediterranean seawater levels (3.0, 6.0 dS m-1 in the irrigation water in addition to tap water (0.4 dS m-1 as control. Diluted seawater as irrigation led to significant decreases of macro and micronutrients concentrations in the leaves of cowpea plants. Plant height, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights were also negatively affected with high significance (p0.05 as the plants irrigated with saline water. PK-foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 could increase P, K and other macro- and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves of the salt-stressed plants. The most effective dose was the 100 mg L-1 K2PO3 with the lower salinity level (3.0 dS m-1. Making the plants more tolerant to salinity stress, PK-foliar fertilization could improve plant growth parameters and increase plant heights, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights.

  11. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaya, CP.; Adipala, E.; Osiru, DSO.

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

  12. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  13. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Akinrinde

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0 with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contrasting (Al-resistant and Al-susceptible cowpea genotypes, Epace 10 (E10 and Santo Inacio (SI were studied at 0 and 0 ?M Al. Root elongation was followed over the first 96 h of Al treatment and during the initial 48 hours elongation was determined daily. In addition, exudation of carboxylates in apical root zone and modifications of rhizoplane pH by the two genotypes were compared in hydroponics` culture experiments that involved +/-Al treatments at mild (14 days and severe (21 days phosphorus (P limitation stages. Differential genotypic responses were further evaluated in a rhizobox experiment, using an acidic Aerenosol from West Africa (Niger with low expression of Al toxicity. Strong Al-induced inhibition of root growth occurred at 20 ?M Al without genotypic difference, suggesting the need to further test genotypic differences at lower concentrations. Under P limitation, E10 exhibited a stronger expression (relative to SI of root induced chemical changes (increased rhizoplane pH and citrate exudation in apical root zone to counteract Al toxicity. Therefore, genotypic differences in performance of E10 and SI on acid mineral soils may be associated with different expression of Al tolerance mechanisms, particularly under conditions of limited P supply.

  14. Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

  15. Phenotyping Cowpeas for Adaptation to Drought

    OpenAIRE

    AnthonyHall

    2012-01-01

    Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay, and fresh pea production. Strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought is available and should be incorporated. The extreme ability of extra-early erect cowpea cultivars to escape terminal drought should be exploited in zones with ver...

  16. Efetividade de rizóbios e caracterização fenotípica dos isolados que nodulam feijão-caupi em solos da Amazônia Central Effectiveness and phenotypic characterization of cowpea rhizobia isolated from central Amazonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura importante na Amazônia Central, mas os rizóbios associados a essa leguminosa são poucos estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e caracterizar fenotipicamente os isolados de rizóbio que nodulam feijão-caupi na região. As populações de rizóbio de Novo Ayrão proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca da parte aérea e total, raiz, número de nódulos e peso dos nódulos secos nas plantas de feijão-caupi; porém, não diferiram do tratamento testemunha com N. Com base nos critérios fenotípicos avaliados, foi possível identificar uma ampla diversidade de populações de rizóbios contidos nos solos da Amazônia.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important legume cultivated in central Amazonia, but its rhizobia have been little studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and to characterize phenotypically the population of indigenous rhizobia that infect cowpea in the region. The rhizobia population from Novo Ayrão soils provided the highest shoot, root and total dry matter yields, number of nodules and nodule dry weights in cowpea plants; however, they were not different from those found for the control treatment with N. Based on phenotypic criteria, it was possible to identify a wide diversity of populations of rhizobia contained in Amazonian soils.

  17. Efetividade de rizóbios e caracterização fenotípica dos isolados que nodulam feijão-caupi em solos da Amazônia Central / Effectiveness and phenotypic characterization of cowpea rhizobia isolated from central Amazonian soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aloísio Freitas, Chagas Junior; Luiz Antonio de, Oliveira; Arlem Nascimento de, Oliveira; André Luiz, Willerding.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma cultura importante na Amazônia Central, mas os rizóbios associados a essa leguminosa são poucos estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e caracterizar fenotipicamente os isolados de rizóbio que nodulam feijão-caupi na região. As populaçõe [...] s de rizóbio de Novo Ayrão proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca da parte aérea e total, raiz, número de nódulos e peso dos nódulos secos nas plantas de feijão-caupi; porém, não diferiram do tratamento testemunha com N. Com base nos critérios fenotípicos avaliados, foi possível identificar uma ampla diversidade de populações de rizóbios contidos nos solos da Amazônia. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important legume cultivated in central Amazonia, but its rhizobia have been little studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and to characterize phenotypically the population of indigenous rhizobia that infect cowpea in the region. The rhizobia p [...] opulation from Novo Ayrão soils provided the highest shoot, root and total dry matter yields, number of nodules and nodule dry weights in cowpea plants; however, they were not different from those found for the control treatment with N. Based on phenotypic criteria, it was possible to identify a wide diversity of populations of rhizobia contained in Amazonian soils.

  18. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  19. Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto / Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefté Ferreira da, Silva; Ervino, Bleicher.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata) ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora). Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao ac [...] aso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora). Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomi [...] zed complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

  20. How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legue found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

  1. Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba / Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurivan Soares de, Freitas; Márcia Aparecida, Cezar; Márcia Michelle de Queiróz, Ambrósio; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; José Albérsio de Araújo, Lima.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. A [...] mostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados. Abstract in english Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms [...] of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

  2. Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurivan Soares de Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

  3. The cowpea RING ubiquitin ligase VuDRIP interacts with transcription factor VuDREB2A for regulating abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Ayan; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2014-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important grain legume cultivated in drought-prone parts of the world, having higher tolerance to heat and drought than many other crops. The transcription factor, Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding protein 2A (DREB2A), controls expression of many genes involved in osmotic and heat stress responses of plants. In Arabidopsis, DREB2A-interacting proteins (DRIPs), which function as E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19), regulate the stability of DREB2A by targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation. In this study, we cloned the cowpea ortholog of DRIP (VuDRIP) using PCR based methods. The 1614 bp long VuDRIP mRNA encoded a protein of 433 amino acids having a C3HC4-type Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain in the N-terminus and a C-terminal conserved region, similar to Arabidopsis DRIP1 and DRIP2. We found VuDRIP up-regulation in response to various abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) two-hybrid analysis, VuDRIP was identified as a VuDREB2A-interacting protein. The results indicate negative regulation of VuDREB2A by ubiquitin ligases in cowpea similar to Arabidopsis along with their other unknown roles in stress and hormone signaling pathways. PMID:25090086

  4. Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Sartorato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris. Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris. Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

  5. Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

  6. Revisión taxonómica de los géneros Phaseolus y Vigna (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyra, Ángela

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the Cuban species of Phaseolus L. and Vigna Savi. It includes keys, descriptions, illustrations of selected taxa, chromosome numbers, palinology, phenology, ecology, distribution maps, notes on chemical composition and ethnobotany for each of the eleven species known from Cuba. We also present a discussion on the value of the characters used in the taxonomy of the complex.Se hace una revisión taxonómica de las especies de los géneros Phaseolus L. y Vigna Savi presentes en Cuba. Se incluyen claves dicotómicas, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos químicos, cromosomáticos, palinológicos, etnobotánicos, así como la distribución y ecología de las 11 especies de ambos géneros. Se analiza y se hace una estimación del valor de los caracteres que diferencian a cada uno de los géneros y especies.

  7. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  8. Comparison of life history and genetic properties of cowpea bruchid strains and their response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Fox, Charles W; Johnston, J Spencer; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-04-01

    The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) is the most important storage pest of grain legumes and comprises geographically distinct strains. Storage under a modified atmosphere with decreased O2 content represents an alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control of stored grains. In this study, we compared reproduction, development and survival, as well as genome size of bruchid strains from South India (SI), Burkina Faso (BF), Niger (CmNnC) and the United States (OH), reared on mung bean (Vigna radiata). Fecundity and egg-to-adult duration varied significantly among these strains. Notably, strain BF had the highest fecundity, and strain SI displayed the fastest development whereas strain OH was the slowest. Differences in adult lifespan among strains were only detected in unmated but not in the mated group. Genome size of SI females was significantly larger than that of OH females, and for all four strains, the female genomes were larger than those of their corresponding males. Furthermore, we studied effects of exposure to 1% O2+99% N2 on strains SI and BF. Mortality caused by hypoxia was influenced by not only developmental stage but also by insect strain. Eggs were most sensitive, particularly at the early stage, whereas the 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most tolerant and could survive up to 15 days of low O2. Strain SI was slightly more resistant than BF in egg and larval stages. Proteolytic activity prior to, during and after hypoxia treatment revealed remarkable metabolic plasticity of cowpea bruchids in response to modified atmosphere. PMID:25733404

  9. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of NAA-Pulse Treated Plumular Leaf Explants of Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AASIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an economically important grain legume crop and is an important source of dietary protein in many of the developing countries. The present study reports the effect of pulse treatment duration, concentration of NAA and presence of NAA in the culture medium on shoot regeneration from plumular leaf explant of Turkish cowpea cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz?. Pulse treatment of mature embryos with 20 mg l-1 NAA for 1 and 3 weeks followed by culturing of plumular leaf explant on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 BAP with 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 NAA promoted somatic embryogenesis in both cultivars. Longer duration of pulse treatment was deleterious resulting in browning and consequently death of the embryos on explants. Pulse treatment with 20 mg l-1 NAA for one week was less deleterious and developed two plantlets after the explants were transferred to MS0 medium after 6 weeks through somatic embryogenesis in cv. ?Akkiz?. Pulse treatment with 10 mg l-1 NAA for 1 week showed 33.33-50.00 % and 25.00-50.00% shoot regeneration frequency in cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz? respectively on MS medium containing 0.25-1.00 mg l-1 BAP. Maximum number of 2.50 shoots each per explant were recorded in cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz? on MS medium containing 1.00 and 0.50 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Contrarily, maximum shoot length of 8.98 cm of cv. ?Akkiz? and 9.42 cm of cv. ?Karagoz? was recorded on MS medium containing 0.50 mg l-1 BAP and 1.00 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 IBA and and acclimatized in growth room at room temprature where they produced viable seeds.

  10. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Lima, Soares; Paulo Avelar Ademar, Ferreira; Silvia Maria de, Oliveira-Longatti; Leandro Marciano, Marra; Marcia, Rufini; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish r [...] elationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen). Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP) and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154) yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9) CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  11. Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCO OCTÁVIO LUIZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1 present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular masses of the RNases did not significantly differ, averaging 16.3 kDa. Leaf RNase was stable up to 50masculineC while the others were inactivated at this temperature. The maximal inactivation for both stem and roots RNases was reached at 70masculineC while for leaf it occurred at 80masculineC. The addition of KCl to the assay medium caused a shift of optimal pH from 6.0 toward the range of 5.2 - 5.6 for the enzymes extracted from the different tissues. RNase activities were strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+, partially inhibited by Co2+ and Fe2+ and were not affected by EDTA, Ca2+ or Mg2+. In contrast to the leaf RNase, roots and stem enzymes were inactivated by urea and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME. Although there is a great similarity among the enzymes studied, leaf RNase appears to be more stable to heat and to chemical denaturation than root and stem RNases. The results also suggest that the enzymes extracted from different tissues of Pitiúba cowpea seedlings are ribonucleases and not nucleases.

  12. Cowpea chloroplastic ATP synthase is the source of multiple plant defense elicitors during insect herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Eric A; LeClere, Sherry; Carroll, Mark J; Alborn, Hans T; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-06-01

    In cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory and oral secretions (OS) elicit phytohormone production and volatile emission due to inceptin [Vu-In; (+)ICDINGVCVDA(-)], a peptide derived from chloroplastic ATP synthase gamma-subunit (cATPC) proteins. Elicitor-induced plant volatiles can function as attractants for natural enemies of insect herbivores. We hypothesized that inceptins are gut proteolysis products and that larval OS should contain a mixture of related peptides. In this study, we identified three additional cATPC fragments, namely Vu-(GE+)In [(+)GEICDINGVCVDA(-)], Vu-(E+)In [(+)EICDINGVCVDA(-)], and Vu-In(-A) [(+)ICDINGVCVD(-)]. Leaf bioassays for induced ethylene (E) production demonstrated similar effective concentration(50) values of 68, 45, and 87 fmol leaf(-1) for Vu-In, Vu-(E+)In, and Vu-(GE+)In, respectively; however, Vu-In(-A) proved inactive. Shortly following ingestion of recombinant proteins harboring cATPC sequences, larval OS revealed similar concentrations of the three elicitors with 80% of the potential inceptin-related peptides recovered. Rapidly shifting peptide ratios over time were consistent with continued proteolysis and preferential stability of inceptin. Likewise, larvae ingesting host plants with inceptin precursors containing an internal trypsin cleavage site rapidly lost OS-based elicitor activity. OS containing inceptin elicited a rapid and sequential induction of defense-related phytohormones jasmonic acid, E, and salicylic acid at 30, 120, and 240 min, respectively, and also the volatile (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Similar to established peptide signals such as systemin and flg22, amino acid substitutions of Vu-In demonstrate an essential role for aspartic acid residues and an unaltered C terminus. In cowpea, insect gut proteolysis following herbivory generates inappropriate fragments of an essential metabolic enzyme enabling plant non-self-recognition. PMID:17369425

  13. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

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    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  14. Acumulación de S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn y Mn y relación con la materia seca en frijol cultivado bajo labranza mínima y convencional en un mollisol de Venezuela / Accumulation of S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn and their relatioship with dry matter production in cowpea grown under minimum and conventional tillage in a mollisol soil of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Lesce, Navarro; María, Paredes.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela se requiere información sobre la acumulación de nutrimentos por el frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp y su relación con la producción de materia seca (MS) para mejorar la efi ciencia de uso de los fertilizantes y la cantidad de nutrimentos a aplicar. En este estudio se evaluó la acumulac [...] ión de S, Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe y Mn por la variedad frijol Tuy, sembrada bajo labranza mínima (LM) y labranza convencional (LC), en un suelo Mollisol del estado Aragua. La concentración de los nutrimentos evaluados fue similar en LM y LC, excepto S que resultó más elevado en LC. El patrón de acumulación de nutrimentos fue semejante en LM y LC, aunque mayor en LC entre 11-32% del S, Zn, Mg y Fe, de 55-59% del Ca y Mn se acumularon en los primeros 43 días después de la germinación (DDG) y 68-89% del Ca y 45-61% del Mn se acumuló entre los 43 y 58 DDG. La mayor absorción de nutrimentos en LC, está asociado con una menor densidad aparente (Da) entre 0 y 10 cm, mejorando el desarrollo radical. En LM la función cuadrática describe mejor la relación entre MS producida y nutrimento absorbido , al contrario mientras que en LC donde la función lineal está más destacada. En LM otro factor pudo afectar la absorción de nutrimentos, que en el caso de LC la producción de MS se podría incrementar mediante el manejo de la fertilización Abstract in english In Venezuela there is a need for information regarding nutrient accumulation by cowpea, Vigna unguiculta L. Walp and their relationship with dry matter production (DM), to improve the effi ciency of use of fertilizer, and the amount of nutrient to apply. In this study the absortion of S, Zn, Ca, Mg, [...] Fe and Mn by cowpea (Tuy variety), sowed under minimum (MT) and conventional tillage (CT), was evaluated in a Molisol soil of the Aragua State. The concentration of the nutrients evaluated were similar in MT and CT, with the exception of S, which was higher in CT. The pattern of the nutrient accumulation was similar in NT and CT, althought the amount of nutrients taken up was higher in CT. Between 11-32% of the S, Zn, Mg and Fe, and between 55-59% of Ca and Mn were accumulated during the fi rst 43 days after germination (DAG), while between 68-89% of the fi rst, and 45-61% of the latter were accumulated between the 43-58 DAG. Probably in CT the higher accumulation of nutrients was associated to a lower soil bulk density in the soil layers between 0-10 cm, which improve the development of the root system. In MT there was a cuadratic relationship between DM and the amount of nutrient accumulated, which suggest that some other soil factor could affect the nutrient absorption, while in CT there was a lineal relationship, which suggest that the crop production could be increased by improvement of the fertilizer management

  15. Ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico e potencial osmótico de feijão caupi cultivado em solos salinizados / Physiological permanent wilting point and osmotic potential of cowpea grown in saline soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Edivan R. de, Souza.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico, a umidade foliar e o potencial osmótico no feijoeiro caupi, sob duas condições de estresses (salino e salino + hídrico), foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE [...] , Brasil). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, sendo duas classes texturais de solos (franco-arenoso e franco-argiloso) e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo, equivalentes às condutividades elétricas do extrato de saturação do solo 4, 8 e 12 dS m-1, mais testemunha, com cinco repetições. A cultura teste utilizada foi o feijoeiro caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça. O ponto de murcha permanente do feijoeiro caupi é menor quando determinado pelo método fisiológico do que o determinado na câmara de pressão de Richards; o incremento da salinidade do solo (CEes) até 12 dS m-1 não influencia a umidade foliar, independente da textura do solo; e o potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro caupi diminui com o aumento da salinidade do solo e pode ser usado como variável importante em ambientes salinizados. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the physiological wilting point, the moisture content and leaf osmotic potential in cowpea, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brazil). Two stress conditions were evaluated: salinity and salinity + water st [...] ress. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, composed of two classes of soil texture and four levels of soil salinity (control, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1), with five replications. The species cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça was used as test crop. It was concluded that the permanent wilting point of cowpea is smaller when determined by the physiological method than by Richards chamber method; the increase in soil salinity (CEes) up to 12 dS m-1 does not influence the leaf moisture content, regardless of soil texture; and the leaf osmotic potential of cowpea decreases with the increasing soil salinity, which can be used as an important variable in saline environments.

  16. Período de convivência das plantas daninhas com cultivares de feijão-caupi em várzea no Amazonas / Weed coexistence with cowpea cultivars in the Amazonas floodplain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.M.S., Oliveira; J.F., Silva; J.R.P., Gonçalves; C.S., Klehm.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar o período de convivência das plantas daninhas com três cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) em solo de várzea no Estado do Amazonas. A semeadura do feijão-caupi foi em outubro de 2007 no sistema convencional. O delineamento experimental foi o de [...] blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por 11 períodos de convivência entre o feijão-caupi e as plantas daninhas: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias após sua semeadura; depois desses períodos, as plantas daninhas foram eliminadas semanalmente por capina. Nas subparcelas foram colocados os cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN V69 e BR8 Caldeirão. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijão-caupi reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o peso de mil grãos. A produtividade dos cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 Caldeirão e BR IPEAN V69 foi reduzida em 59,78, 68,18 e 90,18%, respectivamente. O período anterior à interferência foi de 0 a 5 dias após a semeadura para o cultivar BR IPEAN V69, enquanto para os cultivares BR8 Caldeirão e EV x 91-2E-2 foi de até 6 e 7 DAS, respectivamente. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the period of weed coexistence with three cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata) in the lowlands of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Cowpea was sown in October 2007 under the conventional system. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications [...] in split-plots. The plots consisted of eleven periods of weed coexistence with cowpea at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 days after sowing. Following these periods, weeds were manually removed every week. The cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN BR8 V69, and BR8 Caldeirão were located in the split-plots. The interference of the weeds throughout the cowpea life cycle reduced final stand, number of pods per plant, and weight of 1,000 grains. The productivity of cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 BR8 Caldeirão and BR IPEAN V69 was reduced by 59, 78, 68.18 and 90.18%, respectively. The period before interference was from 0 to 5 days after sowing for cultivar BR IPEAN V69, and from 0 to 6 and 71 days for cultivars BR8 Caldeirão and EV x 91-2E-2, respectively.

  17. Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de suelos de la Costa Caribe colombiana en Vigna unguiculata / Infectivity and effectiveness of isolated rhizobia from colombian Caribbean Soils in Vigna unguiculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan Alberto, Mendoza Labrador; Ruth Rebeca, Bonilla Buitrago.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Es el primer estudio en Colombia que abarca una evaluación de rizobios nativos asociados a frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) en los departamentos del Cesar y la Guajira. En esta investigación, se demostró que la utilización de aislamientos de rizobios nativos aislados a partir de nódulos, me [...] joraron el desarrollo del frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), siendo estas bacterias más eficientes que los tratamientos químicos y absolutos (sin inóculo ni fertilización) y que las cepas inducidas mejorando además, la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y la tasa fotosintética. Como aportes del estudio, se determinó que en condiciones de invernadero la fertilización biológica fue más eficiente que la química y que, de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes variables agronómicas evaluadas, esto podría influir positivamente en los rendimientos nutricionales del cultivo, base alimentaria de los sistemas ganaderos de estas regiones del país y fuente alimenticia de la comunidad indígena y de bajos recursos económicos. Abstract in english This is the first study in Colombia which covers an evaluation of native rhizobium associated to the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in the departaments of Cesar and Guajira. In this research it was demonstrated that the use of native rhizobium isolated from nodes, improved the development o [...] f the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), being this bacteria more efficient than the chemical and absolute treatments (without inoculum and fertilization) also improving the biological nitrogen fixation and the photosynthetic rate. As contribution of the study, it was determined that in greenhouse conditions and according to the results obtained from differents measured agronomic variables, this could influence positively in the nutritional performance of the crop, basis of food of the cattle system of this regions of the country and the food source of the indigenous community of low economic income.

  18. Caracterização fenotípica de rizóbio nativos isolados de solos da Amazônia e eficiência simbiótica em feijão caupi / Phenotypic characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from Amazonian soils and symbiotic efficiency in cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aloisio Freitas, Chagas Junior; Luiz Antonio de, Oliveira; Arlem Nascimento de, Oliveira.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio é de fundamental importância na sustentabilidade agrícola, e a caracterização fenotípica rizobial contribui para o conhecimento da sua diversidade em coleções e para a utilização posterior em sistemas agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade fe [...] notípica de rizóbio isolados de solos da Amazônia e suas eficiências simbióticas quando inoculados em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Os isolados nativos apresentaram diversidade quanto às características morfológicas e fisiológicas. Foi verificado que a inoculação com isolados de rizóbio nativos contribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento da biomassa, nodulação de caupi e em eficiência simbiótica. Abstract in english Biological nitrogen fixation is of fundamental importance for agricultural sustainability, and the evaluation of the rhizobial diversity contributes to the knowledge of their diversity in collections, as well as for later use in agricultural systems. The objective of this paper was to evaluate pheno [...] type diversity and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia isolates from Amazonian soils when inoculated on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). The native isolates presented diversity regarding their morphologic and physiological characteristics. It was verified that the inoculation with isolates of native rhizobia contributed to the increase of the biomass, nodulation on cowpea and symbiotic efficiency.

  19. Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells

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    T.L. Rose

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

  20. Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.L., Rose; V.M., Gomes; M., Da Cunha; K.V.S., Fernandes; J., Xavier-Filho.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea [...] (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

  1. Efectos del Manejo de Suelos de Laderas en Hongos Formadores de Micorrizas Arbusculares y en Bacterias Fijadoras de Nitrógeno en Ultisoles Sujetos a erosión pluvial en la Amazonia Peruana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro O, Ruiz; Charles B, Davey.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un ensayo de vivero se evaluó la colonización con micorrizas arbusculares y la nodulación, en plantas de frejol caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) en suelos de ladera bajo cultivos en callejones (alley-cropping), cultivos continuos con bajos insumos, bosque secundario y suelo sin cobertura, a los [...] 5, 15, 30 y 45 días después de la germinación de la semilla (DDGS). La colonización micorrícica y la nodulación presentaron una gran variación en los estados iniciales del crecimiento de las plantas de caupí a pesar de que ninguno de los sistemas estudiados recibieron fertilización fosfatada. A niveles similares y bajos de disponibilidad de fósforo en el suelo, en suelos diferentes, altos niveles de colonización micorrícica (sistema de cultivos continuos con bajos insumos) pueden ser ventajosos para el crecimiento de la planta y la nodulación. La nodulación estuvo ausente en las plantas de caupí que crecieron en el suelo de bosque secundario probablemente debido al efecto represivo de altos niveles de nitrógeno en el suelo o a la falta de rizobios para esta especie. En el suelo sin cobertura, las plantas de caupí tuvieron niveles muy bajos de colonización micorrícica. La formación de nódulos fue esencialmente nula, probablemente debido a los efectos de la pérdida de suelo por las lluvias. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de reintroducir los microorganismos del suelo como parte de programas de recuperación de suelos y/o revegetación de áreas severamente alteradas como los taludes de carreteras, derechos de vía de gasoductos y oleoductos, áreas expuestas por actividad minera y otras. Abstract in english Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp) plants growing in soils under alley-cropping, low-input continuous cropping, secondary forest, and bare soil on a slope were evaluated at 5, 15, 30 and 45 days after seed germination (DASG) under greenhouse condi [...] tions. Mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in cowpeas differed greatly at their early growth stages in spite that any of the systems studied received phosphorus fertilizers. At similar low levels of soil available phosphorus in different soils, high levels of mycorrhizal colonization (low-input continuous cropping system) may be advantageous for plant growth and nodulation. Nodulation was absent in cowpeas growing in the secondary forest soil probably due to repressing effects of high levels of nitrogen in soil or to the lack of rhizobia for cowpeas. In the bare soil plot, cowpeas had a very low level of mycorrhizal colonization. Nodule formation was essentially zero, probably as effects of soil loss due to rainfall. Results obtained suggest the need for re-introduction of soil microorganisms for revegetation and land reclamation programs in severely disturbed soils like road banks, gas and oil pipelines, mining exposed areas, and others.

  2. Multiple forms of cotyledonary b-galactosidases from Vigna unguiculata quiescent seeds Múltiplas formas de b-galactosidases cotiledonárias de sementes quiescentes de Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM ENÉAS-FILHO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledonary b-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from Pitiúba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. quiescent seeds. The purification steps consisted of precipitation of the crude extract with ammonium sulphate in the range of 20-60% saturation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and Lactosyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. This purification process gave rise to three b-galactosidases-rich fractions: b-gal I, b-gal II and b-gal III, which were purified about 5, 509, and 62 fold, respectively. They reached maximal enzyme activity at different pH ranges: 3.5-4.5 for b-gal I, 3.0-3.5 for b-gal II, and 3.0-4.0 for b-gal III. Their maximal activities were reached when the temperature of the assay medium was 60° C, and preincubation of the enzymes at different temperatures has shown that they were heat-stable up to 50° C. There were no significant differences among the partially purified enzymes as far as their response to the different effectors tested, except for Mn2+ and EDTA, which affected differently b-gal I, b-gal II, and b-gal III. They were slightly affected by Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarate, molybdate, glucose, and lactose, strongly inhibited by Cu2+ and galactose, and inactivated by Hg2+. These chemical and physical properties are similar to the ones found for other plant b-galactosidases. Although through this process of purification three isoforms of this enzyme were obtained, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gel of these enzyme-proteins suggest that cotyledons of Pitiúba cowpea quiescent seeds possess four isoforms of b-galactosidases.b-galactosidases cotiledonárias foram isoladas e purificadas, parcialmente, de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Pitiúba. As etapas de purificação consistiram de precipitação do extrato bruto com sulfato de amônio na faixa de 20-60% de saturação, precipitação ácida, cromatografia de troca-iônica em DEAE-Sephadex e cromatografia de afinidade em Lactosil- Sepharose. Esse processo de purificação deu origem a três frações ricas em b-galactosidases: b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III, as quais foram purificadas cerca de 5, 509 e 62 vezes, respectivamente. Elas atingiram máxima atividade enzimática em diferentes faixas de pH: 3,5-4,5 para b-gal I, 3,0-3,5 para b-gal II e 3,0-4,0 para b-gal III. Suas atividades máximas foram alcançadas quando a temperatura do meio de ensaio era 60° C, e a preincubação das enzimas em diferentes temperaturas mostrou que elas eram termoestáveis até 50° C. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as enzimas parcialmente purificadas no que respeita à resposta dos diferentes efetores testados, exceto para Mn2+ e EDTA, que afetaram, diferentemente, b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III. Elas foram ligeiramente afetadas por Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarato, molibdato, glicose e lactose, fortemente inibidas por Cu2+ e galactose, e inativadas por Hg2+. Essas propriedades químicas e físicas são semelhantes às encontradas para outras b-galactosidases de plantas. Embora, três isoformas dessa enzima tenham sido obtidas através desse processo de purificação, a focalização isoelétrica em placa de gel de poliacrilamida dessas proteinas enzimáticas sugere que cotilédones de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda Pitiúba possuem quatro isoformas de b-galactosidases.

  3. Attempts to Improve the Method of Screening Cowpea Germplasm for Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of visual symptom screening for cowpea plants in field plots improved screening for Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus (BICMV)-resistance. However, the method failed to improve the speed or accuracy of screening for Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)-resistance. Plants that displayed few visual virus sympt...

  4. Diversidade morfológica de rizóbios isolados de caupi cultivado em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte / Morphological diversity of rhizobia from cowpea cultivated in Rio Grande do Norte State soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika Valente de, Medeiros; Claudia Miranda, Martins; José Arcanjo Melo, Lima; Ykesaky Terson Dantas, Fernandes; Vianney Reinaldo de, Oliveira; Wardsson Lustrino, Borges.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em função das características nutricionais e de rusticidade, o feijão-caupi tornou-se importante fonte de proteína na Região Nordeste do Brasil. O caupi se beneficia da fixação biológica de nitrogênio e pode receber parte do nitrogênio necessário para a cultura via simbiose, o que reduz os custos de [...] produção. Um experimento em condições de casa-de-vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio de nódulos de caupi em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Os nódulos foram coletados de raízes de Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., utilizada como planta-isca, sendo obtidos 304 isolados com características típicas de rizóbio. Embora todos os isolados tenham apresentado crescimento rápido e ácido em meio de cultivo, os isolados apresentaram elevada diversidade morfológica e foram agrupados em 18 grupos morfológicos. Não foi observada diferença de diversidade de isolados de rizóbio entre as diferentes amostras de solo analisadas. Abstract in english As a result of it nutritional and rustic characteristics, cowpea has become an important source protein in the Northeast region of Brazil. Cowpea may benefit from biological nitrogen fixation and can receive part of the nitrogen needed for culture from symbiosis, which reduces the cost of production [...] . An experiment in greenhouse conditions was carried out in order to assess the diversity of rhizobia isolates of the nodules of cowpea, in soils from Rio Grande do Norte State. The nodules were obtained from roots of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., a species used as trap plant; 304 isolates with typical rhizobial features were obtained. Although all isolates showed rapid and acid growth in the medium, the isolates showed high morphological diversity, forming 18 clusters. No diversity differences of rhizobial isolates were observed among the different soil samples studied.

  5. Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil / Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Élison Fabrício Bezerra, Lima; Lúcia da Silva, Fontes; Silvia Marisa Jesien, Pinent; Adriana Saraiva dos, Reis; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Angela Celis de Almeida, Lopes.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à c [...] ultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida. Abstract in english Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in T [...] eresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After screenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

  6. Toxic Effects of Three Industrial Effluents on Growth and Development of Vigna unguiculata (L Walp (Cultivar it 84 E-124

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    T. Yahaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of Paint, Battery and Textile effluents respectively on Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Cultivar It 84 E-124 were evaluated in this study. Viable seeds were planted in 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted effluents. Distilled water was used as control. The Physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Zinc being 35.6 mg L-1 in Paint effluent, copper and lead were 10.5 mg L-1 in Battery effluent were found to be above Federal Environmental Protection Agencys limit suggesting toxic impact on the seedling. Leaf size, stem length and root length were observed to be responsive to the concentration gradient of the effluents. Dry weight declined with a positive response from mean value of 1.18 g for 25% Textile to 0.11 g for 25% Key paint. The test plant indicated high concentration of heavy metals in its biomass, for instance, 75% flash battery with highest fresh weight of 1.75 g except for textile effluent with 1.45 g. Textile effluent was also found to favour chlorophyll formation leading to photosynthesis while the other effluents were found not to be in favour of chlorophyll production. The mean total chlorophyll for control is 56.43 mg g-1, Undiluted Textile being 51.45 mg g-1, while Key paint has 9.11 mg g-1. Howbeit, the severity of toxicity of the industrial effluents follow this trend; key paint higher than flash battery which is higher than textile at the different treatment concentrations of 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted. Suggesting that at very low concentration, Vigna unguiculata thrives better in textile effluents contaminated environment than battery and paint effluents. It is suggested that these parameters in cowpea may constitute methods of environmental monitoring.

  7. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  8. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  9. Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp. Seeds

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    Umoetok S. B. A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole, C. elegans (sole, a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and the control which received no parasitoids. The introduction of parasitoids was repeated at 3 d interval, and all treatments were replicated 3 times. Result indicated that early introduction of the parasitoids caused significantly (P ? 0.05 higher mortality of C.maculatus than late introduction. Mix culture of both parasitoids was significantly more efficacious than sole culture. The emergence of each parasitoid and the mortality of C. maculatus in sole culture showed a highly significant (P ? 0.01 positive relationship (r = 0.487 between C. maculatus and D. basalis but non-significant (P ? 0.05 though positive association (r = 0.289 with C. elegans. A multiple regression analysis between C. maculatus mortality and the emergence of the two parasitoids in mix culture also indicated a highly positive significant (P ? 0.01 relationship (R = 0.751, R2 = 0.564. Pearson Correlation analysis also showed a significant (P ? 0.05 positive association (r = 0.464, and 0.401 between C. maculatus mortality and emergence of C. elegans and D. basalis in mix culture, respectively. However, a non significant (P ? 0.05 negative relationship (r = -0.336 was observed between the two parasitoids in their emergence in mix culture, but D. basalis contributed more to the mortality of C. maculatus than C. elegans. Data from this study showed that D. basalis and C. elegans have potentials to be deployed as biological control entities in the management of C. maculatus as a part of the integrated pest management strategies of storage pests in the tropics.

  10. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

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    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped redundant clones together and illustrated that the SSHscreen plots are a useful tool for choosing anonymous clones for sequencing, since redundant clones cluster together on the enrichment ratio plots. Conclusions We developed the SSHscreen-SSHdb software pipeline, which greatly facilitates gene discovery using suppression subtractive hybridization by improving the selection of clones for sequencing after screening the library on a small number of microarrays. Annotation of the sequence information and collaboration was further enhanced through a web-based SSHdb database, and we illustrated this through identification of drought responsive genes from cowpea, which can now be investigated in gene function studies. SSH is a popular and powerful gene discovery tool, and therefore this pipeline will have application for gene discovery in any biological system, particularly non-model organisms. SSHscreen 2.0.1 and a link to SSHdb are available from http://microarray.up.ac.za/SSHscreen.

  11. Correlations and path analysis of yield components in cowpea / Correlações e análise de trilha dos componentes de rendimento de grãos em genótipos de feijão-caupi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano dos, Santos; Gessí, Ceccon; Livia Maria Chamma, Davide; Agenor Martinho, Correa; Valdecir Batista, Alves.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de correlações e os efeitos diretos e indiretos dos componentes do rendimento com a produtividade de grãos são importantes para a seleção de parentais e populações segregantes promissoras. O objetivo da pesquisa foi estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas e o desdobramento dos ef [...] eitos diretos e indiretos dos componentes de rendimento com o rendimento de grãos de20 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 20 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os caracteres demonstraram baixa à moderada possibilidade de ganho por seleção indireta, havendo maior probabilidade de sucesso ao aliar múltiplos caracteres e genótipo de melhor performance. Abstract in english Obtaining correlations and direct and indirect effects of yield components is important for the selection of promising parental and segregating populations. The objective of this research was to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and to analyze the direct and indirect effects of yie [...] ld components on grain yield in 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 20 treatments and 4 replications. The character showed low to moderate possibility of gain from indirect selection, with greater possibility for success when joining multiple character and a genotype of better performance.

  12. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Using Natural Plant Products

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    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  13. DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL

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    Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756 strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

  14. Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author)

  15. Development and evaluation of drought resistant mutant germplasm of Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Subterranea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project was to select cowpea and bambara groundnut plants with improved levels of drought resistance without alteration to the colour of the testa or the growth form. M2 to M5 generation plants were tested. The M2 to M4 plants were evaluated in the wooden boxes in the greenhouse and the field. Six cowpea mutant lines and seven bambara groundnut lines were included in a physiological screening experiment that was conducted in the greenhouse. One cowpea line exhibited high yield under watered conditions, and three under drought stress conditions. Three bambara groundnut mutants yielded more than the parent, and one showed relatively high yield under drought stress. It proved possible to examine mutant plants at the seedling stage in wooden boxes, mature plants were screened in rain-out shelter and physiological traits were distinguished among the tested lines for drought stress. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variation could be correlated with drought tolerance. Chlorophyll fluorescence was found to be a good predictor of plant performance in drought conditions. (author)

  16. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  17. Estratégias de manejo de água em caupi irrigado Strategies of irrigation scheduling in cowpea

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    Rubens Sonsol Gondim

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1997, numa área irrigada da Fazenda Experimental do Vale do Curu, pertencente à Universidade Federal do Ceará, no município de Pentecoste, CE, localizada a 100 km de Fortaleza. O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a utilização do tensiômetro de mercúrio, do Tanque Classe A e da equação de Hargreaves, na determinação da lâmina de água a ser aplicada na irrigação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, enquanto os tratamentos foram representados pelos três diferentes métodos de estimação citados, de quando e quanto irrigar (Tratamento 1 - Tensiômetro; Tratamento 2 - Tanque Classe A e Tratamento 3 - equação de Hargreaves e a cultura utilizada foi o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp para consumo em estado verde, cultivar João Paulo II, no espaçamento de 0,90 x 0,40 m, com duas plantas por cova, irrigada por aspersão convencional. A análise dos resultados constatou uma economia de água no tratamento 1, de 28 e 23%, em relação aos tratamentos 2 e 3, respectivamente, e também evidenciou a inexistência de diferenças significativas entre as produtividades alcançadas em todos os tratamentos. O tensiômetro pode ser indicado como instrumento de racionalização do uso da água em irrigação.A field study was conducted from September to December 1997 at the Federal University of Ceará Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, Brazil. The irrigation scheduling was based on a tensiometer, Class A pan evaporation and Hargreaves equation. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the three treatments (Treatment 1 - tensiometer, Treatment 2 - pan evaporation and Treatment 3 - Hargreaves equation with four replications in a completely randomized design. Sprinkler irrigated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivar João Paulo II for fresh consumption was grown on the experimental area. Plants were spaced at 0.90 x 0.40 m, maintaining two plants per hole. Crop yield showed no significant difference, although using the tensiometer to schedule irrigation, the water consumption was 28 and 30% lower compared to the Class A Pan Evaporation and Hargreaves equation, respectively. The tensiometer may be indicated as an instrument for saving water in irrigation scheduling.

  18. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

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    João H. B. da C. Campos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC, no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA, o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba.This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI. The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

  19. Número de repetições para avaliação de caracteres em genótipos de feijão-caupi / Number of replicates for the evaluation of characters in cowpea genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Eduardo, Torres; Edvaldo, Sagrilo; Paulo Eduardo, Teodoro; Larissa Pereira, Ribeiro; Alberto, Cargnelutti Filho.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o número de medições (repetições) necessário para avaliar caracteres de genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Vinte genótipos de feijão-caupi de porte ereto e vinte de porte semiprostrado foram avaliados no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, em seis e qua [...] tro ensaios, respectivamente. Os dez ensaios foram conduzidos no delineamento blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram mensurados os caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade de grãos. Foram verificados os pressupostos do modelo matemático, realizada a análise de variância, estimado o coeficiente de repetibilidade e calculado o número de repetições. Ensaios com quatro repetições identificam genótipos superiores de feijão-caupi em relação aos caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade de grãos, com, respectivamente, 84,57, 75,62, 73,14, 75,25, 81,53 e 79,19% de exatidão no prognóstico de seu valor real. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the number of measurements (replicates) necessary to predict the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. Twenty genotypes of cowpea to growth habit erect and twenty semi-prostrate were carried out in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in six a [...] nd four trials, respectively. It was conducted ten trials in randomized complete blocks design with four replicates. The character length of pod, weight of pod, weight of grains per pod, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred grains and grain yield were measured. Assumptions of the mathematical model were examined, analysis of variance was performed, the repeatability coefficient was estimated and the number of replicates was calculated. Trials with four replicates identify superior cowpea genotypes in relation to length of pod, weight of pod, weight of grains per pod, number of seeds per pod, weight of hundred grains and grain yield characters, with, respectively, 84.57, 75.62, 73.14, 75.25, 81.53 and 79.19% accuracy of the true prognostic value.

  20. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba / Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João H. B. da C., Campos; Madson T., Silva; Vicente de P. R. da, Silva.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC), no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíb [...] a. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA), o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba. Abstract in english This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in [...] the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI). The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than that limit value. An increase in air temperature of 3 and 6 oC, as suggested by the IPCC, will cause a significant reduction in the areas currently favorable for cowpea crop growth in the Paraíba state.

  1. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; A.; van Huis; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated beans. The volatile oils of Cymbopogon nardus and C. schoenanthus caused the majority of the eggs not to develop...

  2. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado no estudo. As seis populações (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 foram avaliadas num experimento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, em Teresina - PI; o plantio foi realizado em março de 1998. Os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram variâncias fenotípica, genética total, genética aditiva e dos desvios de dominância e devido aos efeitos do ambiente, herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito, grau médio de dominância e número dos genes que controlam o caráter. O modelo aditivo - dominante ajustou-se aos dados do peso de 100 sementes, visto que a média e o efeito gênico aditivo foram os parâmetros genéticos mais importantes na determinação desse caráter. O número dos genes que controlam sua expressão é cinco. A ocorrência de alto valor para a herdabilidade no sentido restrito indicou que a seleção para o tamanho da semente pode ser realizada em gerações segregantes iniciais.

  3. Seleção de rizóbios nativos para guandu, caupi e feijão-de-porco nos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe / Selection of indigenous rhizobia to the cowpea, pigeonpea and jackbean crops in the coastal tableland of Sergipe, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Ferreira, Fernandes; Roberta Pereira Miranda, Fernandes; Mariangela, Hungria.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação de estirpes de rizóbios em sementes de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e guandu (Cajanus cajan), recomendadas para outras regiões do País, não tem resultado em incrementos nas taxas de fixação biológica de N2 nem no crescimento dessas leguminosas em sol [...] os dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência simbiótica de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros associados a essas leguminosas e a tolerância deles a estresses. Das 17 estirpes de rizóbios isoladas e analisadas em casa de vegetação, quatro foram selecionadas para o guandu, sete para o caupi e três para o feijão-de-porco. O número e a massa de nódulos secos por planta correlacionaram-se com a massa da parte aérea seca, a área foliar e o N total acumulado nas folhas das três leguminosas. Os mesmos rizóbios foram eficientes para o caupi e para o guandu. Três estirpes do guandu (R35, R43 e R45) e duas do caupi (R10 e R17) foram caracterizadas in vitro e todas apresentaram tolerância às concentrações elevadas de ácido nalidíxico, cloranfenicol e tetraciclina, porém, foram sensíveis à estreptomicina e à kanamicina. Todas as estirpes cresceram a 35ºC e, exceto a R17, toleraram o alumínio (10 mg L-1). Abstract in english The inoculation of rhizobial strains in jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), recommended for other regions of Brazil, has not resulted in increases of biological nitrogen fixation rates and plant growth in soils of the coastal tableland of Sergip [...] e (Brazilian Northeast). The objectives of this work were to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia from that coastal tableland associated to these three legumes and their tolerance to stresses. Seventeen rhizobia strains were isolated and evaluated in a greenhouse. Four strains were selected for pigeonpea; seven for cowpea and three for jackbean. Nodules number and dry weight were related to shoot dry weight, leaf area and leaf N content, in all three legumes. The same strains were efficient for both cowpea and pigeonpea. Three pigeonpea (R35, R43 and R45) and two cowpea (R10 and R17) rhizobia were characterized in vitro and all showed tolerance to high levels of nalidix acid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline; however, they were sensitive to streptomycin and kanamycin. All strains were able to grow at 35ºC and, except for R17, were tolerant to aluminium (10 mg L-1).

  4. Sinergismo Bacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Paenibacillus na simbiose Bradyrhizobium-caupi / Synergism of Bacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Paenibacillus in the symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium-cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Maria do Carmo Silva, Barreto; Janete Magali, Araújo; Lucy, Seldin; Hélio Almeida, Burity; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. é a principal cultura de subsistência do semiárido brasileiro, sendo fonte de proteínas de baixo custo, notadamente, para populações carentes. A produção dessa cultura no Nordeste é baixa devido à não utilização de insumos agrícolas - entre eles, o fertili [...] zante nitrogenado. Por outro lado, bactérias promotoras de crescimento em plantas (BPCPs) vêm sendo estudadas, de forma a maximizar a fixação de N2, disponibilizar nutrientes como P ou fito-hormônios e inibir doenças. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a viabilidade da coinoculação das sementes de feijão-caupi usando Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Bacillus e Bradyrhizobium-caupi; caracterizar as estirpes quanto à produção de ácido indol acético (AIA) e solubilização de fosfato; e avaliar o sinergismo entre os microrganismos como alternativa para otimizar a FBN. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA), utilizando o feijão-caupi cv. "IPA - 206". As estirpes utilizadas foram: Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 e ANBE 31; B. cereus - 440; B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 e 459; B. pumilus - 444, 445 e 448; B. megaterium - 462; Brevibacillus brevis - 447; Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 e 177; P. graminis - MC 04.21, MC 22.13 e BR 60106; P. polymyxa - S21; e P. durus - RBN4. Os microrganismos não apresentaram capacidade para produzir AIA nem solubilizar fosfato. Ocorreu sinergismo das estirpes de Bacillus sp. (449) e Bacillus pumilus (444) coinoculadas com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267) no feijão-caupi. Abstract in english Cowpea Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. is the main subsistence crop of the semi-arid region and a low-cost protein source, especially for poorer populations. The production of this crop in the Northeast is low due to the lack of agricultural inputs, among them, nitrogen fertilizer. Plant-growth promoti [...] ng bacteria (BGPB) are being studied to maximize N2 fixation, provide nutrients such as P or phytohormones and inhibit diseases. The objectives of this study were to verify the viability of co- inoculation of cowpea seeds with Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Bacillus together with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea; characterize the strains for the production of indol acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization, as well as to evaluate the synergism among microorganisms as an alternative to optimize biological nitrogen fixation. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory and a greenhouse of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA), with cowpea cv. "IPA - 206" and the strains Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 and ANBE 31, B. cereus - 440, B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 and 459, B. pumilus - 444, 445 and 448, B. megaterium - 462 and Brevibacillus brevis - 447, Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 and 177, P. graminis - 04.21 MC, MC 22:13 and 60,106 BR, P. polymyxa - S21 and P. durus - RBN4. No capacity to produce IAA or solubilize phosphate was observed in the microorganisms. Synergism was observed between the strains of Bacillus sp. (449) and Bacillus pumilus (444) co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea.

  5. Alternative hosts of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in sesame (Sesamum indicum) crops grown in Paraguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis R., González-Segnana; Arnaldo, Esquivel Fariña; Diego D., González; Ana Paula O. A., Mello; Jorge A. M., Rezende; Elliot W., Kitajima.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production in Paraguay has been severely affected by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), which causes a disease known locally as ka'are. Because very little is known about the epidemiology of this disease, a survey was performed in fields surrounding a [...] ffected sesame plantations to identify CABMV-infected plants that may be acting as sources of inoculum. Samples from 48 plant species (symptomatic or asymptomatic, mostly spontaneous and a few cultivated) belonging to 17 families were evaluated by biological and serological assays. In a few select cases, confirmation of the infection was achieved by RT-PCR. The following species were found to be naturally infected by CABMV: Amaranthus hybridus, Arachis hypogaea, Crotalaria incana, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata. The absence of resistant/tolerant sesame cultivars along with the ineffectiveness of disease control through the chemical control of aphid vectors indicates that the only alternative available for disease management at present is the elimination and/or reduction of the sources of inoculum immediately before starting new plantations.

  6. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  8. Studies on hybrid vigour and combining ability for seed yield and contributing characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ushakumari, N.Vairam, C.R. Anandakumar and N. Malini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The combining ability aids in better selection of parents besides elucidating the nature and magnitude of gene action. Heterosisand combining ability analysis were carried out in line x tester model using five lines viz., Kanakamany, Subadra, TC 49-1,Lola and Sarika and five testers viz., CO2, CO4, CO6, CO (CP 7 and VBN 1. The results reveled that TC 49-1, Lola, Sarika,VBN1, CO2 and CO (CP7 were found to be good general combiners for seed yield. Among the parents, TC 49-1, Lola andVBN1 were found good general combiners for days to 50% flowering, plant height, cluster / plant, pods, / plant, length of podand number of seeds / plant. The crosses Lola x VBN 1, Sarika x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO (CP 7 were the best specificcombination for grain yield. The two crosses Lola x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO 4 showed significant heterosis over the standardlatest variety CO (CP7 for seed / pod, cluster / plant, pods / plant and 50% flowering. The crosses TC 49-1 x CO 2 showedhigh heterosis over standard variety for plant height and clusters/plant. Hence, these hybrids can be utilized for commercialcultivation.

  9. Effect of household cooking methods on nutritional and anti nutritional factors in green cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) pods

    OpenAIRE

    Deol, Jasraj K.; Bains, Kiran

    2010-01-01

    Steam pressure cooking (1 kg/cm2) and boiling (100°C) for 3 standardized time periods were assessed. Prolonged cooking in both pressure cooking and boiling resulted in a significant (p???0.05) loss in Fe and Ca. A significant loss of ascorbic acid and ß-carotene were observed during 2 cooking methods, the greater loss was during boiling. Pressure cooking and boiling resulted in significant (p???0.05) destruction in the anti-nutrients like phytates, tannins and trypsin inhibitor...

  10. Effect of physical mutagen on expression of characters in arid legume pulse cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

    OpenAIRE

    V.Ashok kumar, R.Usha kumari, N.Vairam and R.Amutha

    2010-01-01

    Studies on physical induced mutagenesis, gamma rays were performed by exposing the healthy and dry seeds of cowpeavariety CO 4 to gamma rays 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 kR. The study was to evolve economically important mutants withvaried seed coat colour as against dark grey coloured seed coat of CO 4. The LD50 value was found at 50kR for 60 Cogamma rays. Under field conditions, germination, seedling survival, plant height on 30th day, pollen fertility, seed fertility,pods per plant, pod lengt...

  11. Efecto del tipo de labranza sobre el suministro del agua y el crecimiento del frijol tuy en un suelo mollisol de Venezuela / Effect of the type of farming on the provision of the water and the growth of kidney bean tuyin a ground mollisol of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Florencio, Gamez; Lesce, Navarro.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp; variedad Tuy, es un cultivo de gran importancia en Venezuela. Se requiere la evaluación de alternativas de labranza que incrementen su producción, mejoren o mantengan las características favorables del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de [...] la labranza mínima (LM) y la labranza convencional (LC) sobre la producción de materia seca (MS) del frijol; variedad Tuy, área foliar (ÁF), rendimiento , humedad del suelo hasta 50 cm de profundidad durante el ciclo del cultivo (CC), densidad aparente (Da), macro y microporosidad e infiltración al momento de madurez, para ello se sembró en el período norte-verano sin aplicación de riego en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, con una densidad aproximada de 400.000 plantas.ha-1 en un diseño en bloques aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones. El análisis de la varianza y prueba de Medias (Tukey a=10%) se realizó mediante el programa del Sistema de Análisis Estadístico (siglas en inglés SAS). Al analizar los resultados no se observó diferencias relevantes en el patrón de acumulación, MS (hojas, tallos), MS total, ÁF y producción de grano entre LM y LC. El ÁF fue significativamente mayor en LC a los 67 días después de emergencia (DDE). En el suelo se notaron cambios en la humedad del horizonte 0-5 cm, en la porosidad total a los 30-40 y 40-50 cm, en Da a los 0-5 y 5-10 cm y en el contenido de humedad a capacidad de campo (HCC) del 0-5 y 10-20 cm. Se detectó una relación entre la lámina de agua faltante y la MS total en LM y LC Abstract in english The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, is an important crop in Venezuela, and is necessary to evaluate different tillage practices to increase its production, and to improve the soil properties. We evaluated the impact of the minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT) in the production of dr [...] y matter (DM), foliar area (FA), and crop production of cowpea, variety Tuy, sowed at 0.5 m between rows and 0.05 m between plants in a Mollisol soil of Aragua State, in a completelly randomized block desing, with four repetitions, and the impact in the soil water content until 50 cm of depth during the crop cycle (CC), the soil bulk density, macro- and micro-porosity, total soil porosity and soil infi ltration. The analisis of variance and means test (Tukey a=10%) was done using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program. There was a not signifi cant difference in the pattern of DM production of leaves, stem, total DM, foliar area, and grain yield between MT and CT. The FA of the CT there was only signifi cat higher than in MT at 67 days after emergency. In the soil, there was signifi cant differences bewteen MT and CT in the soil water of the 0-5 cm soil layer, in the total soil porosity of the 30-40 and 40-50 cm soil layers, in the soil bulk density of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, and in the soil water content at soil capacity in the 0-5 and 10-20 cm soil layers. There was a signifi cant relationship between the water used or missing during the crop cycle and the total DM produced in MT and CT

  12. Evaluation of Sorghum-Cowpea Intercrop Productivity in Savanna Agro-ecology using Competition Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Tajudeen Olusegun Oseni

    2010-01-01

    The competitive behaviour of sorghum-cowpea intercrops at different planting patterns were studied at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching and Research farm, Bauchi in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The treatments comprised of three row arrangements of sorghum/cowpea mixtures; one row of sorghum for one row of cowpea (1S:1C), two rows of sorghum for one row of cowpea (2S:1C) and one row of sorghum for two rows of cowpea (1S:2C), resp...

  13. Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P2O5/ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Effect of Rhizobium Inoculants on Cowpea under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker P. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted under rainfed condition to study the effect of Rhizobium inoculation (with or without chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer ( 0 and 50-30-20 Kg ha -1 P2O5, K2O and S on cowpea. Two sources of biofertilizer were used. Biofertilizer showed significantly higher yield attributes and seed yield of cowpea as compared to control. Biofertilizer of BARI source gave the highest cowpea seed yield (880 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (658 Kg ha -1 was obtained without biofertilizer. No significant difference was found between the two sources of bio-fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer showed better performance than control in case of seed yield and all yield contributing characters of cowpea. Interaction of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer also showed statistically significant difference. PKS with biofertilizer of both BAU and BARI sources gave the highest seed yield (987 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (525 Kg ha -1 was obtained from control treatment. Though the highest average rate of return (4556% was found using biofertilizer of BARI source but on consideration of net return and also soil health, PKS with biofertilizer of BARI source where ARR was the second highest may be suggested for growing cowpea under rainfed condition.

  15. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic differences in nodulation under conditions of P stress. There were large genotypic variations for P uptake under high P levels but not under low P levels. The study showed that there was significant genotypic variation for root traits during early growth and genotypic differences for soybean and cowpea growth under low P. (author)

  16. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Some Nigerian Cowpea Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Chinma, C. E.; Emelife, I. G.; Alemede, I. C.

    2008-01-01

    The physicochemical and functional properties of four local varieties of cowpea seeds (Achishiru, Akidi, Jokada and Odudu) in Nigeria were studied. Length, major and minor diameter of seeds were in the range 6.70-12.90 mm, 3.33-5.58 mm, 3.18-4.65 mm while grain weight of seeds varied between 8.40 to 34.90 g. Cooking time ranged from 28.00 to 40.00 min. Cooking yield were in the range of 55.43 to 59.77% and the dissolved solid ranged from 0.27 to 0.93%. Cowpea seeds contain high value o...

  17. Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas / Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvina R, Drago; Rolando J, González; Luis, Chel-Guerrero; Mirta E, Valencia.

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación). Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica [...] y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante alto Abstract in english In the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment) were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nu [...] trients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

  18. Resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi ao ataque de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) / Resistance of genotypes of cowpea to the attack of Callosobruchus Maculatus (Fabr.,1775) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F, de Melo; L.S, Fontes; D.R.S, Barbosa; A.A.R, Araújo; E.P.S, Sousa; L.L.L, Soares; P.R.R, Silva.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de quatro genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775). Os genótipos utilizados foram BR 17-Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, TE96-290-12G e BRS Guariba. Foram realizados testes com e sem chance de escolha, [...] em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, totalizando 4 tratamentos cada um com 5 repetições, avaliando-se número de ovos, número de insetos emergidos, viabilidade de ovos (%) e taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional. Nos testes com e sem chance de escolha, o genótipo TE96-290-12G mostrou-se como o mais resistente. BRS Rouxinol foi o genótipo mais suscetível. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of 4 genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775). The genotypes evaluated were BR 17-Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, TE96-290-12G and BRS Guariba. Tests were conducted with and without possibilit [...] y of choice, in a completely randomized design, totaling 4 treatments each with 5 replicates, evaluating the number of eggs, number of emerged insects, egg viability (%) and instantaneous rate of population growth. In the test with possibility of choice the genotype TE96-290-12G was revealed as the most resistant. BRS Rouxinol was the most susceptible genotype.

  19. Distribuição espacial do pulgão preto em feijão de corda e cálculo do número de amostras / Spatial distribution of the cowpea aphid and calculation of the sample size

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefté Ferreira da, Silva; Ervino, Bleicher; Gleidson Vieira, Marques; Valéria, Silva.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a dispersão espacial do pulgão preto (Aphis craccivora Koch), na cultura de feijão de corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e estabelecer o número de amostras necessárias para a estimativa da população da praga para o uso em programas de Manejo Integrado de Prag [...] as. Para isso, foram cultivados dois campos experimentais na Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza. O primeiro campo tinha uma área de 216 m², composta de 15 parcelas. O segundo campo tinha uma área de 576 m² dividida em 25 parcelas. A cultivar utilizada foi a Vita 7 com plantas espaçadas em 0,25 m x 0,8 m. Foram realizadas seis coletas de dados em cada campo onde foram avaliadas dez plantas por parcela. Foi contado o número de colônias de pulgão presentes em toda a planta. Os resultados obtidos nos índices de agregação utilizados indicam que a dispersão do A. craccivora no campo é do tipo agregada o que foi confirmado pelo ajuste dos dados à distribuição de frequência Binomial Negativa. Quarenta e cinco é o número de amostras adequado para a estimativa da população de A. craccivora em campos de V. unguiculata para aplicação em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the spatial dispersion of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and to determine the sample size required to estimate the pest population, for use in Integrated Pest Management programs. In order to do this, two [...] field experiments were carried out at the Federal University of Ceará in Fortaleza, Brazil. The first with an area of 216 m², consisting of 15 plots. The second with an area of 576 m² divided into 25 plots. The cultivar "Vita 7" was used, with plants spaced 0.25 m x 0.8 m apart. Data were collected six times for each experiment, when ten plants per plot were evaluated. The total of aphid colonies present was counted for each plant. The results obtained from the clustering indices which were employed indicate that dispersion of A. craccivora in the field is of the aggregate type, which was confirmed by fitting the data to the negative binomial distribution of frequency. Forty-five is a suitable number of samples in the estimation of the population of A. craccivora in fields planted with V. Unguiculata, for use in integrated pest management programs.

  20. Estratégias ótimas de irrigação do feijão?caupi para produção de grãos verdes / Optimal irrigation strategies for cowpea green bean production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herbert Moraes Moreira, Ramos; Edson Alves, Bastos; Aderson Soares de, Andrade Júnior; Waldir Aparecido, Marouelli.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar estratégias ótimas de irrigação do feijão?caupi (Vigna unguiculata) para a produção de grãos verdes, com a água como fator limitante da produção e diferentes valores de preço do produto. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Meio?Norte, em Teresina, PI, entr [...] e setembro e novembro de 2009. Foram avaliadas cinco lâminas de irrigação, estabelecidas com base em frações da evapotranspiração de referência (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ETo), e as cultivares BRS Guariba e BRS Paraguaçu de feijão?caupi. Aplicou-se a irrigação por sistema de aspersão convencional fixo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcelas subdivididas (cultivares). As lâminas de irrigação entre 290 e 325 mm (108 e 130% da ETo) (BRS Paraguaçu) e entre 325 e 363 mm (130 e 153% da ETo) (BRS Guariba) maximizam a receita líquida na faixa de variação de preço do produto entre US$ 0,75 e 2,00 kg?1, para a cultivar BRS Paraguaçu, e entre US$ 0,50 e 2,00 kg?1, para a BRS Guariba. A cultivar BRS Guariba apresenta melhor desempenho econômico que a BRS Paraguaçu. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine optimal strategies of irrigation for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) for the production of green bean, with water as the limiting yield factor and different values for the price of the product. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Meio?Norte, in Teresina, [...] PI, Brazil, from September to November 2009. Five irrigation depths, established based on fractions of reference evapotranspiration (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of ETo), and the BRS Guariba and BRS Paraguaçu cowpea cultivars were evaluated. Irrigation was done with a conventional fixed sprinkling system. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates, in a split?plot arrangement (cultivars). The irrigation depths from 290 to 325 mm (108 to 130% of ETo) (BRS Paraguaçu) and from 325 to 363 mm (130 to 153% of ETo) (BRS Guariba) maximize the liquid income, considering the price range of the product from US$ 0.75 to 2.00 kg?1, for the cultivar BRS Paraguaçu, and from US$ 0.50 to 2.00 kg?1, for BRS Guariba. The cultivar BRS Guariba shows better economic performance than BRS Paraguaçu.

  1. Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade / Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogéria Pereira, Souza; Eduardo Caruso, Machado; Joaquim Albenísio Gomes, Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl [...] . Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the photosynthetic responses and the accumulation of carbohydrates, salt ions, and proline in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants subjected to salinity. Plants were subjected to four treatments, from 28 to 35 days of age: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl [...] . Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, and leaf concentrations of carbohydrates, Na+, Cl-, and proline were evaluated. Treatments had no effect on potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, but there was a slight reduction in effective quantum efficiency and a higher dissipation of excess excitation energy by non-photochemical processes. The foliar contents of starch decreased, and those of sucrose and proline increased with higher NaCl content. There was Na+ exclusion and Cl-accumulation in leaves, and leaf water relations were little affected by salt stress, except in the most severe treatment. The accumulation of Cl- was related with the reduction of CO2 assimilation, which resulted from the decline in stomatal conductance and in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency. Cowpea plants have physiological characteristics that favor the maintenance of photosynthetic activity under short-term exposure to salinity.

  2. Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Pereira Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl. Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade.The objective of this work was to determine the photosynthetic responses and the accumulation of carbohydrates, salt ions, and proline in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants subjected to salinity. Plants were subjected to four treatments, from 28 to 35 days of age: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, and leaf concentrations of carbohydrates, Na+, Cl-, and proline were evaluated. Treatments had no effect on potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, but there was a slight reduction in effective quantum efficiency and a higher dissipation of excess excitation energy by non-photochemical processes. The foliar contents of starch decreased, and those of sucrose and proline increased with higher NaCl content. There was Na+ exclusion and Cl-accumulation in leaves, and leaf water relations were little affected by salt stress, except in the most severe treatment. The accumulation of Cl- was related with the reduction of CO2 assimilation, which resulted from the decline in stomatal conductance and in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency. Cowpea plants have physiological characteristics that favor the maintenance of photosynthetic activity under short-term exposure to salinity.

  3. Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador B Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

  4. Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN / Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salvador B, Torres; Fabrícia N de, Oliveira; Regina C de, Oliveira; João B, Fernandes.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de [...] -ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde) foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pin [...] go-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

  5. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade da produtividade de grãos de genótipos de caupi enramador de tegumento mulato Adaptability and stability of grain yield in climbing and brown coat cowpea genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodrigues Freire Filho

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade da produtividade de grãos de 16 genótipos de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. utilizando o modelo de efeitos aditivos principais e interação multiplicativa. Os ensaios foram realizados em nove ambientes, locais e anos, da região Meio-Norte do Brasil, Estados do Piauí (PI e Maranhão (MA, no período de 1999 a 2001. Os efeitos de ambientes e interação genótipos x ambientes, e os dois primeiros eixos da análise de componentes principais da interação foram significativos (PThe objective of this work was to evaluate the adaptability and the grain yield stability of 16 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. genotypes using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. The trials were carried out at nine environments, locations and years, of the Middle-North region of Brazil, states of Piauí (PI and Maranhão (MA, in the period from 1999 to 2001. Environments and genotype x environment interaction effects, and the first two axes of the analysis of principal component of the interaction were significant (P<0.01. The analysis of principal components explained 61.25% of the sum of squares of the genotype x environment interaction. TE93-244-23F and TE93-210-12F-1 genotypes gathered genes for adaptability and stability, and can be cultivated in all environments. BR 17-Gurguéia, Canapuzinho and EPACE-10 genotypes presented the highest yield averages, but were unstable and with specific adaptation to environments of high quality. The environments more favorable were Bom Jesus, PI, 2000; Palmeira do Piauí, PI, 2001, and Sambaíba, MA, 2000. There was no tendency of locations grouping by State and the distribution was balanced in terms of environmental quality.

  6. [Quality standard study on Vigna radiata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Zou, Ping-Ping; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    In order to control the quality of Vigna radiata, the quality control method and standard were established in this study. The tests of water content, ash and ethanol-soluble extractives of V. radiata were carried out according to the methods recoded in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition, volume 1). The TLC method was established by using vitexin and isovitexin as references, and a mixture of acetate-method-water (10: 1.7 : 1.3) as the developing solvent system on GF254 thin layer plate. The contents of vitexin and isovitexin were determined by HPLC on a Prevail C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column, using acetonitrile: water (23 : 77) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature is 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength is 337 nm. As a result, vitexin, isovitexin and the other constituents were well separated on TLC detected under the UV light (254 nm). The methodology validation for the assay of vitexin and isovitexin presented that they were in good linear correlation in the ranges of 6.12-98 mg x L(-1) and 6.85-109.6 mg x L(-1), with the regression equations of Y = 46.213X - 7.100 (r = 1.000) and Y = 54.515X + 6.829 (r = 1.000), and the average recoveries were 98.2% (RSD 1.9%) and 97.2% (RSD 0.79%), respectively. The content ranges of vitexin and isovitexin from 25 different batches of V. radiata were 1.076-2.062 mg x g(1) and 1.127-2.303 mg x g(-1), respectively. suggesting that the qualities of V. radiata are relatively stable. The ethanol-soluble extractives, water content and total ash of 25 samples varied in the ranges of 13.27% - 18.46%, 9.59% - 12.43% and 2.63% - 3.53%, respectively. All of the above data proved that the established quality of control method V. radiata is specific and accurate, which can be used for the quality control of this drug. PMID:24754176

  7. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE / CROMIO NA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA DO SOLO E FEIJÃO-CAUPI, APÓS QUATRO APLICAÇÕES ANUAIS CONSECUTIVAS DE LODO DE CURTUME COMPOSTADO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto, Oliveira; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araujo; Wanderley José de, Melo.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O lodo de curtume compostado contém elevadas concentrações de elementos inorgânicos, como o crômio (Cr), que podem levar à poluição ambiental e influenciar na saúde humana. O comportamento envolvendo o Cr nas frações da matéria orgânica e no crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.) foi est [...] udado em solo arenoso, após quatro anos de aplicações anuais consecutivas de lodo de curtume compostado (LCC). Durante quatro anos, o LCC foi aplicado em parcelas permanentes (2 × 5 m) e incorporado no solo (0-20 cm), nas doses de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 10,0 e 20,0 Mg ha-1 (base seca). Esses tratamentos foram repetidos quatro vezes em blocos ao acaso. No quarto ano, o feijão-caupi foi semeado e cresceu por 50 dias, quando se analisaram as concentrações de Cr no solo, nas frações ácidos fúlvicos, ácidos húmicos e humina, nas folhas, nas vagens e nos grãos do feijão-caupi. O LCC promoveu aumento na concentração de Cr no solo. Entre as substâncias húmicas, a maior concentração de Cr foi encontrada na humina. As doses de LCC elevaram o teor de Cr nas folhas e grãos. Abstract in english Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr), which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) was studied in a sandy soil after four consecu [...] tive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS). Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m) and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm) at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis). These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  8. Caracterización de tres nuevas variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Aguila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La investigación se desarrolló sobre un suelo Pardo mullido medianamente lavado con las variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ de reciente introducción en nuestro país. Tiene como principal objetivo caracterizar las variedades (‘IPA 206, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ bajo nuestras condiciones climáticas. Teniendo como principales resultados que se logró incluir en el registro de variedades según la caracterización desarrollada por nuestro instituto utilizando dos épocas de siembra, el hábitos de crecimiento indeterminado con vainas distribuidas por toda la planta se destaca en las variedades ‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’, mientras que en la ‘Guariba’ es determinado encontrándose estas distribuidas por encima de la planta, en cuanto al rendimiento, la variedad ‘IPA 207’ es superiores que la obtenida por la ‘'PA 206’ y ‘Guariba’, el peso de 1000 semillas en las variedades ‘Guariba’ y ‘IPA 206’ son superiores al peso de la ‘IPA 207’, la variedad ‘Guariba’ es económicamente más rentable que las ‘IPA 206’ y ‘IPA 207’ por emplear un número de cosechas muy inferior a las antes mencionadas. Puede sembrarse durante todas las épocas del año, pero lo más aconsejable es en época de frío para la obtención de semilla y el verano para la producción donde es más productiva y puede sustituir al fríjol común. Tolera estrés hídrico y régimen de abundantes lluvias, excepto en el momento de la cosecha y no admite el encharcamiento. Characterization of three new varieties vignas (' IPA 206' and ' IPA 207' y 'Guariba' in Cuba. ABSTRACT The research was conducted on a fairly soft Brown soil washing vignas varieties ('IPA 206', 'IPA 207' and 'Guariba' recently introduced in our country. Its main objective is to characterize varieties ('IPA 206,' IPA 207 'and' Guariba ' under our climatic conditions. Having as main results achieved include in the record as the characterization of varieties developed by our institute using two seasons, the indeterminate growth habit with pods distributed throughout the plant stands in the varieties' IPA 206 'and' IPA 207 ', while the' Guariba 'is determined by finding these distributed over the plant, as regards the yield, the variety' IPA 207 'is higher than that obtained by PA 206''' and 'Guariba', the weight of 1000 seed varieties 'Guariba' and 'IPA 206' are greater than the weight of the 'IPA 207', the variety 'Guariba' is economically more profitable than the 'IPA 206' and 'IPA 207' by employing a number crop much lower than those above. It can be sown during all seasons, but it is best in cold weather to obtain seed and summer to produce where it is more productive and can replace the common bean. Tolerate wate

  9. Influência da intensidade da murcha-de-fusário no rendimento do caupi / Influence of Fusarium wilt intensity on cowpea yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iraíldes P., Assunção; Sami. J., Michereff; Eduardo.S.G., Mizubuti; Sérgio H., Brommonschenkel.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A murcha-de-fusário, causada por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Nordeste brasileiro. Foi conduzido um experimento em microparcelas para avaliar a influência da intensidade da murcha-de-fusário nas reduções de rendimento do caupi. O sol [...] o acondicionado nas microparcelas foi infestado com a mistura do inóculo de dois isolados do patógeno, obtendo-se diferentes gradiente de densidade, variando de 1,2 x 10² a 5,3 x 10(4) ufc/g. Cinco dias após a infestação, foram plantadas as cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, classificadas como altamente e moderadamente suscetíveis a F. oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, respectivamente. Na fase de colheita, o rendimento de cada cultivar foi determinado por microparcela, obtendo-se o número de vagens por planta, o peso total de sementes por planta e o peso de 100 sementes. Após a colheita, a severidade da murcha-de-fusário foi avaliada em todas as plantas com o auxílio de uma escala descritiva, sendo calculado o índice de intensidade da doença. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas (P=0,05) na intensidade de doença e na taxa de redução de rendimento entre as duas cultivares. As reduções no rendimento de sementes variaram de 9,11 a 80,30% e de 8,30 a 86,51% nas cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, respectivamente. O modelo de regressão linear simples, sem a transformação dos dados, possibilitou o ajuste adequado aos dados na análise da relação entre a intensidade da murcha-de-fusário e as reduções de rendimento das duas cultivares. Abstract in english Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Northeastern Brazil. An experiment was carried out in field microplots to evaluate the influence of Fusarium wilt intensity on cowpea yield losses. The soil in microplots was inf [...] ested with a mixture of two pathogen isolates. A crescent gradient was obtained by adding 1.2 x 10² to 5.3 x 10(4) cfu/g of pathogen-colonized substrate. Five days after the infestation, two cultivars were planted: 'BR-17 Gurguéia' and 'IPA-206', classified as highly and moderately susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, respectively. At harvest, the yield of the cultivars per microplot was determined through the number of pods per plant, total weight of seeds per plant, and the weight of one hundred of seeds. After harvest, the severity of Fusarium wilt was evaluated in all plants using a descriptive scale and calculating the disease intensity index. Significant differences (P=0,05) were not observed in either disease intensity or yield losses between the two cultivars. Losses in seed yield ranged from 9.11 to 80.30% and from 8.30 to 86.51% in the cultivars BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206, respectively. The model of simple linear regression, without data transformation, fitted the data in relation to Fusarium wilt intensity and yield losses of both cultivars.

  10. Roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio como fuente de fósforo para frijol en dos tipos de suelo / Phosphate rock acidulated with sulfuric acid and ammonium thiosulfate as sources of phosphorus for cowpea in two soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omaira, Sequera; Ricardo, Ramírez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de fósforo en los suelos tropicales es común. Una fuente natural de este nutriente es la roca fosfórica acidulada (RFA) con ácido sulfúrico (AS), aunque una alternativa más económica es la acidulación sustituyendo el 30 % del AS por tiosulfato de amonio (R30T). Para probar la eficienc [...] ia de esta última forma se trabajó con dos experimentos usando un suelo ácido y otro neutro. Se aplicó P en forma de superfosfato triple (SFT), RFA y R30T en dosis de 0, 70, 140 y 210 mg·kg-1. Se usó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, y se sembró frijol (Vigna sinensis) el cual se cosechó a los 35 días para determinar materia seca (MS), longitud radical (LR), P absorbido, y Ca y P residual en el suelo. La MS y el P absorbido en promedio fueron parecidos donde se aplicó SFT, RFA y R30T. La MS dependió altamente de la concentración de P y Ca en ambos suelos, así como de la concentración del P en la planta. La LR mostró un mayor crecimiento con el incremento del P disponible en el suelo ácido, no así en el suelo neutro. Se concluye que la acidulación parcial de la roca fosfórica con tiosulfato de amonio y ácido sulfúrico permite producir un fertilizante tan eficiente como la RFA para el crecimiento del sistema radical tanto en suelo ácido como neutro, y se ratificó su eficiencia en la producción de materia seca y absorción de fósforo por la planta. Abstract in english Phosphorus deficiency in tropical soils is a common constrain. Acidulated phosphate rock with sulfuric acid (RFA) is a natural source of P, but a cheaper alternative is the acidification of phosphate rock by replacing 30% of sulfuric acid with ammonium thiosulfate (R30T). To test the efficiency of t [...] hose fertilizers and superphosphate two experiments were conducted using an acidic soil and a neutral one. The doses of P applied were 0, 70, 140 and 210 mg·kg-1. A completely randomized design was used with four replications, and cowpea plants were grown. Plants were harvested at 35 days old and dry matter (DM), P uptake, residual P and Ca in soil, and root length (RL) were determined. When RFA was applied, DM and P uptake were similar to those in R30T and SFT. DM was highly related to soil P and Ca contents as well as to P concentration in the plant. RL increased as available P was higher in the acidic soil, but not in neutral soil. It is concluded that partial acidulation of phosphate rock with ammonium thiosulfate and sulfuric acid produces a fertilizer as efficient as the RFA for growth of the root system in both acid and neutral soil, and confirmed its efficiency in the production of dry matter and phosphorus uptake by the plant.

  11. Contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio, fertilizante nitrogenado e nitrogênio do solo no desenvolvimento de feijão e caupi Contribuition of nitrogen from biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilizer and soil nitrogen on the growth of the common bean and cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN constitui-se em uma valiosa fonte deste nutriente para o feijão comum e, sobretudo, para o feijão-caupi, tendo sua magnitude influenciada pela disponibilidade de N mineral na solução do solo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio, na forma de uréia, sobre a fixação simbiótica de N2 em feijão comum e caupi, pela técnica isotópica, e quantificar as contribuições relativas das fontes N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-uréia no desenvolvimento do feijão comum e caupi, usando como controle a soja não nodulante. O estudo foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra, coletada de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5x3x2 e três repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam cinco doses de N, na forma de uréia: 2, 15, 30, 45 e 60 mg kg-1 de N; três épocas de amostragens de plantas: 23, 40 e 76 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão comum e feijão caupi. A FBN decresceu com o incremento da dose de N, variando de 81,5% a 55,6% para o caupi e de 71,9% a 55,1% para o feijão comum. A FBN em caupi submetido à inoculação pode substituir totalmente a adubação nitrogenada, inclusive a dose de arranque. A absorção do N do solo não é influenciada pela dose de fertilizante nitrogenado. O aproveitamento do N do fertilizante, aos 76 DAS, foi, em média, de 60,7% pelo feijão comum e 57,1% pelo caupi. O feijão comum necessita de dose de arranque (40 kg ha-1 de N para a obtenção de produtividade economicamente aceitável.Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF constitutes a valuable source of this nutrient for the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., being its avaibility affected by mineral N in the soil solution. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate, as urea, on symbiotic fixation of N2 in common bean and cowpea plants, using the isotopic technique, and quantifying the relative contributions of N sources symbiotic N2 fixation, soil native nitrogen and urea N on the growth of the common bean and cowpea. Non nodulating soybean plants were used as standard. The research was carried out in greenhouse, using pots with 5 kg of soil from a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 30 treatments and three replications, arranged in 5x3x2 factorial outline. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 2, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg N kg-1 soil; three sampling times: 23, 40 and 76 days after sowing (DAS and two crops: common bean and cowpea. The BNF decreased with increase N rates, varying from 81.5% to 55.6% for cowpea, and from 71.9% to 55.1% for common bean. The symbiotic N2 fixation in cowpea can substitute totally the nitrogen fertilization. The nitrogen absorption from soil is not affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. The N recovery from fertilizer at 76 DAS was of 60.7% by common bean, and 57.1% by cowpea. The symbiotic association in common bean needs the application of a starting dose (40 kg N ha-1 for economically acceptable yields.

  12. Contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio, fertilizante nitrogenado e nitrogênio do solo no desenvolvimento de feijão e caupi / Contribuition of nitrogen from biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilizer and soil nitrogen on the growth of the common bean and cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN) constitui-se em uma valiosa fonte deste nutriente para o feijão comum e, sobretudo, para o feijão-caupi, tendo sua magnitude influenciada pela disponibilidade de N mineral na solução do solo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar os efeitos de doses de ni [...] trogênio, na forma de uréia, sobre a fixação simbiótica de N2 em feijão comum e caupi, pela técnica isotópica, e quantificar as contribuições relativas das fontes N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-uréia no desenvolvimento do feijão comum e caupi, usando como controle a soja não nodulante. O estudo foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra, coletada de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5x3x2 e três repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam cinco doses de N, na forma de uréia: 2, 15, 30, 45 e 60 mg kg-1 de N; três épocas de amostragens de plantas: 23, 40 e 76 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão comum e feijão caupi. A FBN decresceu com o incremento da dose de N, variando de 81,5% a 55,6% para o caupi e de 71,9% a 55,1% para o feijão comum. A FBN em caupi submetido à inoculação pode substituir totalmente a adubação nitrogenada, inclusive a dose de arranque. A absorção do N do solo não é influenciada pela dose de fertilizante nitrogenado. O aproveitamento do N do fertilizante, aos 76 DAS, foi, em média, de 60,7% pelo feijão comum e 57,1% pelo caupi. O feijão comum necessita de dose de arranque (40 kg ha-1 de N) para a obtenção de produtividade economicamente aceitável. Abstract in english Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) constitutes a valuable source of this nutrient for the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., being its avaibility affected by mineral N in the soil solution. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of nitrogen r [...] ate, as urea, on symbiotic fixation of N2 in common bean and cowpea plants, using the isotopic technique, and quantifying the relative contributions of N sources symbiotic N2 fixation, soil native nitrogen and urea N on the growth of the common bean and cowpea. Non nodulating soybean plants were used as standard. The research was carried out in greenhouse, using pots with 5 kg of soil from a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol). The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 30 treatments and three replications, arranged in 5x3x2 factorial outline. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 2, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg N kg-1 soil; three sampling times: 23, 40 and 76 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. The BNF decreased with increase N rates, varying from 81.5% to 55.6% for cowpea, and from 71.9% to 55.1% for common bean. The symbiotic N2 fixation in cowpea can substitute totally the nitrogen fertilization. The nitrogen absorption from soil is not affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. The N recovery from fertilizer at 76 DAS was of 60.7% by common bean, and 57.1% by cowpea. The symbiotic association in common bean needs the application of a starting dose (40 kg N ha-1) for economically acceptable yields.

  13. Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Plummer, Emily M; Trauger, Sunia A; Siuzdak, Gary; Manchester, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via in...

  14. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  15. Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    K. D. ILEKE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects were investigated. Results showed that at rates of 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml/ 20 g of cowpea seeds, A. boonei latex evoked 100% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid after 4 days of post treatment. This is followed by C. procera and J. curcas which caused 100% mortality of cowpea bruchid at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds while the least effective plant Argemone mexicana latex. There was no adult emergence in seeds treated with A. boonei latex at tested concentrations and C. procera and J. curcas at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds compared with untreated that had 87.75% adults emergence. The results obtained from this study revealed that Alstonia boonei, Calotropis procera and J. curcas latex were effective in controlling of C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored cowpeas against bruchids.

  16. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues Freire Filho; Maria do Socorro da Rocha Nogueira; Gislanne Brito Barros; Marcelo Eiras; Valdenir Queiroz Ribeiro; Ângela Celis de Almeida Lopes

    2012-01-01

    O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV). Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas c...

  17. Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species / Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ligiane Aparecida, Florentino; Pedro Martins de, Sousa; Jacqueline Savana, Silva; Karina Barroso, Silva; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

    1113-11-01

    Full Text Available Dez estirpes de rizóbios, sendo oito isoladas de amostras de solos coletadas próximo ao sistema radicular de Sesbania virgata, no Sul de Minas Gerais, e duas recomendadas como inoculante para o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) usadas como referências, foram avaliadas quanto a: diversidade genéti [...] ca, eficiência simbiótica em caupi, tolerância a altas temperaturas e concentrações salinas, valores extremos de pH e 15 tipos de antibióticos. A análise de diversidade genética utilizando a técnica do Rep-PCR, com o primer BOX, revelou alta diversidade, pois cada estirpe apresentou perfil único de DNA. O teste de eficiência simbiótica conduzido em vasos de Leonard indicou que as estirpes UFLA 03-30 e UFLA 03-38 demonstraram alto potencial em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi, proporcionando resultados de matéria seca da parte aérea e dos nódulos, eficiência relativa e acúmulo de N na parte aérea superiores aos das estirpes recomendadas como inoculantes. Todas as estirpes cresceram em meios com valores de pH variando de 4,0 a 9,0. Em relação à tolerância aos antibióticos, foi observado que as estirpes eficientes em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi foram as que apresentaram tolerância a um maior número desses compostos. No entanto, estas estirpes mostraram comportamentos semelhantes em relação a tolerância a salinidade, constituindo o grupo de maior sensibilidade. Com exceção das estirpes UFLA 03-84 e UFLA 03-37, as demais toleraram até 40 ºC. Embora as estirpes estudadas tenham sido isoladas de solos da mesma região, com exceção das recomendadas para inoculante oriundas da Amazônia, foi observado que elas apresentaram comportamentos distintos quando submetidas aos diferentes testes de diversidade genética, fenotípica e simbiótica, justificando a importância de incluir estes testes no processo de seleção de estirpes simbióticas em caupi. Abstract in english The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after in [...] oculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp) in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as references, were from the Amazon and are currently recommended as cowpea inoculants. Genetic diversity was analyzed by amplifying repetitive DNA elements with the BOX primer, revealing high genetic diversity with each strain presenting a unique band profile. Leonard jar assays showed that the strains UFLA 03-30 and UFLA 03-38 had the highest N2-fixing potentials in symbiosis with cowpea. These strains had more shoot and nodule dry matter, more shoot N accumulation, and a higher relative efficiency than the strains recommended as inoculants. All strains grew in media of pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. The strains with the highest N2-fixing efficiencies in symbiosis with cowpea were also tolerant to the greatest number of antibiotics. However, these strains also had the lowest tolerance to high salt concentrations. All strains, with the exceptions of UFLA 03-84 and UFLA 03-37, tolerated temperatures of up to 40 ºC. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the eight strains isolated from soils of the same region were highly variable, as well as their symbiotic efficiencies, despite their common origin. This variability highlights the importance of including these tests in the selection of cowpea inoculant strains.

  18. Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligiane Aparecida Florentino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after inoculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as references, were from the Amazon and are currently recommended as cowpea inoculants. Genetic diversity was analyzed by amplifying repetitive DNA elements with the BOX primer, revealing high genetic diversity with each strain presenting a unique band profile. Leonard jar assays showed that the strains UFLA 03-30 and UFLA 03-38 had the highest N2-fixing potentials in symbiosis with cowpea. These strains had more shoot and nodule dry matter, more shoot N accumulation, and a higher relative efficiency than the strains recommended as inoculants. All strains grew in media of pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. The strains with the highest N2-fixing efficiencies in symbiosis with cowpea were also tolerant to the greatest number of antibiotics. However, these strains also had the lowest tolerance to high salt concentrations. All strains, with the exceptions of UFLA 03-84 and UFLA 03-37, tolerated temperatures of up to 40 ºC. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the eight strains isolated from soils of the same region were highly variable, as well as their symbiotic efficiencies, despite their common origin. This variability highlights the importance of including these tests in the selection of cowpea inoculant strains.Dez estirpes de rizóbios, sendo oito isoladas de amostras de solos coletadas próximo ao sistema radicular de Sesbania virgata, no Sul de Minas Gerais, e duas recomendadas como inoculante para o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. usadas como referências, foram avaliadas quanto a: diversidade genética, eficiência simbiótica em caupi, tolerância a altas temperaturas e concentrações salinas, valores extremos de pH e 15 tipos de antibióticos. A análise de diversidade genética utilizando a técnica do Rep-PCR, com o primer BOX, revelou alta diversidade, pois cada estirpe apresentou perfil único de DNA. O teste de eficiência simbiótica conduzido em vasos de Leonard indicou que as estirpes UFLA 03-30 e UFLA 03-38 demonstraram alto potencial em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi, proporcionando resultados de matéria seca da parte aérea e dos nódulos, eficiência relativa e acúmulo de N na parte aérea superiores aos das estirpes recomendadas como inoculantes. Todas as estirpes cresceram em meios com valores de pH variando de 4,0 a 9,0. Em relação à tolerância aos antibióticos, foi observado que as estirpes eficientes em fixar N2 em simbiose com o caupi foram as que apresentaram tolerância a um maior número desses compostos. No entanto, estas estirpes mostraram comportamentos semelhantes em relação a tolerância a salinidade, constituindo o grupo de maior sensibilidade. Com exceção das estirpes UFLA 03-84 e UFLA 03-37, as demais toleraram até 40 ºC. Embora as estirpes estudadas tenham sido isoladas de solos da mesma região, com exceção das recomendadas para inoculante oriundas da Amazônia, foi observado que elas apresentaram comportamentos distintos quando submetidas aos diferentes testes de diversidade genética, fenotípica e simbiótica, justificando a importância de incluir estes testes no processo de seleção de estirpes simbióticas em caupi.

  19. Efeito do inóculo, período de molhamento foliar e do estádio fenológico do feijão-caupi no desenvolvimento da mela / Effect of inoculum, leaf wetness period and cowpea phenological states on web blight development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kátia de Lima, Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mela, causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomose 1 IA) é uma das principais doenças do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na região norte. Não há estudos sobre o efeito de parâmetros epidemiológicos no desenvolvimento da doença em condições controlada [...] s. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir efeito do tipo e da concentração de inóculo de R. solani, do(s) estádio(s) do feijão-caupi suscetível(is) e do período de molhamento foliar na severidade da doença em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro experimento testou-se o efeito do tipo de inóculo [fragmentos de micélio (fgm) ou microescleródios]; no segundo experimento testou-se as concentrações de 0,10³,10(4),10(5) e 10(6) fgm.mL-1; no terceiro experimento as plantas foram submetidas aos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de câmara úmida após a inoculação e no quarto experimento inoculou-se plantas nos estádios de folhas primárias, folhas trifoliadas, de floração e de enchimento de vagens. Observou-se que, para desenvolvimento de alta severidade da mela do feijão-caupi as plantas devem ser inoculadas no estádio de flores abertas na concentração de 10(6) fgm.mL-1 e submetidas a seis horas de molhamento foliar. Estes parâmetros podem ser utilizados para definição de uma metodologia de inoculação de R. solani em feijão-caupi em condições controladas. Abstract in english Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA ) is one of the most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the north of Brazil. There is no information about the effect of epidemiological parameters on development of the disease under [...] controlled conditions. The aims of this work were to identify the type and inoculum concentration of R. solani, the susceptible phenological states and the leaf wetness periods for disease development in greenhouse conditions. In the first study we tested the use of mycelia fragments (mf) and sclerotia as source of inoculum; in the second experiment, the effect of different inoculum concentrations (0, 10³, 10(4),10(5) and 10(6) mf.mL-1); in the third experiment, the effect of leaf wetness period was tested by maintaining cowpea plants at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of leaf wetness after the inoculation, and in the last experiment the effect of phenological states was tested by inoculating cowpea plants at the stages of cotyledonal leaf, trifoliate leaves, flowering and pod filling. The highest severity values of disease were observed with the plants inoculated in the flowering phenological state with 10(6) mf.mL-1 and six hours of leaf wetness. These parameters can be utilized to establish an inoculation methodology for R. solani on cowpea plants under controlled conditions.

  20. Nodulação e eficiência da fixação do N2 em feijão-caupi por efeito da taxa do inóculo / Nodulation and nitrogen fixation efficiency of cowpea as affected by inoculum rate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fátima da, Silva; Carolina Etienne de Rosália e Silva, Santos; Clayton Albuquerque de, Sousa; Renata de Souza Leão, Araújo; Newton Pereira, Stamford; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

    1418-14-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) pode adquirir nitrogênio em quantidades adequadas para suprir suas necessidades, por meio do processo de fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN), quando associado com rizóbios específicos e eficientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da apli [...] cação de diferentes taxas de inóculo na nodulação e FBN na cultivar BRS Pujante de feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se vasos plásticos com 2 kg de solo, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco concentrações de células da estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. BR 3267 (células/semente), um tratamento sem inoculação e com adição de fertilizante nitrogenado (controle + N) e um controle sem inoculação e sem adição de fertilizante nitrogenado (controle). Foram avaliados o número e a massa seca de nódulos, a massa seca da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N na parte aérea. À medida que houve aumento da concentração de células na semente, elevaram-se os parâmetros da nodulação e fixação do N2. A aplicação da maior taxa de inóculo, que foi de 6,65 x 10(7) células da estirpe BR 3267/semente, promoveu aumento da massa seca da parte aérea por planta correspondente a 27 % da massa seca da parte aérea do tratamento controle e semelhante ao tratamento controle + N. A inoculação a partir da aplicação de 8 x 10(5) células da estirpe BR 3267/semente forneceu maior quantidade de N para as plantas, em relação à dos tratamentos controle e controle + N. A cultivar BRS Pujante foi beneficiada pela FBN quando inoculada com a estirpe BR 3267, proporcionalmente à taxa de inóculo. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) can obtain sufficient N for its own supply from the atmosphere, by the process of biological nitrogen fixation (FBN), when associated with specific and effective rhizobia bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rhizobia inocul [...] um rates on nodulation and biological N fixation by cowpea (cv. BRS Pujante). A complete randomized block design with seven treatments and four replicates was used. The trial was conducted in a greenhouse using 2 kg of soil as the growth medium. The treatments consisted of five rates of viable cells of Bradyrhizobium sp. (strain BR 3267), a control treatment (without rhizobia and no mineral N) and a treatment without inoculation but with mineral nitrogen (control + 20 kg ha-1 N). Nodulation (nodule number and biomass), shoot biomass and total N uptake were determined. Higher rhizobia inoculum rates (viable cells per seed) increased the nodulation and N fixation values. In the treatment with rhizobia (strain BR 3267) at the highest inoculum rate (6,65x10(7) viable cells per seed), the shoot dry matter was equivalent to the treatment with mineral N application (20 kg ha-1) and promoted an increase of up to 27% compared with the control treatment. The inoculum rate (strain BR 3267) up to 8x10(5) (viable cells seed-1) contributed to accumulate a higher amount of N in cowpea compared to the control and the control + N treatments. Cowpea (cv. BRS Pujante) was benefited by the BNF when inoculated with strain BR 3267, proportionally to the inoculum rate.

  1. Nodulação e produtividade de Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. por cepas de rizóbio em Bom Jesus, PI / Yield and nodulation of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. inoculated with rhizobia strains in Bom Jesus, PI

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elaine Martins, Costa; Rafaela Simão Abrahão, Nóbrega; Linnajara de Vasconcelos, Martins; Francisco Hélcio Canuto, Amaral; Fátima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta de Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. "BR 17 Gurguéia" à inoculação com duas cepas isoladas de solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação: UFLA 3-164 e UFLA 3-155 e três cepas INPA 03 11B (BR 3301); UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302) e BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462), autorizadas pelo MAPA c [...] omo inoculantes para a cultura do feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em campo na Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com sete tratamentos e com seis repetições, sendo cinco cepas citadas e dois controles não inoculados, um com N-mineral (70 kg ha-1 de N) e outra sem N mineral. Foram avaliados a nodulação (número e massa seca de nódulos), o crescimento (massa seca da parte aérea), o rendimento de grãos e o teor e acúmulo de nitrogênio na parte aérea e nos grãos, além da eficiência relativa. A inoculação das sementes com as cepas de bactérias diazotróficas simbióticas resultou em rendimentos de grãos equivalente à testemunha adubada com nitrogênio mineral. A cepa em fase de teste, UFLA 3-155 apresentou rendimento de grãos igual à cepa recomendada INPA 03 11B (BR 3301), podendo também ser testada em outras regiões brasileiras. Entre as cepas aprovadas pelo MAPA a INPA 03 11B (BR 3301) apresentou a maior produção de grãos. Abstract in english It evaluates the effect of inoculation with two rhizobia strains isolated from soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining: UFLA 3-164 and UFLA 3-155, compared to inoculation with strains INPA 03 11B (BR 3301); UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302) and BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462), officially authorized as inoculant to [...] cowpea by MAPA, in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp cv. "BR 17 Gurgueia". The experiment was carried out at the 'Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI,' in a randomized block design, white seven treatments and six replications. Treatments were the five strains and two controls: one receiving mineral N (70 kg ha-1 de N) and the other an absolute control. Nodule number and dry matter weight, shoot dry matter weight, grain yields and N-content both in shoots and grain were evaluated. The inoculation of the seeds with diazotrophic symbiotic bacterial strains resulted in the improvement of yields equivalent and/ or superior to the control receiving mineral nitrogen. The strain UFLA 3-155 has presented a grain yield similar to one of MAPA recommended strains, INPA 03 11B (BR 3301) and can also be tested in other brazilian regions. Among the strains recommended by MAPA, the INPA 03 11B (BR 3301) produced the higher yields.

  2. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial str...

  3. Especificidade hospedeira de variantes Bradyrhizobium spp em soja (cvs peking e clark), caupi e guandu / Host specificity of Bradyrhizobium spp mutants in soybean (cultivars peking and clark), cowpea and pigeon pea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabíola Gomes de, Carvalho; Pedro Alberto, Selbach; Apolino José Nogueira da, Silva.

    2701-27-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da cultura da soja evidenciou uma alta especificidade hospedeira, requerendo a pesquisa de novas estirpes que apresentassem capacidade de nodular a soja e bom potencial de competição com a população de rizóbios naturalizada nos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a especificidade [...] hospedeira de variantes isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp quanto à nodulação e eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico em soja (cvs peking e clark), caupi e guandu. O experimento foi realizado sob condições controladas em câmara de crescimento por meio de testes de variantes de B. japonicum e B. elkanii e suas respectivas estirpes originais quanto à habilidade de nodular soja, caupi e guandu. A colheita foi realizada aos 35 dias, sendo avaliada a nodulação (número, peso dos nódulos secos), produção de matéria seca na parte aérea, eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico. Os variantes e estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp nodularam Glycine max (cultivares BR-16, Clark e Peking), Vigna unguiculata e Cajanus cajan, contudo, apenas para Glycine max a interação rizóbio-leguminosa demonstrou eficiência simbiótica significativa. Abstract in english The expansion of the soybean crop has evidenced a high host specificity, indicating the requirement of new strains with capacity of nodulating soybean and competition capacity with the natural soil rhizobial population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the host specificity of mutants isolat [...] ed from Bradyrhizobium spp strains in relation to nodulation and relative N2 fixation effectiveness in soybean (cultivars Peking and Clark), cowpea and pigeon pea. The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, where B. japonicum and B. elkanii mutants and the respective original strains were tested for their nodulation ability on soybean, cowpea and pigeon pea. The crop was harvested 35 days after planting and the nodulation (number, dry nodule weight), shoot dry matter production and relative N2 fixation effectiveness were evaluated. The mutants and strains of Bradyrhizobium spp nodulate Glycine max (cultivars BR-16, Clark and Peking), Vigna unguiculata and Cajanus cajan, however the interaction rhizobia-leguminous demonstrated significant symbiotic effectiveness for Glycine max only.

  4. Especificidade hospedeira de variantes Bradyrhizobium spp em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu Host specificity of Bradyrhizobium spp mutants in soybean (cultivars peking and clark, cowpea and pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da cultura da soja evidenciou uma alta especificidade hospedeira, requerendo a pesquisa de novas estirpes que apresentassem capacidade de nodular a soja e bom potencial de competição com a população de rizóbios naturalizada nos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a especificidade hospedeira de variantes isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp quanto à nodulação e eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu. O experimento foi realizado sob condições controladas em câmara de crescimento por meio de testes de variantes de B. japonicum e B. elkanii e suas respectivas estirpes originais quanto à habilidade de nodular soja, caupi e guandu. A colheita foi realizada aos 35 dias, sendo avaliada a nodulação (número, peso dos nódulos secos, produção de matéria seca na parte aérea, eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico. Os variantes e estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp nodularam Glycine max (cultivares BR-16, Clark e Peking, Vigna unguiculata e Cajanus cajan, contudo, apenas para Glycine max a interação rizóbio-leguminosa demonstrou eficiência simbiótica significativa.The expansion of the soybean crop has evidenced a high host specificity, indicating the requirement of new strains with capacity of nodulating soybean and competition capacity with the natural soil rhizobial population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the host specificity of mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains in relation to nodulation and relative N2 fixation effectiveness in soybean (cultivars Peking and Clark, cowpea and pigeon pea. The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, where B. japonicum and B. elkanii mutants and the respective original strains were tested for their nodulation ability on soybean, cowpea and pigeon pea. The crop was harvested 35 days after planting and the nodulation (number, dry nodule weight, shoot dry matter production and relative N2 fixation effectiveness were evaluated. The mutants and strains of Bradyrhizobium spp nodulate Glycine max (cultivars BR-16, Clark and Peking, Vigna unguiculata and Cajanus cajan, however the interaction rhizobia-leguminous demonstrated significant symbiotic effectiveness for Glycine max only.

  5. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  6. Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds / Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariângela S. S., Diz; André O., Carvalho; Valdirene M., Gomes.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos b [...] ásicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa. Abstract in english Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role [...] in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

  7. Isolation and partial purification of beta-galactosidases from cotyledons of two cowpea cultivars Isolamento e purificação parcial de beta-galactosidases de cotilédones de dois cultivares de feijão-de-corda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM ENÉAS-FILHO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Three isoforms of beta-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from the cotyledons of quiescent seeds of Vita 3 and Vita 5 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] cultivars differing in water and salt stress tolerance. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion exchange chromatography through DEAE-sephadex and affinity chromatography through Lactosyl-sepharose columns. The three isoforms isolated from the two cultivars showed the same chromatographic patterns, same optimum of temperature for enzyme activity assay (60ºC, identical thermal stability up to 50°C, and similar pH optima (3-4. However, they differed from each other in sensitivity towards metal ions and certain chemical agents presents in the assay medium. The results have shown that the observed differences in beta-galactosidases from the cotyledons of quiescent seeds were not sufficient to relate them to stress tolerance.Três isoformas da enzima beta-galactosidase foram isoladas e purificadas parcialmente a partir de cotilédones de sementes quiescentes dos cultivares Vita 3 e Vita 5 de feijão-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], os quais diferem em tolerância aos estresses hídrico e salino. O processo de purificação consistiu de fracionamento com sulfato de amônio, precipitação ácida, seguida pela associação de cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-Sephadex com cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de Lactosyl-Sepharose. As três isoformas isoladas dos dois cultivares mostraram os mesmos padrões cromatográficos, mesma temperatura ótima de ensaio para atividade enzimática (60ºC, idêntica estabilidade térmica até 50ºC e apresentaram ótimos de pH semelhantes (3-4. Entretanto, diferiram umas das outras em suas sensibilidades a íons metálicos e a certos agentes químicos presentes no meio de reação. Os resultados mostraram que as diferenças observadas nas beta-galactosidases de cotilédones de sementes quiescentes foram insuficientes para correlacioná-las com a tolerância ao estresse.

  8. Resposta do feijão-caupi as lâminas de irrigação e as doses de fósforo no cerrado de Roraima / Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela Almeida, Oliveira; Wellington Farias, Araújo; Pablo Lima Souza, Cruz; Washington Luis Manduca da, Silva; Gilvan Barbosa, Ferreira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do feijão-caupi (Vigna ungüiculata (L.) Walp.) cv. BRS Novaera sob quatro lâminas de água (273; 257; 241 e 187 mm) e doses de fósforo (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados na forma de superfosfato triplo), em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento [...] experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas lâminas de água e as sub parcelas pelas doses de fósforo, resultando em 16 tratamentos. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema convencional de aspersão, montado no campo segundo o sistema de "aspersão em linha". As massas seca da parte aérea e de 100 grãos foram influenciadas significativamente pela interação entre lâminas de água e doses de fósforo, enquanto o número de grãos por vagem e o comprimento da vagem foram influenciados somente pelas doses de fósforo. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi de 89,45 kg de P2O5, com produtividade de 1.306 kg ha-1. Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation depth and phosphate fertilizer (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5) on yield and production components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) cv. Novaera at the Savanna of Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was arranged in a completely [...] randomized block in split-plot and four replications. Irrigation depths were applied through a sprinkler line source system. The principal treatments constituted on the depths of irrigation and the secondary treatments by the phosphate fertilizer. Significant effects (p

  9. Isolation and partial purification of beta-galactosidases from cotyledons of two cowpea cultivars / Isolamento e purificação parcial de beta-galactosidases de cotilédones de dois cultivares de feijão-de-corda

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOAQUIM, ENÉAS-FILHO; GISLAINY KARLA DA COSTA, BARBOSA; FABRÍCIO BONFIM, SUDÉRIO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO, PRISCO; ENÉAS, GOMES-FILHO.

    Full Text Available Três isoformas da enzima beta-galactosidase foram isoladas e purificadas parcialmente a partir de cotilédones de sementes quiescentes dos cultivares Vita 3 e Vita 5 de feijão-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], os quais diferem em tolerância aos estresses hídrico e salino. O processo de purific [...] ação consistiu de fracionamento com sulfato de amônio, precipitação ácida, seguida pela associação de cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-Sephadex com cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de Lactosyl-Sepharose. As três isoformas isoladas dos dois cultivares mostraram os mesmos padrões cromatográficos, mesma temperatura ótima de ensaio para atividade enzimática (60ºC), idêntica estabilidade térmica até 50ºC e apresentaram ótimos de pH semelhantes (3-4). Entretanto, diferiram umas das outras em suas sensibilidades a íons metálicos e a certos agentes químicos presentes no meio de reação. Os resultados mostraram que as diferenças observadas nas beta-galactosidases de cotilédones de sementes quiescentes foram insuficientes para correlacioná-las com a tolerância ao estresse. Abstract in english Three isoforms of beta-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from the cotyledons of quiescent seeds of Vita 3 and Vita 5 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivars differing in water and salt stress tolerance. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation, [...] acid precipitation, ion exchange chromatography through DEAE-sephadex and affinity chromatography through Lactosyl-sepharose columns. The three isoforms isolated from the two cultivars showed the same chromatographic patterns, same optimum of temperature for enzyme activity assay (60ºC), identical thermal stability up to 50°C, and similar pH optima (3-4). However, they differed from each other in sensitivity towards metal ions and certain chemical agents presents in the assay medium. The results have shown that the observed differences in beta-galactosidases from the cotyledons of quiescent seeds were not sufficient to relate them to stress tolerance.

  10. Preferência de Aphis craccivora por genótipos de feijão-caupi de porte prostrado, em Aquidauana, MS / Preference of Aphis craccivora for prostrate cowpea genotypes, in Aquidauana, MS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Roberto, Rodrigues; Osni de, Oliveira Junior; Gessi, Ceccon; Agenor Martinho, Correa; Alfredo Raúl, Abot.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) é uma importante fonte de alimento. Na região centrooeste do Brasil, poucos são os estudos desenvolvidos com essa cultura. Assim, foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condições de campo, em Aquidauana, MS, visando encontrar genótipos menos preferidos pel [...] o pulgão preto (Aphis craccivora) para infestação e colonização. Em abril e outubro de 2009, foram semeados 20 genótipos de porte prostrado e após a germinação verificouse o número de fêmeas e colônias de pulgão presentes e aos 30 dias avaliouse a porcentagem de plantas infestadas. No experimento conduzido em abril e maio, verificouse que todos os genótipos de feijãocaupi foram colonizados por A. craccivora. Porém nos genótipos MNC99537F142 e BRS Paraguassu foram observadas as menores percentagens de colônias. Em maio encontrouse as menores percentagens nos genótipos MNC99537F142, MNC01631F205 e BRS Paraguassu, com 6,3, 5,7 e 6,3% de plantas infestadas, respectivamente. Dentre os genótipos estudados, concluise que MNC99537F142, MNC01631F205 e BRS Paraguassu, podem ser melhores estudados, visando à seleção de materiais resistentes ao pulgão preto. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food source. However, there is a lack of studies on this crop in Midwestern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in field conditions in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, aiming to find genotypes less preferred by black aphid (Aphis craccivora (Koch.) [...] ). In April and October 2009, 20 prostrate genotypes were sown, and after germination the number of females and colonies were counted. At day 30, the percentage of infested plants was evaluated. In the experiment carried out in April and May, all genotypes were colonized by A. craccivora. However, the genotypes MNC99537F142 and BRS Paraguassu showed the smallest numbers of colonies. In May, the lowest percentages were found in the genotypes MNC99537F142, MNC01631F205 and BRS Paraguassu, with 6.3, 5.7 and 6.3 % of infested plants, respectively. Among the studied genotypes, MNC99537F142, MNC01631F205 and BRS Paraguassu should be further investigated for the selection of materials resistant to black aphids.

  11. Potencial genético de progênies de feijão-caupi segregantes quanto ao tipo da inflorescência Genetic potential of segregating cowpea progenies regarding inflorescence type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ribeiro Barros

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial genético produtivo de progênies de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata segregantes quanto ao tipo da inflorescência. Foram avaliadas 68 progênies F4 obtidas dos retrocruzamentos: (TV x 5058-09C x Cacheado-roxo x TV x 5058-09C e (AU94-MOB-816 x Cacheado-roxo x AU94-MOB-816, com os genitores. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se avaliado 17 progênies, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas quanto à inflorescência: simples e composta. A análise estatística foi realizada por modelos mistos via procedimento REML/BLUP. As estimativas das variâncias genéticas foram significativas para todos os caracteres estudados. Os caracteres comprimento do pedúnculo, número médio de vagens por pedúnculo e floração inicial apresentaram alta variabilidade e expressão do componente genético para a inflorescência composta. As progênies de inflorescência simples apresentam potencial genético produtivo similar às progênies de inflorescência composta. As progênies resultantes do retrocruzamento (AU94-MOB-816 x Cacheado-roxo x AU94-MOB-816 são promissoras como estratégia para aumentar os níveis atuais de produtividade do feijão-caupi.The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic yield potential of segregating cowpea progenies regarding inflorescence type. Sixty-eight F4 progenies obtained from the backcrosses (TV x 5058-09C x Curly-purple x TV x 5058-09C, and (AU94-MOB-816 x Curly-purple x AU94-MOB-816, with parents, were evaluated. Two experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with 17 progenies and four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement regarding inflorescence: simple and composite. The statistical analysis was carried out by mixed models via REML/BLUP procedure. The estimates of genetic variance were significant for all evaluated traits. The traits peduncle length, average number of pods per peduncle, and initial flowering showed high variability and expression of the composite inflorescence genetic component. Progenies with simple inflorescence show similar genetic yield potential to the progenies with composite inflorescence. The progenies resulting from the backcrosses (AU94-MOB-816 x Curly-purple x AU94-MOB-816 are promising as a strategy to increase the current levels of grain yield in cowpea.

  12. Eficiência da farinha desengordurada de gergelim como complemento protéico da farinha extrudada de caupi1 Efficiency of defatted sesame flour as a proteic supplement of extruded cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Arraes Maia

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi promover uma avaliação nutricional da mistura protéica desengordurada, obtida do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L., com a farinha extrudada do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, utilizando-se métodos físicos, bioquímicos, nutricionais e sensoriais. Usando-se semente integral do gergelim, com 54,08% de óleo e 21,83% de proteína, obteve-se a semente descascada com baixa concentração de oxalatos, que foi usada para a produção de farinha desengordurada de gergelim (FDG contendo 2,81% de óleo e 59,16% de proteína. A principal característica desta farinha foi sua alta concentração de aminoácidos sulfurados (30,88 mg/g proteína. Esta FDG foi usada como complemento da proteína da farinha do caupi obtida pelo processo de cozimento por extrusão (FEC, o que ocasionou a inativação de grande parte dos inibidores de tripsina. A proteína da farinha FEC mostrou uma concentração de 24,29%, um baixo conteúdo de aminoácidos sulfurados (17,22 mg/g proteína e alto teor de lisina (58,47 mg/g proteína. O alimento formulado foi considerado de boa qualidade nutricional.The purpuse of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and organoleptic efficiency of the defatted proteic mixture obtained from gergelim, with extruded flour from cowpea beans, using physical, biochemical, nutritional and sensory methods. Using integral sesame seed, with 54.08% of oil and 21.83% of protein, the dehusked seed with low concentration of oxalates, that was used in the production of defatted sesame flour (FDG with 2.81% of oil and 59.16% of protein was obtained. The main characteristic of the flour was the high concentration of sulphur amino acids (30.88 mg/g protein. The FDG was used as a complement of the protein of the cowpea flour obtained through a extrusion cooking process (FEC which inactivated the major part of the trypsin inhibitors. The protein of the flour (FEC presented a concentration of 24.29%, a low content of sulfur amino acids (17.22 mg/g protein and a high lysin content (58.47 mg/g protein. The formulated food was considered of good nutritional quality.

  13. Eficiência da farinha desengordurada de gergelim como complemento protéico da farinha extrudada de caupi1 / Efficiency of defatted sesame flour as a proteic supplement of extruded cowpea flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geraldo Arraes, Maia; Yanina Madalena de Arruda, Calvete; Francisco José Siqueira, Telles; José Carlos Sabino, Monteiro; Miranice Gonzaga, Sales.

    1295-13-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi promover uma avaliação nutricional da mistura protéica desengordurada, obtida do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L.), com a farinha extrudada do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), utilizando-se métodos físicos, bioquímicos, nutricionais e sensoriais. Usando-se semente integra [...] l do gergelim, com 54,08% de óleo e 21,83% de proteína, obteve-se a semente descascada com baixa concentração de oxalatos, que foi usada para a produção de farinha desengordurada de gergelim (FDG) contendo 2,81% de óleo e 59,16% de proteína. A principal característica desta farinha foi sua alta concentração de aminoácidos sulfurados (30,88 mg/g proteína). Esta FDG foi usada como complemento da proteína da farinha do caupi obtida pelo processo de cozimento por extrusão (FEC), o que ocasionou a inativação de grande parte dos inibidores de tripsina. A proteína da farinha FEC mostrou uma concentração de 24,29%, um baixo conteúdo de aminoácidos sulfurados (17,22 mg/g proteína) e alto teor de lisina (58,47 mg/g proteína). O alimento formulado foi considerado de boa qualidade nutricional. Abstract in english The purpuse of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and organoleptic efficiency of the defatted proteic mixture obtained from gergelim, with extruded flour from cowpea beans, using physical, biochemical, nutritional and sensory methods. Using integral sesame seed, with 54.08% of oil and 21.83% [...] of protein, the dehusked seed with low concentration of oxalates, that was used in the production of defatted sesame flour (FDG) with 2.81% of oil and 59.16% of protein was obtained. The main characteristic of the flour was the high concentration of sulphur amino acids (30.88 mg/g protein). The FDG was used as a complement of the protein of the cowpea flour obtained through a extrusion cooking process (FEC) which inactivated the major part of the trypsin inhibitors. The protein of the flour (FEC) presented a concentration of 24.29%, a low content of sulfur amino acids (17.22 mg/g protein) and a high lysin content (58.47 mg/g protein). The formulated food was considered of good nutritional quality.

  14. Potencial genético de progênies de feijão-caupi segregantes quanto ao tipo da inflorescência / Genetic potential of segregating cowpea progenies regarding inflorescence type

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Ribeiro, Barros; Clodoaldo José da, Anunciação Filho; Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha; José Airton Rodrigues, Nunes; Kaesel Jackson Damasceno e, Silva; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial genético produtivo de progênies de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) segregantes quanto ao tipo da inflorescência. Foram avaliadas 68 progênies F4 obtidas dos retrocruzamentos: (TV x 5058-09C x Cacheado-roxo) x TV x 5058-09C e (AU94-MOB-816 x Cacheado [...] -roxo) x AU94-MOB-816, com os genitores. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se avaliado 17 progênies, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas quanto à inflorescência: simples e composta. A análise estatística foi realizada por modelos mistos via procedimento REML/BLUP. As estimativas das variâncias genéticas foram significativas para todos os caracteres estudados. Os caracteres comprimento do pedúnculo, número médio de vagens por pedúnculo e floração inicial apresentaram alta variabilidade e expressão do componente genético para a inflorescência composta. As progênies de inflorescência simples apresentam potencial genético produtivo similar às progênies de inflorescência composta. As progênies resultantes do retrocruzamento (AU94-MOB-816 x Cacheado-roxo) x AU94-MOB-816 são promissoras como estratégia para aumentar os níveis atuais de produtividade do feijão-caupi. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic yield potential of segregating cowpea progenies regarding inflorescence type. Sixty-eight F4 progenies obtained from the backcrosses (TV x 5058-09C x Curly-purple) x TV x 5058-09C, and (AU94-MOB-816 x Curly-purple) x AU94-MOB-816, with parents, [...] were evaluated. Two experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with 17 progenies and four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement regarding inflorescence: simple and composite. The statistical analysis was carried out by mixed models via REML/BLUP procedure. The estimates of genetic variance were significant for all evaluated traits. The traits peduncle length, average number of pods per peduncle, and initial flowering showed high variability and expression of the composite inflorescence genetic component. Progenies with simple inflorescence show similar genetic yield potential to the progenies with composite inflorescence. The progenies resulting from the backcrosses (AU94-MOB-816 x Curly-purple) x AU94-MOB-816 are promising as a strategy to increase the current levels of grain yield in cowpea.

  15. Availability of P to maize from 32P labelled cowpea plant residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of this investigation inferred that green manuring of cowpea plant residue could also serve as a source of P and thus its contribution should be taken into account during P management practices of maize in the irrigated area

  16. Are investments in an informal seed system for cowpea a worthwhile endeavour?

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Kamara, A.; Abdoulaye, T.; Hearne, S.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    High seed quality is a critical component for realising yield potential. For smallholder cowpea farmers in northern Nigeria the informal seed system is a major supplier of genetically high-quality seed, but the physiological quality of farmers’ produced seed remains unknown. The project “Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State” (PROSAB) trained and supported farmers in seed production in Borno State, Nigeria. We analysed the quality of farmers’ produced cowpea seed based on s...

  17. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  18. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

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    Nimoh, F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

  19. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi / Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Salgado; N. B., Guerra; S. A. C., Andrade; A.V.S., Livera.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio po [...] r Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas), amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria) e tipificação (difração de raio-X). Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR) tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA. Abstract in english This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, l [...] ipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates by difference, total starch, reductor glícids and non reductor by oxid-reduction in Fehling solution. The isolated starch of the distinct samples was analyzed as to the resistant starch (based in the use of amylolytic enzymes), amylose and amylopectin (by spectrophotometry) and typification (X-ray diffraction). The results obtained showed that the fractions of carbohydrates differed according to the stage of maturation of the grains. The starch of the unripe bean showed a higher content of resistant starch (RS) type 2 in relation to total starch and low content of amylose. Maturation influenced the crystallinity patterns, type C was found for the unripe bean and type A for the ripe bean. The stage of the maturation influenced the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the constituents of the beans. The morphologic aspect of the granules of starch was not influenced by the stage of maturation of the grains. The unripe bean showed a percentage of soluble alimentary fiber compatible with the FDA standards.

  20. Controle de plantas daninhas em feijão-de-corda em sistema de semeadura direta / Weed control in cowpea under no-nill system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.B.F., Silva; J.B., Pitombeira; R.P., Nunes; J.L.N., Pinho; A.T., Cavalcante Júnior.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas glyphosate (1.800 g ha-1) e paraquat (800 g ha-1), aplicados antes da semeadura como dessecantes, e imazamox (0, 21, 42 e 63 g ha-1) ou fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (0, 40, 80 e 120 g ha-1), aplicados em condições de pós-emergência, no controle d [...] as plantas daninhas, bem como os efeitos tóxicos ao feijão-decorda (Vigna unguiculata cv. Epace 10), em sistema de semeadura direta com irrigação. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos arranjados em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos com glyphosate associado a imazamox ou fenoxaprop-p-ethyl resultaram em menor infestação das plantas daninhas, avaliadas através da fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior produção de grãos e maior número de vagens por planta de feijão-de-corda, quando comparado com os tratamentos com paraquat associado aos herbicidas pós-emergentes. Os herbicidas imazamox e fenoxaprop-p-ethyl não causaram sintomas visuais de toxicidade ao feijão-de-corda. A dose de 80 g ha-1 de fenoxaprop-p-ethyl associada com o glyphosate (1.800 g ha-1) foi a mais eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas, na avaliação realizada 45 dias após a aplicação (DAA) do fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. Este herbicida não controlou o capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus) e o capim-colchão (Digitaria horizontalis) nas avaliações realizadas aos 15 e 28 DAA. O imazamox não foi eficaz no controle das espécies erva-de-santa-luzia (Chamaesyce hirta) e leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla). Abstract in english This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the herbicides glyphosate (1.800 g ha-1) and paraquat (800 g ha-1), applied as desiccants before sowing and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (0, 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1) and imazamox (0, 21, 42 and 63 g ha-1), applied in post-emergence conditions, on the [...] weed control and the phytotoxicity to cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata cv. Epace 10), under a no-till system, with furrow irrigation. A randomized complete block design with a split-split-plot design and four replications was used. The treatments with glyphosate associated with imazamox or fenoxaprop-p-ethyl was more efficient in controlling weed, showing reduced shoot weed dry biomass production, when compared to paraquat combined with the post emergence herbicides. The herbicides fenoxaprop-p-ethyl and imazamox did not cause visual phytotoxicity symptom to the cowpea plants. The best post-emergence weed control was provided by fenoxaprop-p-ethyl at the rate of 80 g ha-1, associated to glyphosate (1.800 g ha-1). The fenoxaprop-p-ethyl was effective in controlling the grass weeds, but Cenchrus echinatus and Digitaria horizontalis. Imazamox was not effective in controlling the broadleaf weeds Chamaesyce hirta and Euphorbia heterophylla at the studied rates.

  1. Deficiência nutricional em plântulas de feijão-de-corda decorrente da omissão de macro e micronutrientes Nutritional deficiency in cowpea seedlings due to omission of macro and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba é uma importante cultura nos âmbitos econômico e social do Nordeste do Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Ceará, que é considerado o maior produtor desta região. Com a finalidade de caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências nutricionais em plântulas de feijão-de-corda, as sementes foram semeadas em areia exaustivamente lavada e, após um período de cinco dias, as plântulas foram transferidas para uma solução nutritiva completa para o período de aclimatação. Após três dias, as plântulas foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos. O experimento teve os seguintes tratamentos: solução nutritiva completa (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de cada elemento -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B; -Fe, bem como ausência de aeração. Os sintomas das deficiências foram observados, caracterizados e registrados por fotografias. No final do experimento, as medidas de comprimento e os teores de matérias fresca e seca das raízes e parte aérea das plântulas foram analisados. Todos os macros e micronutrientes causaram sintomas de deficiência e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os sintomas foram desenvolvidos primeiramente em plântulas com carência em Fe, Ca e N. A matéria seca total foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com ausência de nutrientes. A ausência de Ca, N e Fe foi responsável por uma maior redução da biomassa. A ordem decrescente de redução foi a seguinte: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeração > B > Completo.The Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba is an important crop in the economic and social contexts in the Northeast of Brazil, especially in the state of Ceará, which is considered the largest producer of this region. With the purpose of characterizing the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in Cowpea seedlings, the seeds were sowed in washed sand and, after a period of five days, the seedlings were transferred for a complete nutrient solution for the period of acclimatization. After three days, the seedlings were submitted to the different treatments. The experiment had the following treatments: complete nutrient solution (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S and micronutrients and individual omission of each element -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B, -Fe and -aeration. The symptoms of the deficiencies were observed, characterized and registered by pictures. In the end of the experiment, the length measures and the fresh and dry matters of the root and shoot of the seedlings were analyzed. All macro and micronutrients caused deficiency symptoms and they affected the development of the seedlings. The symptoms were developed firstly in seedlings with failure in Fe, Ca and N. The total dry matter was reduced in all the treatments with absence of nutrients, but the absence of Ca, N and Fe were responsible for the larger reduction of biomass. The decreasing order of reduction was: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeration > B > Complete.

  2. Deficiência nutricional em plântulas de feijão-de-corda decorrente da omissão de macro e micronutrientes / Nutritional deficiency in cowpea seedlings due to omission of macro and micronutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael de Souza, Miranda; Fabrício Bonfim, Sudério; Adervan Fernandes, Sousa; Enéas, Gomes Filho.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] cv. Pitiúba é uma importante cultura nos âmbitos econômico e social do Nordeste do Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Ceará, que é considerado o maior produtor desta região. Com a finalidade de caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências nutricionais em p [...] lântulas de feijão-de-corda, as sementes foram semeadas em areia exaustivamente lavada e, após um período de cinco dias, as plântulas foram transferidas para uma solução nutritiva completa para o período de aclimatação. Após três dias, as plântulas foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos. O experimento teve os seguintes tratamentos: solução nutritiva completa (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S e micronutrientes) e omissão individual de cada elemento -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B; -Fe, bem como ausência de aeração. Os sintomas das deficiências foram observados, caracterizados e registrados por fotografias. No final do experimento, as medidas de comprimento e os teores de matérias fresca e seca das raízes e parte aérea das plântulas foram analisados. Todos os macros e micronutrientes causaram sintomas de deficiência e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os sintomas foram desenvolvidos primeiramente em plântulas com carência em Fe, Ca e N. A matéria seca total foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com ausência de nutrientes. A ausência de Ca, N e Fe foi responsável por uma maior redução da biomassa. A ordem decrescente de redução foi a seguinte: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeração > B > Completo. Abstract in english The Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] cv. Pitiúba is an important crop in the economic and social contexts in the Northeast of Brazil, especially in the state of Ceará, which is considered the largest producer of this region. With the purpose of characterizing the symptoms of nutritional deficien [...] cies in Cowpea seedlings, the seeds were sowed in washed sand and, after a period of five days, the seedlings were transferred for a complete nutrient solution for the period of acclimatization. After three days, the seedlings were submitted to the different treatments. The experiment had the following treatments: complete nutrient solution (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S and micronutrients) and individual omission of each element -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B, -Fe and -aeration. The symptoms of the deficiencies were observed, characterized and registered by pictures. In the end of the experiment, the length measures and the fresh and dry matters of the root and shoot of the seedlings were analyzed. All macro and micronutrients caused deficiency symptoms and they affected the development of the seedlings. The symptoms were developed firstly in seedlings with failure in Fe, Ca and N. The total dry matter was reduced in all the treatments with absence of nutrients, but the absence of Ca, N and Fe were responsible for the larger reduction of biomass. The decreasing order of reduction was: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeration > B > Complete.

  3. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salgado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio por Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas, amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria e tipificação (difração de raio-X. Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA.This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, lipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates by difference, total starch, reductor glícids and non reductor by oxid-reduction in Fehling solution. The isolated starch of the distinct samples was analyzed as to the resistant starch (based in the use of amylolytic enzymes, amylose and amylopectin (by spectrophotometry and typification (X-ray diffraction. The results obtained showed that the fractions of carbohydrates differed according to the stage of maturation of the grains. The starch of the unripe bean showed a higher content of resistant starch (RS type 2 in relation to total starch and low content of amylose. Maturation influenced the crystallinity patterns, type C was found for the unripe bean and type A for the ripe bean. The stage of the maturation influenced the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the constituents of the beans. The morphologic aspect of the granules of starch was not influenced by the stage of maturation of the grains. The unripe bean showed a percentage of soluble alimentary fiber compatible with the FDA standards.

  4. Cross species amplification of Adzuki Bean derived microsatellite markers in Asian Vigna species

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    M. Srimathy and P. Jayamani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vigna is one of the important genus of grain legumes which forms the source of dietary protein and seven species of thisgenus, are domesticated as food crops in Asia. In recent years, molecular marker technology has greatly accelerated breedingprograms for the improvement of various crops. Among the different DNA markers, microsatellite or simple sequencerepeats (SSRs are the markers of choice for various genetic studies due to their co-dominant nature, loci specificity and highreproducibility. To date, only few reports are available on isolation and development of microsatellite markers in some of theVigna species. Therefore, the available SSR markers from other Vigna species should be validated for their transferabilityand utility in those species in which they are unavailable. In the present study, a set of 40 microsatellite primers pairs derivedfrom adzuki bean (Vigna angularis were used to assess the transferability and tested for their ability to amplifymicrosatellite loci in different species of Asian Vigna. The materials for this study included eleven different genotypesbelonging to seven species of Asian Vigna such as V. mungo var silvestris, V. mungo, V.umbellata, V. trilobata, V.aconitifolia, V. radiata var sublobata and V. radiata. All the 40 SSR primer pairs showed cross species amplification andproduced a total of 158 alleles in the genotypes studied. The percentage of amplification varied for each species whichranged from 37.5% (V.trilobata-2 to 100% (V. mungo var silvestris and V.mungo, while others showed more than 50%amplification. Apart from amplification, sufficient levels of polymorphism were also observed between cultivated blackgramand greengram and their progenitors V. mungo var silvestris and V. radiata var sublobata respectively. These findingssuggest that microsatellite markers from adzuki bean could be used in genomic studies of other Vigna species and thus aid intheir improvement.

  5. Auxinas endógenas, aia-oxidasa y enraizamiento en Vigna radiata L. Wilczek inducido por auxina exógena libre y conjugada

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    C\\u00E9sar M. Flores Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas con fenotipos de interés tiene una etapa crítica en el enraizamiento adventicio, que mejora con la aplicación de auxina. La disponibilidad de auxina libre juega un papel importante en el desarrollo vegetal; la conjugación-desconjugación y la degradación oxidativa influyen en ella. No se encontraron antecedentes que evaluaran si la aplicación de un conjugado artificial de auxinas promueve cambios en la auxina endógena en el curso del enraizamiento. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto del conjugado indol-3-acetil-p-nitrofenil éster (IAP, con el de las auxinas libres, ácido indol-3-acético (AIA y ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB, en los niveles endógenos de AIA y AIB en tres secciones de plántulas, en la actividad AIA-oxidasa (AIA-ox, y en el enraizamiento adventicio durante 6 d, en Vigna radiata L. Wilczek. El nivel de AIA endógeno se incrementó significativamente en el día tres en todos los tratamientos, especialmente en la sección apical de la plántula, con excepción del tratamiento con IAP en el que sólo aumentó ligeramente. La actividad de AIA-ox se incrementó en el día tres y gradualmente disminuyó hacia el sexto día. El IAP provocó el mayor enraizamiento y el menor correspondió al AIA.

  6. Estabilidade da resistência de genótipos de caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) em gerações sucessivas / Stability of the resistance of cowpea genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) in successive generations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de, Lima; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Reginaldo, Barros; Jorge Braz, Torres; Manoel Eneas de Carvalho, Gonçalves.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) é a principal praga do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.) armazenado em condições tropicais e subtropicais. Avaliaram-se a estabilidade da resistência e a capacidade de adaptação de C. maculatus a genótipos de caupi, durante seis gerações. Utilizou- [...] se o teste sem chance de escolha, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com dez tratamentos, seis gerações do inseto e cinco repetições. Cada repetição constou de 30 grãos infestados com dois casais da praga. O número de ovos/fêmea diferiu entre os genótipos de caupi apenas na sexta geração, e entre as gerações em BR14-Mulato, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E e TE87-98-8G. A viabilidade de ovos diferiu entre as gerações em BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato, IT89KD-260 e IT89KD-245, e entre os genótipos nas terceira, quinta e sexta gerações. Os genótipos diferiram entre e dentro das gerações, em relação à duração e a viabilidade da fase imatura. Observou-se redução na emergência, especialmente em IT89KD-245, IT89KD-260, CNC 0434, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-10F e BR14-Mulato, provavelmente devido a substâncias químicas presentes nos grãos que afetaram a sobrevivência dos insetos, ao longo das gerações. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e IT89KD-260 comportaram-se como moderadamente resistentes. Não se observou adaptação de C. maculatus aos genótipos, mantendo-se a resistência estável através das gerações. Abstract in english Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is the most important pest of stored cowpea in tropical and subtropical conditions. This paper evaluates the stability of the resistance and the capacity of adaptation of C. maculatus to cowpea genotypes for six generations. A test without cho [...] ice chance was used, in a factorial, completely randomized design, with ten treatments (n=5) in six generations of the insect. Each replication was represented by 30 grains infested by two pairs of the pest. The number of eggs/female only differed between the cowpea genotypes in the sixth generation, and between generations in BR14-Mulato, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E and TE87-98-8G. Viability of eggs differed between generations for BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato, IT89KD-260 and IT89KD-245, and between the genotypes in the third, fifth and sixth generations. The genotypes differed between and within generations in regard to the duration and viability of the immature phase. A reduction in the emergency, especially on IT89KD-245, IT89KD-260, CNC 0434, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-10F and BR14-Mulato, probably due to chemical substances present in the grains that affected the survival of the insects, was observed throughout generations. Genotypes IT89KD-245 and IT89KD-260 standed as moderately resistant. The adaptation of C. maculatus to the genotypes was not observed, which remained resistance throughout generations.

  7. Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother prll wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Identificação de Genótipos de Feijão-caupi Tolerantes a Acidez em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Estado de Roraima = Identification of cowpea genotypes sensitivity to acidicy conditions in an Oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil.

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    Sandra Cátia Pereira Uchôa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp., tolerantes à acidez. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação localizada no Campus do Cauamé, da Universidade Federal de Roraima, utilizando um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de Boa Vista-RR. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental de Blocos Inteiramente Casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 10 com três repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram de duas formas de localização do calcário (localizada e não-localizada, 5 profundidades (0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15-20; 20-25 cm e 10 genótipos de feijão-caupi(IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM; Apiaú; Hikari Graúdo; Pretinho Precoce 1; IT85D-3428-4-3-HP; USA; UFRR Grão Verde; BRS-Mazagão; Canapum e Sempre Verde. A unidade experimental foi constituída por 2dm3 de solo, dispostos em tubo de PVC com 25cm de altura,10cm de diâmetro e duas plantas de feijão. Os tubos foram confeccionados por meio da junção de 5 anéis com 5 cm cada, sendo que no anel inferior foi colocada uma placa delgada de isopor para permitir a acomodação do solo. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo determinada à produção de matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea. Os genótipos IT85D-3428-4-3-HP e UFRRGRÃO VERDE foram classificados como sendo de baixa tolerância, os genótipos USA, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM e Sempre Verde, medianamente tolerantes e os genótipos Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1 e Canapum, tolerantes à acidez.= This research was carried out objecting to identify the sensibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp genotypes to acidity conditions. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse located at Campus of Cauamé (Universidade Federal de Roraima in an oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil. The experimental design adopted was a completely andomized blocks in a factorial scheme 2 x 5 x 10 with three replicates. The terms of this factorial refers to two forms of lime applying (localized and uniform, five depths of soil (0-5; 5-10; 10-15;15-20; 20-25 cm, and ten genotypes of cowpea (IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM, Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1, IT85D-3428-4-3-HP, USA, UFRR Grão Verde, BRS-Mazagão, Canapum, and Sempre Verde. The experimental unity consisted of 2 dm3 of soil inside PVC tube 25 cm in height and diameter of 10 cm with two cowpea plants. Forty days after the germination, the plants were collected and the dry matter yield was determined. The genotypes IT85D-3428-4-3-HP and UFRR Grão Verde showed high sensibility to acidity, the genotypes USA, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM, and Sempre Verde presented medium sensibility to acidity and the genotypes Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1, and Canapum presented sensibility to acidity.

  9. Preferência do pulgão-preto e da cigarrinha-verde em diferentes genótipos de feijão-caupi em Roraima = Preference of the black aphid and green leafhopper in different genotypes of cowpea in Roraima, Brazil

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    Hugo Falkyner da Silva Bandeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de insetos praga está entre os fatores que mais afetam a produtividade do feijão-caupi. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a resistência de nove genótipos de feijão-caupi ao ataque do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, e da cigarrinha-verde, (Empoasca sp., e a flutuação populacional de A. craccivora sobre a cultura, em condições de campo. Foram selecionados nove genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, a saber: BR-17 Gurgueia, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé, Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, Cara-Preta e Sempre Verde. O delineamento experimental foi realizado em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. Cada variedade foi plantada em quatro linhas paralelas, considerando as duas fileiras centrais como área útil. A contagem dos pulgões foi feita diretamente na última folha trifoliolada completamente aberta, enquanto que a das cigarrinhas foi realizada pelo método da batida de plantas em bandeja com água. Nos genótipos BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e Pretinho Precoce 1 foram observados os menores índices de infestação por A. craccivora, apresentando, portanto, resistência do tipo não preferência em relação aos demais avaliados. O genótipo Apiaú mostrou-se suscetível a Empoasca sp., e os BR-17 Gurgueia, Cara-Preta, Sempre Verde, UFRR Grão Verde e BRS Cauamé foram os mais resistentes, em função da menor preferência pelas cigarrinhas, registrada, principalmente, aos 28 e 35 dias após a emergência das plantas. = The occurrence of insect pests is among the most important factors affecting cowpea productivity. This study aimed at evaluating the resistance of nine genotypes of cowpea attack in black aphid Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, and of green leafhopper (Empoasca sp., and the population fluctuation of A. craccivora on culture, under field conditions. Nine cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp genotypes were chosen: BR-17 Gurgueia, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé, Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, Cara-Preta, and Sempre Verde. The experimental design was carried out in randomized blocks with four replications. Each variety was planted in four parallel lines, considering the two central rows as the useful area. Counting of aphids-black was taken directly across the last fully open leaf, whereas the leafhoppers leaf stage was performed by the method of beating plants on tray with water. The genotypes BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba, and Pretinho Precoce 1 had the lowest levels of infestation by A. craccivora, presenting, therefore, a nonpreference resistance compared to the others assessed. The genotype Apiaú was susceptible to Empoasca sp. and the genotypes BR-17 Gurgueia, Cara-Preta, Sempre Verde, UFRR Grão Verde, and BRS Cauamé were the most resistant, since they were least preferred by leafhoppers at 28 and 35 days after plant emergence.

  10. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi / Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate leaf smut severity in cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sami J., Michereff; Domingos E.G.T., Andrade; Marissônia A., Noronha.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O carvão da folha, causado pelo fungo Entyloma vignae, é uma doença comum do caupi no Nordeste brasileiro. Considerando a inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis 1,5; 3,5; 7,0; 14,5; 27,0 e 45,0% de área foliar lesiona [...] da, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade do carvão da folha com e sem a utilização desta. Na validação da escala diagramática, 48 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCAD®, foram avaliados por 10 pessoas, sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foram determinadas por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real, mensurada eletronicamente, e a estimada pelo avaliador. Sem a escala, a maioria dos avaliadores superestimou a severidade da doença. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram boa repetibilidade (90%) e reprodutibilidade (84%) das estimativas com a utilização da escala. A escala diagramática proposta demonstrou ser adequada para avaliação da severidade do carvão da folha do caupi. Abstract in english The leaf smut, caused by the fungus Entyloma vignae, is a common disease of cowpea in the Brazilian Northeast. Considering the inexistence of standard methods for assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic key was developed with 1.5, 3.5, 7.0, 14.5, 27.0 and 45.0% of diseased leaf areas and tested f [...] or accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimatives of leaf smut severity with and without using the key. The diagrammatic key was validated by 10 raters, with and without the key, using 48 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software AutoCAD® for Windows. Two evaluations were performed with the diagrammatic key at 7-day interval where different sequences of the same leaves were visually estimated by the same raters. The accuracy and precision of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual, evaluated electronically, and estimated severity. Without the diagrammatic key most of raters overestimated disease severity. With the key raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrated around 10%. Raters showed good repeatability (90%) and reproducibility (84%) of estimative by using the key. The proposed diagrammatic key was suitable for the evaluation of severity of leaf smut on cowpea.

  11. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus

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    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co-infections (CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I and CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I, which was accomplished in two steps. Firstly, 57 genotypes were evaluated in four evaluations: three in aphid proof cages with infection under controlled conditions, and one in field-grown plants under natural infection. To perform the second step, we selected 18 genotypes to be conducted in nine trials, with eight under aphid proof cages control infection, and one under natural infection. The qualitative and quantitative effects resulting from infections were evaluated. In the field trial, we assessed the number of asymptomatic plants, pod length, number of grains per pod, 100-grain mass and yield. Mixed infections reduced the plant height and dry weight, and premature death of some genotypes was observed in infections involving the three viruses. The genotypes BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 and Patativa showed the best behavior in relation to the mixed viral infections, presenting seeds with appropriate commercial standard and with potential for using in breeding programs.

  12. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus / Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Gislanne Brito, Barros; Marcelo, Eiras; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Ângela Celis de Almeida, Lopes.

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Bean golden mosaic vir [...] us (BGMV). Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento. Abstract in english Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV). This study aimed to evaluate th [...] e reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co-infections (CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I and CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I), which was accomplished in two steps. Firstly, 57 genotypes were evaluated in four evaluations: three in aphid proof cages with infection under controlled conditions, and one in field-grown plants under natural infection. To perform the second step, we selected 18 genotypes to be conducted in nine trials, with eight under aphid proof cages control infection, and one under natural infection. The qualitative and quantitative effects resulting from infections were evaluated. In the field trial, we assessed the number of asymptomatic plants, pod length, number of grains per pod, 100-grain mass and yield. Mixed infections reduced the plant height and dry weight, and premature death of some genotypes was observed in infections involving the three viruses. The genotypes BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 and Patativa showed the best behavior in relation to the mixed viral infections, presenting seeds with appropriate commercial standard and with potential for using in breeding programs.

  13. Arsenic Induced Changes in Growth and Physiological Responses in Vigna radiata Seedling: Effect of Curcumin Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishikesh Upadhyaya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a great hazard to the environment since it is a major source of soil and water contami-nation leading to phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused reduction in seed germination and growth of plants including mung bean (Vigna radiata causing loss of crop productivity. This investigation evaluates effect of arsenic toxicity in mung bean with an attempt to ameliorate it by the applica-tion of curcumin. Arsenic induced reduction in fresh, dry mass, length of root and shoot and pig-ment content. The result of the present study suggests that curcumin at lower concentration ameliorates arsenic induced toxicity in Vigna radiata.

  14. Estudo do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp minimamente processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURTUNATO Andréa A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando definir tecnologias alternativas de processamento do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp, estudou-se o processo de congelamento do mesmo. Este consistiu na recepção da matéria prima, seleção dos grãos de coloração e tamanho uniformes, seguida de lavagem em água corrente e branqueamento por imersão em água a 90ºC. Os grãos foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos e congelados em freezer doméstico a -18ºC, sendo armazenados a essa temperatura. Foi realizado o estudo de vida de prateleira desse produto por 180 dias, através de análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, preservando-se em boas condições para o consumo. Foi realizado também o teste de aceitação do produto comparando-se com o feijão verde fresco. Embora o nível de aceitação não tenha sido muito alto (71,1% quando comparado com o feijão fresco (96,6%, este resultado poderia ser diferente em regiões que não têm o hábito de consumir esta leguminosa no estádio de maturação verde fresco.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A POWERED COWPEA THRESHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. UMOGBAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Threshing is one of the major problems associated with production of cowpea in Nigeria and most farmers still employ crude methods of threshing the crop. For this reason a thresher was designed and constructed using locally available materials. The popularly grown variety of cowpea (Kakando in the middle belt region of Nigeria was used for performance evaluation of the thresher. The Kakando seed has an average length of 10.36 mm, and a thickness of 7.8 mm. Its angle of friction is 30° and a terminal velocity of 7.01 m/s. The evaluation was carried out at drum speeds of 700, 900 and 1200 rpm and moisture contents of 4.63 %, 6.40 % and 9.01 %. The study was laid in a 2 3 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with a total of 9 treatment combinations replicated three times. The results showed that the percentage unthreshed pods, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, grain damage, blown away seeds, seed loss and threshing recovery were 2.19 %, 97.81 %, 97.02 %, 1.31 %, 0.86 %, 1.36 % and 69.49 % respectively. The grain output was 101.54 kg/hr. The result of regression analysis gave a coefficient R2 of 0.802, which implies that at any of the drum speeds and known moisture content the average grain output is about 80.2 % of the rated output of the thresher. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that the drum speed has no effect on the efficiency of the thresher except for seed damage and feed rate where it is significant at 0.01 and 0.05 for seed damage and feed rate respectively. Moisture content had no effect on cleaning efficiency, blown away seeds and threshing recovery, but showed high significance on performance efficiency at 0.01. The thresher can easily be dismantled for transportation and maintenance. The cost of production was seventy thousand naira (N70,000:00 $483:00.

  16. NOTE - Phenotypic correlations between combining abilities of F 2 cowpea populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolline de Jesús Pires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is a crop that has become socio-economically relevant, mainly in developing countries. Correlation studies are important to determine the association between quantitative traits and yield to guide the selection, i.e., choose direct or indirect selection. The objective was to estimate the correlations between six agronomic traits in cowpea as well as the correlations between the estimates of combining abilities of parents. Genotypes with high pod weight and pod length, 100-grain weight, and number of beans per pod should be used to improve grain yield in cowpea. The breeder should preferably insert plants into his group of crosses that have a high combining ability for pod length, number of grains per pod and yield per plot.

  17. Persistence and effects of processing on reduction of chlorantraniliprole residues on cowpea fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Naseema Beevi, S; Mathew, Thomas Biju; Kumar, Vijayarahava; George, Thomas; Xavier, George

    2013-04-01

    A field trial was conducted to study the dissipation kinetics of chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC on cowpea fruits. The fruit samples drawn periodically were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass detection (LC-MS/MS). The initial residues of chlorantraniliprole in cowpea fruits were found to be 0.55 mg kg(-1) which dissipated rapidly, with a half-life of 1.31 days and a waiting period of 0.62 days following first order kinetics. Processing of the fruits with solutions commonly used in households reduced the insecticide residues on cowpea fruits harvested 2 h after spraying by 47.19 %-91.70 % and 44.56 %-91.25 % on fruits plucked on the third day. PMID:23283535

  18. Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 ?g g-1; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 ?g g-1. These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  19. Influência de diferentes substratos na germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de Vigna sinensis / Influence of different substrata on germination and growth of Vigna sinensis seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo R.C., Castro; Carlos A., Gamero; Leonardo T., Buli; Sérgio L., Lima.

    1307-13-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar a eficiência de diversos substratos na germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de vigna. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: casca de mamona + solo; casca de mamona + sílica; xaxim + solo; xaxim + sílica; sphagnum + solo; sphagnum + sílica; solo e síl [...] ica, todas as misturas na proporção 1:1, em condições de vasos e de canteiros (covas); sendo que os ensaios foram realizados em condições de casa de vegetação. A avaliação dos tratamentos foi efetuada determinando-se a altura e o peso da matéria seca das plintulas. Os resultados mostraram que, (a) em condições de vasos, os melhores tratamentos foram: xaxim + solo, xaxim + sílica e sphagnum + solo; (b) os tratamentos onde utilizou-se casca de mamona impediram a germinação das sementes de vigna e; (c) os tratamentos em canteiros sofreram influência do solo adjacente. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to study the effects of different substrata for germination and growth of Vigna sinensis seedlings. Treatments used were the following: castor burk + soil; castor burk + silice; xaxim + soil; xaxim + silice; sphagnum + soil; sphagnum + silice; soil; and silice, [...] all at 1:1 proportion, in pot and bed conditions (hole). Treatments avaliation were made by determinations of the height and dry matter of the seedlings. The results showed that: (a) in the pot conditions, the best treatments were xaxim + soil; xaxim + silice and sphagnum + soil; (b) the treatments were castor burk was used the germination of Vigna seeds was impaired, and (c) the bed treatments were influenced by adjacent soil.

  20. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as ?-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  1. Nodulation studies with induced mutants of black gram (Vigna mungo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding has been widely used to generate genetic variability in plants, but reports of mutations affecting the root system are less common. In the present work, black gram (Vigna mungo L. var T9), has been used for studies on the effect of induced mutations on nodulation patterns

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of a Symbiotic Bacterium, Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176T

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Yi, Zhiwei; Zeng, Runying

    2014-01-01

    The Rhizobium vignae strain CCBAU 05176T was isolated from a root nodule of Astragalus dahuricus grown in Hebei Province, China. It grows on yeast mannitol agar (YMA) supplemented with 0 to 2% (wt/vol) NaCl. We report the annotated genome sequence of this strain in a 6.34-Mb scaffold.

  3. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J.; Schols, H. A.; Soest, J. J. G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A. G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches, respectively. All three legume starches showed a C-type X-ray diffraction pattern and two-stage swelling pattern. Amylopectin populations were isolated and the unit chain...

  4. Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    OpenAIRE

    Ileke, K. D.; Oni, M. O.; Adelegan, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects were investigated. Results showed that at rates of...

  5. Cowpea virus disease occurrence: implication for food security and sustainable development in Kwara State – Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu; Olusegun Samuel Balogun; Ii, Robert Omotayo Uddin

    2013-01-01

    A virus disease survey was carried out between the months of October and November 2011, in thirty locations of the guinea savanna and rain forest agroecologies of Kwara State – Nigeria with the objective of evaluating the incidence and severity of cowpea viruses. The virus incidence (VI), on cowpea were estimated based on fifty plant observations per field and virus severity (VS), was scored on a scale of 1-5 based on the percentage number of leaves per plant showing virus symptoms. The res...

  6. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  7. Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin ?1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin ?1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin ?1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin ?1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin ?1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin ?1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin ?1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

  8. Field performance of new cowpea cultivars inoculated with efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains in the Brazilian Semiarid / Desempenho em campo de novas cultivares de feijão-caupi inoculadas com estirpes de rizóbio eficientes na fixação de nitrogênio no Semiárido brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia Nunes, Marinho; Rafaela Simão Abrahão, Nóbrega; Jerri Édson, Zilli; Gustavo Ribeiro, Xavier; Carlos Antônio Fernandes, Santos; Saulo de Tarso, Aidar; Lindete Míria Vieira, Martins; Paulo Ivan, Fernandes Júnior.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contribuição de estirpes de rizóbio, eficientes na fixação de nitrogênio, sobre a produção de grãos de novas cultivares de feijão-caupi, indicadas para cultivo no Semiárido brasileiro, no Submédio do Vale do Rio São Francisco. Dois experimentos foram implantad [...] os nos perímetros irrigados de Mandacaru (Juazeiro, BA) e Bebedouro (Petrolina, PE). Os tratamentos consistiram da inoculação isolada de cinco estirpes de rizóbio - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp.) e BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae) -, além de um tratamento com nitrogênio e de um controle sem inoculação ou aplicação de N. As seguintes cultivares de feijão-caupi foram avaliadas: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó e BRS Acauã. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As plantas inoculadas apresentaram produtividade de grãos similar à observada em plantas adubadas com 80 kg ha-1 de N. As cultivares BRS Tapaihum e BRS Pujante destacaram-se quanto à produtividade e ao teor de proteínas nos grãos, quando inoculadas, o que mostra seu potencial para cultivo na região do Submédio do Vale do São Francisco. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains to grain yield of new cowpea cultivars, indicated for cultivation in the Brazilian Semiarid region, in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley. Two experiments were set up at the irrig [...] ated perimeters of Mandacaru (Juazeiro, state of Bahia) and Bebedouro (Petrolina, state of Pernambuco). The treatments consisted of single inoculation of five rhizobial strains - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp.), and BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae) -, besides a treatment with nitrogen and a control without inoculation or N application. The following cowpea cultivars were evaluated: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó, and BRS Acauã. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. Inoculated plants showed similar grain yield to the one observed with plants fertilized with 80 kg ha-1 N. The cultivars BRS Tapaihum and BRS Pujante stood out in grain yield and protein contents when inoculated, showing their potential for cultivation in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley.

  9. Observations préliminaires de la variabilité entre quelques morphotypes de voandzou (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., Fabaceae) de Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Ia, Zoro Bi; Bs, Bonny; Djè Y.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary observations of variability between some morphotypes of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., Fabaceae) from Côte d’Ivoire. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.), is a food legume mainly cultivated by women for whom it represents a source of income for the household. In Côte d’Ivoire, the cultivation of bambara groundnut is located in the western and northern parts of the country. These zones are characterised by contrasted agroecology including tropical ...

  10. Effect of pesticides applied in cowpea production on rumen microbial fermentation of cowpea haulms as reflected in in vitro gas production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Antwi; E.L.K, Osafo; D.S, Fisher; H.M, Yacout; A, Donkoh; A.A, Hassan; S.M.M, Sobhy; H, Adu-Dapaah; A.Z.M, Salem.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effect of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate residues in cowpea haulm on microbial fermentation using gas syringes as incubators. The lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate were applied at the vegetative, flowering and podding stages of the cowpea [...] at the rate of 2.66 mg/L, 5.14 mg/L and 6.68 mg/L of water, respectively. Dimethoate was detected in the cowpea haulm at the highest concentration of 1.38 mg/kg. The haulm with no pesticide treatment was incubated with media containing rumen fluid, and pesticides were added at concentrations of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg. In vitro gas production was measured at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h to estimate the rate of gas evolution. Gas production in general was influenced by pesticide application. In general, gas evolution was reduced by increasing levels of lambda cyhalothrin up to 80 mg/kg. However, an increase in gas accumulation was observed with increasing levels of dimethoate, while the application of cypermethrin yielded no noticeable change in gas production. The study indicates that pesticide residues may function as toxins at concentrations greater than those encountered in the field or lethal dose (LD50) and may inhibit the growth of rumen microbes.

  11. Atributos químicos e físicos de um Latossolo Amarelo cultivado com feijão-caupi sob diferentes sistemas de irrigação Physical and chemical attributes of an Oxisoil cultivated with cowpea bean under different irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. C. Amaral

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização agrícola dos solos em áreas irrigadas, empregando técnicas de manejo pouco sustentáveis, pode promover alterações nos atributos físicos e químicos dos solos com reflexos negativos na produtividade das culturas. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas propriedades químicas e físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico cultivado com feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], sob dois sistemas de irrigação, no Perímetro Irrigado Gurguéia, município de Alvorada do Gurguéia, Estado do Piauí, Brasil. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por dois sistemas de irrigação (uma área com histórico de irrigação por pivô central e outra por aspersão convencional, uma área com vegetação nativa, para efeito comparativo, e quatro profundidades. As áreas irrigadas apresentaram modificações nas condições de fertilidade do solo em relação à área de mata nativa, com aumentos dos valores de soma de base, capacidade de troca de cátions efetiva e potencial e saturação por bases. Diferenças nas condições físicas do solo foram observadas nas duas áreas irrigadas em relação à mata nativa, sendo mais acentuadas na área irrigada por pivô central. Agricultural land use in irrigated areas, using management techniques of low sustainability, can promote changes in the physical and chemical soil properties, with negative effects on crop productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the chemical and physical properties of an Oxsoil cultivated with cowpea bean [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], under two irrigation systems, at Gurgueia Irrigated Perimeter, municipality of Alvorada do Gurguéia, Piauí State - Brazil. Treatments consisted of two irrigation systems (an area with a history of central pivot irrigation and the other with sprinkler irrigation, an additional area with native vegetation, for comparison purposes, and four depths. Irrigated areas showed changes in the soil fertility conditions in relation to the native forest area, with increased values of bases sum, effective and potential cations exchange capacity and saturation per bases. Differences in the soil physical conditions were observed in both irrigated areas in comparison to the native forest, and were more accentuated in the area irrigated by center pivot.

  12. Caracterização genética de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros eficientes em culturas do guandu e caupi / Genetic characterization of indigenous rhizobia strains from the coastal tableland efficient for the pigeonpea and cowpea crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Ferreira, Fernandes; Roberta Pereira Miranda, Fernandes; Mariangela, Hungria.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar geneticamente sete estirpes de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe com alta eficiência de fixação biológica do N2 em associação com guandu (Cajanus cajan) e caupi (Vigna unguiculata). A amplificação do DNA pela técnica de PCR (polymerase ch [...] ain reaction) com o oligonucleotídeo específico BOX indicou um grau elevado de diversidade genética, uma vez que todas as estirpes apresentaram perfis únicos de DNA. A análise por BOX-PCR revelou, ainda, que essa metodologia é eficiente para diferenciar estirpes, mas não para a diferenciação de espécies de rizóbio. Pela técnica do RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) da região do DNA que codifica o gene 16S rRNA e da região intergênica entre os genes 16S e 23S rRNA, com cinco enzimas de restrição, bem como pelo seqüenciamento parcial da região do 16S rRNA, foi possível classificar as estirpes nos gêneros Bradyrhizobium e Rhizobium. Houve coerência entre as análises envolvendo a região do 16S rRNA, mas o agrupamento com uma das estirpes diferiu pela análise do espaço intergênico. Os resultados obtidos com a estirpe R11 indicam variabilidade genética elevada em relação às espécies de rizóbios descritas, inclusive diferindo em diversas bases da região do 16S rRNA, e podem indicar uma nova espécie. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to characterize genetically seven indigenous rhizobial strains from the coastal tableland of Sergipe, Brazil, with high efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation with the pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) crops. The DNA amplification with the PC [...] R (polymerase chain reaction) technique and the specific primer BOX indicated a high level of genetic diversity, with all isolates showing unique profiles of DNA. The BOX-PCR analysis also indicated that this method is efficient to characterize strains but not to define rhizobial species. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of the 16S rRNA region and of the intergenic region between the 16S and the 23S rRNA genes with five restriction enzymes, as well as the partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA region allowed the classification of the strains into the genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. There was an agreement between the results obtained by the analysis of the 16S rRNA region, but one strain differed when the intergenic space was considered. The results obtained with strain R11 showed a high level of genetic diversity when compared to the described rhizobial species, including differences in several bases of the 16S rRNA region, and might indicate a new species.

  13. Detecção de fungos endofíticos em sementes de caupi provenientes de Serra Talhada e de Caruaru, estado de Pernambuco / Detection of endophytic fungi in cowpea seeds from Serra Talhada and Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ANTONIA A. C., RODRIGUES; MARIA, MENEZES.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo detectar e identificar fungos endofíticos em sementes de caupi (Vigna unguiculata), IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205 e IPA-206, procedentes dos municípios de Serra Talhada e Caruaru, bem como verificar a influência desses microrganismos na germinação das seme [...] ntes. Foram analisadas 400 sementes de cada cultivar, pelo método do papel de filtro, que demonstrou a presença de 71 espécies fúngicas compreendidas em 23 gêneros. Os mais freqüentes foram Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium, correspondendo a 81,44% do total de colônias encontradas. Com relação à qualidade das sementes, as maiores incidências foram observadas nas sementes cultivadas em Serra Talhada, possivelmente pelo tempo de armazenamento. Os fungos afetaram a germinação, principalmente, nas cultivares IPA-201 e IPA-202 de Serra Talhada com percentuais de germinação correspondentes a 53,2 e 65,5%, respectivamente. A presença dos fungos foi observada nas sementes causando necrose nos cotilédones, radícula e folhas primárias, originando plântulas anormais. As sementes da cultivar IPA-206 apresentaram melhor padrão de sanidade e germinação. Abstract in english The purpose of the present work was to investigate and identify endophytic fungi in seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars, IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205, and IPA-206 from Caruaru and Serra Talhada counties, and evaluate the influence of those microorganisms on germination. Four hundred [...] seeds of each cultivar were analyzed by blotter test method, which revealed the presence of 71 fungus species involving 23 genera. The most prevalent genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, corresponding to 81.44% of all the colonies found. The highest contamination index was observed in the seeds from Serra Talhada, which shows an association between higher numbers of fungal colonies with longer storage time. The influence of microorganisms on germination was observed mainly in IPA-201 and IPA-202 cultivars from Serra Talhada, with a percentage corresponding to 53.25% and 65.50%, respectively. The presence of fungi was observed in the seeds, causing necrosis in cotyledon, root and primitive leaf and generating abnormal seedlings. In the IPA-206 cultivar higher performance was shown in both seed health and viability.

  14. Detecção de fungos endofíticos em sementes de caupi provenientes de Serra Talhada e de Caruaru, estado de Pernambuco Detection of endophytic fungi in cowpea seeds from Serra Talhada and Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIA A. C. RODRIGUES

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo detectar e identificar fungos endofíticos em sementes de caupi (Vigna unguiculata, IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205 e IPA-206, procedentes dos municípios de Serra Talhada e Caruaru, bem como verificar a influência desses microrganismos na germinação das sementes. Foram analisadas 400 sementes de cada cultivar, pelo método do papel de filtro, que demonstrou a presença de 71 espécies fúngicas compreendidas em 23 gêneros. Os mais freqüentes foram Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium, correspondendo a 81,44% do total de colônias encontradas. Com relação à qualidade das sementes, as maiores incidências foram observadas nas sementes cultivadas em Serra Talhada, possivelmente pelo tempo de armazenamento. Os fungos afetaram a germinação, principalmente, nas cultivares IPA-201 e IPA-202 de Serra Talhada com percentuais de germinação correspondentes a 53,2 e 65,5%, respectivamente. A presença dos fungos foi observada nas sementes causando necrose nos cotilédones, radícula e folhas primárias, originando plântulas anormais. As sementes da cultivar IPA-206 apresentaram melhor padrão de sanidade e germinação.The purpose of the present work was to investigate and identify endophytic fungi in seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivars, IPA-201, IPA-202, IPA-204, IPA-205, and IPA-206 from Caruaru and Serra Talhada counties, and evaluate the influence of those microorganisms on germination. Four hundred seeds of each cultivar were analyzed by blotter test method, which revealed the presence of 71 fungus species involving 23 genera. The most prevalent genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, corresponding to 81.44% of all the colonies found. The highest contamination index was observed in the seeds from Serra Talhada, which shows an association between higher numbers of fungal colonies with longer storage time. The influence of microorganisms on germination was observed mainly in IPA-201 and IPA-202 cultivars from Serra Talhada, with a percentage corresponding to 53.25% and 65.50%, respectively. The presence of fungi was observed in the seeds, causing necrosis in cotyledon, root and primitive leaf and generating abnormal seedlings. In the IPA-206 cultivar higher performance was shown in both seed health and viability.

  15. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes Hup+, Hup hr e Hup- de Bradyrhizobium japonicum e Bradyrhizobium elkanii em cultivares de caupi Symbiotic efficiency of Hup+, Hup hr and Hup- Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strains in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Alves de Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium com características Hup+ (SR e USDA-110, Hup- (29W e Hup hr (SEMIA-587 foi avaliada em caupi (Vigna unguiculata L., cultivares IPA-202, BR-3 e VITA-4. Os resultados mostraram que VITA-4, em relação à nodulação, revelou-se superior às demais, e apresentou interação efetiva com as estirpes SEMIA-587 e USDA-110. Entretanto, quanto à eficiência nodular, a combinação IPA-202 x SEMIA-587 alcançou maior atividade da nitrogenase (ARA com eficiência relativa próxima a 1,0. A ARA detectada nas estirpes SR e SEMIA-587 foi similar, porém, superior às estirpes USDA-110 e 29W, evidenciando que as estirpes Hup+ e Hup hr alcançaram maiores atividades enzimáticas. Os teores de leghemoglobina (Lb detectados nas estirpes SR e USDA-110 foram positivamente relacionados com as respectivas ARA, contudo, a relação entre teor de Lb e ARA obtido para 29W-Hup- foi variável, sugerindo que, na ausência da hidrogenase, o sistema da nitrogenase fica afetado podendo influir no fluxo de Lb ao bacteróide. A avaliação do teor de N mostrou que não houve diferença entre cultivares, entretanto, foi detectada diferença significativa entre as estirpes. As estirpes Hup+ obtiveram maiores acúmulos de N, evidenciando que os sistemas simbióticos que menos liberam H2, acumulam mais N no hospedeiro.The effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains with characteristics Hup+ (SR and USDA-110, Hup- (29W and Hup hr (SEMIA-587, was evaluated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., cultivars IPA-202, BR-3 and VITA-4. Results showed that nodulation in VITA-4 was superior, with a positive interaction when inoculated with strains SEMIA-587 and USDA-110. However, when comparing nodule efficiency, the combination IPA-202 x SEMIA-587 presented the highest nitrogenase activity, with a relative efficiency around 1.0. Nitrogenase activities were similar in plants inoculated with the strains SR and SEMIA-587, and higher, with strains USDA-110 and 29W. These results indicate that strains with Hup+ and Hup hr were able to achieve higher enzymatic activities. Leghemoglobin (Lb content detected in strains SR and USDA-110 was positively correlated to nitrogenase activity. However, correlations between Lb and nitrogenase activity were highly variable in nodules containing strain 29W-Hup-, indicating that imbalances in the nitrogenase system in the absence of hydrogenase may affect the flow of Lb to the bacteroids. Significant differences on the plant N content were found among the strains studied, but not among cultivars. Plant inoculated with Hup+ strains were more efficient to accumulate N, indicating that N-fixing systems retaining H2 may accumulate additional N in the host.

  16. Resposta do feijão-caupi as lâminas de irrigação e as doses de fósforo no cerrado de Roraima Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do feijão-caupi (Vigna ungüiculata (L. Walp. cv. BRS Novaera sob quatro lâminas de água (273; 257; 241 e 187 mm e doses de fósforo (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados na forma de superfosfato triplo, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas lâminas de água e as sub parcelas pelas doses de fósforo, resultando em 16 tratamentos. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema convencional de aspersão, montado no campo segundo o sistema de "aspersão em linha". As massas seca da parte aérea e de 100 grãos foram influenciadas significativamente pela interação entre lâminas de água e doses de fósforo, enquanto o número de grãos por vagem e o comprimento da vagem foram influenciados somente pelas doses de fósforo. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi de 89,45 kg de P2O5, com produtividade de 1.306 kg ha-1.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation depth and phosphate fertilizer (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5 on yield and production components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Novaera at the Savanna of Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was arranged in a completely randomized block in split-plot and four replications. Irrigation depths were applied through a sprinkler line source system. The principal treatments constituted on the depths of irrigation and the secondary treatments by the phosphate fertilizer. Significant effects (p < 0.05 of the depth of irrigation and phosphate fertilizer interaction with aerial mass production and mass of 100 grains were observed. The number of grains per pods and size of pod were affected by the phosphate fertilizer only. The highest economical yield (1,306 kg ha-1 was obtained by 89.45 kg of P2O5.

  17. Distribuição espacial da cigarrinha Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) no feijão-de-corda e cálculo do número de amostras / Spatial distribution of leafhopper Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) in cowpea and calculation of number of samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valéria, Silva; Gleidson Vieira, Lozano; Jefté Ferreira da, Silva; Bleicher, Ervino.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a dispersão espacial da cigarrinha Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) na cultura de feijão-de-corda Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. e estabelecer o número de amostras necessárias para a estimativa da população da praga para o uso em programas de manejo integrad [...] o de pragas. Foram cultivados dois campos experimentais na Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza. O primeiro campo com área de 216 m2 composta de 15 parcelas. O segundo campo com área de 576 m2 dividida em 25 parcelas. O cultivar utilizado foi Vita 7 com plantas espaçadas em 0,25 x 0,8 m. Foram realizadas três coletas de dados no Campo I e quatro no Campo II, sendo avaliadas dez plantas por parcela. Foi contado o número de adultos e ninfas de cigarrinha presentes em toda a planta. Os resultados obtidos nos índices de agregação utilizados indicam que a dispersão da E. kraemeri no campo é do tipo agregada, o que foi confirmado pelo ajuste dos dados à distribuição de frequência binomial negativa. Para aplicação em programas de manejo integrado de pragas, 30 é o número de amostras estatisticamente adequado para a estimativa da população de E. kraemeri em campos de V. unguiculata. Abstract in english Th objective was to study the spatial dispersion of the leafhopper Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore (Hemiptera: Cicadelidae) on culture of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and to establish the number of sample necessary to estimate the population of the pest for use in integrated pest management pr [...] ograms. Two experimental fields were cultivated at the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza, Brazil. The area of the Field I was 216 m2, composed of 15 plots. The area of the Field II was 576 m2, divided into 25 plots. The cultivar used was Vita 7 with plants spaced 0.25 x 0.8 m. We performed three separate collections of data in Field I and four in Field II; in each plot ten plants were assessed. Th number of leafhopper nymphs and adults present in the plant was counted. The aggregate indexes used indicate that the dispersion of E. kraemeri in the fi is of the aggregate type, which was confirmed by fi the data to the negative binomial frequency distribution. To be used in integrated pest management programs, 30 is the sample number statistically suitable for the estimation of E. kraemeri population in V. unguiculata fields.

  18. Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Jerri Édson Zilli; Romano Roberto Valisheski; Francisco Rodrigues Freire Filho; Maria Cristina Prata Neves; Norma Gouvêa Rumjanek

    2004-01-01

    In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphological traits (mucous production and colony morphology), genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S) and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as...

  19. Evaluation of the functional quality of cowpea-fortified traditional African sorghum foods using instrumental and descriptive sensory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anyango, Joseph Ochieng; Kock, Henrietta Letitia; Taylor, J. R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite nutritional advantages, the functional quality of cereal foods tends to decline when fortified with legumes. Traditional African cowpea-fortified sorghum foods were evaluated using instrumental and descriptive sensory analyses. Two sorghum cultivars, NS 5511 (tannin-type) and Orbit (non-tannin-type) were fortified with cowpea (70:30 ratio). Fortification reduced uji (fermented thin porridge) pasting peak viscosity and cool paste viscosity by up to 23% and 12%, respectively...

  20. Antagonistic Regulation, Yet Synergistic Defense: Effect of Bergapten and Protease Inhibitor on Development of Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-salzman, Keyan

    2012-01-01

    The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient t...

  1. Co-fermentation of Cassava/Cowpea/Carrot to Produce Infant Complementary Food of Improved Nutritive Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mojisola A. Oyarekua

    2009-01-01

    This study conducted co-fermentation of cassava 50%, cowpea 30% and carrot 20% w/w for the production of infant complementary food. Analyses on proximate, minerals, amino acids and ?-carotenoid contents were carried out using standard methods. Cassava ogi had lower crude protein content than cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi. Leucine and lysine contents were comparable in both samples. Crude protein, total amino acids values increased. Cassava ogi had higher calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium c...

  2. Cowpeas as growth substrate do not support the production of aflatoxinby Aspergillus sp.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Schnidt-Heydt, M.

    2008-01-01

    A number of 21 Aspergillus sp. strains isolated from cowpeas from Benin (Africa) were characterizedby RAPD methodology. Seven of these strains grouped with A. flavus in the dendrogram generated with the RAPD data. Only three were able to produce aflatoxin in significant amounts. Twelve other isolates grouped with A. parasiticus. All of these strains except 3 produced aflatoxin. Two additional strains neither fit with the A. flavus group, nor the A. parasiticus group according to their RAPD pattern. Both did not produce aflatoxin in measurable amounts. Generally the aflatoxin positive strains produced high amounts of aflatoxin after growth on YES medium. However after growth on cowpea based medium aflatoxin biosynthesis was strongly ceased, albeit the growth of the colony was only partly reduced. This was true for media made either with the whole cowpea seed or with cowpea seed without seed coat. Interestingly when the cowpea medium was heat sterilized the fungus was able to produce high amounts of aflatoxin. This, however, was not the case after the use of gamma irradiation as sterilization method for the medium. The expression of the nor-1 gene, which is one of the early genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis, was significantly repressed after growth on gamma irradiated cowpea medium in contrast to YES medium.

  3. Susceptibility of Six Local and Four Improved Cowpea Cultivars to Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Infestation in North Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina, Y. T.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of seeds of six local (Banjara, Borno brown, Gwallam, Kanannado brown, Kanannado white and Saddam and four improved (189KD-288, IT89KD-391, IT90K-82-2 and IT97K-499-35 cowpea cultivars that were commonly grown in north eastern Nigeria to infestation by the cowpea storage bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae was evaluated in the laboratory at 30oC - 35oC and 60% - 65% RH. Parameters tested include the number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage, seed susceptibility index and bruchid developmental period. All parameters collected were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The mean number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage and seed susceptibility index were generally significantly different amongst the ten different cowpea cultivars. Mean bruchid developmental period, was however, not significantly different amongst the cowpea cultivars tested. The seeds of all ten cowpea cultivars (local and improved were either moderately or highly susceptible to infestation by C. maculatus. Results obtained in this study indicated the need for breeders to develop high-yielding cowpea cultivars that are well adapted to cultivation in the north eastern region of Nigeria, with relatively high resistance to attack by the bruchid beetle.

  4. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e FMA em rotação cultural milho/feijão-de-corda utilizando-se águas salinas / Biomass, microbial activity and AMF in crop rotation system of maize/cowpea using saline water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eloneide de Jesus, Bezerra; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Geocleber Gomes de, Sousa; Vânia Felipe Freire, Gomes; Paulo Furtado, Mendes Filho.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de alta e baixa salinidade sobre variáveis microbiológicas do solo em área submetida à rotação de cultura entre milho (Zea Mays L.) e feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.). A área destinada ao experimento foi dividida em duas [...] subáreas, sendo realizados quatro cultivos: dois cultivos irrigados na estação seca e dois de sequeiro na estação chuvosa. O estudo foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Nos cultivos irrigados foram usadas água com as seguintes condutividades elétricas (CEa): 0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. Os cultivos de sequeiro foram realizados nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas na estação seca, as quais permaneceram demarcadas e identificadas. No início e ao final de cada cultivo, foram coletadas amostras em duas subáreas na região radicular das plantas, no terço médio da fileira central de cada parcela. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação promoveu aumento do número total de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares FMA e reduziu a respiração basal do solo, o carbono da biomassa e o coeficiente metabólico microbiano (qCO2), principalmente na área cultivada com feijão-de-corda. O gênero Glomus respondeu por mais de 70% dos esporos totais encontrados, sendo que essa percentagem aumentou nos tratamentos com maior salinidade nos cultivos da estação seca. Os dados não evidenciaram qualquer efeito negativo da salinidade residual sobre as variáveis microbiológicas avaliadas, em função da irrigação com água salina durante os cultivos da estação seca. Abstract in english This work carred out the influence of irrigation with water of high and low salinity on soil microbial variables in area under the crop rotation between maize (Zea Mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). The area for the experiment was divided into two sub areas being made four crops, two crops [...] irrigated in the dry season and two dry in the rainy season. The study was conducted under field conditions using a randomized block design with five replications. In irrigated crops were used the following water with electrical conductivity (ECw): 0.8; 2.2; 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The rainfed crops were conducted on the same plots that were cultivated during the dry season, which remained demarcated and identified. At the beginning and end of each crop were collected samples in two subareas in the region of root system plant, in the middle third of the central row of each plot. Increasing of salinity in irrigation water led to increase in the total number of spores and reduced soil basal respiration, biomass carbon and microbial metabolic coefficient (qCO2), mainly in the area cultivated with cowpea. The genus Glomus accounted for more than 70% of total spores found, and this percentage increased in treatments with high salinity in dry season crops. The data reveal no residual negative effect of salinity on the microbial variables assessed in function irrigation with saline water during the dry season crops.

  5. Descrição de cultivares locais de feijão-caupi coletados na microrregião Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brasil / Description of local cowpea cultivars from the microregion of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliane de, OLIVEIRA; Eduardo Pacca Luna, MATTAR; Marlon Lima de, ARAÚJO; Jercivanio Carlos Silva de, JESUS; Augusto César Gomes, NAGY; Vanderley Borges dos, SANTOS.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição de sementes comerciais ameaça erodir o germoplasma local em regiões tradicionais de plantio de feijões-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever as cultivares locais de feijão-caupi da Resex Alto Juruá e da microrregião Cruzeiro do Sul - AC. Foram conduzidos d [...] ois experimentos nos anos de 2011 e 2012, em sistema convencional e, em sistema de plantio em aleias, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental adotado nos experimentos foi de blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos (cultivares), três repetições por tratamento, parcelas de 12 m2 e espaçamento de 0,45 m entre plantas e linhas. Foram observados vinte caracteres qualitativos e 21 quantitativos. A análise de variância conjunta dos experimentos apresentou significativo para genótipo, sistema de plantio e interação genótipo/sistema de plantio. A característica qualitativa com maior variação entre os genótipos foi subclasse comercial, seguida da cor do grão, pigmentação da vagem imatura, forma do folíolo apical, cor das folhas e curvatura da vagem. O hábito da planta, tendência a enrolar-se ao tutor, fixação da vagem ao pedúnculo e espessura de parede da vagem não apresentam diferenças. Dos caracteres quantitativos apenas número de dias até 50% das plantas em florescimento e número de lóculos/vagem não diferiram estatisticamente entre cultivares. Os valores médios para comprimento de vagem, comprimento do pedúnculo, número de vagens por pedúnculo e número de vagens por planta foram baixos, entretanto, o germoplasma coletado apresentou características valorizadas como ciclo precoce, arquitetura adequada da planta além da adaptação ao plantio em várzeas. Abstract in english Local varieties of cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata) are exposed to genetic erosion due to the introduction of commercial seeds. The aim of this study was to describe local germplasm of cowpea beans from Resex Alto Juruá and microrregion of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. Two experiments were conducte [...] d either using the conventional agricultural system (in 2011), or in an alley cropping system (in 2012). The experimental was a randomized block design with nine treatments (cultivars) and three replicates per treatment. The plots were 12 m2 in size and rows were 0.45 m apart. Twenty qualitative and 21 quantitative characters were observed. The combined analysis of variance showed significant effects for genotype, agricultural system and for the interaction genotype/agricultural system. The qualitative trait with greater variation among genotypes were the commercial subclass according to the classification adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, followed by grain color, immature pod pigmentation, apical leaflet shape, leaf color and pod curvature. The plant habit, twinning tendency, pod attachment to peduncle and the pod wall thickness did not show differences. Among the quantitative traits, days to flowering and number of locules per pod did not differ between cultivars. Mean values ??for pod length, peduncle length, number of pods per peduncle and number of pods per plant were low. However, the germplasm collected showed good agronomic traits such as earliness, appropriate plant architecture, and adaptation to floodplain cultivation.

  6. Efeito de manejos do solo no déficit hídrico, trocas gasosas e rendimento do feijão-de-corda no semiárido / Effect of soil management on water deficit, gas exchange and cowpea yield in the semi-arid region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Bergson Parente, Fernandes; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Eunice Maia de, Andrade; Antônia Leila Rocha, Neves; Carlos Henrique Carvalho de, Sousa.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A variabilidade das chuvas no semiárido ocasiona, frequentemente, insuficiências hídricas durante o ciclo do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), afetando o seu rendimento. Objetivou-se investigar o efeito de diferentes manejos do solo no déficit hídrico do solo, nas trocas gasosas [...] foliares e no rendimento do feijão-de-corda, em regime de sequeiro no semiárido. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas com cinco sistemas de manejo (tratamentos), duas camadas de solo (0,15 e 0,30 m) e quatro repetições. Os manejos investigados foram: T-P, solo mobilizado somente pela enxada; T-ESC, solo escarificado a 0,30 m; T-CS, solo com subsolagem e captação in situ; o T-CCM, subsolagem, captação in situ e cobertura morta e o T-CCO, com subsolagem, captação in situ, cobertura morta e compostagem. Os resultados mostraram que a interação das práticas da cobertura morta, compostagem, subsolagem e a técnica de captação in situ, dotaram o T-CCO de maior capacidade de captar e armazenar água no solo, com um consequente aumento da disponibilidade hídrica para as culturas. Tal fato aumentou o rendimento da T-CCO em relação aos demais tratamentos na ordem (1º ao 4º) de 41%, 28%, 47% e 12%. Para um déficit hídrico gerado por 10 dias consecutivos sem chuvas, o T-CCO apresentou os melhores resultados na manutenção do estado fisiológico das plantas. No entanto, quando o solo se encontra próximo à capacidade de campo, as práticas de manejo do solo não mostraram diferenças significativas na condutância estomática, fotossíntese, transpiração e na temperatura foliar. Tal fato expressa a importância do manejo do solo em condições limitantes de umidade. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Rainfall variability in semi-arid areas often results in water shortages during the cycle of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), affecting yield. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different management practices on soil water deficit, leaf gas exchange and the yield of the [...] cowpea under rainfed conditions in a semi-arid region. The experimental design was completely randomised into split lots of five management systems (treatments) and two layers of soil (0.15 and 0.30 m), with four replications. The management systems investigated were: T-P, soil turned by hoe only; T-ESC, ploughing to 0.30 m only; T-CS, soil with subsoiling and in situ catchment; T-CCM, subsoiling, in situ catchment and mulch, and T-CCO, subsoiling, in situ catchment, mulch and compost. The results showed that the interaction of the practices of mulching, composting, subsoiling and in situ catchment, resulted in the T-CCO having a greater capacity to capture and store water in the soil, with a consequent increase in water availability for the crops. This fact increased the yield of T-CCO in relation to the other treatments by (1st to 4th) 41%, 28%, 47% and 12%. For a water deficit generated after ten consecutive days without rain, the T-CCO displayed the best results in maintaining the physiological state of the plants. However, when the soil was close to field capacity, there were no significant differences for soil management practice in stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration or leaf temperature. This fact demonstrates the importance of soil management under limiting conditions of moisture.

  7. Screening of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity of Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Murenje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the total phenolics content and the antioxidant activities from methanolic extracts of Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were studied using DPPH and reducing power assays, a?-carotene linoleic acid model system and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain. Phenolic compounds were also quantified using HPLC. Total phenolic compounds for Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra were 1136.603±3.869 g g-1, 1102.797±2.239 mg g-1 and 1327.333±1.658 mg g-1 dry mass, respectively. All three vegetable extracts contained vanillin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. There was an increase in the reducing power effects and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in all samples. All samples showed a time dependent decrease in radical scavenging of DPPH and?-carotene.

  8. La collection de base des espèces sauvages de Phaseolus et Vigna : historique, gestion et conservation

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    Thierry Vanderborght

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The base collection of wild species of Phaseolus and Vigna: history, management and conservation.The National Botanic Garden of Belgium ensures the management of a base collection of botanical and wild forms in the tribe Phaseoleae and the sub-tribe Phaseolinae. The main objective is to conserve on a long terni basic the largest possible genetic diversity through seed semples stored at - 20°C. The collection provided the basic material for the investigations conducted at the University Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of Gembloux in fields as diverse as taxonomy, genome analysis, definition of genetic réservoirs, agronomie and chemical evaluations, interspecific hybridization and plant breeding. The results have allowed to becter understand the organization of genetic diversity in the studied plant material and to highlight the wealthy genetic potentiel of the collection. The latter should be preserved and valorized for the genetic improvement of food legumes, in particular within the two genera Phaseolus and Vigna.

  9. EVALUATION OF SEDATIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF VIGNA TRILOBATA (L. VERDC. LEAVES

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    Ahir Chetan D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to evaluate the sedative activity of aqueous extract of Vigna trilobata (L verdc. Leaves using experimental animal models. In the present study aqueous extract of the Vigna trilobata leaves (AEVTL was used to investigate the sedative activity using Rotarod apparatus and Photoactometer in mice at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight and compared to standard diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.. The result obtained from this study revealed that AEVTL possessed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 sedative activity at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg by reducing locomotor activity and fall off time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study justify the use of the leaves as sedative in traditional medicine. Further studies may be directed at characterizing the bioactive ingredients that are responsible for the observed sedative activity in the plant.

  10. Isolation and in silico characterization of cDNA encoding cyclophilin from etiolated Vigna mungo seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kalika, Kuhar; Varun Kumar, Gupta; Rekha, Kansal; Vijay Kumar, Gupta.

    Full Text Available A full-length cDNA clone encoding cyclophilin gene of 848 bp, including a 519 bp open reading frame, has been isolated from the cDNA library constructed from etiolated seedlings of Vigna mungo (GenBank FN668732). The cDNA sequence showed 97% identity with Vigna radiata cyclophilin mRNA. The sequence [...] was GC rich and lacked introns. The open reading frame encoded 172 amino acid polypeptide with molecular weight 18.3 kDa and theoretical pI 8.61. BlastP analysis indicated that its putative amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with several plant cyclophilins particularly legumes. The conserved seven amino acid residues region in V. mungo cyclophilin was RSGKPLH (present in legumes) instead of KSGKPLH, indicating its similarity to the cyclophilins of other legumes. This novel V. mungo cyclophilin gene will broaden the pool of plant cyclophilin genes for further studies.

  11. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.

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    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh *, Sudhir K. Upadhyay and A.P. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%, shoot length (up to 56.91%, root dry weight (up to 94.42%, and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09% was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control.

  12. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm) and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp) were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sa...

  13. Development of 12 chloroplast microsatellite markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae) and amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris1

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Pan; Yi Li; Rui Guo; Hua Wu; Zhihui Hu; Chanyou Chen

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The n...

  14. Radiation induced changes in the nitrate reductase activity in leaves of Vigna mungo (L.) hepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on nitrate reductase (NR) activity was studied in leaves of Vigna mungo. The enzyme activity was measured in UV irradiated (1 to 15 min of exposure) leaf tissue (in vivo) and in cell-free extract of leaves (in vitro). The results show that UV irradiation (within a limit) is stimulatory for NR activity, both, in vivo and in vitro. (auth.)

  15. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Mitchell R.; Huynh, Bao-lam; Da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain...

  16. Photochemical efficiency in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vigna unguiculata L. Walp during recovery from high temperature stress Eficiência fotoquímica em plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata L. Walp durante a recuperação do estresse por alta temperatura

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    Ernany Santos Costa

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca and cv. Negro Huasteco and cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Epace 10 were grown in a growth chamber with PPF at leaf level of 200 mumol.m-2.s-1 and air temperature 25 + 1 ºC. The first fully expanded pair of leaves of 12-day-old plants was submitted to high temperature stress (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 48 ºC for 1.5 h. The photochemical efficiency of PSII during recovery was monitored by means of chlorophyll a fluorescence at six different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 24, and 48 h after stress, at 25 ºC, using a modulated fluorimeter. Increasing temperature promoted an increase in Fphi at 45 ºC, possibly associated with dissociation of the light harvesting complex from the reaction centre of PSII, but a decrease was observed at 48 ºC in all cultivars. Fmax decreased at 48 ºC in Carioca and Negro Huasteco, but not in Epace 10, showing a possible correlation between heat tolerance and Fmax for this cultivar. The low values of Fmax in Carioca and Negro Huasteco indicated a loss of PSII activity followed by death of these plants. Fv/Fmax did not vary in Epace 10 but varied in Carioca and Negro Huasteco with increasing temperatures.Utilizaram-se plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Carioca e Negro Huasteco e caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, cv Epace 10 crescidas em câmara controlada com FFF de 200 mimol.m-2.s-1 e temperatura média do ar 25 ± 1 ºC. Aos 12 ou 13 dias, as plantas foram submetidas aos tratamentos de temperatura (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 e 48 ºC por 1,5 h. A eficiência fotoquímica do PSII foi monitorada, durante a recuperação das plantas, por meio da fluorescência da clorofila a, em seis períodos (0,5; 1, 2, 4, 24, e 48 h após a indução do estresse. As variáveis da fluorescência da clorofila a foram obtidas com um fluorímetro de luz modulada a 25 ºC. A temperatura de 45 ºC provocou um aumento em Ffi, com um decréscimo a 48 ºC para todas as cultivares. Houve uma queda no valor da Fmax a 48 ºC para Carioca e Negro Huasteco, mas não para Epace 10, mostrando uma possível correlação entre queda na Fmax e suscetibilidade dessas cultivares à alta temperatura. Os baixos valores de Fmax ocorridos a 48 ºC, indicam perda da atividade do PSII e foi precedido pela morte das plantas. Com o aumento da temperatura não houve alterações na razão Fv/Fmax para Epace 10 ao passo que Carioca e Negro Huasteco atingiram valores nulos a 48 ºC, mostrando a discrepância das cultivares em relação a alta temperatura.

  17. Photochemical efficiency in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) during recovery from high temperature stress / Eficiência fotoquímica em plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) durante a recuperação do estresse por alta temperatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernany Santos, Costa; Ricardo, Bressan-Smith; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Eliemar, Campostrini; Carlos, Pimentel.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Carioca e Negro Huasteco) e caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, cv Epace 10) crescidas em câmara controlada com FFF de 200 mimol.m-2.s-1 e temperatura média do ar 25 ± 1 ºC. Aos 12 ou 13 dias, as plantas foram submetidas aos tratamentos de temp [...] eratura (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 e 48 ºC) por 1,5 h. A eficiência fotoquímica do PSII foi monitorada, durante a recuperação das plantas, por meio da fluorescência da clorofila a, em seis períodos (0,5; 1, 2, 4, 24, e 48 h) após a indução do estresse. As variáveis da fluorescência da clorofila a foram obtidas com um fluorímetro de luz modulada a 25 ºC. A temperatura de 45 ºC provocou um aumento em Ffi, com um decréscimo a 48 ºC para todas as cultivares. Houve uma queda no valor da Fmax a 48 ºC para Carioca e Negro Huasteco, mas não para Epace 10, mostrando uma possível correlação entre queda na Fmax e suscetibilidade dessas cultivares à alta temperatura. Os baixos valores de Fmax ocorridos a 48 ºC, indicam perda da atividade do PSII e foi precedido pela morte das plantas. Com o aumento da temperatura não houve alterações na razão Fv/Fmax para Epace 10 ao passo que Carioca e Negro Huasteco atingiram valores nulos a 48 ºC, mostrando a discrepância das cultivares em relação a alta temperatura. Abstract in english Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca and cv. Negro Huasteco) and cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Epace 10) were grown in a growth chamber with PPF at leaf level of 200 mumol.m-2.s-1 and air temperature 25 + 1 ºC. The first fully expanded pair of leaves of 12-day-old plants was submi [...] tted to high temperature stress (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 48 ºC) for 1.5 h. The photochemical efficiency of PSII during recovery was monitored by means of chlorophyll a fluorescence at six different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 24, and 48 h) after stress, at 25 ºC, using a modulated fluorimeter. Increasing temperature promoted an increase in Fphi at 45 ºC, possibly associated with dissociation of the light harvesting complex from the reaction centre of PSII, but a decrease was observed at 48 ºC in all cultivars. Fmax decreased at 48 ºC in Carioca and Negro Huasteco, but not in Epace 10, showing a possible correlation between heat tolerance and Fmax for this cultivar. The low values of Fmax in Carioca and Negro Huasteco indicated a loss of PSII activity followed by death of these plants. Fv/Fmax did not vary in Epace 10 but varied in Carioca and Negro Huasteco with increasing temperatures.

  18. Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    G. Moravvej

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 ±1 L-1 at 24 h exposure, respectively. The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 ±1 L-1. The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

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    Jimjel Zalkuwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

  20. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi / Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jandiê Araújo da, Silva; Claúdia Maria Alves, Pegado; Valéria Veras, Ribeiro; Noelma Miranda de, Brito; Luciana Cordeiro do, Nascimento.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, av [...] aliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL). As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas. Abstract in english Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to com [...] pare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L), compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter) made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL) was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  1. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandiê Araújo da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL. As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas.Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L, compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  2. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas nativas de sabana en Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. C4A-3 / Effectiveness of savannah native rhizobial strains in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. C4A-3

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana, Mayz; América, Lárez; Nilda, Alcorcés.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estima que la población mundial se incrementará y demandará mayor cantidad de alimentos y uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados. En Venezuela, el frijol es altamente consumido y se cultiva en las sabanas orientales, cuyas características edáficas pueden afectar negativamente la población rizobiana. E [...] stos planteamientos refuerzan la importancia de la evaluación de la flora rizobiana nativa, y enfatizan la necesidad de aumentar la explotación de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. En este contexto, se evaluaron 6 cepas rizobianas en el cultivar C4A-3, aisladas, de frijol cv. Tejero Criollo y previamente catalogadas como efectivas (JV91, JV94 y JV101) e inefectivas (JV99, JV103, y JV104) en el cultivar TC9-6. El experimento se llevó a cabo en umbráculo por 45 días, donde además se incluyeron dos tratamientos control no inoculados. La suspensión de las cepas individualmente cultivadas se usó para inoculación. De acuerdo con la tipología de la nodulación (número de nódulos, peso total y por nódulo, tamaño y color), los valores de los parámetros de crecimiento (peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago) y los estimados de la concentración de nitrógeno y nitrógeno total, las cepas JV91, JV99 y JV101, fueron las más efectivas en la fijación de nitrógeno. El nitrógeno total y la concentración de nitrógeno tuvieron una correlación significativa con peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago. Los resultados muestran la existencia de cepas efectivas en los suelos de sabana para este cultivar, y enfatizan la importancia de evaluar las cepas indígenas, antes de proceder a la inoculación con foráneas. Abstract in english It is estimated that world-wide population will increase and demand higher amount of food and use of nitrogen fertilizer. In Venezuela, cowpea is highly consumed and is cultivated in eastern savannahs, whose soil characteristics may negatively affect rhizobial population. These expositions reinforce [...] the importance of the evaluation of the native rhizobial flora and emphasize the necessity to increase the exploitation of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation. In this context, 6 rhizobial strains isolated from cowpea cv. Tejero Criollo non-inoculated and previously catalogued as effectives (JV91, JV94 y JV101) and ineffectives (JV99, JV103, y JV104) in cultivar TC9-6 were evaluated in the cultivar C4A-3. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse by 45 days, where in addition, two non-inoculated control treatments were included. Suspension of individually cultivated strains was used for inoculation. Accordingly with nodulation typology (nodule number, total dry weight and per nodule and colour), growth parameter values (shoot dry weight, height and leaves number) and nitrogen concentration and total nitrogen estimates, the strains JV91, JV99 and JV101 were the most effective in nitrogen fixation. Total nitrogen and concentration correlated significantly with dry weight and height of shoots and leaves number. The results show the existence of effective strains in savannah soils for this cultivar, and emphasize the importance of evaluating the indigenous strains, before proceeding to inoculate with foreign strains.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on the reproductive organs of the southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupae of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. exposed to the sterilizing dose (3000 rad) from 60Co gamma radiation gave rise to adults in which the first mature oocyte was retarded. The first mature oocyte began to appear after 31 hours. Exposure to the dose 10000 rad prevented egg formation in the resulting weevils. Soon after emergence normal weevils had a mature oocyte in each ovariole. Doses of gamma rays tested decreased the size of testes treated in the pupal stage

  4. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    F. Nimoh; Asuming-Brempong, S.; Sarpong, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer prefere...

  5. Bio-distribution, toxicity and pathology of cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pratik; Prasuhn, Duane; Yeh, Robert M.; Destito, Giuseppe; Rae, Chris S.; Osborn, Kent; Finn, M. G.; Manchester, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) from a variety of sources are being developed for biomedical and nanotechnology applications that include tissue targeting and drug delivery. However, the fate of most of those particles in vivo has not been investigated. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant comovirus, has been found to be amenable to the attachment of a variety of molecules to its coat protein, as well as to modification of the coat protein sequence by genetic means. We report here the results...

  6. In vitro digestibility of processed and fermented soya bean, cowpea and maize

    OpenAIRE

    Kiers, J. L.; Nout, M. J. R.; Rombouts, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical legumes, ie soya bean and cowpea, were pre-treated and subsequently fermented using pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. Impact of soaking, cooking and fermentation of the legumes on their digestibility was determined using an in vitro digestion method. Processing of white maize included, amongst others, natural lactic acid fermentation, cooking and saccharification using barley malt. An in vitro method was standardised to carry out comparative determinations of the dry matter digestibilit...

  7. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  8. Does a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge hold promise for contributing to alleviating oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2014-08-15

    The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with cream-coloured cowpea and porridge preparation on phenolic profile and radical scavenging activity was studied. A maize-soybean composite porridge representing a similar product on the South African market was used as reference sample. UPLC-QToF-MS-ESI was used to determine phenolic composition of the grain flours, their composites and porridges. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging activity was determined using the ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging assays. Four benzoic acid derivatives and five cinnamic acid derivatives were identified in the samples. The predominant flavonoid subclasses identified in sorghum were flavan-3-ols, flavanones and flavones while cowpea had mainly flavan-3-ols and flavonols with soybean having mainly isoflavones. Compositing the cereals with legumes significantly (p<0.01) increased their total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activities. Sorghum-cowpea composite porridge showed better promise in contributing to alleviating radical induced oxidative stress than maize-soybean composite porridge. PMID:24679765

  9. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) seed quality under several drying conditions / Qualidade de sementes de feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis) submetidas a diversas condições de secagem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo, Resende; Dieimisson Paulo, Almeida; Lílian Moreira, Costa; Udenys Cabral, Mendes; Juliana de Fátima, Sales.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente trabalho analisar o processo de secagem do feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis), bem como avaliar a qualidade das sementes, submetidas à secagem em diversas condições de ar. Foram utilizados grãos de feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis), colhidos com teor de água de 1,14 (decimal base [...] seca) e secos até o teor de 0,11 (decimal base seca). A secagem do feijão adzuki foi realizada em secador experimental mantido nas temperaturas controladas de 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC e umidades relativas de 52,0; 28,0; 19,1; 13,1 e 6,8%, respectivamente. Para analisar a qualidade fisiológica e tecnológica das sementes realizou-se o teste de germinação, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG), condutividade elétrica e absorção de água, respectivamente. Nas condições em que foi desenvolvido o presente trabalho,conclui-se que o tempo de secagem do feijão adzuki diminui para as temperaturas mais elevadas do ar de 60 e 70 ºC e afetam as qualidades fisiológica e tecnológica das sementes. Assim, para não haver comprometimento da qualidade das sementes do feijão adzuki recomenda-se promover a sua secagem até a temperatura máxima do ar de 50 ºC. Abstract in english This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis). Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis) at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis.) were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier ma [...] intened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV), electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  10. A comparison of mothers' knowledge, attitudes, and utilization in relation to soybeans and cowpeas for child feeding in a Nigerian rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Folake Olukemi; Cole, Abiodun Hotonou

    2002-09-01

    This study assessed rural mothers' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and use of soybeans as compared with cowpeas for feeding their young children. Mothers who had at least one child below the age of five years in 239 sampled households were interviewed. The results indicate that mothers were well informed about the value of giving both foods to their young children. A comparison of attitudes shows that the mothers had a more favorable opinion of cowpeas and that they used cowpeas more than soybeans. Mothers' reasons for using both foods include nutritive value, affordability, and palatability, in that order. Cowpeas were favored for ease of preparation. More mothers introduced cowpeas to their children before the age of six than soybeans. PMID:12362587

  11. Effects of Intercropping Pattern and Planting Date on the Performance of Two Cowpea Varieties in Dalwa, Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degri, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out in Dalwa, Maiduguri to investigate the effects of intercropping pattern and planting date on the performance of two cowpea varieties with sorghum. The experiment was laid in split-plot design each replicated three times including control. The factorial experiment consisted of two varieties of cowpea (Borno brown and Banjiram, two planting dates (early and late planting and three intercrop patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The results showed that cowpea flower count per plant were significantly higher (p<0.05 in Borno brown cowpea variety, late planting and 1:1 intercrop pattern. It further showed that cowpea pods count per plant was significantly higher in varieties, early planting date and 1:1 intercrop pattern. Grain yields were significantly higher in both varieties and not significantly different from one another, but higher in early planting date and higher in 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns. Farmers in the Maiduguri Northern eastern region of Nigeria could therefore adopt early planting of the two varieties at 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns.

  12. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  13. Fluxograma de beneficiamento para sementes de feijão-mungo-verde (Vigna radiata L.) / Processing flowchart for mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Fontes, Araujo; Eduardo Fontes, Araujo; João Batista, Zonta; Rogério Faria, Vieira; Sérgio Maurício Lopes, Donzeles.

    Full Text Available O beneficiamento é componente fundamental em qualquer programa organizado de produção de sementes e visa aprimorar características do lote. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estabelecer um fluxograma de beneficiamento para sementes de feijão-mungo-verde (Vigna radiata L.). Utilizaram-se sementes dois lote [...] s. O primeiro lote foi proveniente de colheita parcelada das vagens, em três épocas, e o segundo de colheita de toda a planta, com a maioria das vagens secas. Foram testados 13 fluxogramas de beneficiamento, com a utilização da máquina de ventilador e peneiras, separador pneumático, mesa de gravidade e classificador de peneiras. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto a sua qualidade física, fisiológica e sanitária. O fluxograma de beneficiamento ideal para lotes de sementes de feijão-mungo-verde provenientes de colheita parcelada das vagens é composto pela máquina de ventilador e peneiras, seguida da mesa de gravidade. Quando os lotes de sementes forem provenientes de colheita única das vagens o ideal é o uso da máquina de ventilador e peneiras, seguida do separador pneumático e da mesa de gravidade. Abstract in english Seed processing is a key part of any organized seed production program and serves to improve seed lot quality. The objective of this study was to establish a processing flowchart for mung bean seeds (Vigna radiata L.). Two seed lots were used: the first with seeds harvested at three different times [...] and the second from a single harvest, with mostly mature pods. We tested 13 seed processing flowcharts, using a fan machine and sieves, a pneumatic separator, a gravity table and a sieve classifier. The seeds were evaluated for their physical, physiological and sanitary qualities. The ideal processing flowchart for mung bean seeds harvested at different times was the use of a fan machine and sieves followed by the gravity table. On the other hand, for seed lots from a single harvest, the ideal seed processing was a fan machine and sieves followed by a pneumatic separator and the gravity table.

  14. Fluxograma de beneficiamento para sementes de feijão-mungo-verde (Vigna radiata L. Processing flowchart for mung bean (Vigna radiata L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fontes Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O beneficiamento é componente fundamental em qualquer programa organizado de produção de sementes e visa aprimorar características do lote. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estabelecer um fluxograma de beneficiamento para sementes de feijão-mungo-verde (Vigna radiata L.. Utilizaram-se sementes dois lotes. O primeiro lote foi proveniente de colheita parcelada das vagens, em três épocas, e o segundo de colheita de toda a planta, com a maioria das vagens secas. Foram testados 13 fluxogramas de beneficiamento, com a utilização da máquina de ventilador e peneiras, separador pneumático, mesa de gravidade e classificador de peneiras. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto a sua qualidade física, fisiológica e sanitária. O fluxograma de beneficiamento ideal para lotes de sementes de feijão-mungo-verde provenientes de colheita parcelada das vagens é composto pela máquina de ventilador e peneiras, seguida da mesa de gravidade. Quando os lotes de sementes forem provenientes de colheita única das vagens o ideal é o uso da máquina de ventilador e peneiras, seguida do separador pneumático e da mesa de gravidade.Seed processing is a key part of any organized seed production program and serves to improve seed lot quality. The objective of this study was to establish a processing flowchart for mung bean seeds (Vigna radiata L.. Two seed lots were used: the first with seeds harvested at three different times and the second from a single harvest, with mostly mature pods. We tested 13 seed processing flowcharts, using a fan machine and sieves, a pneumatic separator, a gravity table and a sieve classifier. The seeds were evaluated for their physical, physiological and sanitary qualities. The ideal processing flowchart for mung bean seeds harvested at different times was the use of a fan machine and sieves followed by the gravity table. On the other hand, for seed lots from a single harvest, the ideal seed processing was a fan machine and sieves followed by a pneumatic separator and the gravity table.

  15. ?-Galactósidos y fitatos en semillas germinadas de Phaseolus vulgaris y de Vigna sinensis / Phytates and ?-Galactosides in germinated seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elba, Sangronis; Alexia, Torres; Neida, Sanabria.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas contienen nutrimentos, pero también están presentes factores antinutricionales que en algunos casos limitan su completo aprovechamiento. Se sabe que la germinación de las leguminosas mejora la biodisponibilidad de nutrimentos y disminuye factores antinutricionales como son los inhibi [...] dores de proteasas, entre otros. En este estudio se determinó el efecto de la germinación en el contenido de rafinosa, estaquiosa y verbascosa y de los inositol fosfatos presentes en los granos germinados de Phaseolus vulgaris L. y de Vigna sinensis v. Tuy y v. Orituco. Los granos fueron germinados en presencia de luz y se liofilizaron para posteriormente preparar harinas a las cuales se les determinó su contenido de ?-galactósidos y de inositol fosfatos empleando técnicas de HPLC. Se observó que la germinación degrada los ?-galactósidos y los inositol fosfatos, lo que permite sugerir la germinación como método para eliminar dichos factores antinutricionales. Abstract in english Legumes contain nutrients, but also there are antinutritional factors present that in some cases limit their whole utilization. It is known that the germination of legumes improves the bioavailability of nutrients and decreases antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors, among others. In th [...] is study, the effect of germination on the contents of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose and of inositol phosphates present in germinated seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and of Vigna sinensis v. Tuy and v. Orituco was determined. Grains were germinated in the presence of light and were lyophilised prior to the preparation of flours which were analyzed to determine the content of ?-galactosides and inositol phosphates, using HPLC techniques. It was observed that germination degrades ?-galactosides and inositol phosphates, which suggests that germination may constitute a method for the elimination of such antinutritional factors.

  16. Growth and nodulation of mungbean (Vigna radiata [L.] wilczek) as affected by sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth and nodulation of Vigna radiata were compared at four levels (0-0.3% NaCl added to garden soil) of salinity in pot experiments. Dry mass of plants, 7 and 11 weeks after the commencement of salinity treatment, decreased with increasing salinity levels. Number of nodules and fresh weight of nodules per plant decreased with increasing salinity. As the number of nodules decreased, average size of the nodules increased with increasing salinity levels. Reproductive growth was also adversely affected by the salinity as the number and fresh weight of pods per plant decreased with increasing salinity. (author)

  17. Growth responses of Vigna radiata seeds to laser irradiation in the UV-A region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effect of pulsed nitrogen laser radiation (337.1 nm) on morphological characteristics and biochemical contents in seedlings from treated greengram (Vigna radiata L.) seeds, which were germinated and grown in Petri dishes for a week. The shoot and root lengths, and fresh and dry weights of the seedlings were maximum with the 30 min exposure, while protein was maximum with 20 min, RNA and DNA contents with 5 min exposure time. Chlorophyll content was not affected by the irradiation

  18. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, W; He, H; Zhu, S; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000?Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500?Hz, 1500–2000?Hz, and 2000–2500?Hz and intensit...

  19. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Ullah; Zain Ullah; Salem S. Al-Deyab; Muhammad Adnan; Akash Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29%) was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26%) was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that...

  20. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates. PMID:23596454

  1. Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramíneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto / Effect of polycropping on the establishment of three tropical grasses, on a Vertisol soil of the Cauto Valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I, Gómez; J. L, Fernández; L. L, Estrada; Yuseika, Olivera; A, Botello.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramíneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramíneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide) y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino [...] ; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz) en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro réplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interacción altamente significativa (p Abstract in english In order to evaluate the influence of polycropping on the establishment of grasses, on a Vertisol soil, three tropical grasses (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela and Chloris gayana cv. Callide) and five legumes (Vigna radiata, variety mung bean; and Vigna unguiculata, varieti [...] es: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 and IITA precoz) were sown in polycrop and monocrop systems. The design was split plots, with four replications and 18 treatments. The crop combinations did not affect the pasture establishment. There was highly significant interaction (p

  2. Supplemental Ca2+ does not improve growth but it affects nutrient uptake in NaCl-stressed cowpea plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Valderez Augusto, Guimarães; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Elton Camelo, Marques; Carlos Eduardo Braga de, Abreu; Boanerges Freire de, Aquino; José Tarquinio, Prisco; Enéas, Gomes-Filho.

    Full Text Available The growth and nutrient assimilation was evaluated in CaCl2- and CaSO4-supplemented cowpea plants subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). The salinity significantly reduced the cowpea vegetative growth. The addition of CaCl2 in the growth medium did not significantly affect plant growth, while for th [...] e CaSO4, the beneficial effects of Ca2+ were moderate. Salinity increased the Na+, K+, Cl-, N and P content in the plants, however it decreased the content of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Increases in Ca2+ concentration in the nutrient solution caused decreases in the Na+ and Mg2+ contents and increases in Ca2+, K+, P, and Cl- contents. The supplemental Ca2+ may alleviate the Na+ toxicity and may improve nutritional and ionic balance in cowpea, but it cannot overcome the osmotic effects associated with the increased total salt concentration.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of two potyvirus pathogens of commercial cowpea lines: implications for obtaining pathogen-derived resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, J; Thomas, C L; Maule, A J

    2000-01-01

    As a prelude to developing engineered resistance to two important potyvirus pathogens of cowpea, a phylogenetic analysis of strains of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAbMV) and Bean common mosaic virus--blackeye cowpea strain (BCMV-B1C) was undertaken. Nucleotide sequences for the coat protein genes and 3'-untranslated regions of four CAbMV and one BCMV-B1C strains were determined and included in an analysis with published sequences. While all the newly sequenced viruses showed strong homology with the existing respective sequences in the database, the CAbMV group showed a divergence into two subgroups. These groups differed from each other by more than some CAbMV strains differed from the South African Passiflora virus (CAbMV-SAP), which has distinct biological characteristics. The implications of the sequence analyses are discussed with respect to a strategy for the generation of engineered resistance to both groups of viruses. PMID:10766309

  4. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  5. Effects of Intercrop Population Density and Row Orientation on Growth and Yields of Sorghum - Cowpea Cropping Systems in Semi Arid Rongai, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. S. M. Karanja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum - cowpea intercropping is an important farming system for small scale farmers in Arid and Semi Arid Lands of sub-Sahara African. Information on the cowpea intercrop population and row orientation effects on growth and yields of sorghum-cowpea cropping systems is however scanty or unavailable for tropical Africa and East African region in particular.With this in mind, a factorial designed experiments was carried out at a farmer’s field at Kampi ya Moto, Rongi, Kenya in two seasons i.e. December 2011 - April 2012 Season I (SI and May-August 2012 Season II (SII. The treatments comprised of sorghum planted at a constant population of 55 555 plants/ha and intercropped with cowpea at varying populations of 55 555, 111 111, and 166 666 plants/hectare and rows oriented in East-West (E-W and North-South (N-S directions, respectively replicated three times. Results showed that increase of cowpea (intercrop population from 55 555 to 166 666 plants/ha significantly (P ? 0.05 influenced crops growth, grain and yields attributes of both crops. However, there was no significant effect on harvest indices. Intercrop population (cowpea of 111 111 plants/ha produced the highest cowpea grain yields of 214 and 632 kg/ha in season I and season II, respectively. The highest sorghum grain yields of 2 729 kg/ha and 3 011 kg/ha were recorded in sole sorghum. The lowest sorghum and cowpea grain yields of 1 994.3 and 147.8 kg/ha were produced by the highest intercrop cropping system population of 166 666 cowpea plants/ha. The E-W row oriented cropping systems produced significantly higher cowpea grain yields ranging from 408 to 973 kg/ha compared to 333 to 838 kg/ha recorded under N-S row orientation. The N-S row orientation however, produced significantly higher sorghum grain yields of 1 874 and 2 123kg/ha from the sole sorghum cropping system in seasons I & II, respectively. It is recommended that farmers in semi-arid Rongai should intercrop sorghum at 55 555 plants/ha with cowpea at 55 555 during the short rainy season of SI (Oct - Dec and at 111 111 plants/ha during the long rainy SII (May - Aug, season, with rows oriented in the E-W direction, in order to realize over 400 kg/ha cowpea and 2 000 kg/ha sorghum grains yields. The higher cowpea intercrop population of 111 111 plants/ha should be used in wetter seasons of semi arid climates.

  6. Insecticidal Efficacy of Castor and Hazelnut Oils in Stored Cowpea Against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Haghtalab; Shayesteh, N.; S. Aramideh

    2009-01-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is a primary pest of cowpea and other legumes worldwide, both in fields and in stored seeds. Castor oil at 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 mL kg-1 and Hazelnut at 2.8, 4.4, 6, 7.6 and 9.2 mL kg-1 were tested against C. maculatus in cowpea. All bioassays were conducted at 27±1°C and 65±5% r.h and mortality was counted after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. After the 72 h mortality count, all adults were removed and the vials were left at the same condi...

  7. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Awosanya, A. O.; Sebiomo, A.; Idiagi, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491) were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were ...

  8. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sandy texture, highest level of available phosphorus among the soils investigated in the study and moderate level of other plant nutrients (Mg and K enhanced nodulation, which supported N-fixation. Soil type also influenced the quantity of N accumulated by each species, but had no effect on nitrogen concentration in the different plant parts. Desmodium ramississimon had higher nodule weight and accumulated more nitrogen and fixed more N2 than Vigna unquiculata in the three soils. The mean nodule dry weights were in the ranges of 61.6- 239.2 mg/plant for Dm in the three soils as compared to the range 3.2-31.4 mg/plant for Cp. Symbiotic dependence of DM varied with soil type ranging from 63.62% in Adani soil to 88% in Nkpologu soil, whereas Cp had the least symbiotic dependence value. These trends were confirmed in the field thereby indicating that Desmodium ramississimon had greater N2- potential than the cultivated legume studied.

  9. Short term exposure of UV-V radiation enhances salinity tolerance in vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic radiation (7%) emitted from the sun is in the UV range (200-400) nm. Several morphological and anatomical changes have been reported from plants grown under long-term UV-B regimes. The effect of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) and salinity alone and in combination were studied. Fifteen days old seedlings of Vigna radiata were exposed to UV-B radiation for 10, 20 and 30 minutes and salinity treatment was given to the plants 3 days before the UV-B treatment. UV radiation was artificially provided by Esco Airstream Vertical Laminar Flow Cabinet (AVC-4AI). Significant decrease (p<0.05) in root and shoot length, specific leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid content of in all UV-B and salinity treatments was observed as compared to control. The reductio