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Uso del cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) en mezclas con fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) en el desarrollo de nuevos productos alimenticios / Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar el cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) como sustituto parcial del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) como pasta o como harina. El grado de sustitución sería aquel en el cual no se detecte el sabor del frijol cowpea alterando el sabor del frijol común. Para la [...] ejecución del estudio se utilizó la variedad Peruchin Negro del frijol cowpea y el ICTA Ligero del frijol común con un contenido de proteína de 24.4% y 18.7% respectivamente. No hubo diferencias significativas en otros nutrientes. Se postulo que el sabor característico a tierra del cowpea era debido al contenido de polifenoles, la cual se redujo con tratamientos de remojo, cocción y descascarado. Se estableció que los niveles de polifenoles logrados con 9 horas de remojo y 30 minutos de cocción eran iguales a los obtenidos con el descascarado. Con estos procedimientos previos en el cowpea se prepararon 2 pastas de frijol frito a base de una mezcla de frijol negro/cowpea (con y sin cáscara) en la relación 70/30 las cuales fueron enlatadas y una mezcla de harina precocida en las mismas proporciones. Estas pastas se sometieron a pruebas sensoriales de tipo triangular y de perfil descriptivo. En el perfil descriptivo se evaluó: color, textura, punto de sal y sabor, en una escala de 10 puntos. Las evaluaciones sensoriales de las 2 mezclas de frijol no mostraron diferencia significativa respecto al sabor del frijol común. El contenido de proteína en las mezclas fue más alto debido a la mayor concentración de este nutriente en el cowpea. Aunque las mezclas de frijol común con cowpea entero y sin cáscara dieron mayor valor proteico (NPR) que el de frijol solo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was develop [...] ed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant.

López Guerra, Claudia Maritza; Bressani, Ricardo.

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Uso de la leguminosa (Vigna sinensis) como complemento del pollo en una fórmula infantil / Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las leguminosas mundialmente representan una fuente proteica importante. En Venezuela generalmente se preparan en el hogar y son consumidas por los adultos como sopa o guiso, mientras que los niños las consumen muy poco. A los fines de incorporar leguminosas en la alimentación de niños se realizó el [...] presente trabajo utilizando fríjol (Vigna sinensis), como complemento del pollo en una fórmula nutricionalmente adaptada a los requerimientos de niños. Se desarrollaron varias formulas y en base a su aceptabilidad se seleccionaron tres. La primera constituida principalmente por pollo como fuente proteica, en la segunda se sustituyó parcialmente el pollo por frijol, y en la tercera solo se usó frijol. Otros ingredientes fueron: arroz, auyama (Cucurbita máxima), zanahoria, y algunos condimentos. Se realizó el análisis proximal, calidad proteica (relación de eficiencia proteica y digestibilidad) y evaluación sensorial (escala hedónica de 7 puntos). La composición proximal fue similar en las tres fórmulas: proteína (3,5%), grasa (1,3%) y carbohidratos (19,7%), con una buena distribución del aporte energético (98,9 kal o 413,8 kJ por 100g). La calidad de la proteína en la fórmula pollo-frijol fue superior a la de frijol, al igual que la digestibilidad. La aceptabilidad con las madres fue mayor en la fórmula pollo-frijol que en la de frijol. La aceptabilidad de la formula pollo-frijol con los niños fue de 77% (escala hedónica facial) y 92% (midiendo consumo). La fórmula pollo-frijol por su alta aceptabilidad y buena calidad proteica; podría ser incluida en los almuerzos de los hogares de cuidado de niños institucionalizados. Abstract in english Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children?s diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vign [...] a sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98,9 kcal/100g or 413,8 kJ/100g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

Guerra Modernell, Marisa; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina.

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Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth t [...] ests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

Odeigah, P.G.C.; Osanyinpeju, A.O.; Myers, G.O..

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) r...

Xavier Filho, J.

1991-01-01

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Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

1997-07-01

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

Xavier Filho, J..

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The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J. Xavier Filho

1991-01-01

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Floral Biology and Pollination Ecology of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp)  

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Studies on the floral biology and pollination ecology of three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were carried out. The varieties studied were Var. Oloyin, Var. Sokoto, and Var. Drum. Cowpea is a self pollinated crop which is encouraged by the arrangements of the floral parts. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:3...

2011-01-01

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Characterization of a new defensin from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Using Phaseoleae defensins available in databases, a putative defensin gene was isolated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and cloned from genomic cowpea DNA. The putative mature defensin sequence displays the characteristic defensins residues arrangement, secondary and tertiary structures were predicted and splicing analysis was performed. Using RT-PCR, defensin expression and differences in response to biotic stimuli between infected and non infected plants were tested. PMID:20236084

Padovan, Lara; Segat, Ludovica; Tossi, Alessandro; Calsa, Tercilio; Ederson, Akio Kido; Brandao, Lucas; Guimarães, Rafael L; Pandolfi, Valesca; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Belarmino, Luís Carlos; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Crovella, Sergio

2010-03-01

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Proximate, Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Whole and Dehulled Cowpea Seed Flour (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study was conducted to analyze the production, proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic properties of whole and dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds. Flour samples were produced from whole and dehulled cowpea seeds which was purchased from Obada market Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. The flour samples were subjected to proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses. The results of proximate analysis showed that dehulled cowpea was higher in crude protein (23.12% and carbohydrate content (62.86% than whole cowpea flour, which was recorded as 22.85% and 61.67% respectively. The fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture content were 1.6%, 1.03%, 0.48%, 10.89% for dehulled cowpea flour and 1.83%, 1.12%, 0.65%, 11.88% for whole cowpea flour respectively. The results obtained for physicochemical analysis showed that the pH, TSS and TS of whole cowpea flour were 6.84%, 16.47% and 88.12% while dehulled cowpea were recorded as 6.80%, 12.85%, 89.11% respectively. The results of organoleptic analysis revealed that beans ball produced from dehulled cowpea flour was more acceptable than that from whole cowpea flour.

W.A. Oyeleke

2011-01-01

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Subgroups of the Cowpea Miscellany: Symbiotic Specificity within Bradyrhizobium spp. for Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Arachis hypogaea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum†  

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Rhizobia classified as Bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. To delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (Arachis hypogae...

Thies, Janice E.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Singleton, Paul W.

1991-01-01

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Assessment of genetic diversity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty six genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp were investigated to understand the extent of genetic diversitythrough twelve quantitative traits. Mahalanobis’s D2 analysis established the presence of wide genetic diversity among thesegenotypes by the formation of 23 clusters. Cluster I had the maximum number of genotypes i.e 22 and cluster 23 had onlyone genotype. Intra cluster distance analysis revealed that the minimum intra cluster distance was observed in the cluster II.The inter-cluster distance (D was found to be the maximum between the clusters XXII and XXIII and the same wasminimum between clusters II and V. The results indicated that grain yield per plant contributed maximum to the totaldivergence followed by 100 seed weight and days to 50% flowering. Number of branches per plant had least contribution tothe total divergence followed by petiole length. The existence of wide genetic diversity among the types chosen from thesame geographical location was obviously seen. In the present study, the variety Vellayani local had the maximum value forplant height and pod length and thereby distinguished from other varieties and it is present singly in the cluster XXIII. Henceit is proved to be widely divergent, since its yield is high, it can be used for further crossing and yield improvement. Thecluster XVIII had the highest cluster mean values for number of clusters per plant and the cluster XIV has the highest meanvalue for grain yield per plant. These two clusters may be utilized in crossing programme which may yield in a widespectrum of variability and for selection for seed yield in the subsequent generations. The clustering pattern of the varietiesin the present study clearly indicated that there was no parallelism between genetic and geographic diversities. Based on themean performance and genetic divergence, the genotypes Vellayani local, NBC 7, Lola, CP 18, CP 150, ACM 05-07 can beused for crossing and further selection.

R.M.Nagalakshmi, R. Usha Kumari and M. B. Boranayaka

2010-07-01

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Harinas de planta entera de frijol (Vigna unguiculata) y de mazorca de maíz (Zea mays) como suplemento para becerros antes del destete / Flours of whole cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and cob maize (Zea mays) as supplements for suckling calves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los sistemas de producción de doble-propósito, el amamantamiento restringido mejora el ingreso por leche vendible, pero es negativo para el crecimiento de los becerros. Sin embargo, un arreglo de alimentación agropastoril la suplementación con cultivos podría mejorar el suministro de nutrientes. [...] Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el consumo de harinas de frijol y de mazorca de maíz, el consumo de leche y el crecimiento de becerros pre-destete. El ensayo tuvo una duración de 217 días y se usaron 30 becerros hijos de vacas mestizas de Brahmán x Holstein x Simmental. Se colocaron  cinco becerros en tres tratamientos ubicados en dos bloques al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: harina de frijol (F), harina de maíz (M) y harina de frijol + harina de maíz (FM) todos a voluntad. Los becerros entraron al experimento entre 30 y 45 días de nacidos y después del ordeño permanecieron 30 minutos con sus madres, para luego ser llevados a potreros de Cynodon nlemfuensis durante 6 horas/día. En la tarde fueron alojados en corrales individuales donde se les ofreció el suplemento. La producción de leche vendible (P0,05) fueron 2,5 2,4 y 2,54 L/d; de suplementos (P0,05) 0,41 0,48 y 0,37 para F, M y FM, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el aporte de la leche para suplir los requerimientos de energía y proteína disminuye, debido a que su consumo permanece constante mientras que los requerimientos aumentan, pero los becerros tienen la capacidad de ajustar el consumo de los componentes de la dieta, cuando encuentran restricciones debidas a cantidad ofrecida, calidad y palatabilidad. Abstract in english In the dual purpose systems, the restricted sukling increases the income due to vendible milk, but in turn it decreases the yearling calf growth if they are not properly supplemented. An agropastoral system with crops for supplementation would improve the calf feeding. This work had as aim to study [...] milk intake, whole cowpea and whole maize cob flours intake and calves growth. The experiment lasted for 217 days and were used 30 calves, from crossbred cows (Brahman x Holstein x Simmental). There were five calves in each of the three treatments in two randomized blocks. Treatments were: cowpea flour (F), maize flour (M), and cowpea plus maize flour (FM) all of them ad libitum. Calves were incorporated to the trial at 30-45 days age. They stayed with their dams about 30 minutes after milking, thereafter were taken to paddocks of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) during 6 h/d. In the afternoon were taken into individual pens where the supplements were offered. The vendible milk (P0.05) were 25, 2.4, and 2.54 L/d; supplement intake (P>0.05) were 0.35, 0.76, and 0.52 kg DM/d, and liveweight gain (P>0.05) were 0.41, 0.48, and 0.37 for F, M, and FM treatments, respectively. It was concluded that the milk contribution to supply the requirements of energy and protein diminishes, because its consumption remains constant whereas the requirements increased, but the yearling calves have the capacity to fit the consumption of the components of the diet, when they find restrictions due to offered amount, quality and palatability.

Canelones, Carlos; Castejon, Manuel.

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Antimicrobial activity and fumonisins associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

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A survey involving 71 farmers from rural communities in Mpumalanga, South Africa was conducted to gather information regarding the importance and utilisation of cowpea. Cowpea was rated third most important in contributing to household security, preceded by maize and vegetable production. Cowpea was mainly produced for own consumption, as a source of income and as fodder for livestock to a lesser extent. The crop was used by 8.5% of the farmers for medicinal purposes. Results indicated that 2...

2004-01-01

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Stable gene transformation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) using particle gun method  

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We investigated the possibility of transforming and obtaining transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) plants using the particle bombardment process. Meristematic explants that could give rise to whole fertile plants were used in transformation experiments with reporter and selectable marker genes driven by a 35S CaMV promoter. Conditions for optimal delivery of DNA to explants were established based on transient gus expression assays two days after bombardment. The size of microcarriers,...

Ikea, J.; Ingelbrecht, Ivan; Uwaifo, A.; Thottappilly, G.

2003-01-01

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First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela  

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Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) i...

2012-01-01

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Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

2012-01-15

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Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 ?mol plant-1 week-1. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N2-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N2-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW showing large variation among lines. Most of the tolerance to P deficiency was due to increase in the nodule function rather than conservation of nodule mass. In conclusion, the screening in glasshouse hydroaeroponics made it possible to sort cowpea lines in SNF potential to fix N2, and in tolerance to P deficiency. (author)

2013-11-01

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Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ?I [...] -484? (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ?I-490? (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ?I-484?. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ?I-490? se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ?I-484? (moderate sensibility to sa [...] linity) and ?I-490? (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ?I-484?. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ?I-490? the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

Garzón, Paola; García, Marina.

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Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L. in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L. Grains using Botanicals  

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Full Text Available An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L. was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no protectant and standard actellic super dust, making a total of 13 treatments. A split plot experiment in which the two commercial cultivars were the main plots while the 13 protectant treatments comprised the subplots was used as a Randomized Complete Design with four replications. Cultured pest weevils were placed in vials containing cowpea seeds and the respective sub-plot treatments including the two controls; ashes of rice husks, kitchen and cow dung; powders of dried leaves of Tephrosia vogelii, neem, pyrethrum flowers, tobacco snuff, black pepper fruit and their various combinations. Data were recorded after 10 weeks of storage on number of bruchids after treatment, number of holes per seed, numbers of damaged and undamaged seeds. Protectants had varying degrees of effectiveness in controlling the cowpea weevil. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff, actellic super dust and combination of leaf powders of neem and Tephrosia vogelii significantly excelled the control of no protectant in controlling the cowpea weevil. Black pepper powder gave significantly better results than the control in suppressing bruchid survival, higher numbers of undamaged seeds and fewer holes per seed. The cowpea cultivars did not differ significantly on the studied traits. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff and combination of neem and Tephrosia are effective in controlling stored grain of cowpeas. Black pepper powder can as well be used for cowpea grain storage particularly where the aforementioned botanicals are not available.

Shazia O.W.M. Reuben

2006-01-01

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First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Edgloris Marys

2012-12-01

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First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.  

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Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-12-01

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Characterization of seed storage proteins in high protein genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

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Twenty one genotypes and two check varieties viz. CS-88 and V-240 of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ] were screened for total proteins. The total protein content ranged from 22.4 (HC-3) to 27.9 % (HC-98-64) in 21 genotypes whereas in check varieties it was 25.6 (V-240) and 26.0 % (CS-88). Seven genotypes viz. HC-6, HC-5, CP-21, LST-II-C-12, CP-16, COVU-702 and HC-98-64 having high protein content (26.7 to 27.9 %) were selected for further characterization of their seed storage proteins....

Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Rohtas; Malhotra, S.; Boora, K. S.; Singal, H. R.

2010-01-01

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Seed Size Influence On Germination And Seedling Development Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) walp)  

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The effect of seed size on the germination and seedling development was carried out on four local varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) walp), oloyin,drum, ifebrown and local white. Each of the varieties were sorted into big and small seeds, 100 seeds each of both big and small seeds of the four Varieties were weighed and the average weights were calculated and recorded. Six seeds of each sort were planted in a plastic pot filled with sandy-loamy soil in three replicates. Results of the ...

Olayemi Ibukun Ehoniyotan; Kehinde Stephen Olorunmaiye

2013-01-01

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Varietal Susceptibility of Improved Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. (Walp. Cultivars to Field and Storage Pests  

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Full Text Available Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata is widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics as food for man and livestock. The crop is highly prone to pests and diseases which limit its production. Resistant cowpea varieties have become increasingly important in the management of both field and storage pests. Three improved cowpea varieties and one local variety were screened for their susceptibility to field and storage pests. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four treatments and three replications. The different pests infesting the plants were identified and counted. Aphids and thrips were scored on a scale of 0-5, depending on the levels of infestations. Natural enemies’ numbers, leaf damage, pod damage and yield were assessed. Callosobruchus maculatus infestations during storage and weight reduction were determined over a six week period. Aphids and M. sjostedti score, M. virtrata and Empoasca sp. numbers did not differ significantly; however, significantly more pod sucking bubs attacked the local variety than the improved varieties. Natural enemies’ numbers on the various cultivars did not differ significantly. Yield was however significantly better in the improved varieties. The local variety suffered the largest weight reduction (20.91% during storage while Nhyira suffered the least weight reduction of 4.23%. The use of improved varieties and application of pests’ control measures will increase cowpea production in Ghana.

P. K. Baidoo

2014-02-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp. development  

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Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206. The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC and mineral nitrogen control (NC, all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24 in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima

2011-09-01

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Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biologi [...] cal nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Terezinha Ferreira, Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de, Lima; José de Paula, Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo, Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

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Seed Size Influence On Germination And Seedling Development Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp  

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Full Text Available The effect of seed size on the germination and seedling development was carried out on four local varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp, oloyin,drum, ifebrown and local white. Each of the varieties were sorted into big and small seeds, 100 seeds each of both big and small seeds of the four Varieties were weighed and the average weights were calculated and recorded. Six seeds of each sort were planted in a plastic pot filled with sandy-loamy soil in three replicates. Results of the various parameters studied revealed that germination efficiency was similar in both big and small seeds of drum, oloyin and ifebrown but not in small seeds of local white, weights of 100 seeds from big seeds were much heavier than those of small seeds. Number of leaves, leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area, stem height and dry weight, were consistently higher in cowpea plants from big seeds than the small seeds of all the varieties. Number of seeds per pod was higher in cowpea from big seeds in all the varieties except in drum where number of seeds was higher in plants from small seeds. In general, seedlings emerging from big seeds of all the cowpea varieties performed better in all the parameters studied than those emerging from smaller seeds.

Olayemi Ibukun Ehoniyotan

2013-09-01

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Comparative Analysis of Six DNA Extraction Methods in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp  

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Full Text Available High quality DNA extractions are a prerequisite for genetic studies of a variety of plants including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Nowadays, there are a great number of plant DNA extraction methods, and commercially available extraction kits are also becoming more and more popular. It appears that different procedures work best for different plant groups. Thus in the genetic studies of cowpea, which DNA extraction method to choose becomes a concern. To solve this problem, five classic plant DNA isolation methods, including three CTAB methods and two SDS methods, were compared and evaluated while isolation using a commercial kit was also undertaken. The DNA extracted by these six methods from two-week-old cowpea seedlings were analyzed according to their cost and time, yield, purity, integrity, and functionality in restriction endonuclease digestion and PCR (polymerase chain reaction based downstream analysis. After the evaluation, one most suitable method, described by Dellaporta et al. (1983 was selected and chosen for isolating DNA from young leaves of cowpea seedlings. The cost and time required in this method was relatively low. In addition, the quantity and the quality of the DNA extracted by this method were high enough to perform hundreds of PCR-based reactions.

Huaqiang Tan

2013-06-01

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Cultivar and processing effects on the pasting characteristics, tannin content and protein quality and digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

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Four popular West African local cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), with distinctly different seed coat colors, were evaluated for their relative amylograph pasting characteristics, condensed tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and Tetrahymena protein efficiency ratio (t-PER). The effects of roasting and dehulling on these properties were also determined. There were wide variations in the hot paste viscosity characteristics of the different cultivars studied. The raw cowpea flour samples exhibited maximum paste viscosities ranging between 260 Brabender Units (BU) for the Mottled cultivar and 460 BU for the cream-colored Blackeye cultivar. Cowpea cultivars with the greatest peak viscosities showed low stabilities to extended cooking. Roasting depressed paste viscosity properties of all the cowpea cultivars studied. Tannin concentrations were 0.3-6.9 and 7.2-116 mg CE/g flour from whole cowpea seeds and seed coats respectively, increasing with intensity of seed color. Although dehulling removed 98% of the tannin content of raw cowpeas, improvement in protein quality as a result of dehulling was observed for only the highly-pigmented Maroon-red variety. Roasting significantly improved digestibility and more than doubled the t-PER of all cowpea cultivars studied. Roasted cowpeas possess adequate nutritional and functional qualities as protein supplements in cereal-based weaning foods. However, it appears that dehulling is necessary to enhance the nutritional quality of the highly pigmented cultivars of cowpea. PMID:9650727

Plahar, W A; Annan, N T; Nti, C A

1997-01-01

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Production of intraspecific F1 hybrids between wild and cultivated accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) using conventional methods.  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants. PMID:17612353

Lelou, B; Van Damme, P

2006-01-01

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Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: ? In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ? Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. ? Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. ? Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. ? Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

2011-09-01

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Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).  

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Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments. PMID:21732069

El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

2012-07-01

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Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to Water Stress and Phosphorus Fertilization  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted in the experimental college of agriculture and forestry, in Maputo-Mozambique, in order to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to irrigation and phosphorus and test the hypothesis that high levels of phosphorus improves the tolerance of plants to water stress. We used a variety IT 18 of cowpea, short cycle and ended. The experiment was subdivided into building plots complete block design with five repetitions, the irrigation factor was fixed at the main plot with two levels (with irrigation and without irrigation and phosphorus factor in sub-plots with 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of phosphorus. The fertilization strongly influenced the yield and the number of pods per plant in both irrigation conditions. The effect of fertilizing phosphorus was higher under irrigation. The interaction was significant only for grain yield and number of pods, which means that the effect of phosphorus in these two variables has not been the same for the two levels of irrigation, high levels of phosphate fertilizer (P2O5 have improved the tolerance of cowpea when not irrigated.

V.G. Uarrota

2010-01-01

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Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

2011-09-15

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CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS. Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

Spraggins Thomas A

2007-04-01

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Generation Means Analysis of Seed Sucrose Content in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available The sucrose concentration of seeds is an important component of the taste in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. The objective of this research was to estimate the heritability, to investigate the mode of genetic control and to evaluate the potential for genetic improvement of sucrose content in cowpea using generation’s means analysis. F1 and F2 generations as well as backcross populations (BCP1 and BCP2 were produced in three hybrid combinations by crosses of four selected cultivars. The sucrose level was measured via a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC system. The range of variation in sucrose content among tested varieties was from 1.88 mg/g (Lori to 5.32 mg/g (C93W-24-125. Broad-sense heritability (h2 was of a moderate 58.50% to high 68.12% value and no transgressive segregation was observed. Narrow-sense heritability (39.47 to 47.83% and heterosis (-20.00 to - 5.94% values and gene effects analysis suggested that the sucrose content is controlled by additive and non-additive genes. At 10% level of selection, an increase of 19.60 to 33.64% was predicted after one cycle. Epistasis was significant in most of crosses and at least five genes affected the sucrose accumulation in cowpea seeds. These results suggested that breeding for increased sucrose content in the seeds of cowpea can be quite successful through recurrent selection in later generations.

J.B. Noubissie Tchiagam

2011-11-01

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SSR Marker Aided Parental Polymorphic Survey for Rust Resistance in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp  

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Full Text Available Nine Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes-six landraces and three cultivated varieties were selected for the study. Polymorphic survey was done by using 36 SSR primers and genetic distances among parental lines were calculated. Primers VM 1, VM 28, VM 36 and VM 68 were found to be polymorphic with two to four alleles per locus. Polymorphism percentage was 11.11. The total number of polymorphic alleles were 11 and number of alleles amplified per locus on an average was 2.75. Five primers produced heterozygous bands. Primer VM 36 produced unique band for GC-3, making it useful for marker assisted introgression studies. Nine genotypes clustered into seven groups, which showed correlation to their geographical origin and distinguished the cultivated varieties from the landraces. Dendrogram consisted of two major clusters diverged at 18.56 per cent dissimilarity level. The genotypes exhibited lower diversity at molecular level and higher diversity at phenotypic level.

M.S.Uma , Asish, I. Edakkalathur,Shailaja Hittalamani, K.P.Viswanatha, Y.M.Somashekhar and T.E.Nagaraja

2011-09-01

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Biolistic-mediated genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and stable Mendelian inheritance of transgenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a novel system of exploiting the biolistic process to generate stable transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants. The system is based on combining the use of the herbicide imazapyr to select transformed meristematic cells after physical introduction of the mutated ahas gene (coding for a mutated acetohydroxyacid synthase, under control of the ahas 5' regulatory sequence) and a simple tissue culture protocol. The gus gene (under control of the act2 promoter) was used as a reporter gene. The transformation frequency (defined as the total number of putative transgenic plants divided by the total number of embryonic axes bombarded) was 0.90%. Southern analyses showed the presence of both ahas and gus expression cassettes in all primary transgenic plants, and demonstrated one to three integrated copies of the transgenes into the genome. The progenies (first and second generations) of all self-fertilized transgenic lines revealed the presence of the transgenes (gus and ahas) co-segregated in a Mendelian fashion. Western blot analysis revealed that the GUS protein expressed in the transgenic plants had the same mass and isoelectric point as the bacterial native protein. This is the first report of biolistic-mediated cowpea transformation in which fertile transgenic plants transferred the foreign genes to next generations following Mendelian laws. PMID:18587583

Ivo, Nayche L; Nascimento, Cristina P; Vieira, Lívia S; Campos, Francisco A P; Aragão, Francisco J L

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.

Warin Pimpa

2006-07-01

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Moisture and Planting Density Interactions Affect Productivity in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of planting density and inter-row spacing on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. productivity at two contrasting moisture regimes. A field experiment was conducted under controlled moisture conditions during the 2007 off-season, at Hawassa University, College of Agriculture, Southern Ethiopia. Treatments were made from a factorial combination of four densities (71428, 95238, 133333 and 200000 plants ha-1, two inter-row spacings (50 and 70 cm and two levels of water regimes (well watered and dry. The experiment was laid out in a split- split plot design and had three replications with watering regime, inter-row spacing and planting density as main plot, sub-plot and sub-sub-plot factors, respectively. Grain yield and all yield attributes, total biomass and harvest index were decreased by water limitation while none of those traits were significantly affected by inter-row spacing. Moisture x planting density interaction was significant for grain yield ha-1, number of pods m-2 and total biomass ha-1. The interaction indicated that an increase in both grain and total biomass yield ha-1 was observed with increasing planting density under the wet regime. Grain yield plateau was reached at a density of 160000 plants ha-1 under the wet regime. On the other hand, an increase in planting density decreased grain yield and total biomass ha-1 under the water-limited condition with the highest yield at the lowest density of 71428 plants ha-1. Thus, farmers could get more out of cowpea by matching their planting density with available moisture. The two inter-row spacings can be used interchangeably by choosing whichever is convenient for management.

G. Lemma

2009-01-01

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

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The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets fo...

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe Salazar-García; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo

2009-01-01

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Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

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Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

2007-01-15

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Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as trap plant  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

F.V. Silva

2012-06-01

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Relationships between some Quantitative Characters in Selected Cowpea Germplasm [(Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp  

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Full Text Available The morphotypic variations of eight local varieties (?Achishiru?, ?Aloka local?, ?Borno local?, ?Danila?, ?Danmisira?, ?Danwuri?, ?Kanannado? and ?Yambare? of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp] were studied in relation to their yield in 2004 rainy season. Simple correlation coefficients among the different pairs of variables were computed using mean values for each variable. The genotypic (rg, phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients were estimated. The magnitude of the genotypic correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than their corresponding phenotypic (rp and environmental (re correlation coefficients. High and positive rg exists between days to 50% flowering and plant height (rg=0.9113, days to maturity and fodder weight (rg=0.9301, days to maturity and 100 seed weight (rg =0.6958 and number of leaves per plant and fodder weight (rg=0.8096. On the other hand, high but negative rg exists between plant height and pod per plant (rg=-0.6011. Also, the relationship between days to maturity, and number of seed per pod were all negative and moderate.

Muhammad L. UMAR

2010-03-01

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Physiological, biochemical and agromorphological responses of five cowpea genotypes (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to water deficit under glasshouse conditions  

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Five genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambey 21, Gorom local, KVX61-1, Mouride and TN88-63, grown in pots under glasshouse conditions, were submitted to water deficit by withholding irrigation at vegetative stage (T1) for 14 days, and at flowering stage (T2) for 12 days. Effect of this stress on leaf water potential, gas exchanges, foliar proline, total protein and starch contents, maximal quantum yield of photochemistry (fp0), root volume and yield components was determined. Leaf wat...

2007-01-01

48

Fate of ZnO nanoparticles in soils and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in various commercial products is prompting detailed investigation regarding the fate of these materials in the environment. There is, however, a lack of information comparing the transformation of ZnO-NPs with soluble Zn(2+) in both soils and plants. Synchrotron-based techniques were used to examine the uptake and transformation of Zn in various tissues of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) exposed to ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2 following growth in either solution or soil culture. In solution culture, soluble Zn (ZnCl2) was more toxic than the ZnO-NPs, although there was substantial accumulation of ZnO-NPs on the root surface. When grown in soil, however, there was no significant difference in plant growth and accumulation or speciation of Zn between soluble Zn and ZnO-NP treatments, indicating that the added ZnO-NPs underwent rapid dissolution following their entry into the soil. This was confirmed by an incubation experiment with two soils, in which ZnO-NPs could not be detected after incubation for 1 h. The speciation of Zn was similar in shoot tissues for both soluble Zn and ZnO-NPs treatments and no upward translocation of ZnO-NPs from roots to shoots was observed in either solution or soil culture. Under the current experimental conditions, the similarity in uptake and toxicity of Zn from ZnO-NPs and soluble Zn in soils indicates that the ZnO-NPs used in this study did not constitute nanospecific risks. PMID:24195448

Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; Johannessen, Bernt; Glover, Chris J; Kappen, Peter; Kopittke, Peter M

2013-12-01

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) / Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata) como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC), de [...] corticado (DC), cocido (CC), germinado (GC) y extruido (EXC). Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g) usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos. Abstract in english The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled [...] (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g) to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.

Rivas-Vega, Martha Elisa; Rouzaud-Sandez, Ofelia; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Goytortúa-Bores, Ernesto; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto.

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Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC, dehulled (DC, cooked (CC, germinated (GC and extruded (EXC. The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC, decorticado (DC, cocido (CC, germinado (GC y extruido (EXC. Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorimón. A estos alimentos se le determinó firmeza y digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes para L. vannamei (15.4 g usando óxido de cromo como marcador inerte. La entalpía de transición decreció después del tratamiento térmico, de 6.1 J/g en la WRC a 1.4 J/g en la CC, y desapareció en la EXC. La firmeza de los alimentos varió de 1.1 N en el alimento con EXC a 2.8 N en el alimento con WRC. Se encontró una correlación significativa negativa entre la entalpía de transición y la digestibilidad de carbohidratos de la harina del frijol yorimón. La digestibilidad de materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos y lípidos de las harinas de frijol yorimón aumentó significativamente con el germinado, la cocción y la extrusión. En el presente estudio se concluye que las harinas de frijol yorimón germinado, cocido y extruido son altamente digeribles para camarón L. vannamei, y la entalpía de transición se correlaciona significativamente con la digestibilidad de los carbohidratos.

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega

2009-04-01

51

A stakeless yard long bean cultivar derived from an interspecific cross between cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and yard long bean Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: 'Yard long bean' is an important vegetable in the Thai diet, particularly in Northeast Thailand. However, growing 'yard long beans' requires stakes for supporting the twining stems and keeping the pod from touching the ground. Staking costs money, takes time and needs labour. An ideal cultivar would be a 'yard long bean' with erect plant type and under 80 cm in height that produces typical long bean pods and allows convenient picking during the harvest time. An attempt to breed such a cultivar was made by crossing cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) with' yard long bean' Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.) in 1984. This resulted in a new cultivar 'KKU 25'. This cultivar, having erect plant type, requires no staking for supporting the stem and produces long fresh pods with acceptable taste which can be harvested within 43 days. The average pod length is 48 cm, and pod diameter 1.43 cm. In a preliminary yield trial, an average fresh pod yield of 16 t/ha was obtained. (author)

1990-01-01

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Effect of processing on flatus producing oligosaccharides in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the tropical African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of dehulling, soaking and soaking/cooking on sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in mature dry seeds of nine varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and one variety of tropical African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were investigated. The results showed a progressive decrease in sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose contents. Soaking for 12 hours and cooking for 30 min eliminated most of the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. The sugar contents in whole raw cowpea were sucrose 0.73-4.58%, raffinose 0.71-6.86% and stachyose 2.38-3.87%, and for tropical African yam bean sucrose 4.08%, raffinose 1.08% and stachyose 4.14% while the seeds soaked for 12 hours and cooked for 30 min had for cowpea sucrose 0.03-0.81%, raffinose 0.04-0.20% and stachyose 0.12-0.72%, and tropical African yam bean sucrose 0.70%, raffinose 0.40% and stachyose 0.41%. PMID:9629861

Nwinuka, N M; Abbey, B W; Ayalogu, E O

1997-01-01

53

Identification of novel resistance gene sources to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p Aphis craccivora endemic to Zaria environs, or that of the ability of insects to overcome hindrances to their survival including various forms of resistance. PMID:24506004

Aliyu, H; Ishiyaku, M F

2013-08-01

54

Antimicrobial activity and fumonisins associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

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A survey involving 71 farmers from rural communities in Mpumalanga, South Africa was conducted to gather information regarding the importance and utilisation of cowpea. Cowpea was rated third most important in contributing to household security, preceded by maize and vegetable production. Cowpea was mainly produced for own consumption, as a source of income and as fodder for livestock to a lesser extent. The crop was used by 8.5% of the farmers for medicinal purposes. Results indicated that 2...

2006-01-01

55

Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation  

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Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their galactose-oligosaccharide content, the amount of gas produced by Clostridium perfringens using in-vitro cowpea digests as main carbohydrate substrate (in-vitro fermentability index) and the alveolar hydro...

Madode, Y. E.; Nout, M. J. R.; Bakker, E. J.; Linnemann, A. R.; Hounhouigan, D. J.; Boekel, M. A. J. S.

2013-01-01

56

Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

2014-01-01

57

Effect of 6-BA on the Plant Regeneration via Organogenesis from Cotyledonary Node of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

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Full Text Available The present study compares effects of different concentrations of 6-BA on regeneration from cotyledonary node explants of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. The seeds were inoculated on MSB5 medium [Murashige and Skoog (1962 salts and Gamborg B5 vitamins (1968] containing different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/L of 6-BA for 4 days. The cotyledonary node explants with one cotyledon excised from 4-day-old seedlings, placed in vitro on MSB5 medium containing 6-BA at different dose (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg/L for shoot induction and elongation. Best response in terms of shoot number and shoot length were obtained with explants derived from seedling preconditioning with 3mg/L 6-BA followed by the induction and elongation stage pretreated with 0.5mg/L 6-BA. The elongated shoots were rooted on MSB5 medium without hormone.

Manman Tie

2013-04-01

58

Effect of cerium on growth, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activities of cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of various concentrations of cerium provided as cerium nitrate (0.713, 3.568, 17.841, 89.206 and 446.030 ¼ M) on the growth performance, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activity of cowpea plants [Vigna unguicula [...] ta (L.) Walp.]. Low concentrations of cerium were observed to be beneficial for the test plants. A positive correlation was observed between a lower level of cerium (0.713-17.841 ¼ M) and foliar chlorophyll content, relative yield (dry matter) and nitrate reductase activity. Higher levels of cerium (89.206-446.030 ¼ M) significantly increased the proline content and polyphenol oxidase activity of the test plants. Root growth was more adversely affected than shoot growth.

Shyam, R; Aery, N.C.

59

Morfología profunda del gineceo en Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) / Gynoecium deep morphology in Vigna (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe la morfología del gineceo en especies de Vigna nativas de Argentina, utilizando microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB). En las flores al comienzo de la antesis, el ovario está revestido por dos tipos de tricomas, posee un disco nectarífero basal y el estilo rostrado o no, puede ser ape [...] nas curvo, con curvatura sigmoidea o con hasta cinco vueltas completas de espiralización, presenta un cepillo estilar en la porción apical introrsa, y termina en un estigma húmedo, que puede estar rodeado por tricomas. En las especies examinadas se encontraron variaciones en cuanto a: tipos de tricomas del indumento del ovario; forma del disco nectarífero basal; largo y curvatura del estilo; presencia, forma y posición del rostro; ubicación del cepillo estilar; esculturación de los tricomas del cepillo estilar; posición y forma del estigma; forma y ubicación del anillo peristigmático y disposición, longitud y esculturación de los tricomas del anillo peristigmático. Se brinda la descripción comparativa de los estados de carácter que presenta el gineceo en cada una de las especies, siendo ésta la primera observación de la esculturación de los tricomas en el género Vigna. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos con respecto a algunos aspectos de la biología floral de las especies estudiadas. Abstract in english The deep morphology of gynoecium in species of Vigna from Argentina was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the beginning of anthesis, the ovary presents two types of trichomes; has a basal nectar disc; and the style beaked or not, can appear scarcely curved, sigmoid or curved up to [...] five complete turns of spiraling; presents a distal stylar brush, and an apical wet stigma, which can be surrounded by trichomes. Among the species examined, variation was found in: types of trichomes of ovary indumentum; nectar disc shape; length and curvature of the style; presence, shape and position of the stylar beak; location of the stylar brush; sculpturing of the stylar brush trichomes; position and form of the stigma; form and location of the peristigmatic ring and disposition and length of its trichomes. Based on the variations in these characters, a comparative description of the gineceum of each species is provided. This is the first description of the sculptured trichomes in Vigna. The results are discussed in relation to some aspects of the floral biology of the species.

Susana Inés, Drewes; Cecilia, Gamba.

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Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in the Tropics Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. en los Trópicos  

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In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), with the objective of replacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage,...

José Geraldo Donizetti dos Santos; Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar; Edilson Máximo Silva Junior; Danubia Lemes Dadalto; Merijane Rodrigues Sousa; Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier; Emanoel Gomes de Moura

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata Genetic variability and correlations of agronomic characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial genético de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%, e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%. O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73% e da produtividade (19,77%. As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%, e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%. Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp is an important food crop for human population in northeastern Brazil. Studies aiming to increase its yield as well as to improve the grain quality and the insect and diseases resistance are needed. This work aimed to accomplish genetic studies in twenty-eight cowpea advanced lines. The studied lines were chosen after selection for seed color and size and plant viruses resistance. The degree of genetic determination ranged from 4.51% (in pods/peduncle to 81.74% (in 100-seed weight. The seed yield degree of genetic determination was 34.15%. The highest estimates of genetic gain were 21.73% to 100-seed weight and 19.77% to seed yield. The genotypical correlations were higher than phenotypical and environmental ones. High correlations were found between fruiting branches/plant and seed yield (68.13% and between agronomic value and seed yield (100%. This result indicates the selection feasibility for most of the studied traits.

Ângela Celis de Almeida Lopes

2001-03-01

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Flatulence and other discomforts associated with consumption of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abdominal discomfort after eating cowpeas is known to be a major constraint on their greater consumption. Problems associated with cowpea consumption were identified by questionnaire in 448 randomly selected families. Some (28%) of the respondents had never experienced flatulence. Those who did said it occurred when cowpeas were eaten at all (16.7%), as dinner (42%) or without other foods (15%). A subsample of 40 people who complained of serious abdominal discomfort were fed cowpeas cooked by eight different methods at three consecutive dinners for each method. The problems reported were indigestion, vomiting, diarrhoea, increased belching, bad breath, offensive stool, flatulence, constipation, mild abdominal discomfort and sleepiness. Many respondents complained of mild abdominal discomfort with undehulled cowpeas (72.5%) and dehulled cowpeas (42.5%) that had been cooked at atmospheric pressure. Only 12.5% of the respondents complained of discomfort with dehulled cowpeas cooked under extra pressure. Thus, dehulling resulted in substantial reduction in the frequency and incidence of reported discomforts but pressure cooking also had beneficial effects, probably because of the higher cooking temperature attained. PMID:2596840

Ndubuaku, V O; Uwaegbute, A C; Nnanyelugo, D O

1989-12-01

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Effects of Salinity Stress on Growth, Ions Partitioning and Yield of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Cultivars  

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In this study, twenty one cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were tested for their salt tolerance at different degrees of salinity; 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM of NaCl, in both the laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, Na+, K+, K/Na ratio, plant height, roots dry weights, stems and leaves were investigated. In the field conditions, yield components (weight of 1000 seeds, number of pods per plant, total chlorophyll and grains yield) were determin...

Victor Desire Taffouo; Joseph Kemdem Kouamou; Louis Marie Tchiengue Ngalangue; Bop Alain Nandjou Ndjeudji; Amougou Akoa

2009-01-01

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Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

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The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vic...

Sales, M. P.; Pimenta, P. P.; Paes, N. S.; Grossi-de-sa?, M. F.; Xavier-filho, J.

2001-01-01

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Comparative Protection of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers Against Field Insect Pests Using Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Cypermethrin (Cymbush)  

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The efficacy of ethanolic extract of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) in protecting Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. against field insect pests was ascertained through two field trials at two different planting seasons by comparing with a suitable insecticide, Cymbush 10 EC containing 100 g Cypermethrin per litre of water under natural infestation at Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. The liquid which is viscous and contains Phenolic compounds was first standardized in the screen house using concentrat...

Olotuah, O. F.; Ofuya, T. I.

2010-01-01

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Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in the Tropics / Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. en los Trópicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En los trópicos húmedos, el mayor obstáculo para la aplicación de sistemas de agricultura sostenible es la reducción de la eficiencia del uso de nutrientes por los cultivos. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de cinco cepas de rizobios seleccionados en simbiosis con frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. [...] ), con el objetivo de sustituir la fertilización nitrogenada en el sistema de uso de suelo predominante utilizado por los pequeños agricultores. El estudio se llevó a cabo en tres zonas adyacentes de distintos usos agrícolas: labranza convencional, agricultura itinerante, y un sistema de no laboreo. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete tratamientos: cinco cepas de rizobios (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B y UFLA 3-84) y dos controles sin inocular (uno sin N mineral y otro fertilizado con 74 kg de N ha-1). Se midió el peso en seco de 100 granos, de los nódulos y de los brotes, así como los rendimientos de frijol y se calcularon los índices de eficiencia relativa y absoluta para la producción de biomasa seca de los brotes de frijol. El sistema de uso del suelo afecta el número y peso en seco de los nódulos y, en consecuencia, la masa de la materia vegetal seca y el rendimiento del frijol. En términos de rendimiento, hubo una gran diferencia entre el convencional y los sistemas itinerantes. La productividad fue alrededor de cuatro veces mayor en la agricultura itinerante (1009,9 kg ha-1 en comparación con 243,7 kg ha-1). En condiciones de suelos propensos a la cohesión, el sistema de labranza convencional reduce la posibilidad de cultivo de una segunda cosecha en el año, incluso con la inoculación o la fertilización nitrogenada. Abstract in english In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), with the objective of r [...] eplacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage, itinerant agriculture, and a no-till system. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates and seven treatments: five rhizobia strains (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B, and UFLA 3-84) and two controls without inoculation (one without mineral N and another fertilized with 74 kg N ha-1). We measured the dry mass of 100 grains, nodules and shoots, as well as cowpea yields and calculated relative and absolute efficiency indices for dry biomass production of cowpea shoots. Agricultural uses affected the number and dry mass of the nodules and, consequently, the mass of the dry plant matter and bean yield. In terms of yield, there was a major difference between the conventional and the itinerant systems. Yield was around four times as high in the itinerant system (1009.9 kg ha-1 compared to 243.7 kg ha-1). Under conditions of cohesion-prone soils, the system of conventional tillage reduces the possibility of cultivation of a second harvest in the year even with inoculation or N fertilization.

José Geraldo, Donizetti dos Santos; Alana das Chagas, Ferreira Aguiar; Edilson Máximo, Silva Junior; Danubia, Lemes Dadalto; Merijane, Rodrigues Sousa; Gustavo, Ribeiro Xavier; Emanoel, Gomes de Moura.

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Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp..  

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Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %. Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%. The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

Z.M. Peña P.

2006-10-01

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Alternativas Microbiológicas para Mejorar el Crecimiento del Caupí / Microbiological Alternatives for the Improvement of Cowpea Growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P) en el suelo, la ineficiencia que presenta su absorción y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo, capaces de m [...] ejorar la disponibilidad y la absorción de P y la eficiencia de la fertilización con fertilizantes más económicos como la Roca Fosfórica (RP). En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de casa de malla, el efecto de un hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) y un microorganismo solubilizador de P (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) sobre la toma de P y el crecimiento de plantas de caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), con adición de tres niveles de RP (0, 100 y 300 mg de P kg-1 suelo). Los resultados mostraron un incremento significativo (P Abstract in english The low phosphorus (P) availability in soil, absorption inefficiency and high costs of phosphate fertilization are limiting factors for agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative is the use of soil microorganisms, capable of improving P disponibility, absorption and the use of fertili [...] zer cheaper as rock phosphate fertilization (PR). This experiment was performed under screen house conditions aiming to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) and a P solubilizing fungus (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) on P uptake and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) growth, planted with three concentrations (0, 100 and 300 mg of P per each kg of soil) of PR. A significant increase (P-?0.05) in dry mass, plant height, mean stem diameter and foliar phosphorus, was observed in the HMA-inoculated plants compared with the HMA-non inoculated plants. No significant differences were identified when PR was added or MSP was inoculated. The results suggest that the use of HMA may improve P absorption and cowpea growth under the evaluated conditions.

Ramírez Gil, Joaquín Guillermo; Osorno Bedoya, Laura; Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter; Morales Osorio, Juan Gonzalo.

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Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length of seedling in vigna unguiculata . The chlorine water has inhibitory effect on root growth ( radical length and number of rootlets in Vigna unguiculata . The fresh weight and dry weight goes on decreasing in chlorine water treatment of Vigna unuiculata over control.Chlorine is essential micronutrient in plant vital processes. However, higher concentration of chlorine inhibits the plant vital process during seed germination of Vigna uguiculata. The higher concentration of chlorine affects the seed germination percentage, leaves number, seedling growth, radical length with rootlets, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling

Sharad Phulari

2013-08-01

70

Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia" in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, ?15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study all belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Some strains from Southern Africa were phylogenetically very distinct, suggesting a new Bradyrhizobium species.

Dakora Felix D

2010-03-01

71

Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata) / Genetic variability and correlations of agronomic characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial gené [...] tico de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%), e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%). O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73%) e da produtividade (19,77%). As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%), e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%). Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important food crop for human population in northeastern Brazil. Studies aiming to increase its yield as well as to improve the grain quality and the insect and diseases resistance are needed. This work aimed to accomplish genetic studies in twenty-eight co [...] wpea advanced lines. The studied lines were chosen after selection for seed color and size and plant viruses resistance. The degree of genetic determination ranged from 4.51% (in pods/peduncle) to 81.74% (in 100-seed weight). The seed yield degree of genetic determination was 34.15%. The highest estimates of genetic gain were 21.73% to 100-seed weight and 19.77% to seed yield. The genotypical correlations were higher than phenotypical and environmental ones. High correlations were found between fruiting branches/plant and seed yield (68.13%) and between agronomic value and seed yield (100%). This result indicates the selection feasibility for most of the studied traits.

Ângela Celis de Almeida, Lopes; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Ranyse Barbosa Querino da, Silva; Francilene Leonel, Campos; Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha.

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Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices for Monocultural Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Production in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A two-season (rainy and dry study was conducted in 1993 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the most productive tillage practice for monocultural cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp production. Completely randomised block design with four replications was used and tillage treatments were : No till-Slash and Burn (NSB, No till-Herbicide applied (NH, Conventional-ploughed and harrowed (CT, and Minimum-ploughed only (MT. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on percentage emergence, leaf and branch number in both seasons. In the first season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by tillage treatments at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing (WAS with NH showing superiority over the other treatments. In the second season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 higher in NSB and MT treatments at 6 and 8 WAS, respectively. Pod and grain yield (t ha-1 were not affected by tillage treatments in the first season but in the second season, NSB (1.84 t ha-1 and MT (1.53 t ha-1 showed significant superiority over other treatments. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while CT produced the highest economie returns. Some soil properties were also influenced with NSB treatment having a higher soil bulk density at sowing and 6 WAS than the other treatments, while NH recorded a higher soil moisture content at 6 WAS than the other treatments. The study also suggests that with optimum precipitation, CT appears a better land preparation option for cowpea production.

Ndaeyo, NU.

1997-01-01

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Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis  

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Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI

2011-11-01

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Genetic variability studies in F2 and F3 generations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp  

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Full Text Available Cowpea is a self pollinated crop and availability of variation is insufficient for further crop improvement. Two geneticallydiverse parents belonging to determinate and indeterminate were crossed (V-1188x Goa local and advanced to F2 and F3generations. The magnitude of variability observed in F2 was more than in F3.

Shashidhar Kurer, Gangaprasad S*, Uma M.S., Shanthakumar, G. and Salimath P.M.

2010-09-01

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Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp as influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed interference in South-West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Weed problem appears to be the most deleterious factor causing between 25 and 60% reduction in potential yield of cowpea. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effect of inter-row spacing and period of weed interference on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07° 15'; 03° 25' E in South Western Nigeria during the early and late wet seasons of 2009. The experiment consisted of eight main plots of weed interference which included initial weed removal for 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS and subsequently weed –infested until harvest as well as initial weed infestation for corresponding periods and thereafter kept weed free until harvest. There were also sub-plot treatments of three inter-row spacing of 60, 75, and 90 cm. All treatments in different combinations were laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. In both trials, the use of inter-row spacing of 60 cm resulted in significant reduction in weed growth as evident in lower weed dry matter production and subsequent higher cowpea pod and grain yields than those of 75 and 90 cm inter-row spacing. Initial weed infestation of up to 3 WAS did not have any adverse effect on crop growth and cowpea grain yields provided the weeds were subsequently removed. On the other hand, cowpea grain yield loss was not significantly averted by keeping the crop weed free for only 3 WAS without subsequent weed removal. In this study, initial weed-infestation for 6 WAS and beyond significantly depressed various crop growth parameter and cowpea grain yield compared with the crop kept weed free throughout its life cycle. In order to obtain optimum yields similar to that of the weed free cowpea field, it was required to keep the crop weed free for 6 WAS and beyond. However, frequent weeding beyond 9 weeks after sowing did not improve cowpea yield significantly and as a matter of fact it may even result in reduction of cowpea grain yield due to mechanical damage of hoe weeding. The practical implication of this finding is that early weeding starting from 3 WAS is very crucial for cowpea production while the critical period of weed removal for optimum yield in cowpea is between 3 and 9 WAS in the forest-savannah transitional zone of south Western Nigeria.

Joseph Adigun

2014-03-01

76

Physiological and Biochemical Variations in Seed Germination of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Cultivars  

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Full Text Available Germination, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG, lipid and sugar compositions were determined in whole ungerminated seed of three cowpea cultivars. The cultivars were chosen for biochemical characteristics based on seed germination and coefficient of velocity of germination tests. Texas cream 40 was able to germinate at very high and low temperatures. Black Crowder demonstrated acceptable germination at high temperatures but negatively affected at low temperature. Mississippi Purple obtained low germination percent and CVG at all temperatures studied. The main sugars present in cowpea seed are sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. Sugar contents were affected by cultivar. Sugar compositions were higher in the cultivars with high percent germination and reduced in the cultivar with lower percent germination suggesting the use of sugar for seed germination process. The most abundant fatty acids in cowpea seed were palmitic acid [CH3(CH214COOH; (16:0], palmitoleic acid [CH3(CH25CH = CH(CH27COOH; (16:1], stearic acid [CH3(CH216COOH; (18:0], oleic acid [CH3(CH27CH = CH(CH27COOH; (18:1], linoleic acid [CH3(CH24CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2(CH26 COOH; (18:2], linolenic acid [CH3CH2CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2CH = CH(CH27COOH; (18:3] and arachidic acid [CH3(CH218COOH; (20:0]. The result shows that the long-chain fatty acid appears to be important in the cowpea seed germination process. Thus, the information provided by this research will facilitate future plant physiological and genetic studies of cowpea cultivars.

Jr. James O. Garner

2008-01-01

77

Microvirga vignae sp. nov., a root nodule symbiotic bacterium isolated from cowpea grown in semi-arid Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of eight strains (BR 3299(T), BR 3296, BR 10192, BR 10193, BR 10194, BR 10195, BR 10196 and BR 10197) isolated from nodules of cowpea collected from a semi-arid region of Brazil showed 97?% similarity to sequences of recently described rhizobial species of the genus Microvirga. Phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (gyrB, recA, dnaK and rpoB), DNA-DNA relatedness and AFLP further indicated that these strains belong to a novel species within the genus Microvirga. Our data support the hypothesis that genes related to nitrogen fixation were obtained via horizontal gene transfer, as sequences of nifH genes were very similar to those found in members of the genera Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium, which are not immediate relatives of the genus Microvirga, as shown by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phenotypic traits, such as host range and carbon utilization, differentiate the novel strains from the most closely related species, Microvirga lotononidis, Microvirga zambiensis and Microvirga lupini. Therefore, these symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are proposed to be representatives of a novel species, for which the name Microvirga vignae sp. nov. is suggested. The type strain is BR3299(T) (?=?HAMBI 3457(T)). PMID:24179178

Radl, Viviane; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Leite, Jakson; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Martins, Lindete Míria Vieira; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Baldani, José Ivo; Zilli, Jerri Edson

2014-03-01

78

Comparative Protection of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walpers Against Field Insect Pests Using Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Cypermethrin (Cymbush  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of ethanolic extract of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL in protecting Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. against field insect pests was ascertained through two field trials at two different planting seasons by comparing with a suitable insecticide, Cymbush 10 EC containing 100 g Cypermethrin per litre of water under natural infestation at Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. The liquid which is viscous and contains Phenolic compounds was first standardized in the screen house using concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% to determine a marginal position of high protective capability and non-toxicity to the leaves. About 1.0% proved most effective and it was subsequently transferred to the field for comparison with Cymbush. CNSL was evaluated through the assessment of Insect Pest Number and Percentage Flower Infestation. From these, results were obtained on pod characteristics, yield and yield components, which showed that the 1.0% formulation of CNSL selected was as effective as Cymbush showing a comparatively higher protective ability.

T.I. Ofuya

2010-01-01

79

Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.  

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Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

Naheed Ikram

2012-10-01

80

A high yielding short duration cowpea (Vigna unguiculata.L variety ‘Hridya’  

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Full Text Available Breeding experiments was conducted at Onattukara Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kayamkulam,Kerala AgriculturalUniversity to evolve a high yielding cowpea variety with synchronized maturity during 2000-09. Local cultivars and releasedvarieties like V-2, CO-3, COVU-358, COVU-8456, V-118 and COVU-623 were used as parents in the programme. A shortduration cowpea variety with synchronized maturity was identified and released as ‘Hridya’ at the state level variety releasecommittee during 2010. This variety was developed by mass selection of the lacal Kuttipayar.The important charecteristics of thevariety are the height is 45 cm, pod colour is green, seed colour is straw, and the 100 seed weight is 4.67g. The productivity ofthe variety is 9.5 q ha-1and the duration is 55 days.

M.R. Bindu*, Sverup John, G. Suja, M.Indira and T.N. Vilasini

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Fresh Pod Yield and Some Pod Characteristics of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes from Turkey  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the fresh pod yield, some plant and pod characteristics of eight local cowpea genotypes and two registered cowpea cultivars as control during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 plant growth season in Samsun. Plant height, number of branches per plant, days to first pod setting, fresh pod harvest period, number of pods per plant, average pod weight, pod length, width, thickness, flesh thickness and seed coat, flower and pod colour were determined. Simple correlations were also calculated between fresh pod yield per plant and all investigated traits. The highest fresh pod yield per plant was in G10 genotype (110.23 g plant-1. This was followed by registered cowpea cv. Karagoz-86 (81.92 g plant-1, Akkiz-86 (58.12 g plant-1 and Kirazlik1 (54.55 g plant-1. Positive and highly significant (P<0.01 correlations were found between fresh pod yield per plant and fresh pod harvest period, number of pods per plant, average pod weight, length and width. There were also positive and significant (P<0.05 correlations among fresh pod yield per plant, number of branches per plant and pod thickness.

Aysun Peksen

2004-01-01

82

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality  

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Full Text Available Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays and cowpea (Vigna sinensis monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on forage dry weight, where dry matter yield was increased by intercropping as compared with maize and cowpea sole crops. It was related with a higher consumption consumption of environmental resources, such as photosynthetically active radiation and soil moisture, by intercropping. Maize forage quality in terms of crude protein was improved by intercropping. It was because of more nitrogen availability for maize in intercropping compared with its sole crop.

Ahmad GHANBARI

2009-11-01

83

Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils  

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Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

José B. M. Coelho

2013-04-01

84

Insecticidal effect of Jatropha curcas oil on the aphid Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the main insect pests associated with cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in Niger  

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The insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas has been evaluated on various crop pests. Oil concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15% were first tested on the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) as part of an efficacy test conducted in the laboratory. During a second stage, the insecticidal efficacy of 5 and 7.5% oil concentrations was evaluated on the main pests infesting cowpea crops (Vigna unguiculata L.) as part of a field test conducted at the University of Niamey (Niger)....

Abdoul Habou, Zakari; Haougui, A.; Mergeai, Guy; Haubruge, Eric; Toudou, Adam; Verheggen, Franc?ois

2011-01-01

85

Induced genetic variability for quantitative traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variability in a crop plant can be increased either by hybridization among diverse genotypes or through induced mutation. To harness more variability, mutation has been superimposed on hybridization in several crops. An attempt has been made to study the variability generated by hybridization and mutagenesis in cowpea in the present investigation. The evaluation of about 200 germplasm lines of cowpea, revealed the superiority of C-11 and C-70 in respect of pod length, number of pods per plant and boldness, while KM-1, distinctly determinate in nature, thus acting as source for creation of different plant types which is an important aspect in cowpea breeding. C-152 is a locally adopted variety but lacking in some of the desirable features that are present in C-11,KM-1 and C-70.Therefore it was planned to attempt hybridization with C- 152 as base and C-11,KM-1 and C-70 as the different sources of specific features. But as outlined above, since the combination of mutation is expected to release more variability subjected for an appropriate dose of gamma radiation. The resulting M2 and F2M2 populations of different crosses were evaluated for comparing their relative efficiency in generating variability of quantitative characters. The F2M2 population of C-152 x C-11 showed highest mean values for plant height, number of pods per plant and yield. Variance and range values were high in F2M2 populations for all the characters except number of seeds per pod. The irradiated population of C-152 x KM-1 proved to be superior in producing greater frequency of transgressive segregants for individual traits. Irradiated heterozygous population produced more variability than that of irradiated parent (C-152 M2) and control. (author)

2008-08-12

86

Determination of Genotypical Differences for Leaf Characteristics in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Genotypes  

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Full Text Available Leaf characteristics of ten cowpea genotypes, including registered Cv. Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, from diverse locations in Turkey and relationships among leaf characteristics such as length of leaf, petiole, petiolule and terminal leaflet, terminal leaflet width and leaf area were determined. Significant differences were found among genotypes in terms of leaf and petiole length while highly significant differences found for petiolule length. There were no significant differences among genotypes for width and length of terminal leaflet and leaf area. Terminal leaflet length positively and significantly correlated with petiole and petiolule length. Positive and highly significant correlations were found between the other leaf characteristics.

Erkut Peksen

2005-01-01

87

Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.  

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Full Text Available Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152 of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi and mean square deviations (s2di from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment, environment (linear weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability analysis, the genotype IL3 was found stable across the seasons fortest weight. Genotypes such as M17, Goa local and Bailhongal local were stable and superior across all the environments for seed yield.

Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

2010-12-01

88

Determination of Selected Engineering Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Related to Design of Processing Machine  

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Full Text Available In this study, some selected engineering properties of two improved varieties of cowpea (Sampea 7 and Tvx 3236 grown in Nigeria were determined. The properties of Sampea 7 are: Length (9.48 ± 1.46 mm,width (6.75 ± 0.66 mm, thickness (5.35 ± 0.73 mm, roundness (2.38 ± 0.28, sphericity (3.64 ± 0.46, mass (48.0 ± 10.0 g, volume (1.04 ± 0.26 mm3, density (1.00 ± 0.28 kg/m3, surface area (10.74 ± 1.78 cm2, angle of internal friction (11.05 ± 2.07°, angle of repose (20.50± 2.38º and moisture content (7.01 ± 0.05% db. The compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive strength, shear trength and torsion strength of Sampea 7 are 66.25 ±16.12 N, 65.53±15.51 N, 64.55 ±14.55 N, 65.20 ±15.50 N and 65.00 ±16.10 N, respectively while its hardness is 7.98 ± 0.03 kg. The properties of Tvx 3236 are: Length (7.76 ± 0.56 mm, width (5.25 ± 0.14 mm, thickness (4.11 ± 0.42 mm, roundness (1.42 ± 0.14, sphericity(5.12 ± 1.00, mass (32.0 ± 8.0 g, volume (0.70 ± 0.10 mm3, density (0.48 ± 0.20 kg/m3, surface area (8.80 ± 1.02 cm2, angle of nternal friction (9.23 ± 1.58°, angle of repose (21.05± 1.26º and moisture content (6.7± 0.22%db. The compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive strength, shear strength and torsion strength for Tvx 3236 are 93.65 ±13.62 N, 93.55 ±13.71 N, 92.56 ±13.70 N, 93.50 ±13.60 N and 92.75 ±13.65 N, respectively while its hardness is11.96 ± 3.57 kg. Statistical tests on the properties showed that dimensions, compressive strength, tensile strength, hardness, abrasive strength, shear strength and torsion strength of the two cowpea varieties are highly significant at 5% level; roundness, sphericity, volume, surface area and angle of internal friction are significant at 5% level; while mass, density, angle of repose and moisture content are not significant at 5% level.

Musliu Olushola Sunmonu

2010-12-01

89

Comparative assessment of feeding damage by pod-sucking bugs (Heteroptera: Coreoidea) associated with cowpea, Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding trials were conducted on three (young, mid-fill and mature) developmental stages of cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata pods in the screenhouse using fourth instar nymphs and adults of Anoplocnemis curvipes (Fabricius), Riptortus dentipes (Fabricius), Mirperus jaculus (Thunberg), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål and C. shadabi Dolling. Anoplocnemis curvipes was observed to be the most damaging coreoid species causing a yield reduction of 26.4-51.7% followed by R. dentipes (24.4-29.4%), M. jaculus (21.9-26.9%), C. tomentosicollis (17.9-22.4%) and C. shadabi (15.9-20.4%). The fourth instar nymphs of each pod-sucking bug species caused a significantly higher cowpea yield reduction than their respective adults. Similarly, infestation on young pods compared to mid-fill and mature stages resulted in significantly higher yield reduction. The results suggest that infestation levels of two fourth instar nymphs of A. curvipes or three fourth instar nymphs of the other four pod-sucking bug species per young pod should be adequate for screening of cowpea varieties for resistance to the coreoid bugs. PMID:17298676

Soyelu, O L; Akingbohungbe, A E

2007-02-01

90

Physiological and Biochemical Effects of ?-Irradiation on Cowpea Plants (Vigna sinensis under Salt Stress  

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Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the possible role of ?-irradiation in alleviating soil salinity stress during plant growth was investigated. Increasing salinity in the soil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl decreased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total carbohydrate content and mineral uptake compared to control, while increased total phenol content, proline, total free amino acids and lipid peroxidation. Seed irradiation with gamma rays significantly increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrate, total phenol, proline, total free amino acids and the contents of N, P, K +, Ca+2 and Mg+2 compared to non irradiated ones under salinity. On the other hand, irradiation with gamma rays decreased lipid peroxidation, Na+ and Cl- contents which may contribute in part to activate processes involved in the alleviation of the harmful effect of salt at all concentrations used (25, 50 and 100 mM except at the high concentration (200 mM. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities among all treatments.

Asmaa M. MOGAZY

2013-05-01

91

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cowpea Mutant (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp as Revealed by RAPD Marker  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study is examine the effect of different doses gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and combination of both gamma rays with EMS on cowpea seeds and to identify DNA polymorphism among the mutants through a RAPD marker analysis. The mutants showing the differences in morphological traits showed DNA polymorphism in PCR profile amplified by RAPD marker. Ten random decamer primers revealed a high DNA polymorphism among the mutant populations like tall, dwarf, leaf; flower and seed mutants were analyzed. Ten primers produced a total of 60 amplified products. Among these 48 were monomorphic with an average of 53.84 per cent polymorphism. Only five primers (PG-04, PG-05, PG-07, OPA-05 and OPA-07 showed highest polymorphism. The primer OPA-02 gave the lowest polymorphism (22.27%. Highest genetic coefficient similarity (0.76 was observed between leaf and tall; whereas least similarity (0.58 was observed between control and leaf. In a Dendrogram constructed based on genetic similarity coefficients, t

Devarajan Dhanavel

2013-06-01

92

Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Results Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape. A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape, was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54?cM to 67.54?cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82 in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89 in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96?cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1 gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes.

Pottorff Marti

2012-06-01

93

Respuesta fisiológica del Frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp) a la coinoculación de bacterias Diazotróficas de los géneros Azotobacter y Rhizobium en suelos del Departamento del Cesar  

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Obando Castellanos , Dolly Melissa (2012) Respuesta fisiológica del Frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp) a la coinoculación de bacterias Diazotróficas de los géneros Azotobacter y Rhizobium en suelos del Departamento del Cesar. Maestría thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

2012-01-01

94

Physiological, biochemical and agromorphological responses of five cowpea genotypes (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to water deficit under glasshouse conditions  

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Full Text Available Five genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, Bambey 21, Gorom local, KVX61-1, Mouride and TN88-63, grown in pots under glasshouse conditions, were submitted to water deficit by withholding irrigation at vegetative stage (T1 for 14 days, and at flowering stage (T2 for 12 days. Effect of this stress on leaf water potential, gas exchanges, foliar proline, total protein and starch contents, maximal quantum yield of photochemistry (fp0, root volume and yield components was determined. Leaf water potential decreased significantly only for Mouride and TN88-63 (from -0.55 to -0.92 MPa on average at T2 while root volume, gas exchanges and foliar starch content decreased for the five genotypes under water stress conditions at T1 and T2. fp0 was not affected during water deficit at T1. Significant decrease of fp0 was observed at T2 on the 6th day after stress induction (Dasi for Gorom, KVX61-1 and TN88-63 and the 10th Dasi for Bambey 21 and Mouride. Proline was significantly accumulated during water stress at the 2 stages, Mouride and TN88-63 showed the highest contents in the case of T2 (2.88 and 3.3 mg.g-1 DM respectively. Water deficit did not affect significantly the total proteins contents for the 5 varieties at T1 and T2. Our results showed that the 5 varieties involved drought avoidance mechanism by decreasing stomatal conductance and transpiration at the 2 stages. Proline accumulation, maintenance of total protein content and starch decrease under stress conditions at T1 and T2 could probably contribute in turgor maintenance. In addition, these solutes contributed probably in the protection of photosynthetic apparatus (PSII against denaturation notably during water stress at flowering stage. At the two stages water stress reduced significantly seed number per pod and seed number per plant but the genotypic variation observed revealed that Bambey 21 was less affected than Gorom, TN88-63 and Mouride whereas KVX61-1 was most affected. Bambey 21 proved to be tolerant to water stress at the two stages, Gorom, Mouride and TN88-63 were intermediate and KVX61-1 sensitive.

Ndèye N. Diop

2007-01-01

95

Minimising Insecticide Application in the Control of Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L) WALP) in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Many commercial cowpea farmers control insect pests on cowpea with synthetic chemicals and may sometimes spray their farms during the growing season as many as 8 to 10 times. This leads to health hazards and environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to reduce the number of times, cypermethrin (conventional chemical) is applied before harvest and still, produce the expected cowpea grains. The experiments were carried out in two agro-ecological zones - Asaba and Abraka of Delta S...

Egho, E. O.; Enujeke, E. C.

2012-01-01

96

Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados / Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. [...] Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil). Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais) com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna. Abstract in english Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress [...] on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil). The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition) with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

Coelho, José B. M.; Barros, Maria de F. C.; Bezerra Neto, Egídio; Correa, Marcus M..

97

Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp  

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The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

2005-08-15

98

Atuação de rizóbios com rizobactéria promotora de crescimento em plantas na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. = Rhizobias performance with rhizobacteria growth promoter in plants in the cowpea crop (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a potencialidade da colonização conjunta em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. por Paenibacillus e Bradyrhizobium em diferentes métodos de inoculação que proporcionam crescimento visando a uma agricultura sustentável. Os trabalhos foram realizados na Empresa Pernambucana de PesquisaAgropecuária (IPA, com Argissolo Amarelo (Itapirema, Estado de Pernambuico, dois modos de inoculação (semente e solo em cultivar de caupi (IPA-205. Foi determinado: número e matéria seca dos nódulos; matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA e raiz (MSR; relação MSPA/MSR; Nitrogênio acumulado na MSPA; altura da planta. As estirpes de rizóbios apresentaram comportamento instável nos diferentes métodos de inoculação. A eficiência simbiótica da colonização conjunta do sistema radicular por Paenibacillus e as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium nos diferentes métodos de inoculação apresentou-se variável. Os benefícios têm sido aqui evidentes e os fatos informados na literatura podem direcionar futuros estudos que ajudem a explicar os comportamentos acima relatados sobre diferentes mecanismos de ação de cada célula bacteriana.The aim of this work was to verify the cocolonization potential in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. for Paenibacillus andBradyrhizobium, using different inoculation methods to provide growth, seeking a maintainable agriculture. The study was carried out at Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária, in Yellow Argisol (Itapirema, Pernambuco State. Two methods of inoculation (seed and soil in cowpea crop (IPA-205 was used. The following aspects wereevaluated: number and dry matter nodule; shoot dry matter (SDM and root (RDM; relation SDM/RDM; nitrogen accumulated in the SDM and plant height. The rhizobial strains showed low stability in the different inoculation methods. The symbiotic efficiency of the cocolonization for Paenibacillus and the Bradyrhizobium strains in the different inoculation methods were variable. Results showed that the benefits here are evident. And, this literature review can address future studies aiming to explain the behaviors mentioned above under different mechanisms of action of each bacterial cell.

Valéria Nogueira da Silva

2006-07-01

99

Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae  

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Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

M.P. Sales

2001-01-01

100

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicil [...] ins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

Sales, M.P.; Pimenta, P.P.; Paes, N.S.; Grossi-de-Sá, M.F.; Xavier-Filho, J..

 
 
 
 
101

[Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was developed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:18589575

López Guerra, Claudia Maritza; Bressani, Ricardo

2008-03-01

102

Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita  

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In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

1988-01-01

103

The Effects of Dietary Raw and Heat-Treated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata on Growth and Intestinal Histomorphometry of Pigs  

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Full Text Available To investigate the effect of raw and heat treated cowpea on the GIT and growth performance of pigs, 48 weanling piglets were divided into 4 groups and fed diets containing either 30% soymeal (T1 as controls, or 30% heat-treated cowpea (T2, or 15% heat-treated and 15% raw cowpea (T3, or 30% raw cowpea (T4. Phase 1 of the feeding trial started immediately after weaning and lasted for 18 weeks. From the 19th week, T4 group was subdivided into 4 groups and they were fed either T1, T2, T3 or T4 for 16 week. Average Daily Gain (ADG was lowest in T4 group both in phase 1 and phase 2 (p< 0.01. Marked hypertrophy of the villi and crypt hyperplasia were seen in the jejunum and duodenum (p< 0.01 of T4 group. The diminished growth and marked enteropathology in the T4 group was attributed to the heat sensitive ANFs in the raw cowpea. However, in phase 2 of the trial, when substitution feeding was implemented in the T4 group, they showed marked improvement in feed consumption and weight gain. The catch-up growth seen after the introduction of substitution feeding, indicates that the antinutritional effects induced by the raw cowpeas are reversible. Heat treated cowpeas could make a valuable contribution in substituting soyabeans in animal feed.

Ekambaram Umapathy

2008-01-01

104

Identification of Novel Resistance Gene Sources to Cowpea Aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)  

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The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p<0.01) were observed with respect to fertility, larval development, adult longevity, life span, multiplication rate and intrinsic rate of increase. KANANNADO an...

2013-01-01

105

Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield  

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Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were cropped continuously for 3 years in plots with a natural infestation of 24-53 microsclerotia g(-1) soil at the onset of the experiment. Next, a susceptible cowpea variety was grown to...

2008-01-01

106

Effect of Sowing Distances on Edible Pod Yields and Yield Components of Three Vegetable Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis Subspecies, Grown in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Northeast Thailand in the 2006 (August to October to investigate effect of sowing distances on edible pod yields and yield components of three vegetable cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis subspecies. The experiment was laid in a split plot arranged in a Randomize Complete Block Design with four replications. Five sowing distances were used as main plots (50?10, 50?20, 50?30, 50?40 and 50?50 cm between rows and within rows, respectively and three cowpea cultivars were used as subplots (MSU 1, KKU 40 and SNU 1. The results showed that there were no statistical differences due to cultivars on total dry weight ha?1, number of branches plant?1, marketable pods ha?1, 100-seed weight and total fresh weight of pods ha?1 where in most cases genetic potential of the three cultivars were similar. Number of off standard pods was significantly highest with KKU 40 (6.13 pods plant?1, whilst MSU 1 and SNU 1 cultivars gave smaller values but both were similar (4.80 and 4.53 pods plant?1, respectively. The closest sowing distances (T1 gave significantly higher total dry weight ha?1 and number of off standard pods plant?1 than other treatments (T2-T5. An increase in sowing distances significantly increased number of branches plant?1 up to T2 but T2 was similar to other higher sowing distances (T3-T5. Total marketable pods (12,196.50 kg ha?1 and total fresh weight of edible pods (12,588.88 kg ha?1 were significantly highest with T3 where T3 was the most suitable sowing distances for either of the three cowpea cultivars (50?30 cm between rows and within rows, respectively.

Sinsiri Wantana

2007-01-01

107

Gibberellic Acid (GA3 Influence on Vegetative Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of GA3 on the growth and development of cowpea cultivars Blackeye and Tswana. Exogenous application of GA3, 7 days after emergence at 30, 60 or 90 mg L-1 significantly increased cowpea plant height, first node height, leaf area and leaf number/plant, nodulation, plant dry matter accumulation, pod length, pod number/plant, seed number/pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield ha-1. Gibberellic acid had no significant effect on cowpea plant senescence. The results of this study suggests that exogenous application of GA3 can be used to modify growth and development of some cowpea varieties.

V. Emongor

2007-01-01

108

Fresh Pod Yield and Some Pod Characteristics of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes from Turkey  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the fresh pod yield, some plant and pod characteristics of eight local cowpea genotypes and two registered cowpea cultivars as control during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 plant growth season in Samsun. Plant height, number of branches per plant, days to first pod setting, fresh pod harvest period, number of pods per plant, average pod weight, pod length, width, thickness, flesh thickness and seed coat, flower and pod colour were determined. Simple correlations ...

Aysun Peksen

2004-01-01

109

Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

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Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

B. Darfour

2012-03-01

110

Transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 confer resistance to storage pests, bruchid beetles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays. PMID:18784925

Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

2008-12-01

111

Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp under inoculation and cover crops  

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Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp. recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N.A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under study were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

Cleópatra Saraiva do Nascimento

2008-04-01

112

Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação / Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under inoculation and cover crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdi [...] vididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp.) recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N. Abstract in english A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four rep [...] licates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split-plot and bi-weekly plant samplings for the split-split-plot. The green manures under study were pearl millet - Pennisetum americanum; velvet beans - Stizolobium aterrimum; or spontaneous vegetation, while nitrogen sources were Native rhizobial population; nitrogen fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea; inoculation with RELARE recommended rhizobial strains - BR 3301 + BR 3302; or UFRPE recommended rhizobial strains - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Cowpea cultivar Patativa was used, which is recommended by regional extension services. From seven days after germination up to final physiological maturity bi-weekly two-plant samples were collected for nodule number and dry mass determination and aerial part dry mass determination. From 60 days after germination weekly harvests of each split-plot were conducted for grain yield determination. Velvet bean increased uninoculated cowpea nodulation. Cowpea inoculation with recommended strains or native population increase allowed biomass and grain production similar to fertilization with 50 kg ha-1 of N.

Nascimento, Cleópatra Saraiva do; Lira Junior, Mario Andrade; Stamford, Newton Pereira; Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão Santos; Sousa, Clayton Albuquerque.

113

Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

2007-12-01

114

Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch). Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC). A [...] s cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora. Abstract in english This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch). The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC) cam [...] pus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant. Evaluations were performed three and five days after infestation by visual counting of the adults and nymph forms present on the plants. A variance and Tukey analysis were done with the obtained data at a 5% level of probability. The Epace 10 and Patativa cultivars were less preferred by A. craccivora.

João Gutemberg Leite, Moraes; Ervino, Bleicher.

115

Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

P. Van Damme

1986-01-01

116

AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME COWPEA ECOTYPES (VIGNA UNGUILATA L. GROWN IN TURKEY; VEGETATION TIME, SEED AND POD CHARACTERISTICS  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to observe the yield and yield components of cowpea cultivars available and cowpea lines, which are grown in nine local areas in Turkey. The study including two cultivars and nine ecotypes, was carried out with randomizes block design with three replications in 1996-1997. Significant differences were observed between the cultivars as in the seed yield, biological yield and vegetation time, according to the two years' combined results. The data indicate great variation within the cowpea, regarding all characters. Factor analysis based principal component (PCA showed two factors, representing 99.13 % of the total variation. PC1 explaining 98.69 % of the total variance is highly correlated with seed and pod size factors. PC2 may be considered as the time of vegetation time and yield per plant. Eleven examined cultivars were separated in two groups by factor analysis and cluster analysis.

H. VURAL

2007-08-01

117

Induction of Genetic Variation in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) by Gamma Irradiation  

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Cowpea IT84S2246D mutants were screened for useful agronomic traits. Dry seeds of cowpea ’IT 84S2246D were exposed to gamma irradiation from cobalt 60 source at 196 and 245 Gy dosages. The non-irradiated parent was used as the control. Identification and selections were carried out at the second generation (M2). The eight mutants selected from 245 Gy population included plants with light green pods, plants with leaflets having tendrils, early maturing plants with broad leaflets, ...

2007-01-01

118

Varietal Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke Race SG5 Infestation  

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The parasitic plant Striga gesnerioides (Willd) Vatke is becoming a serious threat to cowpea production in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 7 races of S. gesnerioides exhibiting specific virulence have been identified. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 spreads in northern Cameroon and to study the inheritance of the resistance. Twelve accessions of cowpea, IT98K-205-8, ‘IT98K-503-1’, ‘IT98K-1092-1’, ‘IT99K-216-1-1’, ‘IT98...

Noubissie Tchiagam, Jean Baptiste; Bell, Joseph Martin; Guissai Birwe, Sirina; Gonne, Sodea; Youmbi, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

119

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

2001-04-01

120

Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

Biswas, P.K.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of De Cortication and Roasting on Trypsin Inhibitors and Tannin Contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Seeds  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9 , for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73, for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52 for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32 for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60 for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value.

Nasara Gumaa Balail

2014-01-01

122

A Varietal Screening of Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata for a High Resistance to Pseudocercospora cruenta (Sacc. Deighton in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This investigation consisted of four experiments, i.e., two pot experiments were carried out under glasshouse conditions and another two experiments were conducted under field conditions. The glasshouse pot experiments were carried out at Mahasarakham University, whilst the field experiments were carried out at Khon Kaen University. Twelve cowpea cultivars were used for both the first glasshouse and the first field experiments. The second glasshouse experiment had 14 cowpea cultivars and the same number of cultivars was used for the second field experiment. The four experiments aim to search for outstanding cowpea cultivars where they manifest high resistance to Pseudocercospora leaf spot disease for further breeding programme. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications was used for both glasshouse experiments, whilst a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications was used for both field experiments. The results showed that eight out of fourteen cowpea cultivars of the glasshouse and field experiments possessed a ranking score of Immunity (I. They were ranked accordingly as the best gene resources for future breeding programme. They include IT84E-1-108 as the best cultivar followed by KKU35, Ubonrachatanee1, KKU305, KKU264B, KKU264R, KVC#7 and IT86D-812 with seed yields of the field Experiment 2 of 1,480, 944, 864, 860, 738, 714 and 614 kg ha-1, respectively. The spread out of the disease was encouraged most by high relative humidity of the environmental conditions.

N. Sinsiri

2006-01-01

123

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

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Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

2012-12-01

124

Improved Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation in Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.  

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA1305.1, with a hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) and a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene interrupted with an intron, was used for transformation of Vigna unguiculata cotyledonary node explants. High concentration of acetosyringone (200 ?M) in the Agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium with 1 g L-1 L-cysteine, 250 mg L-1 Na-thiosulphate and 150 mg L-1 dithioth...

Raveendar, S.; Ignacimuthu, S.

2010-01-01

125

Evaluation of Local Spices as Biopesticides for the Control of Ootheca mutabilis, Shalbera and Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Stal. on Cultivated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted at the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the impact of aqueous extracts of five local spices as biopesticides for the control of O. mutabilis and C. tomentosicollis on cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. The spices evaluated were Capsicum annum L., Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal, Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, Allium sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The extracts were applied at 3, 4 and 5% concentrations, respectively to study toxicity, repellency, pod and leaf damage as well as grain yield. The experiment was designed as a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. Results obtained showed that the biopesticides significantly (P<0.05 reduced insect population, offered greater protection and promoted better grain yield compared to the control. However, amongst the spices, P. guineense consistently induced greater protection by bringing down the population of insects and promoting grain yield. The promising use of spices as biopesticides is discussed since they are available local resources for poor farmers and are environmentally friendly options for pest control.

Ime O. Udo

2012-08-01

126

Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea) from Northern Nigeria  

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Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory ...

Wada, B. Y.; Abubakar, B. Y.

2013-01-01

127

Leaf Photosynthetic Metabolism and N2 Fixation at the Flowering Stage in Three Genotypes of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

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Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cultivars of cowpea is not yet understood. The hypothesis proposed by this study is that lack of basic technology, including sufficient mineral nutrition, combined with periods of water shortage during the crop cycle leads to insufficient photosynthetic metabolism in the flowering stage in nodulated plants. Two experiments were conducted in northeastern Brazil, one under field conditions and another in a greenhouse at near optimal conditions. Two...

Marciel Teixeira Oliveira; Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon; Ederson Akio Kido; Mauro Guida Santos

2012-01-01

128

Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

Márquez, R; Córdova, T; Castejón, L; Higuera, A.

129

Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds  

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Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6, en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor, tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1, el mejor control de malezas (72,1% y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%. Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela using cowpea mutant ON-30(6 and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor, weeds control every 15 days (three times using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1. A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1, the best weed control (72,1% and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22% were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

R Márquez

2003-10-01

130

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

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Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

F.A.Ajayi

2006-01-01

131

Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria  

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A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50%) of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP)...

2003-01-01

132

Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), cultivar BRS-Milênio / Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), BRS-Milênio cultivar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio) foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando [...] -se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1): 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1): ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra). O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados. Abstract in english Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio) was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty [...] acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1): 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1) were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample). The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

Frota, Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes.

133

Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, cultivar BRS-Milênio Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, BRS-Milênio cultivar  

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Full Text Available O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando-se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1: 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1: ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra. O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados.Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1: 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1 were: iron - 6.8, zinc - 4.1, manganese - 1.5, phosphorus - 510.0 and potassium - 1430.0. Lipid content was 2.2%, and its fatty acids profile: 29.4% saturated and 70.7% unsaturated. The caloric value was estimated as 323.4 kcal.100 g-1 of seeds. A low trypsin inhibitory activity was found (8.0 TIU.mg-1 of sample. The amino acid profile is in accordance with the reference amino acid standard, except for the sulfur amino acid deficiency, suggesting the need to encourage the combination of this bean with other food sources. Results suggest that cowpea presents high contents of energy, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and a low trypsin inhibitory activity. Although it contains low amounts of lipids, its composition presents a high unsaturated fatty acid profile.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

2008-06-01

134

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, coletados em Roraima Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata blight in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com sintoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado. Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani.The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected in two ecosystems (savannah and forest in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates. Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

Kátia L. Nechet

2006-10-01

135

Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia spp., associados à mela do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), coletados em Roraima / Characterization of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with cowpea web (Vigna unguiculata) blight in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mela causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo Thanatephorus cucumeris) é a principal doença que afeta a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) no Estado de Roraima. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar 28 isolados de Rhizoctonia spp. obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi com si [...] ntoma de mela, coletados em ecossistemas de mata e de cerrado em Roraima. Foram avaliados o número de núcleos, a taxa de crescimento micelial, a formação e o tamanho de microescleródios, o grupo de anastomose e realizado teste de patogenicidade. Um isolado proveniente do cerrado foi identificado como binucleado e os demais isolados, de mata e de cerrado, como multinucleados. A taxa de crescimento micelial, em meio batata-dextrose-agar a 25 ºC e escuro contínuo, variou de 2,1-5,3 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de mata e de 2,7-5,8 cm.dia-1 para os isolados de cerrado. Nestas mesmas condições, após três a quatro dias foi observada a formação de microescleródios. Dois grupos foram diferenciados: um grupo com formação de 10-50 microescleródios.placa-1, em forma de tufos, inicialmente brancos e tornando-se marrom claro, de 1-2 mm (maioria dos isolados de mata) e outro grupo com mais de 100 microescleródios.placa-1, de coloração marrom e 68-541 µm (maioria dos isolados de cerrado). Dos 28 isolados coletados, 24 foram identificados como pertencentes ao grupo de anastomose GA1-1A de Rhizoctonia solani. Abstract in english The web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris) is an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Roraima state, Brazil. The aim of this work was to characterize 28 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from cowpea plants with web blight, collected i [...] n two ecosystems (savannah and forest) in Roraima state. The characteristics evaluated were nuclear number, radial growth rate, the presence and morphology of microsclerotia, anastomosis group (AG) and pathogenicity test. One savannah isolate was binucleate and the others, savannah and forest isolates, were multinucleate. The radial growth rate on potato-dextrose-aga, at 25 ºC in the dark, was 2.1 to 5.3 cm.day-1 for forest isolates and 2.7 to 5.8 cm.day-1 for savannah isolates. In these conditions, after three to four days, microsclerotia formation was observed. Two types of microsclerotia were differentiated: one type of 10 to 50 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, formed as flat sclerotia mass, which was white when young and pale brown at maturity, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (most forest isolates) and another type of 100 microsclerotia.Petri dish-1, brown color, 68 to 541 µm in diameter (most savannah isolates). Among 28 Rhizoctonia isolates collected in Roraima state, 24 anastomosed with AG1-1A of Rhizoctonia solani.

Nechet, Kátia L.; Halfeld-Vieira, Bernardo A..

136

Interaction between pod age and position on damage to cowpea Vigna unguiculata by hemipteran pod-sucking bugs.  

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Laboratory and screenhouse studies were carried out to assess the relationship between pod age and pod position of cowpea and damage by different pod bug species. The coreids Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl and Riptortus dentipes Fabricius caused significant damage to young pods of cultivated genotypes, in contrast to the coreid Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius and the pentatomid Aspavia armigera Fabricius which exhibited minor feeding activity. Percent seed damage declined with pod age, the critical stage for pod bug infestation being when pods were about eight days old. Clavigralla tomentosicollis and R. dentipes caused significantly higher damage to pods located within the leaf canopy, thus behaving differently from Anoplocnemis curvipes which showed a distinct preference for pods growing above the leaf canopy. The feeding activity of Aspavia armigera was not affected by the position of pods on the plant. Overall, the study suggests that cowpea genotypes with a short flowering period and pods held above the leaf canopy offer the most promise in the management of pod-sucking pests. PMID:11818040

Koona, P; Osisanya, E O; Jackai, L E; Tamo, M; Tonye, J; Ngeve, J M

2001-12-01

137

Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined to form nine treatments which were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated three times to form twenty seven plots. The result showed that Phosphorus fertilizer had a significant (p<0.05 effect on the entire growth and yield parameter assessed in both years. 40 kg/ha of phosphorus gave a significantly higher number of nodulation count/plant (34.95 and 32.24, number of pod/plant (20.64 and 20.24, seed weight/plant (39.56 and 37.64, pods weight/plant (51.45 and 45.31 and seed weight/ha (1.56 and 1.52 t/ha in both years. The spacing also had a significant (p<0.05 response on almost the entire growth and yield parameter assessed except on the weight of 100 seeds. Spacing of 30×60 cm did not differ significantly with 45x80 cm which gave similar result in the no. of pod/plant, seed weight/plant, pods weight/plant and seed weight (t/ha in both years.

E. Ndor

2012-07-01

138

Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope  

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Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

2009-01-01

139

RESPONSE OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA L. GENOTYPES TO NATIVE SOIL RHIZOBIA FOR NODULATION, YIELD AND SOIL PROPERTIES  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil, on comparision of both the check varieties, COCP-702 performed significantly better than RC-101 in most of the characters under study. The highest soil microbial biomass carbon, i.e., 234.70 ?g g-1, soil available N, i.e., 256.56 kg ha-1 and K, i.e., 205.00 kg ha-1 was shown by check variety COCP-702. PGCP-4 recorded significantly more number of nodules plant-1, i.e., 74.33, N concentration in grain, i.e., 4.76%. PGCP-6 gave significantly more grain yield, i.e., 1893.75 kg ha-1, plant N, i.e., 2.15 %, plant protein content, i.e., 13.43 %. This variety also recorded highest N uptake by grain, i.e., 81.81 kg ha-1 and total plant uptake, i.e., 97.64 kg ha-1. Response of COCP-702, PGCP-4 and PGCP-6 to native soil rhizobia were found to be significantly more than the other cowpea genotypes.

SONAM BINJOLA

2013-12-01

140

Evaluation of eight varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Asaba agro-ecological environment, Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted during the early planting season of 2011 at Asaba,Delta State, Nigeria to evaluate eight varieties of cowpea (IT80D-699, IT82 (e-18,Ife Brown, IT870-9411 and TVX3236, IT90K-277-2, IT870-9411 and IT828-146for adaptation in the altisol of Asaba agro ecological zone with a view torecommending the suitable varieties to farmers in the area for planting. The resultsshowed that significant differences (P<0.05 existed among the varieties tested in allthe growth characters measured. Ife Brown, IT8482246-4 and TVX3236 varietiesperformed significantly better both in the growth and yield as well as yield relatedparameters when compared to IT800D-699, IT82(e-18, IT870-9411 and IT828-146varieties. This study hereby recommends Ife Brown, IT848-2246-4 and TVX3236varieties which performed appreciably better to farmers in Asaba agro ecologicalzone for planting.

* Agbogidi, O. M

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Methods: The samples were cooked in both regular pans and pressure cookers with and without previous soaking. Mineral analyses were carried out by Spectrometry of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Results: The results showed high contents of iron and zinc in raw samples as well as in cooked ones, with the use of regular pan resulting in greater percentage of iron retention and the use of pressure cooker ensuring higher retention of zinc. Conclusions: The best retention of iron was found in the BRS Aracê cultivar prepared in a regular pan with previous soaking. This cultivar may be indicated for cultivation and human consumption. The best retention of zinc was found for the BRS Tumucumaque cultivar prepared in a pressure cooker without previous soaking.

Elenilda J. Pereira

2014-02-01

142

Leaf Photosynthetic Metabolism and N2 Fixation at the Flowering Stage in Three Genotypes of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in cultivars of cowpea is not yet understood. The hypothesis proposed by this study is that lack of basic technology, including sufficient mineral nutrition, combined with periods of water shortage during the crop cycle leads to insufficient photosynthetic metabolism in the flowering stage in nodulated plants. Two experiments were conducted in northeastern Brazil, one under field conditions and another in a greenhouse at near optimal conditions. Two of the principal cultivars selected for northeastern (Mulato and Gurguéia and one for northern Brazil (Milênio were evaluated regarding physiological, biochemical and biometric variables between the late vegetative and early reproductive stages under mineral nutrition and BNF treatments. Gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, proteins and chlorophyll of inoculated plants were similar to plants fertilized with mineral nitrogen, in the three cultivars in both experiments, with emphasis on Gurguéia. Leaf nitrogen concentrations and the number and dry weight of nodules were higher in Mulato and Gurguéia compared to Milênio. Milênio and Gurguéia under BNF showed higher total dry weight compared to controls; however, the number of pods per plant was higher in inoculated plants compared to controls. In conclusion, based on these results under non-stressful conditions, cultivars selected for the northeastern region inoculated with an effective rhizobia strain and receiving a mild dose of mineral nitrogen can ensure development similar to that verified in plants fertilized only with correct nitrogen fertilization.

Marciel Teixeira Oliveira

2012-02-01

143

Histological studies of damage by pod-sucking bugs (Heteroptera: Coreoidea) associated with cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata in Nigeria.  

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Histological studies were conducted on cowpea pods fed upon by the coreoid pod-sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes (Fabricius), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål, C. shadabi Dolling, Riptortus dentipes (Fabricius) and Mirperus jaculus (Thunberg). Various degrees of tissue and cellular disruption were apparent, especially in the brachysclereids. They were manifested in terms of plasmolysis, cell enlargement and cell wall disintegration depending on the coreoid species involved. The feeding site and its periphery had all the cells of the brachysclereids plasmolysed, with the parenchyma having broken cell walls in the case of A. curvipes. Riptortus dentipes and M. jaculus showed similar patterns of feeding activity but less extensive levels of damage. The Clavigralla spp., however, caused cell enlargement in the brachysclereids, and broken cell walls in both the brachysclereids and the parenchyma. Damage symptoms were observed in cells far away from the feeding sites of the bugs, suggesting the possibility of sucrase activity which has been reported to cause osmotic pump feeding in the Coreidae. PMID:16923212

Soyelu, O L; Akingbohungbe, A E

2006-08-01

144

Evaluación de la composición nutricional y digestibilidad aparente e ileal en porcinos del frijol mungo (Vigna radiata o Phaseolus aureus) con y sin tratamiento térmico  

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Pérez Rubio, María del Rocío (2012) Evaluación de la composición nutricional y digestibilidad aparente e ileal en porcinos del frijol mungo (Vigna radiata o Phaseolus aureus) con y sin tratamiento térmico. Maestría thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira.

2012-01-01

145

Functional and physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated cowpea flours and pastes  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important potential source of protein in many parts of Africa. However, cowpea use is confined primarily to boiled whole seeds or traditional food preparations such as akara and moi-moi prepared from cowpea flours or pastes. By creating variety in the foods made from cowpeas, its utilization may be enhanced. The functional properties of cowpeas are mainly responsible for the quality of cowpea foods such as akara and moi-m...

2006-01-01

146

Evaluación de altura de plantas y componentes del rendimiento de seis genotipos del género Vigna en dos localidades de Venezuela Plant height and yield components of six genotypes of the genus Vigna in two locations of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar el comportamiento agronómico, los componentes del rendimiento y su correlación con el rendimiento en genotipos del género Vigna, identificados como JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016, MS-01-00-09 y la variedad comercial `Tuy', se llevaron a cabo ensayos en las localidades de Samán Mocho, estado Carabobo y en Maracay, estado Aragua, entre los meses de noviembre de 2001 y febrero 2002. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En este trabajo se describen brevemente los genotipos y se evalua la altura de las plantas, en cinco estadios fenológicos durante el ciclo del cultivo; así como también el rendimiento y sus componentes, al momento de la cosecha. El genotipo que alcanzó mayor altura de planta en ambas localidades fue MEM-02-00-19, por su hábito de crecimiento indeterminado trepador. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de medias de Duncan detectaron diferencias significativas para el rendimiento en Maracay. Los materiales con mayor rendimiento fueron de la especie Vigna unguiculata: MS-01-00-09 (2114,1 kg/ha y JA-01-00-05 (1605,6 kg/ha. Las vainas de mayor longitud y total de semillas por vainas se observaron en MS-01-00-09, con 14,2 cm de longitud y 10,9 semillas/vainas. En el genotipo de Vigna umbellata, MEM- 02-00-19 se obtuvo el mayor número de vainas por planta con 17,5. El rendimiento se correlacionó positivamente con la longitud de vaina y número de semillas por vaina. Los genotipos: JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MS-01-00-09, Vigna unguiculata, y AM-02-00-016, Vigna radiata, fueron de mejor manejo en campo; no así el genotipo MEM-02-00-19, Vigna umbellata, cuyo uso es más para cultivos asociados, por su hábito de crecimiento trepador.With the purpose of characterizing agronomic behaviour, yield components and their correlations with yield for six genotypes of Vigna identified as JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05, MEM-02-00-19, AM-02-00-016 and MS-01-00-09, and a commercial variety, `Tuy', experiments were conducted in Saman Mocho, Carabobo State and Maracay, Aragua state, during the period November 2001 to February 2002. The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. In this paper, genotypes are briefly described, plant height is measured at five phenological stages during growth cycle, and yield and its components are evaluated at harvest. For both sites, MEM-02-00-19 had the tallest plants due to its indeterminate climbing growth habit. Results of the variance analysis and Duncan´s Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences for yield in Maracay. Treatments with highest yields, belonging to the species Vigna unguiculata, were MS-01-00-09 (2114.1 kg/ha and JA-01-00-05 (1605.6 kg/ha. MS-01-00-09 (Vigna unguiculata also had longest pods (14.2 cm and greatest number of seeds per pod (10.9 seeds/pod. The genetic material belonging to the species Vigna umbellata, MEM-02-00-19, exhibited the greatest number of pods per plant (17.5 pods/plant. Yield was positively correlated with pod length and number of seeds per pod. Because of differences in growth habits, genotypes belonging to species Vigna unguiculata (JA-01-00-02, JA-01-00-05 and MS-01-00-09 and species Vigna radiata (AM-02-00-016 were easier to handle in field conditions than Vigna umbellata, which had a climbing behaviour and is better suited for mixed cropping systems.

C.M Flores M

2005-10-01

147

Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

1995-01-01

148

Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed for the two periods. About 23 fungal species were identified on cowpea seed samples across zones of which Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that produces aflatoxins, was most frequently encountered. Fusarium species shown to produce fumonisins were not recorded from cowpea seeds. Overall incidence of A. flavus infection was found to increase after storage from 7.6% at T0 to 28.25% at T3. In spite of this natural infection of cowpea, very low levels of fumonisin and aflatoxin were detected. Only three out of the 92 cowpea samples, all collected at T0, were found to be fumonisin B1 positive with a mean level of 0.03 mg/g. Similarly, only six samples out of the 92, all collected at T3, were aflatoxin B1 positive with mean levels of 3.58 µg/kg. Fumonisin (B2 and B3) and aflatoxin (B2, G1 and G2) were not detected in any of the samples. Contrary to the situation with maize and groundnut where high levels of toxin are often detected in naturally infected samples, the current results indicate that cowpea is less susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. A low susceptibility could be due to the presence in cowpea of substances that inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis. Further investigations are underway to confirm this hypothesis.

Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.

2009-01-01

149

A Varietal Screening of Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata) for a High Resistance to Pseudocercospora cruenta (Sacc.) Deighton in Northeast Thailand  

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This investigation consisted of four experiments, i.e., two pot experiments were carried out under glasshouse conditions and another two experiments were conducted under field conditions. The glasshouse pot experiments were carried out at Mahasarakham University, whilst the field experiments were carried out at Khon Kaen University. Twelve cowpea cultivars were used for both the first glasshouse and the first field experiments. The second glasshouse experiment had 14 cowpea cultivars and the ...

Sinsiri, N.; Loahasiriwong, S.; Jogloy, S.; Toomsan, B.; Saksirirut, W.

2006-01-01

150

Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Influence on Vegetative Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

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Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of GA3 on the growth and development of cowpea cultivars Blackeye and Tswana. Exogenous application of GA3, 7 days after emergence at 30, 60 or 90 mg L-1 significantly increased cowpea plant height, first node height, leaf area and leaf number/plant, nodulation, plant dry matter accumulation, pod length, pod number/plant, seed number/pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield ha-1

Emongor, V.

2007-01-01

151

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

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A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004) field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilatio...

Tenebe, Vincent A.; Petu-ibikunle, Abiona M.

2012-01-01

152

EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP  

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Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

2013-01-01

153

Grain legume improvement in Ghana with induced mutagenesis - Special reference to winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two varieties each of winged bean and cowpea were exposed to various doses of gamma irradiation from a 60Co source. Seed emergence, seedling height, seedling survival, plant survival at maturity, and plant and pod fertility were all progressively reduced with increasing dosage of irradiation. Mutants isolated in th M2 for winged bean included a single stem erect mutant, a multiple branch bush, early, extra long-poded, strap and a spectrum of seed size and colour mutants. In cowpea an erect mutant was isolated. (author)

1983-12-01

154

STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}  

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Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

PHIL DOBIE

1991-01-01

155

Evaluation of native and collected Germplasm for earliness Seed traits and resistance to rust, CMV and leaf spot in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp].  

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Full Text Available In the present study, 225 germplasm collections of cowpea including local types were evaluated in augmented design alongwith C152 (check for high test weight, desirable seed and pod features, earliness and resistance to Cowpea rust (Uromycesvignae, Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CMV and Cercospora leaf spot for two years ( kharif 2008 and kharif 2009 at Dharwad. Theresults of the investigation revealed that fifteen of the accessions showed bold seeds (test weight > 10g. Accession numberIC202932 and IC247435 showed extra bold seeds (test weight >14g and also bold pods. About 15 germplasm accessions werefound to be highly resistant to rust; 10 accessions displayed HR reaction to CMV and about 5 accessions showed highlyresistant reaction against leafspot. With respect to Multiple Disease Resistance, accession numbers IC201095, IC257406,IC257435 showed highly resistant reaction against leaf spot and CMV and accessions IC257410 and IC214753 showedresistance against rust and leaf spot. Some of the accessions identified against earliness are IC201087, IC201099,IC202707and IC202709 (68-75 days maturity. Such of the superior germplasm lines identified for earliness, multiple diseaseresistance, bold seed (100 seed weight > 12g and desirable seed features would be further useful in Cowpea breeding programas parents.

K Sanjeev. Deshpand, B.R.Patil, P. M. Salimath , J.M. Nidagundi and S. Karthigeyan

2010-07-01

156

Evaluación de la fertilización biológica del frijol con cepas nativas de Rhizobium aisladas de un ultisol de la altiplanicie del estado guarico / Evaluation of the biological fertilization on cowpea with nativa Rhizobium strains isoleted from an ultisol in landplane guarico state  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización biológica en frijol, Vigna unguiculata L., con cepas nativas de Rhizobium aisladas de un Ultisol de la altiplanicie en condiciones de mesa del estado Guárico sobre la producción de materia seca (MS), porcentaje de nódulos (PN), masa nodular (MN), actividad nod [...] ular, (AN), absorción de nitrógeno (N) y absorción de fósforo (P), en condiciones de invernadero. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: sin biofertilizante, biofertilización con la cepa 1, biofertilización con cepa 2 y biofertilización con una combinación de las cepas 1 y 2, conjuntamente con la aplicación de una fertilización basal de N, P y K reducida, obteniéndose a partir de las variables medidas que la cepa 1 mostró una alta capacidad para colonizar el cultivo, lo cual la convierte en el biofertilizante con mayor potencial para gestionar la fertilización del frijol en los conucos llaneros presentes en la altiplanicie Abstract in english The effect of biological fertilization on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L., with native Rhizobium strains isolated from an ultisol in landplane condition of Guárico state, Venezuela, was evaluated on dry matter production (MS), nodules percentage (PN), nodular mass (MN), nodular activity (AN), nitrogen [...] uptake (N) and phosphorus uptake (P), in an experiment carried out in greenhouse conditions. The evaluated treatments were: without biofertilization (control), biofertilization with strain 1, biofertilization with strain 2 and biofertilization with consortium strains 1 + 2, jointly with the application of a reduced basal fertilization of N, P and K. the strain1 showed high capacity to colonize the crop, which turn it into biological fertilizer with the greatest potential to manage cowpea fertilization in llaneros homegarden in landplane conditions

Belkys, Rodríguez; Marisol, López.

157

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

158

Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of C...

José Albersio Araujo Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do Nascimento; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão

2012-01-01

159

QTL analysis for resistance to foliar damage caused by Thrips tabaci and Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) feeding in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

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Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to Thrips tabaci and Frankliniella schultzei were identified using a cowpea recombinant inbred population of 127 F2:8 lines. An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genetic linkage map and foliar feeding damage ratings were used to identify genomic regions contributing toward resistance to thrips damage. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, damage ratings were highly correlated (r ? 0.7463) across seven field experiments conduc...

Muchero, Wellington; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Roberts, Philip A.

2010-01-01

160

Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N  

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Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

2009-07-15

 
 
 
 
161

Induced mutations for the improvement of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea (L.) Thou.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mutation breeding programme to produce mutants with resistance to weevil damage in cowpea, high yield in bambara groundnut and erect growth habit in winged bean was started in 1985. Dry seeds were irradiated using a 60Co source of gamma rays at doses of 350, 250 and 0-350 Gy for cowpea, winged bean, and bambara, respectively. The highest percentage of germination and greatest variability in pods per plant and seed yield per plant occurred at the 150 Gy dose, while vegetative mutants were more frequent at higher doses in bambara groundnut. Several forms of abnormal stem and leaf characteristics occurring within the first to sixth leaf stages of growth were observed in M1 winged bean plants. Seeds with lighter testa colour which showed some resistance to weevil damage were observed in the M1 seed lot of the cowpea variety TVX 1843-1C. Single plant selection for the desirable agronomic traits will be done in the M2 generation for the three crop species. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

1988-01-01

162

Inheritance Characteristics of F1 and F2 Offsprings Obtained from Full Diallele Crosses of Five Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Against Pseudocercospora Leaf Spot Disease  

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Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham Province in the 2005 (February to April for F1 offsprings and also at the Experimental Farm, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand for F2 offsprings (July to October, i.e., four experiments were carried out, each location had two experiments. The research aimed to investigate inheritance characteristics of F1 and F2 offsprings derived from full diallele crosses of five cowpea cultivars (20 pairs of crosses against a pathogenic disease of Pseudocercospora cruenta (Sacc, Deighton. The first two experiments were carried out under field and glasshouse conditions at Mahasarakham University for F1 offsprings and the other two experiments were carried out at Khon Kaen University for F2 offsprings. A Chi square test method was used to justify dominant genes on the infection of the disease. The results showed that the cowpea plants of F1 and F2 offsprings gave only one pair of dominant gene that had its complete dominant effect over recessive gene of the cowpea offsprings.

N. Sinsiri

2008-01-01

163

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com ci [...] nco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, duri [...] ng seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Costa, Nivânia P. da; Boiça Júnior, Arlindo L..

164

Preparation and Nutritional Composition of a Weaning Food Formulated from Germinated Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and Steamed Cooked Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.  

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Full Text Available Weaning food was produced from sorghum and cowpea based on a malted technology with a view to determining the amylase activity, nutritional composition/properties and its ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Malted sorghum flour was produced (steeping, germination, drying, toasting, grinding and sieving and steamed cooked cowpea flour was produced. Both were blended in ratio 2:1 to get malted weaning food (GSC, unmalted sorghum and steamed cooked cowpea in same ratio was also produced (USC. Optimum amylase activity of sorghum was determined, proximate composition, amino acid, vitamin and mineral contents were analysed. Seventy two hours gave optimum amylase activity with reduced dietary bulk in GSC due to decrease in viscosity. Germination had no significant effect on protein contents, 12.07 g (GSC and 12.57 g (USC, samples met 1/3 RDA protein requirement for 1-3 years old child. Germination significantly increased essential amino acid except sulphur amino acids and tryptophan. GSC had amino acid value that approximate FAO reference pattern except for threonine that was also the limiting amino acid. Vitamin A ie beta-carotene (267.0 IU/100 g, thiamin (0.24 mg/100 g and ascorbic acid (5.0 mg/100 g were increased from 197.0 IU/100 g (Vit. A, 0.16 mg/100 g (thiamin and 2.73 mg/100 g (ascorbic acid in GSC. Phosphorus and iron contents also increased from 91.65 mg/100 g and 4.01 mg/100 g to 100.0 mg/100 g and 6.40 mg/100 g, respectively. Weaning food based on germinated sorghum had improved/superior nutritional values compared to the ungerminated. Germination significantly increased essential amino except for Histidine, sulphur amino acid and tryptophan. It also increased phosphorus, iron, vitamin A (?-carotene thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid.

J.N.C. Okafor

2011-01-01

165

Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela / Identification of seed borne viruses in growing areas of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose [...] los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de estabilidad en savia, se estudió la transmisión a través de insectos, se estudió el rango de hospedantes, microscopía electrónica y se realizaron pruebas serológicas con los antisueros disponibles. En tres aislamientos virales de caraota se identificó, el virus del mosaico sureño de la caraota (BSMV) en muestra del Valle de Tucutunemo, estado Aragua, en un material procedente de Colombia colectado en Sanare, estado Lara, se detectó infección viral simple con el BSMV y doble el BSMV y el virus del mosaico común de la caraota (BCMV) . En fríjol se identificó el virus del mosaico severo del frijol (CpSMV) a partir de semilla de los estados Portuguesa y Falcón. Con este estudio se ratifica la necesidad del control fitosanitario para la exclusión de materiales nacionales o importados no aptos para la siembra y se corrobora la importancia de la certificación de semillas. Abstract in english With the purpose of knowing the incidence of seed borne viruses in production areas of beans and cowpea, 53 materials used as seed were evaluated. Viral isolations coming from seeds sowed in shelter protected against insects; being identified the beans isolations like: "Colombian 1", "Colombian 2" a [...] nd "Tucutunemo"; and those of cowpea like "Black Eye", were selected. Material was multiplied, stability test in sap were carried out, vector transmission was studied, the hosts range was determined, serological tests with the available antibody were carried out. In three viral isolations of beans, the bean southern mosaic virus (BSMV) was identified in a sample of Tucutunemo Valley, Aragua state. In the material coming from Colombia collected in Sanare, Lara state, it was detected simple viral infection BSMV and double infection BSMV and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). In cowpea, it was identified the cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) from seed of Portuguese and Falcon states. Through this essay was corroborated the necessity of establishing a phytopathological control, for the exclusion of national or imported seed materials not suitable for sows, and also the importance of seed certification.

Z, Peña; G, Trujillo.

166

Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.  

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Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to control it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde". These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

2008-06-01

167

Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] / Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.), é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegeta [...] l vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer) e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos. Abstract in english The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical insecticides, vegetal origin oils are a promissory alternative to co [...] ntrol it because of its low cost and safety to the applicator and consumers. Essential oils [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shauer) and fixed oils (Helianthus annuus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) were tested in cowpea grains (cv. "Sempre Verde"). These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mL/20g, corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 L/t and impregnated to the grains into the plastic recipients using an automatic pipette and handly agitated for two minutes. Plots of 20g from cowpea were infested with eight females of C. maculatus from 0 to 48 hours old. Each oil was tested separately in a randomly arrangement with six replicates. The essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis provoked 100% of mortality in all concentrations, P. hispedinervum from 1.5 L/t and Melaleuca sp. in the concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 L/t. The reduction of the viable eggs and emerged insects was about 100%, except for Melaleuca sp. On the other hand, the fixed oils, in spite of its low mortality in all tested concentrations, reduced to almost 100% the number of the viable eggs and emerged insects.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes, Pereira; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa, Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da, Câmara.

168

Yield Potential of Cowpea Germplasm  

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Grain yield potential of 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) germplasm collected from FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) and neglected pockets of NWFP was tested at the Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during summer 1997. Based on the grain yield potential, the germplasm were divided into three groups in descending order. Germplasm SW.C.31 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 2028 kg/ha, while germplasm SW.C.8 with 1724 kg/ha ranked second. Minim...

Amanullah; Mir Hatam

2000-01-01

169

Nutrient composition and amino acid pattern of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Fabaceae) grown in the Gizan area of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proximate composition, grain protein, minerals, amino acid and sugar profiles of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp were analyzed. The crude protein was 23%, fat 3.40% and ash 3.60%. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of at least 17 amino acids including most of the essential ones. The essential amino acids valine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine were slightly higher, but sulphur-containing amino acids were lower than recommended in the WHO/FAO requirement pattern. Qualitative phytochemical screening of seeds showed fructose, alpha-glucose, beta-glucose, glycerol, manitol, inositol and some oligosaccharides, e.g. raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose. The grain contained almost similar amount of phosphorus as compared with that of Lebanese and Pakistani cultivars. Calcium was found to be lower as compared to some Indian, Pakistani and Lebanese cultivars. In general the results indicated that the legume is nutritive as staple food, feed and/or fodder. PMID:9713582

Hussain, M A; Basahy, A Y

1998-03-01

170

Integrated Effects of Bio and Mineral Fertilizers and Humic Substances on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Contents of Fertigated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Grown on Sandy Soils  

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Full Text Available A bio-fertigation trial was conducted at the experimental farm of National Research Centre, Noubaria, Egypt during May to August of 2010 to study the relative efficacy of bio-fertigation of liquid formulation of N-fixer (Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. and P-solubilizer (Basillus megatheriumion with bio fertigation and humic substances gave rather equal yield. Injection of 50% recommended dose NPK as drip fertigation in combination with biofertigation of liquid formulation and humic substances was better and comparable way than the other treatments. Bio fertigation of microbial inoculums and humic substances could be used as a complementary for mineral fertilizers to improve yield and quality of cowpea under sandy soil conditions which protect the environment chemical pollution and its harmful effect on human and animal health.

E.M. Selim

2011-01-01

171

Identificação de genótipos de caupi Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. resistentes a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Identification of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. genotypes resistant to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar fontes de resistência em 30 genótipos de caupi, provenientes da Embrapa - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Meio Norte, ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). Em teste sem chance de escolha, confinaram-se dois casais em 30 grãos de cada genótipo, [...] efetuando-se cinco repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Para verificar a resistência avaliaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: número de ovos/fêmea, viabilidade de ovos, duração e viabilidade da fase imatura, taxa de aumento da população e índice de resistência. Foram classificados como moderadamente resistentes os genótipos IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 e BR17-Gurguéia; como suscetíveis CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E e TE87-98-9G-2, e como altamente suscetíveis Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F, TE90-180-13E. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e CNCx 955-1F apresentaram não-preferência para oviposição, sendo o primeiro classificado como resistente, devido à menor taxa de aumento da população, menor viabilidade e maior duração da fase imatura, indicando a ocorrência de antibiose. Abstract in english The present work aimed to identify sources of resistance in 30 cowpea genotypes, from EMBRAPA Meio-Norte, to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.). In a no choice test, two pairs of the insect were confined in 30 grains of each genotype, in a completely randomized design with five repli [...] cations. To evaluate the resistance of the genotypes, the parameters: number of eggs/female, viability of eggs, duration and viability of the immature phase, natural rate of population increase, and resistance index were used. By this index the genotypes IT89KD-245, TE90-180-10F, CNCx 409-12F, IT86D-716, IT89KD-260 and BR17-Gurguéia were classified as moderately resistant; CNC 0434, CNCx 405-17F, TE90-170-76F, TVu-249, IT89KD-381, BR14-Mulato, TE87-98-8G, TE87-1115-10G, CNCx 955-1F, CNCx 676-51F, TE87-98-13G, TE90-172-42E and TE87-98-9G-2 as susceptible, and Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E, TE90-179-14E, TE90-170-29F, Monteiro, TE84-27-7G, CNCx 409-11F, TE90-172-33F, TE90-180-88E, TE90-170-40F and TE90-180-13E as highly susceptible. The genotypes IT89KD-245 and CNCx 955-1F showed non-preference for oviposition. The genotype IT89KD-245 was the only one classified as resistant, showing the least natural rate of population increase, the smallest viability and the largest duration of the immature phase, expressing antibiosis.

LIMA, MARCILEYNE P. L. DE; OLIVEIRA, JOSÉ V; BARROS, REGINALDO; TORRES, JORGE B..

172

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus  

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Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C. Almeida

2005-12-01

173

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) / Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espéc [...] ies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable [...] species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C., Almeida; Silvana A. de, Almeida; Nilene R. dos, Santos; Josivanda P., Gomes; Maria E. R., Araújo.

174

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4% among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively. All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

2010-05-01

175

Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação / Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC), avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo) e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina). [...] Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%), dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente). Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável. Abstract in english This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll) with cowpea flour (CF) to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). Three fo [...] rmulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of CF. It was also observed an increase in the thiamine concentration of 20% CF Brazilian roll. 10% CF Biscuits presented the major acceptance (84.4%) among the biscuits formulated with CF. In addition, the 10 e 20% CF Brazilian rolls also had a good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). All formulations developed with CF presented scores above six indicating that the products were sensory accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the addition of CF with the objective to improve the nutritive value of formulations based on cereals is feasible.

Frota, Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Silva, Marta Gomes da; Araújo, Marcos Antonio da Mota; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva dos Reis.

176

Preparation and Nutritional Composition of a Weaning Food Formulated from Germinated Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Steamed Cooked Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)  

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Weaning food was produced from sorghum and cowpea based on a malted technology with a view to determining the amylase activity, nutritional composition/properties and its ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Malted sorghum flour was produced (steeping, germination, drying, toasting, grinding and sieving) and steamed cooked cowpea flour was produced. Both were blended in ratio 2:1 to get malted weaning food (GSC), unmalted sorghum and steamed cooked cowpea in same ratio was also ...

2011-01-01

177

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.  

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The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpure...

2012-01-01

178

Early events in living epidermal cells of cowpea and broad bean during infection with basidiospores of the cowpea rust fungus  

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The infection process of basidiospores of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae) was studied on living host (Vigna sinensis) and nonhost (Vicia faba) leaves using light microscopy with differential interference contrast optics. During the first 8 h, fungal development was similar on host and on nonhost leaves.Penetration and production of intraepidermal vesicles occurred in nonhost cells 4 h earlier than in host cells. Penetration frequency was also higher in nonhost leaves. These results s...

Xu, Haixin; Mendgen, Kurt

1991-01-01

179

A new disease of cowpea caused by Alternaria cassiae  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is an indigenous food legume in Africa, which has great production potential, especially in areas with low agricultural resources. During surveys of cowpea fields in southern Africa, a new foliar disease was recorded. Alternaria cassiae Juriar&Khan was consistently isolated from diseased plant material. Pathogenicity was confirmed using Koch's Postulates. The effect of different culture media, temperature, light and wounding on the growth and sporulation of...

2001-01-01

180

Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA  

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Characterization of genetic diversity among cultivated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties is important to optimize the use of available genetic resources by farmers, local communities, researchers and breeders. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in 70 cowpea accessions collected throughout Benin. Nine random primers were screened on 24 accessions to assess their ability to reveal polymorphisms in cowpea and four of them wer...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

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Full Text Available Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy" analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF showed the highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3% compared to "Unary" (27.1%. The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (15.5% and "Unare" (21.7% were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF (15.4% and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF (16.1% higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy" analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutro (FDN produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3% en relación a "Unare" (27,1%. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5% y "Unare", (21,7% eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI (15,4% y fibra dietética total (16,1% de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF.

Omar Eduardo García

2010-12-01

182

COMPARISON OF DIETARY FIBER VALUES BETWEEN TWO VARIETIES OF COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) OF VENEZUELA, USING CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC GRAVIMETRIC METHODS / COMPARACIÓN DE VALORES DE FIBRA DIETÉTICA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE COWPEA (Vigna Unguiculata L. WALP) DE VENEZUELA, USANDO MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS Y ENZIMÁTICOS GRAVIMÉTRICOS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Dos variedades de fríjol crudo Vigna unguiculata ("Unare" y "Tuy") analizadas mediante un análisis proximal mostró valores de proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono y cenizas muy similares entre las variedades "Unare" y "Tuy". El método químico-gravimétrico para cuantificar la fibra detergente neutr [...] o (FDN) produjo el mayor valor para la variedad "Tuy" (35,3%) en relación a "Unare" (27,1%). El método enzimático-gravimétrico Hellendoorn mostró que los valores de hidratos de carbono no-disponibles de las variedades "Tuy" (15,5%) y "Unare", (21,7%) eran menores a los obtenidos con el método FDN. El método enzimático-gravimétrico Prosky arrojó valores de fibra dietética insoluble (FDI) (15,4%) y fibra dietética total (16,1%) de la variedad "Tuy" superiores a la variedad "Unare". En conclusión el método de Prosky parece ser el más indicado en la cuantificación de DF de estas muestras. Mayor información es requerida para poder precisar la validez de la cuantificación de DF. Abstract in english Two varieties of uncooked beans Vigna unguiculata ("Unare"and "Tuy") analyzed by proximate analysis showed values of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ash very similar between the varieties of "Unary" and "Tuy". The chemical-gravimetric method to quantify the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed the [...] highest value for the variety "Tuy" (35.3%) compared to "Unary" (27.1%). The enzymatic-gravimetric method Hellendoorn showed that the values of non-carbohydrate available for the varieties "Tuy" (15.5%) and "Unare" (21.7%) were lower than those from the NDF method. The enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky, showed that the variety "Tuy" had values of insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) (15.4%) and total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF) (16.1%) higher than the variety "Unare." In conclusion, Prosky's method seems to be the most suitable for quantifying DF in the analyzed samples. More research is needed to clarify the validity of the quantification of DF.

Omar Eduardo, García; Benito, Infante; Carlos Julio, Rivera.

183

Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of two less known pulses of genus Vigna / Análisis químico y evaluación nutricional de dos frijoles poco conocidos del genero Vigna  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Semillas crudas de Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal y Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (semillas de color negro y morado) fueron analiadas para conocer su composición próximal, minerales, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascorbico), proteína y perfil de amino ácidos, perfil de ácidos graso [...] s y factores antinutricionales. Las semillas de V. aconitifolia tuvieron un contenido mayor de proteína cruda que los fríjoles de consumo común en la India. Los frijoles analizados son una buena fuente de minerales: Potasio, sodio, calcio, magnesio y hierro. El perfil de aminos ácidos esenciales se compara de manera favorable con el perfil FAO/WHO (1991), excepto por deficiencias en amino ácidos azufrados en V. aconitifolia y V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado) y triptófano en V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (muestra color morado). Se encontró un contenido relativamente alto de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolénico. Se analizó para el contenido de fenoles totals, taninos, L-Dopa, ácido fítico, ácido cianhidríco, oligosacaridos y actividades fitohemaglutinante. Abstract in english Raw seeds of tribal pulses Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal and Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata (L.) Walp (black and maroon coloured seed coats) were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acids), seed protein amino acid profiles, fatty acid profiles of [...] lipids and antinutritional factors. The seeds of V. aconitifolia had a higher content of crude protein than the commonly consumed Indian pulses. All the investigated pulses appeared to be good sources of minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The essential amino acid profiles of total seed proteins were compared favorably with FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. There were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in V. aconitifolia and V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample) and tryptophan in V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata (maroon sample). Fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acids were found to be relatively high in the investigated tribal pulses. Antinutritional factors like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharide and phytohaemagglutinating activity were analyzed.

Pious, Tresina Soris; Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan.

184

Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) Seeds  

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Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans) parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole), C. elegans (sole), a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and ...

Umoetok S. B. A.; Ukeh D. A.; Udo I. A.; Ekanem M.; Iloba B. N

2012-01-01

185

Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de 15N / Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como planta [...] s-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante) no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI) com o método da diferença (MD) para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2) compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS), o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas. Abstract in english Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, throug [...] h the 15N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg-1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops.

Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da.

186

Nutritional efficiency of cowpea varieties in the absorption of phosphorus / Eficiencia nutricional de variedades caupí en la absorción del fósforo  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de genotipos o variedades eficientes en la absorción y la utilización del fósforo pueden ser una solución complementaria para aumentar la productividad y reducir los costos de producción de los cultivos. Así, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el contenido, la acumulación y la efi [...] ciencia de absorción, transporte y utilización del fósforo por variedades caupí cultivado en un suelo de orden Ultisol. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con distribuición factorial 2 x 4, con dos niveles de fósforo (0 y 300 mg kg-1 de suelo), cuatro variedades de caupí (BRS Tumucumaque, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé y BRS Itaim) y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados concluyen que la variedad BRS Itaim presentóun comportamiento diferencial en relación con la altura de planta, diámetro del tallo y producción de materia seca total. Las variedades BRS Tumucumaque y BRS Guariba fueron superiores en la producción de materia seca total, absorción, transporte y utilización de fósforo en las condiciones de bajo suministro de este nutriente. La producción de materia seca de la parte aérea y el contenido de fósforo fueron más sensibles a la deficiencia de fósforo, lo que permitió demostrar que son los más adecuadas para la evaluación de las variedades de fríjol caupí en el uso del fósforo Abstract in english The use of genotypes and/or varieties that are efficient in the absorption and use of phosphorus can be a complementary solution to increase productivity and reduce the cost of production in the crops. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the content, accumulation, and the efficiencies of uptak [...] e, transport and utilization of phosphorus by cowpea varieties cultivated in an Ultisol soil. The experiment used a completely randomized design in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two levels of phosphorus (0 and 300 mg kg-1 soil), four varieties of cowpea (BRS Tumucumaque, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé and BRS Itaim) and five replications. The results led to the conclusion that the variety BRS Itaim presented differentiated behaviors in relation to plant height, stem diameter and dry mass production. The varieties BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba were superior in total dry mass production, uptake, transport and utilization of phosphorus in low nutrient supply conditions. The aboveground production of dry mass and its phosphorus content were more sensitive to phosphorus deficiency in the three varieties, which shows that they were more appropriate for the use of phosphorus

Érica, de Oliveira Araújo; Elcio, Ferreira dos Santos; Gabriel, Queiroz de Oliveira; Marcos Antonio, Camacho; Daiane, Mugnol Dresch.

187

Socio-economic, agronomic and molecular analysis of yam and cowpea diversity in the Guinea-Sudan transition zone of Benin  

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Keywords: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp.),yam ( Dioscorea spp. ), agro-biodiversity, farmer perception, market and consumer preferences, socio-cultural preferences, human and social capitals, genotype by environment intera...

Zannou, A.

2006-01-01

188

GREEN EAR YIELD IN CORN GROWN AFTER COWPEA INCORPORATION  

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Full Text Available Under irrigation, maize (Zea mays L. can be grown throughout the year in Northeastern Brazil, which in many areas results in soil degradation. The renewed interest in the study of crop rotations with legumes is targeted at reducing this degradation. The objective of our work was to evaluate the green ear yields of three maize cultivars (AG 8080, AG 9010 and DKB 333B, after growing the Sempre-verde cowpea cultivar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., incorporated at three different moments. Two sprinklerirrigated experiments (one involving cowpea and the other with maize were conducted. The following treatments were applied to the cowpea experiment, in a random block design with ten replicates: no cowpea cultivation; cowpea cultivation and incorporation into the soil at bloom time; or after four green bean harvests; or after three mature bean harvests (dry grains. The maize cultivars were grown in each of the four areas of each block in the cowpea experiment. Therefore, the maize experiment followed a split-plot design with treatments arranged as random blocks with ten replicates. In spite of the differences between the amounts of cowpea matter incorporated to the soil, there were no differences between the chemical characteristics of the soil at maize planting. The incorporation of cowpea at any time, or not, did not have an influence on the total number and weight of green ears and on the number and weight of marketable maize ears, both unhusked and husked. Cultivar AG 8080 presented the highest green ear yields.

PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

2005-08-01

189

Performance Characteristics and Heamatological Studies of Broiler Chickens Fed Cowpea Based Diets  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to look at the utilization of cowpea - based diets on performance characteristics and haematology of broiler chickens. Raw cowpea ( Vigna unguigulata L.Walp, dehulled - cowpea, dehulled - cooked cowpea and dehulled - roasted cowpea grains were fed to broiler chickens in a five week feeding trial. A total of seventy five day old broiler chicks of Marshall Strain were allotted into five dietary treatments. Marginal reductions in the crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and ash were obtained in the dehulled cowpea and dehulled - cooked cowpea grains respectively. The dehulled - roasted cowpea grains however gave slight increases in the proximate composition. Feed intake and growth was significantly reduced in birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled - cowpea respectively. The feed conversion efficiency (FCE and protein efficiency ratio (PER also followed a similar pattern. Non-significant differences were however obtained in weight gain, FCE and PER of birds fed the control diet and those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea in this study. Birds fed dehulled - roasted cowpea also had marginal reductions in weight gain, FCE and PER when compared to those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea based diet. Mortality was higher in birds fed raw cowpea - based diet.The haematological studies showed lower values of haemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume and white blood cells of birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled cowpea respectively. However, despite the better response indices, the combination of dehulling and cooking led to leaching of some water-soluble food nutrients. Hence, more studies still need to be carried out especially at other processing methods that can drastically reduce the anti-nutritional factors without necessarily leaching the food nutrients.

Akanji, A. M.

2012-04-01

190

Improving the Nutritional Quality of Cowpea and Bambara Bean Flours for Use in Infant Feeding  

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Ground cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp] and Bambara bean [Vigna subterranea (L.) verde] were treated with 60% ethanol to eliminate anti-nutrients and improve their nutritional quality. Analytical results show that the resulting flour products had a yield of 81-82% and a protein content increase of 11.61 and 4.68% for cowpea and Bambara bean respectively compared to the untreated flours. Their fat content also increased by 10.74 and 15.24% in the same order, as well as ...

Mune Mune Martin Alain; Israe?, Mbome Lape L.; Minka Samuel Rene

2007-01-01

191

Fumonisin production by and biological control of Fusarium species associated with cowpea seed  

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Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. is an important edible legume crop gaining recognition in the world generally and in Africa particular. The seed is a very good source of vegetable protein for millions of people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Cowpea seed are susceptible to global post-harvest losses caused by insect damage, microbial deterioration and other factors especially when stored at high ambient temperatures and relative humidities. The detection of Fusarium species and fumonisins ...

2011-01-01

192

A new disease of cowpea caused by Alternaria cassiae  

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is an indigenous food legume in Africa, which has great production potential, especially in areas with low agricultural resources. During surveys of cowpea fields in southern Africa, a new foliar disease was recorded. Alternaria cassiae Juriar & Khan was consistently isolated from diseased plant material. Pathogenicity was confirmed using Koch's Postulates. The effect of different culture media, temperature, light and wounding on the growth an...

2006-01-01

193

Fases de desarrollo y componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares defríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela / Phases of development and yield components of three mungbean cultivars (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bajo las condiciones agroecológicas de Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela, se estudiaron las fases de desarrollo y se evaluaron los componentes del rendimiento de tres cultivares de fríjol mungo (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), durante los meses de mayo a julio de 1997. Los cultivares ML 267, Acriollado [...] y VC 1973C, se distribuyeron en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 6 repeticiones. Para la diferenciación de las fases y etapas de desarrollo, se observaron semanalmente los cambios morfológicos de las plantas en cada parcela. Al momento de la cosecha se obtuvo el promedio por planta de las variables: número de racimos, vainas, semillas por vaina y longitud de las vainas. El rendimiento de granos en kg/ha se midió en base al 12% de humedad. La fase vegetativa tuvo una duración de 28 a 43 días, mientras que la fase reproductiva entre 22 y 30 días. El cultivar más precoz fue ML 267 con 34,87 días para la floración y 61,83 días para la maduración. Hubo diferencias significativas para el número de racimos/planta y vainas/planta donde ML 267 y Acriollado tuvieron los valores más altos. Para el número de semillas/vaina VC 1973C y Acriollado fueron significativamente mayores que ML 267. Acriollado mostró los mayores rendimientos con 1438,33 kg/ha. Abstract in english The development phases and seed yield were evaluated in three cultivars of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek), ML 267, Acriollado and VC 1973C under the agroecological conditions of Maracay (Venezuela) (May - July, 1997). The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks (RCB) with six repl [...] ications. The differentiation of the development phases and stages, and the morphological changes of plants were studied in each plot. The variable totals of pod clusters, number of pods per plant, seeds/pods and pods length, were studied too. The seed yield in kg/ha was measured at a humidity of 12%. The vegetative phase was between 28 to 43 days, while the reproductive phase was between 22 and 30 days. The earliest cultivar was ML 267 with 34.87 days to flowering and 61.83 to maturity. There were significant differences for total pod clusters/plant and number of pods/plant, where ML 267 and Acriollado had the highest values. Total seeds/pods VC 1973C and Acriollado were significantly greater then ML 267. Acriollado showed the highest yields with 1438,33 kg/ha.

N, Infante; P, Madriz; T, González.

194

Inheritance of resistance to the cowpea aphid in cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inheritance of resistance to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, in three resistant cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, was studied. The parents, F1 and F2 population were grown in an insect-proof screenhouse. Each 3-day-old seedling was infested with 10 apterous adult aphids. Seedling reaction was recorded when the susceptible check was killed. The segregation data revealed that the resistance of ICV11 and TVU310 is governed by single dominant genes. All the F2 seedlings of the cross ICV10xTVU310 were resistant, indicating that they have the same gene for resistance. However, the F2 populations from the crosses ICV10xICV11 and ICV11xTVU310 segregated in a ratio of 15?1, indicating that the dominant genes in ICV11 and TVU310 are non-allelic and independent of each other. The resistance gene of ICV10 and TVU310 is designated as Ac1 and that of ICV11 as Ac2. PMID:24240345

Ombakho, G A; Tyagi, A P; Pathak, R S

1987-10-01

195

Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp par rapport au maïs (Zea mays L. sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé  

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Full Text Available Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Relative to Maize (Zea mays L. on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yield of cowpea. Simultaneous planting generally showed a yield advantage (LER> 1 of the cowpea/ maize intercropping systems irrespective of the cowpea varieties used, but LER declined when time of introducing cowpea into maize was delayed being as low as 0.76 when cowpea was planted four weeks after planting maize. The reduction in the growth and yield of cowpea was due to increased shading from the maize plants especially when cowpea was introduced at the fourth week. Therefore, to achieve yield benefit simultaneous planting of maize and cowpea recommended.

Osiru, DSO.

2002-01-01

196

Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when "3"5S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

197

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

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Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to af...

Antônio Chagas Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales Fernandes; Maurício Pereira Sales; Victor Martin Quintana Flores; José Xavier-Filho

2002-01-01

198

Localization of xanthine dehydrogenase in cowpea root nodules: implications for the interaction between cellular compartments during ureide biogenesis.  

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Immunocytochemistry was used to assess the location of xanthine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.204) in the infected region of nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walpers cv. Queen Anne Blackeye). Polyclonal antibodies raised against purified cowpea xanthine dehydrogenase were used to localize this enzyme at the electron microscopic level. Sparse nonspecific labeling was observed after treatment of nodule sections with preimmune serum. Although immune serum cross-reacted with the ground cytopla...

Datta, D. B.; Triplett, E. W.; Newcomb, E. H.

1991-01-01

199

Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada / Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) culture under the chopped secondary forest system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio diret [...] o na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m) lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância). Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) e Rubiaceae (4). No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo. Abstract in english The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon. Since weed management is an essential part of the production process, this study aimed to survey the flora in no-tillage areas of a chopped [...] secondary forest cultivated with cowpea. This work was conducted in a rural farming area in the municipality of Zé Doca, MA in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. The preparation of the area was carried out with a wheel tractor using the implement ahwi FM600. The area was originally planted with maize followed by BRS Guariba cowpea for two years.Weed evaluation was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m), launched 30 times. Evaluation was performed every time, with the aerial parts of the weeds being harvested for counting, identification, and drying, to obtain the phytosociological indices (frequency, density, dominance index, and importance value). The families with the most weed species were Cyperaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Poaceae (6), Malvaceae (5) and Rubiaceae (4). In the agricultural years 2006/2007, the species with the highest IVI were: Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata and Cyperus sp. In the agricultural years 2007/2008, the main species were: Digitaria horizontalis, followed by C. diffusus, Pavonia cancellata and F. dichotoma. The secondary forest plants originated from sprouting presented the highest IVIs in the agricultural year 2006/2007 and suffered a drastic reduction in 2007/2008. Thus, it can be concluded that progressive cultivation reduces secondary forest plant sprouting and increases the herbaceous extract.

L.J.P., Marques; M.R.M., Silva; M.S., Araújo; G.S., Lopes; M.J.P., Corrêa; A.C.R., Freitas; F.H., Muniz.

200

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.  

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Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

Umesh P. Mogle1 and

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding. PMID:22242703

Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

2012-02-01

202

Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping  

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Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

LIMA FILHO JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO

2000-01-01

203

Foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga towards biological control of bruchid pests in stored cowpea in West Africa.  

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Seed beetles cause considerable losses in traditionally stored cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walp.) under subsistence farming conditions in West Africa. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae) is evaluated as a candidate for a conservation strategy of biological control against the major pest Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae). Different aspects of U. lariophaga 's searching efficiency, such as host habitat location, host cluste...

Alebeek, F. A. N.

1996-01-01

204

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

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Full Text Available The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w concentration. The ability of the plant powders to protect cowpea seeds was assessed in terms of mortality rates after 24 - 96 hours post treatment, oviposition and adult emergence, percentage weight loss and damage after the first filial generation (F1. All the tested plant part powders significantly (P<0.05 reduce the longevity of adult C. maculatus on treated cowpea seeds. From the study, the plant powders could be ranked in order of effectiveness thus; stem bark > leaf > root. Alstonia boonei can be used as biopesticide against C. maculatus and its incorporation into traditional storage pest management is strongly recommended.

K. D. Ileke

2012-03-01

205

Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem no calor latente de vaporização de água em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), variedade sempre-verde / Influence of the temperature on the latent heat of vaporization of moisture from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), always-green variety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em cálculos da quantidade de energia requerida em processos de secagem artificial de um produto agrícola, é necessário o conhecimento de uma expressão para a determinação do calor latente de vaporização (H) de água no produto. Normalmente, as expressões para H, encontradas na literatura, são dadas p [...] elo calor latente de vaporização (h) de água livre multiplicado por funções que dependem apenas do teor de água do produto. Isso significa que a relação H/h, para um dado produto, só depende do teor de água, o que é uma simplificação, pois se sabe que tal relação depende também da temperatura. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma expressão para o cálculo de H para feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde, levando em consideração a dependência de H/h com a temperatura. Para tal, foi desenvolvido e utilizado um programa computacional que ajusta, de forma automática, cerca de 500 funções contidas em sua biblioteca, com uma e duas variáveis independentes, a dados experimentais. O programa, que usa regressão não-linear, classifica as melhores funções ajustadas pelo critério do menor qui-quadrado reduzido. O conjunto de testes estatísticos realizados indica que a expressão apresentada neste artigo produz resultados mais precisos na determinação de H para feijão macassar que os de outras equações normalmente encontradas na literatura. Abstract in english In order to determine the energy needed to artificially dry an agricultural product the latent heat of vaporization of moisture in the product, H, must be known. Generally, the expressions for H reported in the literature are of the form H = h(T)f(M), where h(T) is the latent heat of vaporization of [...] free water, and f(M) is a function of the equilibrium moisture content, M, which is a simplification. In this article, a more general expression for the latent heat of vaporization, namely H = g(M,T), is used to determine H for cowpea, always-green variety. For this purpose, a computer program was developed which automatically fits about 500 functions, with one or two independent variables, imbedded in its library to experimental data. The program uses nonlinear regression, and classifies the best functions according to the least reduced chi-squared. A set of executed statistical tests shows that the generalized expression for H used in this work produces better results of H for cowpea than other equations found in literature.

Wilton P. da, Silva; Cleide M. D. P. S. e, Silva; Jürgen W., Precker; Diogo D. P. S. e, Silva.

206

Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Alternância de genótipos de caupi afeta a biologia de Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S) and resistant (R), on the biology of (C. maculatus) was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS) and five replications. Each repl...

Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima; José Vargas de Oliveira; Reginaldo Barros; Jorge Braz Torres

2004-01-01

207

Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea  

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The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptible varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. All beetle strains were assayed in a no-choice and a two-choice test. No major differences were found between the beetle strains. In a no-choice...

Boeke, S. J.; Loon, J. J. A.; Huis, A.; Dicke, M.

2004-01-01

208

Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação / Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fi [...] xam N2 (BNLFN), são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas. Abstract in english Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, [...] nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB) are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

Melloni, Rogério; Moreira, Fátima Maria de Sousa; Nóbrega, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; Siqueira, José Oswaldo de.

209

Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN, são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas.Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

Rogério Melloni

2006-04-01

210

Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds  

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Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = < 0.1 mg/10 g seed > Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed. Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

A. Olonisakin

2006-01-01

211

Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi  

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Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed...

Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes; Regina Lúcia Ferreira Gomes,; Francisco Rodrigues Freire Filho

2003-01-01

212

Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação  

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The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in thi...

2000-01-01

213

Role of endogenous flavonoids in resistance mechanism of Vigna to aphids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultivated and wild species of the genus Vigna were screened for their flavonoid content. Flavonoid HPLC analyses clearly showed that cultivated lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) are very similar from a qualitative point of view, always showing three flavonoid aglycons: quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. In addition, a positive relationship between resistance/susceptibility characteristics against aphids and flavonoid glycoside content of cowpea lines was found. The resistant lines showed a flavonoid content higher than that of susceptible ones. In vitro bioassays proved that, among endogenous flavonoids, quercetin and isorhamnetin possess a good inhibitory aphid reproduction rate. Flavonoid HPLC analyses of wild Vigna species supported evidence for the existence of different flavonoid chemotypes in some species of section Vigna. There are kaempferol chemotypes, kaempferol being the main aglycon detected, quercetin chemotypes, containing quercetin glycosides only, and two isorhamnetin chemotypes. When the resistance characteristics to aphids in different chemotypes of the same species were tested, it became evident that quercetin or isorhamnetin chemotypes showed a higher level of resistance compared to kaempferol chemotypes in the same species, thus demonstrating a direct involvement of quercetin or isorhamnetin in the resistance mechanism. These results can provide useful information for further studies on gene expression of resistance factors. PMID:11087479

Lattanzio, V; Arpaia, S; Cardinali, A; Di Venere, D; Linsalata, V

2000-11-01

214

Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) / Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia graci [...] llis Shau) e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum) e 67,5% (G. max). Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento. Abstract in english The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau) and fixed oils (Helianthus a [...] nnus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum) to 67,5% (G. max). With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes, Pereira; José Vargas de, Oliveira; Manoel Guedes Corrêa, Gondim Junior; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da, Câmara.

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Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

2009-02-01

216

Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds  

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The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the presence of directional light from the top, parasitoids moved faster through columns filled with pods than through columns (either filled with pods or seeds) in darkness. The different habitats, s...

Alebeek, F. A. N.; Antwi, K. K.; Huis, A.; Lenteren, J. C.

2007-01-01

217

Targeted cell wall degradation at the penetration site of cowpea rust basidiosporelings  

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Basidiospore germlings of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae) penetrate the epidermal cell wall of the nonhost plant Vicia faba. In order to characterize the wall structure of the penetration site, leaves were high pressure frozen, freeze substituted, and embedded in appropriate resins. With antibodies against epitopes present in pectin, polygalacturonic acid, xyloglucan, and callose, we studied the modification of these wall components during infection. The density of epitopes was deter...

Xu, Haixin; Mendgen, Kurt

1997-01-01

218

Exploring Possibilities to Enhance Food Sovereignty within the Cowpea Production-Consumption Network in Northern Ghana  

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Over the last years an important focus in the combat of hunger and malnutrition,particularly in Africa has been food security. This article explores possibilities for enhancing food sovereignty, as an alternative concept to food security and an alternative strategy for reversing hunger and malnutrition trends in developing countries. A combination of literature review, participatory appraisal and conventional survey methodologies are used to investigate the relevance of local cowpea (Vigna un...

Quaye, W.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J. P.; Ruivenkamp, G. T. P.

2009-01-01

219

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

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Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin we...

Rose, T. L.; Gomes, V. M.; Da Cunha, M.; Fernandes, K. V. S.; Xavier-filho, J.

2003-01-01

220

Identification and pathogenic characterization of endophytic Fusarium species from cowpea seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified from seeds of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., by means of blotter tests and slide cultures. Species were differentiated according to the morphology of the macroconidia, microconidia and their arrangement in chains or false heads, the size and type of conidiophore, and the presence or absence of chlamydospores. The species were identified as F. semitectum, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. anthophilum, F. sporotrichioides, F. moniliforme, and Fusarium sp. Among the species, F. semitectum was the most frequently detected. None of these species were pathogenic when inoculated in susceptible cowpea cultivar (BR 17-Gurgueia). But, an isolate of F. oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum used as a standard of comparison for pathogenicity (control) induced symptoms of yellowing, vascular wilting, and death of a susceptible cowpea cultivar under the same environmental conditions. PMID:15750735

Rodrigues, A A C; Menezes, Maria

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

222

???-????????: C00000947 - Vigna angularis  

Full Text Available C00000947 C15H14O6 (+)-Catechin;D-Catechin;(+)-3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxy-2,3-trans-flavan-3-ol;Dexc idanol;Teafuran 30A;D-Catechol Vigna angularis Ito,Hokkaido Kyoiku Daigaku Kiyo Dai-2-bu A,35,(1984),53;Ito,CA

223

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota Antônio Chagas

2002-01-01

224

Physiological response of cowpea seeds to salinity stress Resposta fisiológica de sementes de feijão caupi ao estresse salino  

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This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds submitted to salt stress. Seeds of cultivars 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' and 'Pitiúba' of cowpea, were submitted to germination test in germinator at 25(0)C, in "germitest" papers imbibed in distilled water or in 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200mol m-3 NaCl solutions. At the first and second counting of the germination test, normal seedlings were accounted, weighted and dried, obtaining data for vigor, total germin...

Bárbara França Dantas; Luciana de Sá Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto Aragão

2005-01-01

225

???????: ??  

Full Text Available ?? Vigna unguiculata Vigna unguiculata[cowpea???????????????];Vigna sinensis[co ?????? ?????????????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???? ??????(2003);?????????????

226

Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.  

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The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N) while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N) ...

Ologundudu, Akinbode Foluso; Adelusi, Adelusi Ajayi

2013-01-01

227

Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

1996-07-01

228

Biocontrol in store : Spatial and behavioural aspects of foraging by Uscana lariophaga, egg parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea  

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 Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers), an important crop for West African subsistence farmers, is often infested in storage by the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) is responsible for substantial mortality of C. maculatus eggs and might therefore be used in a conservation strategy of biological control. This thesis focuses on foraging behaviour of U. lariophaga females in a spatial context. In s...

Stolk, C.

2002-01-01

229

Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%, which classifies the wild cowpea breeding system as primarily selfing, though rare outcrossing events were detected in each population studied. Furthermore, the analyses of both the genetic structure of populations and the relationships between the wild and domesticated groups suggest possibilities of gene flow that are corroborated by field observations. Conclusions As expected in a predominantly inbred breeding system, wild cowpea shows high levels of genetic differentiation and low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Gene flow from domesticated to wild cowpea does occur, although the lack of strong genetic swamping and modified seed morphology in the wild populations suggest that these introgressions should be rare.

Kouam Eric B

2012-07-01

230

Soil N balance studies of cowpea in symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium in southwest Nigeria as influenced by host cultivar, inoculum strain and growth stage, using the 15N dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 15N isotope dilution technique was used in field studies in southwest Nigeria to quantify the yield and nitrogen fixed in three cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and to partition the sources of nitrogen in the different plant parts at various growth stages. The plants were either uninoculated or inoculated with one of two Bradyrhizobium strains. 1 ref., 2 tabs

1990-10-01

231

Improving the Nutritional Quality of Cowpea and Bambara Bean Flours for Use in Infant Feeding  

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Full Text Available Ground cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. walp] and Bambara bean [Vigna subterranea (L. verde] were treated with 60% ethanol to eliminate anti-nutrients and improve their nutritional quality. Analytical results show that the resulting flour products had a yield of 81-82% and a protein content increase of 11.61 and 4.68% for cowpea and Bambara bean respectively compared to the untreated flours. Their fat content also increased by 10.74 and 15.24% in the same order, as well as their fibre content. In vitro protein digestibility studies showed an increase of 68.71 to 81.82% and 71.58 to 83.83% for alcohol-treated cowpea and Bambara bean flours, compared to the untreated flours, thus indicating the elimination of protease inhibitors. Likewise, gas chromatography of neutral sugars in the treated flour samples showed elimination of the major flatulence-causing sugars. Alcohol treatment caused loss of Fe and concentration of Ca and Zn. Semi-liquid gruels prepared from blends of the treated grain legume flours and fermented maize dough powder are adequate in energy and some nutrients to meet the requirements of 6-8-month-old infants, when fed three meals a day.

Mune Mune Martin Alain

2007-01-01

232

Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca  

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The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after inoculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp) in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as refere...

Ligiane Aparecida Florentino; Pedro Martins de Sousa; Jacqueline Savana Silva; Karina Barroso Silva; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

2010-01-01

233

Genetic Analyses of Pigmentation in Cowpea  

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Full Text Available Genetic control of pigmentation in different parts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. was studied in six F2 segregating populations and their corresponding F3 families derived from eight parents. Monogenic control for colour expression was found for leaf node pigmentation, flower (petal colour, immature pod colour, seed coat colour, seed eye colour and seed eye colour pattern. Presence of pigment was dominant over absence of pigment and the black seed eye was dominant over brown eye. For seed eye pattern however, partial dominance of the very small eye type over the Holstein eye type was observed. Different flower colour genes induce similar white flower colours in the parents and non-allelic interactions between these white flower colour loci produced novel flower colour variants in the F2 population. In the parental lines, flower and seed pigmentation are due to the same single locus effects, although flower colour may be influenced by epistatic gene interactions that have no effects on seed coat pigmentation. Pleiotropic effects of the recessive locus that causes loss of pigmentation of the leaf node include loss of pigment in petals and at least, in a genetic background of lines with a white seed coat, induces intense pigmentation around the hilum. By contrast, there are no apparent pleiotropic effects of the pod colour locus and the seed eye colour locus on pigmentation in other tissues.

Francis Kwame Padi

2003-01-01

234

Barrières pré-zygotiques chez les hybrides entre formes sauvages du niébé, Vigna unguilata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Hybrids pre-zygotic barriers between wild forms of cowpea. The wild forms of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, constitute an important gene pool insufficiently exploited for the improvement of the cultivated form. In order to promote the use of these wild forms in the genetic improvement programmes, we undertook to understand the various incompatibility reactions which appear in the crosses between wild forms. Efforts were concentrated to understand the incompatibility barriers in the hybridizations between subsp. baoulensis NI 933 and the other wild forms of V. unguiculata. Thanks to the use of the aniline blue fluorescence, we observed a high frequency of pre-zygotic barriers. They appear in three sites, i.e. the higher and lower third of the style, and within the ovary. However, these incompatibility barriers are not absolute. Indeed, in our hybridizations, more than 4% of the ovules were fertilized in the various studied combinations.

Baudoin JP.

2006-01-01

235

Emission of methane and nitrous oxide from Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes in India during the dry cropping seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se hicieron estimaciones de la emisión de metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O) de las legumbres Vigna mungo y Vigna radiata. Para evaluar estas emisiones se estudió el potencial de óxido reducción (redox) y la temperatura del suelo. El CH4 fue negativo y el N2O positivo para Vigna mungo a lo largo de [...] casi todo el período de cultivo. El potencial redox fue de más de +100 mV durante todo el período de cultivo con un flujo máximo de N2O de 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. El incremento de la temperatura del suelo y del potencial redox durante la cosecha incrementó aún más el flujo de N2O a 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. El flujo integrado estacional E(SIF) de CH4 y N2O para Vigna mungo se calculó en -4.06 g m-2 y 3.38 mg m-2, respectivamente. De manera simmilar los valores E(SIF) estimados para Vigna radiata durante la estación de cultivo fueron de 0.009 g m-2 y -7.6 mg m-2, mientras que para el período post cosecha fueron de 0.02 g m-2 y 4.06 mg m-2 para CH4 y N2O, respectivamente. Durante la estación de cultivo se evaluaron los parámetros del suelo carbón orgánico y nutrimentos como el amonio, nitratos y nitritos. La emisión de gases de efecto invernadero también se correlacionó con varios parámetros fisicoquímicos del suelo. Abstract in english Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates were made for Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata legumes. The affecting soil parameters like redox potential, soil temperature were studied to evaluate CH4 and N2O emissions. The CH4 was negative and N2O was positive for Vigna mungo, almost through [...] out the cropping period. The redox potential was more than +100 mV during the entire cropping period with a maximum N2O flux of 11.67 ?g m-2 h-1. The raise in soil temperature and the redox potential during harvest further increased the N2O flux to 18.38 ?g m-2 h-1. The seasonally integrated flux E(SIF) for CH4 and N2O for Vigna mungo was calculated to be -4.06 g.m-2 and 3.38 mg m-2 respectively. Similarly E(SIF) values estimated for Vigna radiata cropping season were 0.009 g m-2 and -7.6 mg m-2, whereas for the post harvesting period the fluxes were 0.02 g m-2 and 4.06 mg m-2 for CH4 and N2O respectively. The soil parameters like organic carbon and nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite during the cropping season were evaluated. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) was also correlated to various physico-chemical parameters of soil.

Y. V., Swamy; G. N., Nikhil; R., Venkanna; S. N., Das; G., Roy Chaudhury.

236

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

237

Natrum mur 200c promotes seed germination and increases total protein, chlorophyll, rubisco and sugar in early seedlings of cowpea under salt stress  

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Background: High level of salinity deteriorates seed germination, growth and yield of crops in cultivated lands all over the world. There is no effective remedy to mitigate this global problem. Homeopathy offers a remedy like Natrum mur which at ultra high dilution ameliorates diseases of patients having strong desire for salt consumption. The purpose of the present study is to see whether potentized Natrum mur could alleviate salt stress in germinating seeds of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) W...

2012-01-01

238

Endoeytosis of 1,3-ß-glueans by broad bean cells at the penetration site of the cowpea rust fungus (haploid stage)  

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The penetration hypha of basidiospore-derived infection structures of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae Barclay) in epidermal cells of the nonhost, broad bean (Viciafaba L.), was studied with the electron microscope after high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution. After fungal invasion of the epidermis, a plug in the penetration hypha separated the infection structures on the cuticle from the intraepidermal vesicle of the fungus. The plug and the fungal cell wall reacted with a pol...

Xu, Haixin; Mendgen, Kurt

1994-01-01

239

Morpho-physiological responses of cowpea leaves to salt stress Respostas morfofisiológicas de folhas de feijão-de-corda ao estresse salino  

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The effect of salt stress of known intensity and duration on morpho-physiological changes in leaves of different ages from cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] plants was studied, aiming for a better understanding of the acclimation process of the whole-plant. Seeds were sown in vermiculite and seedlings were transferred to plastic trays containing aerated nutrient solution, and kept in a greenhouse. When the first trifoliate leaf emerged the seedlings were transplanted into 3 L plastic pots...

Lacerda, Claudivan F.; Assis Ju?nior, Jose? O.; Lemos Filho, Luiz C. A.; Oliveira, Teo?genes S.; Guimara?es, Francisco V. A.; Enéas Gomes-Filho; Prisco, Jose? T.; Bezerra, Marlos A.

2006-01-01

240

Reproductive performance and population dynamics of cowpea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on leaf extracts of resistant and susceptible cowpeas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Membrane feeding studies were conducted to determine the effects of raw juices and chemical extracts of leaves of aphid-resistant (ICV-12) and aphid-susceptible (ICV-1) cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], on the survival, growth, and reproduction of cowpea aphidAphis craccivora Koch. Life table and demographic statistics of the cohort population and subsequent generations were estimated. Compared to ICV-1, the leaf juices and chemical extracts of ICV-12 exhibited significant (Paphid survival, growth, and reproduction. Raw leaf juice and ethyl acetate extract of ICV-12 in both water and sucrose significantly (Paphid performance. The adverse long-term effects were often more extreme than those resulting from a diet of distilled water alone. Methanol extract of ICV-12 showed an intermediate level of adverse effects on aphids, being generally less than that of ethyl acetate but greater than that of hexane. Compared to the other ICV-12 extracts, the hexane extracts in water or sucrose media did not significantly affect the aphid performance. Overall, it was determined that antibiosis was a governing modality of aphid-resistance in ICV-12. Postingestive intoxication was caused by foliage components of seedling plants of that cultivar. PMID:24226090

Annan, I B; Tingey, W M; Schaefers, G A; Saxena, K N

1996-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui / Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alo [...] cados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocat [...] ed in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and productive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Rafaella Barbosa, Correa; Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki, Inoue; Irani da Silva de, Morais.

242

Effets de Boscia senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur l'évolution des populations de bruches dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnel de niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp en zone sahélienne  

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Full Text Available Effects of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on Bruchids Populations within Storage Traditional System of Cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Sahelian Area. Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic. (Coleoptera- Bruchidae and Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera-Bruchidae are, in Sahelian area, the most important pests of cowpea beans, (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Cowpea infestation by these two species of bruchids starts in the field at the beginning of the plant fruit bearing and continues during storages where damage can be high if no control action is taken. In this study, the impact of several introductions of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae, an insecticidal plant which is usually used by farmers in Niger, on the population dynamics of the two bruchids species in traditional cowpea storage system has been investigated. The results obtained from this study point out that bruchid populations are more important in the standard jars than in the one, which have received regular inputs of B. senegalensis. Thus, preservation action by regular inputs of B. senegalensis seems to be an efficient way to control bruchids in the cowpea traditional storage system.

Doumma, A.

2001-01-01

243

Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

Cheung Foo

2008-02-01

244

Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials. PMID:11234193

Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

2001-02-01

245

Occurrence of a Lysogenic Streptomyces sp. on the Nodule Surface of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lysogenic Streptomyces sp., strain NS.A4, which was isolated from the nodule surface of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), was found to inhibit rhizobia of fast-and slow-growing strains of cowpeas and soybeans. It exhibited plaques when there was a change in cultural conditions. Repeated culturing of the organism in nutrient agar and broth confirmed the infection of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 by an actinophage. Addition of the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 to shake...

Rangarajan, M.; Ravindran, A. David; Hariharan, K.

1984-01-01

246

Caracterización de cepas de Rhizobium y Bradyrhizobium (con habilidad de nodulación) seleccionados de los cultivos de fríjol caupi (Vigna unguiculata) como potenciales bioinóculos / Characterization of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiu´s strains (with ability of nodulation) selected from bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultures as a potentials bioinoculants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los suelos de Latinoamérica son ácidos y deficientes en nitrógeno; por esta razón es necesario explorar nuevas alternativas con el fin de modular el desarrollo de plantas, especialmente las leguminosas. El uso del potencial de las bacterias para inducir nodulación y fijar el nitrógeno en las plantas [...] leguminosas se ha estudiado como una opción con potencial impacto. En este estudio se analizó la diversidad de cepas de rhizobios aislados del fríjol Vigna unguiculata (fríjol caupí) cultivado en el norte del departamento de Bolívar (Colombia). Se identificaron aislados capaces de crecer mejor en ambientes hostiles (los cuales tienen un uso potencial como bioinoculantes). Se describe además un acercamiento a la taxonomía de estas bioespecies. Se caracterizaron 52 cepas de rizobios (basados en sus características morfológicas, requerimientos de cultivo, metabólicas, resistencia a metales y antibióticos y de autenticación). De acuerdo con sus propiedades de crecimiento, el 63,5% fueron de cepas de lento, mientras que el 36,5%, de rápido crecimiento. Prevalecieron las de lento crecimiento con un 63,5% del total sobre un 36,5% de rápido crecimiento. Los aislados fueron caracterizados de acuerdo con sus patrones de asimilación de carbohidratos, y se encontraron microorganismos de los géneros Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium y Mesorhizobium (12 cepas identificadas como potenciales bioinoculantes). Abstract in english Latin America´s soils are acidic and nitrogen-deficient, for this reason is necessary to explore new alternatives in order to modulate in the development of plants, specially the leguminous plants. The use of bacteria´s potential to induce nodulation and to fix nitrogen in leguminous plants has been [...] studied as an option with potential impact. In our study, we analyzed the diversity of rhizobial isolated of the bean Vigna unguiculata (beans cowpea) cultured in the north of Bolivar department (Colombia). We identified strains able of growing in hostile environment (which have a potential use like bioinoculants). Additionally, we described an approach to taxonomy of these biospecies. We reached the characterization of 52 rhizobial strains (based on their morphologic, requires of culture, metabolic, resistance to metals and antibiotics and authentication characteristics). According with their growing properties, 63.5 % were slow growth strains while the 36.5 % were of rapid growth. The isolates were characterized according to their assimilation carbohydrate´s pattern, finding microorganism as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium (12 of which were identified as potential bioinoculants).

Bernarda, Cuadrado; Guillermo, Rubio; Winston, Santos.

247

Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

Gakuru, S.

1995-01-01

248

Effects of P on Vigna unguiculata Cv. 305 and Stylosanthes hamata Cv. Verano Symbiosis in the Field of a Rubber-tree Plantation  

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In order to assess the effects of P addition and NP addition on nodulation and N fixation this study examines the nodulation of Vigna unguiculata cv. 305 (cowpea) and Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano in fertilized and unfertilized conditions in NE Thailand. V. unguiculata cv. 305 and S. hamata cv. Verano were studied for their adaptation to low P on the top of the toposequence. The results showed that P addition not only increases above-ground biomass but also nodula...

Sungthongwises, K.; Poss, R.; Drevon, J. J.

2011-01-01

249

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by W...

Silva, Luciana B.; Sales, Mauri?cio P.; Oliveira, Anto?nia E. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Fernandes, Ka?tia V. S.; José Xavier-Filho

2004-01-01

250

Isolation and partial purification of beta-galactosidases from cotyledons of two cowpea cultivars Isolamento e purificação parcial de beta-galactosidases de cotilédones de dois cultivares de feijão-de-corda  

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Three isoforms of beta-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from the cotyledons of quiescent seeds of Vita 3 and Vita 5 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivars differing in water and salt stress tolerance. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion exchange chromatography through DEAE-sephadex and affinity chromatography through Lactosyl-sepharose columns. The three isoforms isolated from the two cultivars showed the ...

JOAQUIM ENÉAS-FILHO; GISLAINY KARLA DA COSTA BARBOSA; FABRÍCIO BONFIM SUDÉRIO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO PRISCO; ENÉAS GOMES-FILHO

2001-01-01

251

Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea Purificação parcial e caracterização das ribonucleases de raízes, caule e folhas de feijão-de-corda  

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Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1) present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose) resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular ma...

OCTÁVIO LUIZ FRANCO; LORRANCE ABREU GONDIM; KÁTIA REGINA BEZERRA; MARIA ELANE DE CARVALHO GUERRA; CARMEM ROGÉLIA FARIAS MACHADO LIMA; JOAQUIM ENÉAS-FILHO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO PRISCO; ENÉAS GOMES-FILHO

2001-01-01

252

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

2006-01-01

253

Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques to trace the amount of deposition and its transfer to associated and subsequent crops. Half of the total cowpea crop N was located below-ground at plant maturity, which exceeded 20 kgâ??N haâ??1 when intercropped with millet. Only 15% of the below-ground cowpea N was recovered in roots, while 85% was found in the rhizodeposited pools. The experiment demonstrated that direct below-ground N transfer occurred from cowpea to millet in intercrop at a rate of 2 kgâ??N haâ??1 over the growing season. Forty percent of the 25 kg below-ground N that the cowpea crop left at harvest were identifiable in the top 0.30 m soil in the beginning of the next planting season 7 months later; a pool still present at the end of that second season. Thus, the subsequent crop of millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) only recovered 2.5 kgâ??N haâ??1 from the below-ground cowpea pre-crop N during this growth season. The role and potential of cowpea as N provider has been underestimated in the past by ignoring the large proportion of N contained in its rhizodeposits. However, information is needed to determine how losses of the rhizodeposited N can be minimized to fully harness the potential of cowpea as N provider in agro-ecosystems of the region.

Ambus, Per; Jensen, Henning Høgh

2011-01-01

254

Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

2013-08-01

255

Organisation du pool génique de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : croisements entre les formes sauvages et cultivées du niébé  

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Full Text Available Organization of the genic pool of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : crosses between the wild and cultivated forms of cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. gene pool organization is studied on the basis of intra-specific crossing between cultivated (cv-gr. Unguiculata, cv-gr. Biflora and wild forms of the species (var. spontanea, subsp. alba, subsp. stenophylla, subsp. pawekiae, subsp. baoulensis. The rate of crosses success, the rate of the obtained pods fruitfulness and the pollinic fertility of the hybrids F1 varied according to the wild taxa used. The highest rate of success was obtained for the crossings between cultivated and annual inbred form (40-79,3%. This result confirms that var. spontanea is genetically closer to the cultivated forms than the other wild forms. Crosses between cultivated and wild allo-autogamous forms gave intermediate rates of success (17,8-57,9% and a significant reduction of the pollinic fertility of some hybrids F1. These observations suggest the existence of a genetic divergence between these two groups, however they share the same gene pool. The wild allogamous forms gave the weakest rates of success with the cultivated forms (3,1-40% showing that they are genetically more distant of these last, compared to the other wild groups. The rates of crosses success are particularly weaker when the wild form subsp. baoulensis is crossed with the cultivated forms.

Jean-Pierre Baudoin

2007-01-01

256

Phosphorus Response Efficiency in Cowpea Genotypes  

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Phosphorus is important for cowpea production and is inherently low in many tropical soils. Selection of cowpea genotypes that produce good yield under low soil P or those with high P response efficiency can be a low input approach in solving this problem. Therefore, the effect of root architecture and P application on the yield of cowpea and its P uptake were investigated. A screen house experiment was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, N...

Oladiran Olaleye; Fagbola Olajire; Abaidoo Robert C.; Ikeorah Nnenna

2012-01-01

257

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações i [...] soladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were inc [...] orporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota, Antônio Chagas; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales, Maurício Pereira; Flores, Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho, José.

258

Ultrastructural alterations into chloroplasts and root nodules of cowpea plants grown under saline stress conditions / Alteraciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos y nódulos de las raíces de plantas de frijol Caupí desarrolladas bajo condiciones de estrés salino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha evaluado el efecto del estrés salino sobre la ultraestructura de los cloroplastos y los nódulos radicales de plantas de frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión TEM. Las plantas se sometieron a 150 y 0,02 mM de NaCl, siendo [...] considerado este último como control. La cepa VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense), aislada de suelos salinos del Valle del Cauto (Cuba), fue inoculada en el momento de la siembra. Cuarenta días después de la germinación se tomaron muestras de hojas y nódulos de la misma posición y edad para realizar observaciones microscópicas. Se han puesto en evidencia modificaciones ultraestructurales en los cloroplastos, provocadas principalmente por el incremento de tamaño de los gránulos de almidón. Estas modificaciones produjeron alteraciones en la distribución normal de los granos. En la ultraestructura del nódulo se produjo un debilitamiento de la membrana peribacteroidal y se incrementó el número de vesículas de las células infectadas, al ser aplicado el tratamiento salino. Los simbiosomas comenzaron a degradarse al romperse la membrana peribacteroidal. Dentro de las células no infectadas se observó una alta vesiculación y la degradación de algunos orgánulos celulares. Abstract in english The ultrastructure of leaves chloroplast and root nodules from cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var. IT 86 D-715, subjected to saline stress was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Plants were exposed at 150 and 0,02 mM of NaCl treatments, considering 0,02 mM salt level [...] as control. Native strain VIBA-1 (Bradyrhizobium liaoningense) isolated from saline soils of Cauto Valley (Cuba) was inoculated at sowing. Forty days after germination, samples of the same age and position from leaves and root nodules were taken for microscopy observations. Some ultrastructural modifications were detected by the salt effect in chloroplasts, mainly triggered by the great increase in the size of the starch granules. These modifications produced altered grana distribution. In nodule structure, when saline stress was applied, a weakness of peribacteroid membrane and high number of vesicles into infected cells were noted. Symbiosomes started deteriorating with some broken peribacteroidal membranes. A high vesiculation and degradation of some cellular organelle into uninfected cells were observed.

Gómez Padilla, Ernesto; López Sánchez, Raúl; Ruiz-Diez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Fajardo, Susana; Eichler-Loebermann, Bettina.

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Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

260

The Sucrose Starvation Signal Mediates Induction of Autophagy- and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Cowpea Seedling  

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Full Text Available In higher plants, autophagy is bulk degradation process in vacuole necessary for survival under nutrient-limited conditions and plays important roles in senescence, development and pathogenic response, etc. Cowpea is one of the most important legume crops in semi-aride region, which is highly tolerant to drought stress. Changes of photoassimilate status by drought stress and/or sink-source balance appeared to affect autophagy and senescence of leaf in cowpea. Accordingly, we focused on roles of sucrose signal in autophagy and amino acid recycling in cowpea. Effects of starvation stress on the expression of autophagy-related genes (ATGs and amino acid catabolism-related genes in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] were examined by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and anti-ATG8i specific antibody. Sucrose starvation stress enhanced the expression levels of VuATG8i, VuATG8c and VuATG4 incowpea seedlings. The expressions of amino acid catabolism related genes, such as asparagine synthase (VuASN1, proline dehydrogenase1 (VuProDH and branched chain amino acid transaminase (VuBCAT2, are also up-regulated under the sucrose starvation. In contrast, high sucrose condition suppressed autophagy and the expressions of ATGs. These results indicate that sucrose starvation stress stimulates both autophagy and amino acid catabolism by regulation of ATGs and VuBCAT2. It is conceivable that sucrose starvation stress enhances autophagy in cowpea, possibly via branched chain amino acid level regulated by the starvation-induced BCAT.

Mari Iwaya-Inoue

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage. PMID:24322505

Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

2014-07-01

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Impact of Combined Industrial Effluent on Metal Accumulation, Nitrate Reductase Activity and Yield of Two Cultivars of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Combined industrial effluent from Ikeja Central Treatment Plant, Lagos, was used to irrigate Vigna unguiculata L. Walp (cowpea), cultivars IT89KD-349 (white) and IT84E-124 (red). The effluent was alkaline (pH 9.8) and had a significantly higher concentration of Ca (11.53 mg L-1), NO3 (83.20 mg L-1), SO4 (22.73 mg L-1), Cl (15.45 mg L-1) and Cd (2.16 mg L-1) than the experimental soil. Nitrate reductase activit...

Umebese, C. E.; Ade-ademilua, O. E.; Olonisakin, B. O.

2009-01-01

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Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus / Caracterização da resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a resistência de 50 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a Callosobruchus maculatus. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento (genótipo). Testes de confinamento foram realizados com os 50 genótipos de [...] feijão-caupi, para avaliar a preferência para oviposição e o desenvolvimento do caruncho. Os genótipos IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2 e Sanzi Sambili apresentam resistência do tipo não preferência (oviposição e alimentação). IT81 D-1045 Ereto e IT81 D-1045 Enramador apresentam antibiose contra C. maculatus e descendem de genitores resistentes, o que lhes confere potencial para serem utilizados em futuros cruzamentos, para obtenção de variedades de feijão-caupi com maior nível de resistência. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype) was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the pr [...] eference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding). IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

Maria de Jesus Passos de, Castro; Edson Luiz Lopes, Baldin; Patrícia Leite, Cruz; Camila Moreira de, Souza; Paulo Henrique Soares da, Silva.

264

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV.

José Albersio Araujo Lima

2011-11-01

265

Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae para la Argentina Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae from Argentina  

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Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto.During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1 Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná basin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2 Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3 Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

Patricia S. Hoc

2006-12-01

266

Photochemical efficiency in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) during recovery from high temperature stress Eficiência fotoquímica em plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) durante a recuperação do estresse por alta temperatura  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca and cv. Negro Huasteco) and cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Epace 10) were grown in a growth chamber with PPF at leaf level of 200 mumol.m-2.s-1 and air temperature 25 + 1 ºC. The first fully expanded pair of leaves of 12-day-old plants was submitted to high temperature stress (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 48 ºC) for 1.5 h. The photochemical efficiency of PSII during recovery was monitored by means of chlorophyll a fluorescence at six differen...

Ernany Santos Costa; Ricardo Bressan-Smith; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Eliemar Campostrini; Carlos Pimentel

2002-01-01

267

Variation in Phosphorus Uptake and Use Efficiencies Between Pigeonpea Genotypes and Cowpea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low bioavailability of soil phosphorus (P) often limits N-2 (nitrogen) fixation and crop production in large parts of the tropics. The efficiency of P acquisition and P use by 21 genotypes of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] were studied in a pot experiment using two cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Waip.] genotypes as controls. The short-duration genotypes produced more dry matter, accumulated more P, and produced more dry matter per unit of absorbed P than the medium-and long-duration genotypes. Dry-matter production correlated positively with the P uptake (r(2) = 0.72) and P-use efficiency (r(2) = 0.86). The P uptake correlated positively with the P-use efficiency (r(2) = 0.36); whereas the P-use efficiency correlated negatively with the P-uptake efficiency (r(2) = 0.50). Root surface did not determine P acquisition of pigeonpea, which absorbed 1.6 mg P cm(-3) from 33 cm(3) soil compared with 0.17 mg P cm(-3) from 387 cm(3) soil for cowpea at 66 d.

Vesterager, J.M.; Nielsen, N.E.

2006-01-01

268

Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

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Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

2004-01-01

269

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

1992-01-01

270

Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop  

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Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

Ocaya, CP.

2001-01-01

271

Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

1980-01-01

272

Resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda ao pulgão-preto Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the cowpea black aphid  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata ao pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora. Foram realizados experimentos com e sem chance de escolha em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Ceará. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com vinte tratamentos, representados pelos genótipos 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha, Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 e VITA 7. Verificou-se que TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 e TVu 410 foram preteridos por adultos e ninfas do pulgão-preto, em ambos experimentos. Os genótipos TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 e TVu 1037 apresentam resistência provavelmente do tipo antibiose ou antixenose. O genótipo 421-07-44 mostrou-se suscetível ao pulgão-preto.The objective of this work was to evaluate cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes for resistance to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora. Experiments, with and without choice, were performed in the greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with twenty treatments represented by the genotypes 421-07-44, Chumbinho, Zebu, EPACE 10, Frade Preto, Inhumã, João Paulo II, Manteiguinha Maranhão, Pitiúba, Quarenta Dias, Seridó, Sete Semanas, TVu 1037, TVu 1888, TVu 310, TVu 36, TVu 408P2, TVu 410 and VITA 7. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 1037 and TVu 410 were less preferred by adults and nymphs of the black aphid in both assays. The genotypes TVu 408P2, TVu 410, TVu 36 and TVu 1037 probably presented antibiosis or antixenosis resistance. The genotype 421-07-44 was susceptible the black aphid.

Jefté Ferreira da Silva

2010-10-01

273

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

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Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

Silva Luciana B.

2004-01-01

274

Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae  

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Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

Nacoulma OG.

2006-01-01

275

Controle genético do comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi / Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético do caráter comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Para isso, foi realizado um cruzamento entre os parentais TVx-5058-09C, de pedúnculo curto, e TE96-282-22G, de pedúnculo longo. Os parentais e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 (P [...] 1xF1) e RC2 (P2xF1) foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram estimados: variâncias fenotípica, genotípica, ambiental, aditiva e de dominância; herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito; grau médio de dominância e número mínimo de genes que determinam o caráter. O modelo aditivo-dominante foi adequado para explicar a variação observada. O efeito gênico aditivo foi o mais importante no controle do comprimento do pedúnculo, que é, aparentemente, controlado por cinco genes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). A short peduncle cowpea line (TVx-5058-09C) was crossed with a long peduncle line (TE 96-282-22G). The parents and the F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1), and RC2 (P2xF1) generations were evaluate [...] d in randomized block design with four replications. Genotypic, phenotypic, environmental, additive, and dominance variances for peduncle length were determined. Narrow and broad sense heritability, the degree of dominance, and the minimum number of genes determining peduncle length were estimated. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the observed variation. The additive gene effect was the most important in controlling peduncle length, which appeared to be controlled by five genes.

Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha; Kênnya Jhouanny Martins de, Carvalho; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Ângela Celis de Almeida, Lopes; Regina Lúcia Ferreira, Gomes; Iradenia da Silva, Sousa.

276

Controle genético do comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético do caráter comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. Para isso, foi realizado um cruzamento entre os parentais TVx-5058-09C, de pedúnculo curto, e TE96-282-22G, de pedúnculo longo. Os parentais e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1 e RC2 (P2xF1 foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram estimados: variâncias fenotípica, genotípica, ambiental, aditiva e de dominância; herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito; grau médio de dominância e número mínimo de genes que determinam o caráter. O modelo aditivo-dominante foi adequado para explicar a variação observada. O efeito gênico aditivo foi o mais importante no controle do comprimento do pedúnculo, que é, aparentemente, controlado por cinco genes.The objective of this work was to investigate the genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. A short peduncle cowpea line (TVx-5058-09C was crossed with a long peduncle line (TE 96-282-22G. The parents and the F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1, and RC2 (P2xF1 generations were evaluated in randomized block design with four replications. Genotypic, phenotypic, environmental, additive, and dominance variances for peduncle length were determined. Narrow and broad sense heritability, the degree of dominance, and the minimum number of genes determining peduncle length were estimated. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the observed variation. The additive gene effect was the most important in controlling peduncle length, which appeared to be controlled by five genes.

Maurisrael de Moura Rocha

2009-03-01

277

How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?  

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Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

2006-12-01

278

Bradyrhizobium manausense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vigna unguiculata grown in Brazilian Amazonian rainforest soils.  

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Root nodule bacteria were trapped within cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in soils with different cultivation histories collected from the Amazonian rainforest in northern Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 3351(T), BR 3307, BR 3310, BR 3315, BR 3323 BR and BR 3361) isolated from cowpea nodules showed that they formed a distinct group within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was separate from previously identified type strains. Phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping genes (glnII, recA and rpoB) revealed that Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense CCBAU 23303(T) was the most closely related type strain (96?% sequence similarity or lower). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles (predominant fatty acids being C16?:?0 and summed feature 8), the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, antibiotic resistance and physiological tests differentiated these novel strains from the most closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped the novel strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium together with Bradyrhizobium iriomotense strain EK05(T), with 94?% and 96?% sequence similarity, respectively. Based on these data, these six strains represent a novel species for which the name Brabyrhizobium manausense sp. nov. (BR 3351(T)?=?HAMBI 3596(T)), is proposed. PMID:24744018

Silva, Flavia V; De Meyer, Sofie E; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Barbé, Tatiane da Costa; Xavier, Gustavo R; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Rumjanek, Norma G; Willems, Anne; Zilli, Jerri E

2014-07-01

279

Use of X-ray to evaluate damage caused by weevils in cowpea seeds Utilização de raios X na avaliação de danos causados por caruncho em sementes de feijão-caupi  

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In Brazil, the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], is important in the Northeast Region, where it is typically grown on family farms. The importance of the damage caused to the seed quality of this species by stored pests has been described in various studies. Using X-ray, it is possible to see the internal seed structures and identify possible changes and damage. The objective of this study was to identify the damage caused by the weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.)] by analyzing X-ra...

Melo, Roberto A.; Victor Augusto Forti; Cicero, Silvio M.; Dlc, Ana Novembre; Melo, Paulo Ce?sar T.

2010-01-01

280

Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.  

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It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. PMID:24220155

Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil / Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz [...] e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias), genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p Abstract in english In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphol [...] ogical traits (mucous production and colony morphology), genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S) and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p

Jerri Édson, Zilli; Romano Roberto, Valisheski; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Maria Cristina Prata, Neves; Norma Gouvêa, Rumjanek.

282

Diversidade genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani coletados em feijão-caupi no Estado de Roraima Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from Cowpea in the State of Roraima  

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Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma das principais fontes de proteína para a população de baixa renda, principalmente nas Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Esta leguminosa é suscetível a várias doenças incluindo a mela ou murcha-da-teia-micélica, cujo agente causal é o fungo Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorfo: Thanatephorus cucumeris. Embora Rhizoctonia solani seja um agente causal de doença muito importante, no Brasil inexiste qualquer informação sobre as características de seus isolados associados ao feijão-caupi. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, utilizando-se das técnicas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD e RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, a diversidade genética de isolados de R. solani coletados de plantas de feijão-caupi oriundas da região de cerrado e de mata do Estado de Roraima. Pelos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que existe diversidade genética em R.. solani coletada de feijão-caupi e que os dois métodos moleculares utilizados foram eficientes em avaliar a divergência genética deste patógeno.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is one of the most important sources of protein for people with low incomes in Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Cowpea is susceptible to several diseases, including web blight caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris. Although R. solani is a very important disease agent, in Brazil there is no information on isolate characteristics when this fungus is associated with cowpea. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD and RFLP-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer techniques, the genetic diversity of R. solani isolates collected in the State of Roraima from cowpea cultivated under 'savannah' and 'forest' ecosystems. From the results it was possible to demonstrate genetic diversity among R. solani isolates and to prove that both molecular techniques used were efficient in evaluating it.

Aloísio Sartorato

2006-06-01

283

Determinação de épocas de semeadura do feijão caupi no Recôncavo Baiano através do modelo CROPGRO / Determining the optimum sowing dates for cowpea based on CROPGRO model in Recôncavo of Bahia - Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se simular épocas de semeadura para o feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) em Cruz das Almas, no Recôncavo Baiano, através do modelo CROPGRO-cowpea, calibrado e validado por meio de conjunto de dados provenientes de experimentos de campo. Dois cenários foram elaborados, [...] os quais são: produtividade atingível (com irrigação automática quando requerido) e atual (sequeiro), enquanto para cada cenário foram executadas 12 simulações, sendo uma por mês (início 15 de janeiro e fim em 15 de dezembro), com base nos vinte anos de dados climáticos históricos provenientes da estação automática da Embrapa CNPMF. O modelo simulou satisfatoriamente a produção do feijão caupi nas condições de Cruz das Almas demonstrando sensibilidade às variações climáticas inter e intra-anuais apontando, como mais propícias para a semeadura, as épocas compreendidas entre meados de junho e de julho devido ao fato de apresentarem menor risco de quebra de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to simulate sowing dates for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Cruz das Almas, Recôncavo of Bahia, based on crop model CROPGRO-cowpea. The crop model CROPGRO was calibrated and evaluated based on field experiments data set. Two different scenarios were elaborat [...] ed, attainable yield (automatic irrigation when required) and observed yield (rainfed) and for each scenario 12 simulations were made, one per month (begin January, 15 and end December, 15), considering 20 years of historic daily weather data set from the weather station at Embrapa CNPMF. The model simulated well the yield for Cruz das Almas, showing sensitivity for the climate variation inter and intra years, being July and June the best month for sowing cowpea due to lesser risk for yield loss.

Aristides F., Lima Filho; Mauricio A., Coelho Filho; Alexandre B., Heinemann.

284

Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

285

Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish r [...] elationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen). Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP) and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154) yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9) CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

Bruno Lima, Soares; Paulo Avelar Ademar, Ferreira; Silvia Maria de, Oliveira-Longatti; Leandro Marciano, Marra; Marcia, Rufini; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Fatima Maria de Souza, Moreira.

286

Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation, or crude extract from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization. Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

Florindo M.I.

2002-01-01

287

Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea  

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Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1 present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular masses of the RNases did not significantly differ, averaging 16.3 kDa. Leaf RNase was stable up to 50masculineC while the others were inactivated at this temperature. The maximal inactivation for both stem and roots RNases was reached at 70masculineC while for leaf it occurred at 80masculineC. The addition of KCl to the assay medium caused a shift of optimal pH from 6.0 toward the range of 5.2 - 5.6 for the enzymes extracted from the different tissues. RNase activities were strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+, partially inhibited by Co2+ and Fe2+ and were not affected by EDTA, Ca2+ or Mg2+. In contrast to the leaf RNase, roots and stem enzymes were inactivated by urea and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME. Although there is a great similarity among the enzymes studied, leaf RNase appears to be more stable to heat and to chemical denaturation than root and stem RNases. The results also suggest that the enzymes extracted from different tissues of Pitiúba cowpea seedlings are ribonucleases and not nucleases.

FRANCO OCTÁVIO LUIZ

2001-01-01

288

In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of NAA-Pulse Treated Plumular Leaf Explants of Cowpea  

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Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an economically important grain legume crop and is an important source of dietary protein in many of the developing countries. The present study reports the effect of pulse treatment duration, concentration of NAA and presence of NAA in the culture medium on shoot regeneration from plumular leaf explant of Turkish cowpea cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz?. Pulse treatment of mature embryos with 20 mg l-1 NAA for 1 and 3 weeks followed by culturing of plumular leaf explant on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 BAP with 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 NAA promoted somatic embryogenesis in both cultivars. Longer duration of pulse treatment was deleterious resulting in browning and consequently death of the embryos on explants. Pulse treatment with 20 mg l-1 NAA for one week was less deleterious and developed two plantlets after the explants were transferred to MS0 medium after 6 weeks through somatic embryogenesis in cv. ?Akkiz?. Pulse treatment with 10 mg l-1 NAA for 1 week showed 33.33-50.00 % and 25.00-50.00% shoot regeneration frequency in cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz? respectively on MS medium containing 0.25-1.00 mg l-1 BAP. Maximum number of 2.50 shoots each per explant were recorded in cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz? on MS medium containing 1.00 and 0.50 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Contrarily, maximum shoot length of 8.98 cm of cv. ?Akkiz? and 9.42 cm of cv. ?Karagoz? was recorded on MS medium containing 0.50 mg l-1 BAP and 1.00 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 IBA and and acclimatized in growth room at room temprature where they produced viable seeds.

Muhammad AASIM

2010-06-01

289

Acumulación de materia seca, N, P y K en frijol cultivado bajo labranza mínima y convencional en un mollisol de Venezuela / Acumulation of dry matter, N, P and K in cowpea grown under minumum and conventional tillage in a mollisol of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El conocimiento del patrón de acumulación de materia seca (MS), y nutrimentos en frijol, Vigna unguiculta, puede emplearse para mejorar la cantidad y épocas de fertilización y mejorar prácticas de manejo. En este estudio se evaluó la acumulación de MS, N, P, y K en hoja, tallo, grano, vaina, y área [...] foliar (ÁF) a los 15, 29, 43, 58, y 73 días después de germinación (DDG) en fríjol variedad Tuy, cultivado en labranza mínima (LM) y labranza convencional (LC), en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, en un experimento en bloques con tratamientos distribuidos aleatoreamente con 3 repeticiones. En cada unidad experimental se cosecharon 3 plantas por muestreo. El patrón de acumulación de MS, N, P, y K fue similar en LC y LM, y en promedio 69% de la MS, y 92, 79 y 78% del N, P, y del K es acumulado entre 43 y 58 DDG. La MS, N, P, y K en LC fue estadísticamente mayor que en LM a los 15 y 58 DDG para N, a los 58 DDG para P, y 43 y 58 DDG para K. La relación ÁF/MS no presentó diferencias entre LC y LM: decreció, en promedio, desde 412,95 cm2/g MS a los 15 DDG, hasta 72 cm2/g MS a los 58 DDG. El P, K, y N absorbido, de manera individual, explican entre 99 y 94%, 98 y 90%, y 73 y 37% de la variación en MS en LC y LM, respectivamente Abstract in english The knowledge of the pattern of dry matter (DM) production and nutrient uptake by -cowpea, Vigna unguiculta, could be usefull to improve the quantity and application time of fertilizers. We evaluated the acumulation of DM, N, P, and K in leaf, steam, grain, pod, and foliar area (FA) a the 15, 29, 43 [...] , 58, and 73 days after germination (DAG) in cowpea (variety Tuy), sowed under minimun (MT) and conventional tillage (CT), in a Mollisol soil located at Aragua state in Venezuela, in an experiment of Random block desing with three repetitions. In each sampler time three plants were collected in each experimental unit. We found that the patter of DM accumulation and of nutrient uptake were similar between MT and CT, and in average 69% of the DM, and 92, 79 and 78% of the N, P, and K were accumulated in the period between 43 and 58 DAG. The DM, N, P, and K in CT were statisticaly greater than in MT at the 15 and 58 DAG for N, at the 58 DAG for P, and 43 and 58 DAG for K. The ratio FA/DM were similar in CT and MT: in average, it decreased since 412.95 cm2/g DM at the 15 DAG, until 72 cm2/g DM at the 58 DAG. The P, K, and N taken up, individually, explain between 99 and 94%, 98 and 90%, and 73 and 37% of the variation in DM in CT and MT respectivelly

Rodolfo, Delgado; Evelyn, Cabrera de Bisbal; Bethsaida, Ortega; Lorenzo, Velásquez.

290

Physiological response of cowpea seeds to salinity stress / Resposta fisiológica de sementes de feijão caupi ao estresse salino  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de três cultivares de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) ao estresse salino. As sementes das cultivares 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' e 'Pitiúba' foram submetidas ao teste de germinação em germinador a 25(0)C, em papel "germitest" embeb [...] ido em água destilada ou em soluções de NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 10, 50, 100 e 200mol m-3. Na primeira e segunda contagem do teste de germinação, as plântulas normais foram contadas, pesadas e secadas, obtendo-se dados de vigor, germinação, massa de matéria fresca e massa de matéria seca. O comprimento do hipocótilo, raiz e total foram medidos e o teor de proteínas totais nos cotilédones foi obtido em plântulas de 3, 5 e 8 dias. As concentrações de NaCl acima da 50mol m-3 afetam a germinação e o vigor das sementes, crescimento de plântulas, bem como a síntese de proteínas totais. As sementes da cultivar Pitiúba são mais tolerantes à salinidade do que as cultivares Canapu e Epace-10. Abstract in english This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds submitted to salt stress. Seeds of cultivars 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' and 'Pitiúba' of cowpea, were submitted to germination test in germinator at 25(0)C, in "germitest" papers imbibed in distilled water or in [...] 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200mol m-3 NaCl solutions. At the first and second counting of the germination test, normal seedlings were accounted, weighted and dried, obtaining data for vigor, total germination, fresh matter weight and dry matter weight. The seedlings hypocotyls, root and total length were measured total proteins content in cotyledons were obtained from germinating seeds. The presence of salt at concentrations higher than 50mol m-3 NaCl affect the germination, seedlings growth and cotyledons total protein synthesis of all cowpea cultivars. The seeds of cultivar pitiúba were is more tolerant to salinity, than the cultivars Canapu and Epace-10.

Bárbara França, Dantas; Luciana de Sá, Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto, Aragão.

291

Physiological response of cowpea seeds to salinity stress Resposta fisiológica de sementes de feijão caupi ao estresse salino  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp seeds submitted to salt stress. Seeds of cultivars 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' and 'Pitiúba' of cowpea, were submitted to germination test in germinator at 25(0C, in "germitest" papers imbibed in distilled water or in 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200mol m-3 NaCl solutions. At the first and second counting of the germination test, normal seedlings were accounted, weighted and dried, obtaining data for vigor, total germination, fresh matter weight and dry matter weight. The seedlings hypocotyls, root and total length were measured total proteins content in cotyledons were obtained from germinating seeds. The presence of salt at concentrations higher than 50mol m-3 NaCl affect the germination, seedlings growth and cotyledons total protein synthesis of all cowpea cultivars. The seeds of cultivar pitiúba were is more tolerant to salinity, than the cultivars Canapu and Epace-10.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de três cultivares de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp ao estresse salino. As sementes das cultivares 'Epace-10'; 'Canapu' e 'Pitiúba' foram submetidas ao teste de germinação em germinador a 25(0C, em papel "germitest" embebido em água destilada ou em soluções de NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 10, 50, 100 e 200mol m-3. Na primeira e segunda contagem do teste de germinação, as plântulas normais foram contadas, pesadas e secadas, obtendo-se dados de vigor, germinação, massa de matéria fresca e massa de matéria seca. O comprimento do hipocótilo, raiz e total foram medidos e o teor de proteínas totais nos cotilédones foi obtido em plântulas de 3, 5 e 8 dias. As concentrações de NaCl acima da 50mol m-3 afetam a germinação e o vigor das sementes, crescimento de plântulas, bem como a síntese de proteínas totais. As sementes da cultivar Pitiúba são mais tolerantes à salinidade do que as cultivares Canapu e Epace-10.

Bárbara França Dantas

2005-06-01

292

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

Abba M. Wakili

2013-01-01

293

Ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico e potencial osmótico de feijão caupi cultivado em solos salinizados / Physiological permanent wilting point and osmotic potential of cowpea grown in saline soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o ponto de murcha permanente fisiológico, a umidade foliar e o potencial osmótico no feijoeiro caupi, sob duas condições de estresses (salino e salino + hídrico), foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE [...] , Brasil). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, sendo duas classes texturais de solos (franco-arenoso e franco-argiloso) e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo, equivalentes às condutividades elétricas do extrato de saturação do solo 4, 8 e 12 dS m-1, mais testemunha, com cinco repetições. A cultura teste utilizada foi o feijoeiro caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça. O ponto de murcha permanente do feijoeiro caupi é menor quando determinado pelo método fisiológico do que o determinado na câmara de pressão de Richards; o incremento da salinidade do solo (CEes) até 12 dS m-1 não influencia a umidade foliar, independente da textura do solo; e o potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro caupi diminui com o aumento da salinidade do solo e pode ser usado como variável importante em ambientes salinizados. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the physiological wilting point, the moisture content and leaf osmotic potential in cowpea, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brazil). Two stress conditions were evaluated: salinity and salinity + water st [...] ress. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, composed of two classes of soil texture and four levels of soil salinity (control, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1), with five replications. The species cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], cultivar Pele de Moça was used as test crop. It was concluded that the permanent wilting point of cowpea is smaller when determined by the physiological method than by Richards chamber method; the increase in soil salinity (CEes) up to 12 dS m-1 does not influence the leaf moisture content, regardless of soil texture; and the leaf osmotic potential of cowpea decreases with the increasing soil salinity, which can be used as an important variable in saline environments.

José B. M., Coelho; Maria de F. C., Barros; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Edivan R. de, Souza.

294

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea [...] (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L., Rose; V.M., Gomes; M., Da Cunha; K.V.S., Fernandes; J., Xavier-Filho.

2003-08-01

295

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L. Rose

2003-01-01

296

In situ speciation and distribution of toxic selenium in hydrated roots of cowpea.  

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The speciation and spatial distribution of selenium (Se) in hydrated plant tissues is not well understood. Using synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (two-dimensional scanning [and associated mathematical model] and computed tomography), the speciation and distribution of toxic Se were examined within hydrated roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) exposed to either 20 µM selenite or selenate. Based upon bulk solution concentrations, selenate was 9-fold more toxic to the roots than selenite, most likely due to increased accumulation of organoselenium (e.g. selenomethionine) in selenate-treated roots. Specifically, uptake of selenate (probably by sulfate transporters) occurred at a much higher rate than for selenite (apparently by both passive diffusion and phosphate transporters), with bulk root tissue Se concentrations approximately 18-fold higher in the selenate treatment. Although the proportion of Se converted to organic forms was higher for selenite (100%) than for selenate (26%), the absolute concentration of organoselenium was actually approximately 5-fold higher for selenate-treated roots. In addition, the longitudinal and radial distribution of Se in roots differed markedly: the highest tissue concentrations were in the endodermis and cortex approximately 4 mm or more behind the apex when exposed to selenate but in the meristem (approximately 1 mm from the apex) when exposed to selenite. The examination of the distribution and speciation of Se in hydrated roots provides valuable data in understanding Se uptake, transport, and toxicity. PMID:23835408

Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David J; Howard, Daryl L; Glover, Chris J; James, Simon; Kappen, Peter; Johannessen, Bernt; Kopittke, Peter M

2013-09-01

297

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes / Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de [...] Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universid [...] ade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo, Ferreira; Elizita Maria, Teófilo.

298

Multiple forms of cotyledonary b-galactosidases from Vigna unguiculata quiescent seeds / Múltiplas formas de b-galactosidases cotiledonárias de sementes quiescentes de Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese b-galactosidases cotiledonárias foram isoladas e purificadas, parcialmente, de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Pitiúba. As etapas de purificação consistiram de precipitação do extrato bruto com sulfato de amônio na faixa de 20-60% de saturação, precipitação áci [...] da, cromatografia de troca-iônica em DEAE-Sephadex e cromatografia de afinidade em Lactosil- Sepharose. Esse processo de purificação deu origem a três frações ricas em b-galactosidases: b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III, as quais foram purificadas cerca de 5, 509 e 62 vezes, respectivamente. Elas atingiram máxima atividade enzimática em diferentes faixas de pH: 3,5-4,5 para b-gal I, 3,0-3,5 para b-gal II e 3,0-4,0 para b-gal III. Suas atividades máximas foram alcançadas quando a temperatura do meio de ensaio era 60° C, e a preincubação das enzimas em diferentes temperaturas mostrou que elas eram termoestáveis até 50° C. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as enzimas parcialmente purificadas no que respeita à resposta dos diferentes efetores testados, exceto para Mn2+ e EDTA, que afetaram, diferentemente, b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III. Elas foram ligeiramente afetadas por Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarato, molibdato, glicose e lactose, fortemente inibidas por Cu2+ e galactose, e inativadas por Hg2+. Essas propriedades químicas e físicas são semelhantes às encontradas para outras b-galactosidases de plantas. Embora, três isoformas dessa enzima tenham sido obtidas através desse processo de purificação, a focalização isoelétrica em placa de gel de poliacrilamida dessas proteinas enzimáticas sugere que cotilédones de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda Pitiúba possuem quatro isoformas de b-galactosidases. Abstract in english Cotyledonary b-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from Pitiúba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) quiescent seeds. The purification steps consisted of precipitation of the crude extract with ammonium sulphate in the range of 20-60% saturation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex io [...] n-exchange chromatography and Lactosyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. This purification process gave rise to three b-galactosidases-rich fractions: b-gal I, b-gal II and b-gal III, which were purified about 5, 509, and 62 fold, respectively. They reached maximal enzyme activity at different pH ranges: 3.5-4.5 for b-gal I, 3.0-3.5 for b-gal II, and 3.0-4.0 for b-gal III. Their maximal activities were reached when the temperature of the assay medium was 60° C, and preincubation of the enzymes at different temperatures has shown that they were heat-stable up to 50° C. There were no significant differences among the partially purified enzymes as far as their response to the different effectors tested, except for Mn2+ and EDTA, which affected differently b-gal I, b-gal II, and b-gal III. They were slightly affected by Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarate, molybdate, glucose, and lactose, strongly inhibited by Cu2+ and galactose, and inactivated by Hg2+. These chemical and physical properties are similar to the ones found for other plant b-galactosidases. Although through this process of purification three isoforms of this enzyme were obtained, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gel of these enzyme-proteins suggest that cotyledons of Pitiúba cowpea quiescent seeds possess four isoforms of b-galactosidases.

JOAQUIM, ENÉAS-FILHO; FABRÍCIO BONFIM, SUDÉRIO; ENÉAS, GOMES-FILHO; JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO, PRISCO.

299

Multiple forms of cotyledonary b-galactosidases from Vigna unguiculata quiescent seeds Múltiplas formas de b-galactosidases cotiledonárias de sementes quiescentes de Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available Cotyledonary b-galactosidases were isolated and partially purified from Pitiúba cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. quiescent seeds. The purification steps consisted of precipitation of the crude extract with ammonium sulphate in the range of 20-60% saturation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and Lactosyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. This purification process gave rise to three b-galactosidases-rich fractions: b-gal I, b-gal II and b-gal III, which were purified about 5, 509, and 62 fold, respectively. They reached maximal enzyme activity at different pH ranges: 3.5-4.5 for b-gal I, 3.0-3.5 for b-gal II, and 3.0-4.0 for b-gal III. Their maximal activities were reached when the temperature of the assay medium was 60° C, and preincubation of the enzymes at different temperatures has shown that they were heat-stable up to 50° C. There were no significant differences among the partially purified enzymes as far as their response to the different effectors tested, except for Mn2+ and EDTA, which affected differently b-gal I, b-gal II, and b-gal III. They were slightly affected by Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarate, molybdate, glucose, and lactose, strongly inhibited by Cu2+ and galactose, and inactivated by Hg2+. These chemical and physical properties are similar to the ones found for other plant b-galactosidases. Although through this process of purification three isoforms of this enzyme were obtained, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide slab gel of these enzyme-proteins suggest that cotyledons of Pitiúba cowpea quiescent seeds possess four isoforms of b-galactosidases.b-galactosidases cotiledonárias foram isoladas e purificadas, parcialmente, de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Pitiúba. As etapas de purificação consistiram de precipitação do extrato bruto com sulfato de amônio na faixa de 20-60% de saturação, precipitação ácida, cromatografia de troca-iônica em DEAE-Sephadex e cromatografia de afinidade em Lactosil- Sepharose. Esse processo de purificação deu origem a três frações ricas em b-galactosidases: b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III, as quais foram purificadas cerca de 5, 509 e 62 vezes, respectivamente. Elas atingiram máxima atividade enzimática em diferentes faixas de pH: 3,5-4,5 para b-gal I, 3,0-3,5 para b-gal II e 3,0-4,0 para b-gal III. Suas atividades máximas foram alcançadas quando a temperatura do meio de ensaio era 60° C, e a preincubação das enzimas em diferentes temperaturas mostrou que elas eram termoestáveis até 50° C. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as enzimas parcialmente purificadas no que respeita à resposta dos diferentes efetores testados, exceto para Mn2+ e EDTA, que afetaram, diferentemente, b-gal I, b-gal II e b-gal III. Elas foram ligeiramente afetadas por Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, tartarato, molibdato, glicose e lactose, fortemente inibidas por Cu2+ e galactose, e inativadas por Hg2+. Essas propriedades químicas e físicas são semelhantes às encontradas para outras b-galactosidases de plantas. Embora, três isoformas dessa enzima tenham sido obtidas através desse processo de purificação, a focalização isoelétrica em placa de gel de poliacrilamida dessas proteinas enzimáticas sugere que cotilédones de sementes quiescentes de feijão-de-corda Pitiúba possuem quatro isoformas de b-galactosidases.

JOAQUIM ENÉAS-FILHO

2000-03-01

300

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi / Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupl [...] a difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea. Abstract in english Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) a [...] nd Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A., Lima; Aline Kelly Q., Nascimento; Gilson Soares, Silva; Rosa Felícia E. A., Camarço; M. Fátima B., Gonçalves.

 
 
 
 
301

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea.Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A. Lima

2005-08-01

302

Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system  

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An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 ?mol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Thillo, M. van

303

Effect of Temperature, Air Relative Humidity and Water Presence on Some Biological Parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal (Hemiptera:Coreidae, the Pod Sucking Bug of Cowpea  

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Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted on the influence of temperature, air relative humidity and water presence on some biological parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal, a major pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walpers, in West Africa. The feeding of the first-instar larvae was also studied. The aim was to provide some indicators on the insect adaptation to hot and dry conditions in Sahelian zone. Results show that increased temperature reduced embryo and larvae development length and female fertility and lifespan. Temperature fluctuations had little effect on egg viability to the extent of hatching limit around 38 ° C. A full larval development and adult reproductive activity were possible at a constant temperature of 40 ° C. Increased air relative humidity (80% improved larval survival especially under high temperatures. The presence of water was necessary for first-instar larvae development. The insect showed good adaptation to Sahelian hot and dry environment, which enables it to go through the long dry season.

C. Dabir?

2005-01-01

304

Morphology, associated protein analysis, and identification of 58-kDa starch synthase in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cv. KPS1) starch granule preparations.  

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Raw starch granules of mature mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cv. KPS1) seeds were prepared by two methods into crude and cesium chloride (CsCl)-washed forms. The purity, shape, size distribution, and associated protein profiles were examined. The appearance of raw starch granules showed a bimodal type distribution in which average granules had typical ovoid shapes, whereas the small ones were spherical. Abnormal granule surface with distinct tumor-like or dented hole features were also observed in raw starch granules. CsCl-washed granules had a smooth surface compared to that of the crude form. The granule size distribution ranged from 6-35 ?m; most 15-25 ?m (?53%), followed by 25-35 ?m (?26%). Small granules (35 ?m consisted of ?3%. The two forms were further refined by trichloroacetic (TCA) treatment to reveal surface proteins on the crude granules or tightly bound proteins on CsCl-washed granules. In the washed-refined granules, only a few integral proteins were retained. The major 58-kDa protein was identified to be granule-bound starch synthase I by sequence homology with that in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) using MALDI-TOF mass and Mascot search. PMID:19371027

Ko, Yuan-Tih; Dong, Yu-Ling; Hsieh, Ying-Fang; Kuo, Ja-Chi

2009-05-27

305

Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil / Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à c [...] ultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida. Abstract in english Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in T [...] eresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After screenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

Lima, Élison Fabrício Bezerra; Fontes, Lúcia da Silva; Pinent, Silvia Marisa Jesien; Reis, Adriana Saraiva dos; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Lopes, Angela Celis de Almeida.

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Diversidade morfológica de rizóbios isolados de caupi cultivado em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte / Morphological diversity of rhizobia from cowpea cultivated in Rio Grande do Norte State soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em função das características nutricionais e de rusticidade, o feijão-caupi tornou-se importante fonte de proteína na Região Nordeste do Brasil. O caupi se beneficia da fixação biológica de nitrogênio e pode receber parte do nitrogênio necessário para a cultura via simbiose, o que reduz os custos de [...] produção. Um experimento em condições de casa-de-vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio de nódulos de caupi em solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Os nódulos foram coletados de raízes de Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., utilizada como planta-isca, sendo obtidos 304 isolados com características típicas de rizóbio. Embora todos os isolados tenham apresentado crescimento rápido e ácido em meio de cultivo, os isolados apresentaram elevada diversidade morfológica e foram agrupados em 18 grupos morfológicos. Não foi observada diferença de diversidade de isolados de rizóbio entre as diferentes amostras de solo analisadas. Abstract in english As a result of it nutritional and rustic characteristics, cowpea has become an important source protein in the Northeast region of Brazil. Cowpea may benefit from biological nitrogen fixation and can receive part of the nitrogen needed for culture from symbiosis, which reduces the cost of production [...] . An experiment in greenhouse conditions was carried out in order to assess the diversity of rhizobia isolates of the nodules of cowpea, in soils from Rio Grande do Norte State. The nodules were obtained from roots of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., a species used as trap plant; 304 isolates with typical rhizobial features were obtained. Although all isolates showed rapid and acid growth in the medium, the isolates showed high morphological diversity, forming 18 clusters. No diversity differences of rhizobial isolates were observed among the different soil samples studied.

Erika Valente de, Medeiros; Claudia Miranda, Martins; José Arcanjo Melo, Lima; Ykesaky Terson Dantas, Fernandes; Vianney Reinaldo de, Oliveira; Wardsson Lustrino, Borges.

307

Toxic Effects of Three Industrial Effluents on Growth and Development of Vigna unguiculata (L Walp (Cultivar it 84 E-124  

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Full Text Available The toxic effects of Paint, Battery and Textile effluents respectively on Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Cultivar It 84 E-124 were evaluated in this study. Viable seeds were planted in 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted effluents. Distilled water was used as control. The Physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Zinc being 35.6 mg L-1 in Paint effluent, copper and lead were 10.5 mg L-1 in Battery effluent were found to be above Federal Environmental Protection Agencys limit suggesting toxic impact on the seedling. Leaf size, stem length and root length were observed to be responsive to the concentration gradient of the effluents. Dry weight declined with a positive response from mean value of 1.18 g for 25% Textile to 0.11 g for 25% Key paint. The test plant indicated high concentration of heavy metals in its biomass, for instance, 75% flash battery with highest fresh weight of 1.75 g except for textile effluent with 1.45 g. Textile effluent was also found to favour chlorophyll formation leading to photosynthesis while the other effluents were found not to be in favour of chlorophyll production. The mean total chlorophyll for control is 56.43 mg g-1, Undiluted Textile being 51.45 mg g-1, while Key paint has 9.11 mg g-1. Howbeit, the severity of toxicity of the industrial effluents follow this trend; key paint higher than flash battery which is higher than textile at the different treatment concentrations of 25, 50, 75% and neat (undiluted. Suggesting that at very low concentration, Vigna unguiculata thrives better in textile effluents contaminated environment than battery and paint effluents. It is suggested that these parameters in cowpea may constitute methods of environmental monitoring.

T. Yahaya

2011-01-01

308

Efecto del tipo de labranza sobre el suministro del agua y el crecimiento del frijol tuy en un suelo mollisol de Venezuela / Effect of the type of farming on the provision of the water and the growth of kidney bean tuyin a ground mollisol of Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El frijol, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp; variedad Tuy, es un cultivo de gran importancia en Venezuela. Se requiere la evaluación de alternativas de labranza que incrementen su producción, mejoren o mantengan las características favorables del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de [...] la labranza mínima (LM) y la labranza convencional (LC) sobre la producción de materia seca (MS) del frijol; variedad Tuy, área foliar (ÁF), rendimiento , humedad del suelo hasta 50 cm de profundidad durante el ciclo del cultivo (CC), densidad aparente (Da), macro y microporosidad e infiltración al momento de madurez, para ello se sembró en el período norte-verano sin aplicación de riego en un Mollisol del estado Aragua, con una densidad aproximada de 400.000 plantas.ha-1 en un diseño en bloques aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones. El análisis de la varianza y prueba de Medias (Tukey a=10%) se realizó mediante el programa del Sistema de Análisis Estadístico (siglas en inglés SAS). Al analizar los resultados no se observó diferencias relevantes en el patrón de acumulación, MS (hojas, tallos), MS total, ÁF y producción de grano entre LM y LC. El ÁF fue significativamente mayor en LC a los 67 días después de emergencia (DDE). En el suelo se notaron cambios en la humedad del horizonte 0-5 cm, en la porosidad total a los 30-40 y 40-50 cm, en Da a los 0-5 y 5-10 cm y en el contenido de humedad a capacidad de campo (HCC) del 0-5 y 10-20 cm. Se detectó una relación entre la lámina de agua faltante y la MS total en LM y LC Abstract in english The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, is an important crop in Venezuela, and is necessary to evaluate different tillage practices to increase its production, and to improve the soil properties. We evaluated the impact of the minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT) in the production of dr [...] y matter (DM), foliar area (FA), and crop production of cowpea, variety Tuy, sowed at 0.5 m between rows and 0.05 m between plants in a Mollisol soil of Aragua State, in a completelly randomized block desing, with four repetitions, and the impact in the soil water content until 50 cm of depth during the crop cycle (CC), the soil bulk density, macro- and micro-porosity, total soil porosity and soil infi ltration. The analisis of variance and means test (Tukey a=10%) was done using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program. There was a not signifi cant difference in the pattern of DM production of leaves, stem, total DM, foliar area, and grain yield between MT and CT. The FA of the CT there was only signifi cat higher than in MT at 67 days after emergency. In the soil, there was signifi cant differences bewteen MT and CT in the soil water of the 0-5 cm soil layer, in the total soil porosity of the 30-40 and 40-50 cm soil layers, in the soil bulk density of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, and in the soil water content at soil capacity in the 0-5 and 10-20 cm soil layers. There was a signifi cant relationship between the water used or missing during the crop cycle and the total DM produced in MT and CT

Delgado, Rodolfo; Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelyn; Gamez, Florencio; Navarro, Lesce.

309

Intercropping Maize with Cowpeas and Mungbean under Rainfed Conditions  

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Full Text Available The research study was conducted at two locations i.e. Barani Agricultural Research station (Kohat and Barani Seed Farm (Hangu to ascertain the biological efficient and economic efficient intercropping system of maize with cowpeas and mungbean. The studies consisted of five intercropping systems (maize sole, cowpeas sole, mungbean sole, maize + cowpeas and maize + mungbean. The results regarding LER showed that maize + cowpeas intercrop average of two locations was 1.29 indicating 29 percent yield advantage which is also biological efficient system. The maize + mungbean indicating 4 percent yield advantage. However, the economic analysis gave a different results which showed that mungbean sole crop gain highest BCR value (return per rupee invested i.e. Rs. 4.82 followed by cowpeas sole crop (Rs. 4.13. It is concluded that apart from biological efficient different economic indices should be computed for comparison and final recommendation for wide spread adoption.

Naveed Akhtar

2000-01-01

310

Competition in the Parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus between Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans on Vigna unguiculata (Walp. Seeds  

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Full Text Available Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of hymenopteran parasitoids, (Dinarmus basalis and Choetospila elegans parasitization of Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds in the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Treatments were the inoculation of D. basalis (sole, C. elegans (sole, a mixture of D. basalis and C. elegans into infested cowpea seeds and the control which received no parasitoids. The introduction of parasitoids was repeated at 3 d interval, and all treatments were replicated 3 times. Result indicated that early introduction of the parasitoids caused significantly (P ? 0.05 higher mortality of C.maculatus than late introduction. Mix culture of both parasitoids was significantly more efficacious than sole culture. The emergence of each parasitoid and the mortality of C. maculatus in sole culture showed a highly significant (P ? 0.01 positive relationship (r = 0.487 between C. maculatus and D. basalis but non-significant (P ? 0.05 though positive association (r = 0.289 with C. elegans. A multiple regression analysis between C. maculatus mortality and the emergence of the two parasitoids in mix culture also indicated a highly positive significant (P ? 0.01 relationship (R = 0.751, R2 = 0.564. Pearson Correlation analysis also showed a significant (P ? 0.05 positive association (r = 0.464, and 0.401 between C. maculatus mortality and emergence of C. elegans and D. basalis in mix culture, respectively. However, a non significant (P ? 0.05 negative relationship (r = -0.336 was observed between the two parasitoids in their emergence in mix culture, but D. basalis contributed more to the mortality of C. maculatus than C. elegans. Data from this study showed that D. basalis and C. elegans have potentials to be deployed as biological control entities in the management of C. maculatus as a part of the integrated pest management strategies of storage pests in the tropics.

Umoetok S. B. A.

2012-08-01

311

Sequential deposition of plant glycoproteins and polysaccharides at the host-parasite interface of Uromyces vignae and Vigna sinensis  

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Monokaryotic haustoria (M-haustoria) of Uromyces vignae in Vigna sinensis cells are surrounded by an extrahaustorial matrix (ema) and the invaginated host plasmalemma, the extrahaustorial membrane (ehm). The ema was characterized with antibodies against components of the plant cell wall; the ema contained hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins and arabinogalactans/arabinogalactan proteins, both at a higher concentration close to the ehm. Haustoria with large vacuoles had the ema encased by additio...

Stark-urnau, Martina; Mendgen, Kurt

1995-01-01

312

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

313

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

2010-02-01

314

Correlations and path analysis of yield components in cowpea / Correlações e análise de trilha dos componentes de rendimento de grãos em genótipos de feijão-caupi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A obtenção de correlações e os efeitos diretos e indiretos dos componentes do rendimento com a produtividade de grãos são importantes para a seleção de parentais e populações segregantes promissoras. O objetivo da pesquisa foi estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas e o desdobramento dos ef [...] eitos diretos e indiretos dos componentes de rendimento com o rendimento de grãos de20 genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 20 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os caracteres demonstraram baixa à moderada possibilidade de ganho por seleção indireta, havendo maior probabilidade de sucesso ao aliar múltiplos caracteres e genótipo de melhor performance. Abstract in english Obtaining correlations and direct and indirect effects of yield components is important for the selection of promising parental and segregating populations. The objective of this research was to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and to analyze the direct and indirect effects of yie [...] ld components on grain yield in 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 20 treatments and 4 replications. The character showed low to moderate possibility of gain from indirect selection, with greater possibility for success when joining multiple character and a genotype of better performance.

Adriano dos, Santos; Gessí, Ceccon; Livia Maria Chamma, Davide; Agenor Martinho, Correa; Valdecir Batista, Alves.

315

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

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Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

316

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Co-Fermented Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea Ogi as Infant Complementary Food  

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This study involved formulating nutritionally suitable complementary food mixtures with locally available raw materials. Maize or sorghum was mixed with cowpea, soaked at 25 °C for 72 h, wet-milled and sieved. The sediment was sun dried, milled for analyses. Proximate, functional properties and amino acid were determined in co-fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea. Sorghum/cowpea had higher water absorption capacity, (235%) than maize/cowpea (103%) sorghum/cowpea and a lower valu...

2009-01-01

317

Estratégias de manejo de água em caupi irrigado / Strategies of irrigation scheduling in cowpea  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1997, numa área irrigada da Fazenda Experimental do Vale do Curu, pertencente à Universidade Federal do Ceará, no município de Pentecoste, CE, localizada a 100 km de Fortaleza. O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a utilização do tens [...] iômetro de mercúrio, do Tanque Classe A e da equação de Hargreaves, na determinação da lâmina de água a ser aplicada na irrigação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, enquanto os tratamentos foram representados pelos três diferentes métodos de estimação citados, de quando e quanto irrigar (Tratamento 1 - Tensiômetro; Tratamento 2 - Tanque Classe A e Tratamento 3 - equação de Hargreaves) e a cultura utilizada foi o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) para consumo em estado verde, cultivar João Paulo II, no espaçamento de 0,90 x 0,40 m, com duas plantas por cova, irrigada por aspersão convencional. A análise dos resultados constatou uma economia de água no tratamento 1, de 28 e 23%, em relação aos tratamentos 2 e 3, respectivamente, e também evidenciou a inexistência de diferenças significativas entre as produtividades alcançadas em todos os tratamentos. O tensiômetro pode ser indicado como instrumento de racionalização do uso da água em irrigação. Abstract in english A field study was conducted from September to December 1997 at the Federal University of Ceará Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, Brazil. The irrigation scheduling was based on a tensiometer, Class A pan evaporation and Hargreaves equation. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the three treatme [...] nts (Treatment 1 - tensiometer, Treatment 2 - pan evaporation and Treatment 3 - Hargreaves equation) with four replications in a completely randomized design. Sprinkler irrigated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), cultivar João Paulo II for fresh consumption was grown on the experimental area. Plants were spaced at 0.90 x 0.40 m, maintaining two plants per hole. Crop yield showed no significant difference, although using the tensiometer to schedule irrigation, the water consumption was 28 and 30% lower compared to the Class A Pan Evaporation and Hargreaves equation, respectively. The tensiometer may be indicated as an instrument for saving water in irrigation scheduling.

Rubens Sonsol, Gondim; José Vanglésio de, Aguiar; Raimundo Nonato Távora, Costa.

318

Estratégias de manejo de água em caupi irrigado Strategies of irrigation scheduling in cowpea  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1997, numa área irrigada da Fazenda Experimental do Vale do Curu, pertencente à Universidade Federal do Ceará, no município de Pentecoste, CE, localizada a 100 km de Fortaleza. O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a utilização do tensiômetro de mercúrio, do Tanque Classe A e da equação de Hargreaves, na determinação da lâmina de água a ser aplicada na irrigação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, enquanto os tratamentos foram representados pelos três diferentes métodos de estimação citados, de quando e quanto irrigar (Tratamento 1 - Tensiômetro; Tratamento 2 - Tanque Classe A e Tratamento 3 - equação de Hargreaves e a cultura utilizada foi o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp para consumo em estado verde, cultivar João Paulo II, no espaçamento de 0,90 x 0,40 m, com duas plantas por cova, irrigada por aspersão convencional. A análise dos resultados constatou uma economia de água no tratamento 1, de 28 e 23%, em relação aos tratamentos 2 e 3, respectivamente, e também evidenciou a inexistência de diferenças significativas entre as produtividades alcançadas em todos os tratamentos. O tensiômetro pode ser indicado como instrumento de racionalização do uso da água em irrigação.A field study was conducted from September to December 1997 at the Federal University of Ceará Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, Brazil. The irrigation scheduling was based on a tensiometer, Class A pan evaporation and Hargreaves equation. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the three treatments (Treatment 1 - tensiometer, Treatment 2 - pan evaporation and Treatment 3 - Hargreaves equation with four replications in a completely randomized design. Sprinkler irrigated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivar João Paulo II for fresh consumption was grown on the experimental area. Plants were spaced at 0.90 x 0.40 m, maintaining two plants per hole. Crop yield showed no significant difference, although using the tensiometer to schedule irrigation, the water consumption was 28 and 30% lower compared to the Class A Pan Evaporation and Hargreaves equation, respectively. The tensiometer may be indicated as an instrument for saving water in irrigation scheduling.

Rubens Sonsol Gondim

2000-04-01

319

Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea  

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Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author)

1983-12-01

320

Reação de cultivares de feijão-caupi à mela (Rhizoctonia solani em Roraima Reaction of cowpea cultivars to web blight (Rhizoctonia solani in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Em Roraima, uma das principais doenças que incidem na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é a mela causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação a esta doença de dez cultivares de feijão-caupi em área de cerrado em Roraima, em dois anos consecutivos. As cultivares de porte ereto utilizadas foram BRS-Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1, BR02-Bragança, Pitiúba, e as de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho. Os ensaios foram instalados em 2005 e 2006, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se, semanalmente, a porcentagem de área foliar lesionada para a obtenção da área baixo da curva de progresso da doença. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que os genótipos de porte prostrado apresentaram menor severidade do que os de porte ereto, indicando uma relação da arquitetura da planta com a resistência à mela. As cultivares de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho, e as de porte ereto, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba e BR03-Bragança, foram as mais resistentes à mela e podem ser recomendadas para áreas com histórico de incidência da doença.Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani is one of most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in the state of Roraima, Brazil. Web blight severity for ten cowpea cultivars was evaluated in Roraima in two consecutive years. The erect cowpea cultivars BRS-Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1, BR02-Bragança and Pitiúba, as well as the prostrate cultivars BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, were used. The experiment was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The percentage of diseased foliage was evaluated once a week and the data were used to calculate the area under the disease progress curve. Disease severity was lower on prostrate cultivars indicating a relationship between plant architecture and web blight resistance. The prostrate cultivars, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, and erect cultivars, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba and BR03-Bragança, were more resistant to web blight and can be recommended for planting in areas where the disease is known to occur.

Kátia de Lima Nechet

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Reação de cultivares de feijão-caupi à mela (Rhizoctonia solani) em Roraima / Reaction of cowpea cultivars to web blight (Rhizoctonia solani) in Roraima, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em Roraima, uma das principais doenças que incidem na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é a mela causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani). Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação a esta doença de dez cultivares de feijão-caupi em área de cerrado em [...] Roraima, em dois anos consecutivos. As cultivares de porte ereto utilizadas foram BRS-Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1), BR02-Bragança, Pitiúba, e as de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho. Os ensaios foram instalados em 2005 e 2006, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se, semanalmente, a porcentagem de área foliar lesionada para a obtenção da área baixo da curva de progresso da doença. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que os genótipos de porte prostrado apresentaram menor severidade do que os de porte ereto, indicando uma relação da arquitetura da planta com a resistência à mela. As cultivares de porte prostrado, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato e Canapuzinho, e as de porte ereto, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba e BR03-Bragança, foram as mais resistentes à mela e podem ser recomendadas para áreas com histórico de incidência da doença. Abstract in english Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) is one of most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the state of Roraima, Brazil. Web blight severity for ten cowpea cultivars was evaluated in Roraima in two consecutive years. The erect cowpea cultivars BRS [...] -Mazagão, IT86D-719, Vita-7 (Epace-1), BR02-Bragança and Pitiúba, as well as the prostrate cultivars BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, were used. The experiment was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The percentage of diseased foliage was evaluated once a week and the data were used to calculate the area under the disease progress curve. Disease severity was lower on prostrate cultivars indicating a relationship between plant architecture and web blight resistance. The prostrate cultivars, BRS-Amapá, BR03-Tracuateua, BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato and Canapuzinho, and erect cultivars, BRS-Mazagão, Pitiúba and BR03-Bragança, were more resistant to web blight and can be recommended for planting in areas where the disease is known to occur.

Kátia de Lima, Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

322

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

Maisale A B

2012-04-01

323

Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

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Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated beans. The volatile oils of Cymbopogon nardus and C. schoenanthus caused the majority of the eggs not to develop...

Boeke, S. J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, J. J. A.; Kossou, D. K.; Huis, A.; Dicke, M.

2004-01-01

324

Seleção de rizóbios nativos para guandu, caupi e feijão-de-porco nos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe / Selection of indigenous rhizobia to the cowpea, pigeonpea and jackbean crops in the coastal tableland of Sergipe, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A inoculação de estirpes de rizóbios em sementes de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e guandu (Cajanus cajan), recomendadas para outras regiões do País, não tem resultado em incrementos nas taxas de fixação biológica de N2 nem no crescimento dessas leguminosas em sol [...] os dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência simbiótica de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros associados a essas leguminosas e a tolerância deles a estresses. Das 17 estirpes de rizóbios isoladas e analisadas em casa de vegetação, quatro foram selecionadas para o guandu, sete para o caupi e três para o feijão-de-porco. O número e a massa de nódulos secos por planta correlacionaram-se com a massa da parte aérea seca, a área foliar e o N total acumulado nas folhas das três leguminosas. Os mesmos rizóbios foram eficientes para o caupi e para o guandu. Três estirpes do guandu (R35, R43 e R45) e duas do caupi (R10 e R17) foram caracterizadas in vitro e todas apresentaram tolerância às concentrações elevadas de ácido nalidíxico, cloranfenicol e tetraciclina, porém, foram sensíveis à estreptomicina e à kanamicina. Todas as estirpes cresceram a 35ºC e, exceto a R17, toleraram o alumínio (10 mg L-1). Abstract in english The inoculation of rhizobial strains in jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), recommended for other regions of Brazil, has not resulted in increases of biological nitrogen fixation rates and plant growth in soils of the coastal tableland of Sergip [...] e (Brazilian Northeast). The objectives of this work were to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia from that coastal tableland associated to these three legumes and their tolerance to stresses. Seventeen rhizobia strains were isolated and evaluated in a greenhouse. Four strains were selected for pigeonpea; seven for cowpea and three for jackbean. Nodules number and dry weight were related to shoot dry weight, leaf area and leaf N content, in all three legumes. The same strains were efficient for both cowpea and pigeonpea. Three pigeonpea (R35, R43 and R45) and two cowpea (R10 and R17) rhizobia were characterized in vitro and all showed tolerance to high levels of nalidix acid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline; however, they were sensitive to streptomycin and kanamycin. All strains were able to grow at 35ºC and, except for R17, were tolerant to aluminium (10 mg L-1).

Fernandes, Marcelo Ferreira; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda; Hungria, Mariangela.

325

Sinergismo Bacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Paenibacillus na simbiose Bradyrhizobium-caupi / Synergism of Bacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Paenibacillus in the symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium-cowpea  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. é a principal cultura de subsistência do semiárido brasileiro, sendo fonte de proteínas de baixo custo, notadamente, para populações carentes. A produção dessa cultura no Nordeste é baixa devido à não utilização de insumos agrícolas - entre eles, o fertili [...] zante nitrogenado. Por outro lado, bactérias promotoras de crescimento em plantas (BPCPs) vêm sendo estudadas, de forma a maximizar a fixação de N2, disponibilizar nutrientes como P ou fito-hormônios e inibir doenças. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a viabilidade da coinoculação das sementes de feijão-caupi usando Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Bacillus e Bradyrhizobium-caupi; caracterizar as estirpes quanto à produção de ácido indol acético (AIA) e solubilização de fosfato; e avaliar o sinergismo entre os microrganismos como alternativa para otimizar a FBN. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA), utilizando o feijão-caupi cv. "IPA - 206". As estirpes utilizadas foram: Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 e ANBE 31; B. cereus - 440; B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 e 459; B. pumilus - 444, 445 e 448; B. megaterium - 462; Brevibacillus brevis - 447; Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 e 177; P. graminis - MC 04.21, MC 22.13 e BR 60106; P. polymyxa - S21; e P. durus - RBN4. Os microrganismos não apresentaram capacidade para produzir AIA nem solubilizar fosfato. Ocorreu sinergismo das estirpes de Bacillus sp. (449) e Bacillus pumilus (444) coinoculadas com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267) no feijão-caupi. Abstract in english Cowpea Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. is the main subsistence crop of the semi-arid region and a low-cost protein source, especially for poorer populations. The production of this crop in the Northeast is low due to the lack of agricultural inputs, among them, nitrogen fertilizer. Plant-growth promoti [...] ng bacteria (BGPB) are being studied to maximize N2 fixation, provide nutrients such as P or phytohormones and inhibit diseases. The objectives of this study were to verify the viability of co- inoculation of cowpea seeds with Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus and/or Bacillus together with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea; characterize the strains for the production of indol acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization, as well as to evaluate the synergism among microorganisms as an alternative to optimize biological nitrogen fixation. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory and a greenhouse of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA), with cowpea cv. "IPA - 206" and the strains Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 and ANBE 31, B. cereus - 440, B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 and 459, B. pumilus - 444, 445 and 448, B. megaterium - 462 and Brevibacillus brevis - 447, Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 and 177, P. graminis - 04.21 MC, MC 22:13 and 60,106 BR, P. polymyxa - S21 and P. durus - RBN4. No capacity to produce IAA or solubilize phosphate was observed in the microorganisms. Synergism was observed between the strains of Bacillus sp. (449) and Bacillus pumilus (444) co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium on cowpea.

André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Maria do Carmo Silva, Barreto; Janete Magali, Araújo; Lucy, Seldin; Hélio Almeida, Burity; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

326

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

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The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70

Ileke, K. D.; Odeyemi, O. O.; Ashamo, M. O.

2012-01-01

327

Effect of household cooking methods on nutritional and anti nutritional factors in green cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) pods  

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Steam pressure cooking (1 kg/cm2) and boiling (100°C) for 3 standardized time periods were assessed. Prolonged cooking in both pressure cooking and boiling resulted in a significant (p???0.05) loss in Fe and Ca. A significant loss of ascorbic acid and ß-carotene were observed during 2 cooking methods, the greater loss was during boiling. Pressure cooking and boiling resulted in significant (p???0.05) destruction in the anti-nutrients like phytates, tannins and trypsin inhibitor...

2010-01-01

328

Studies on hybrid vigour and combining ability for seed yield and contributing characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combining ability aids in better selection of parents besides elucidating the nature and magnitude of gene action. Heterosisand combining ability analysis were carried out in line x tester model using five lines viz., Kanakamany, Subadra, TC 49-1,Lola and Sarika and five testers viz., CO2, CO4, CO6, CO (CP 7 and VBN 1. The results reveled that TC 49-1, Lola, Sarika,VBN1, CO2 and CO (CP7 were found to be good general combiners for seed yield. Among the parents, TC 49-1, Lola andVBN1 were found good general combiners for days to 50% flowering, plant height, cluster / plant, pods, / plant, length of podand number of seeds / plant. The crosses Lola x VBN 1, Sarika x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO (CP 7 were the best specificcombination for grain yield. The two crosses Lola x VBN 1 and Sarika x CO 4 showed significant heterosis over the standardlatest variety CO (CP7 for seed / pod, cluster / plant, pods / plant and 50% flowering. The crosses TC 49-1 x CO 2 showedhigh heterosis over standard variety for plant height and clusters/plant. Hence, these hybrids can be utilized for commercialcultivation.

R.Ushakumari, N.Vairam, C.R. Anandakumar and N. Malini

2010-07-01

329

Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after plant...

Taiwo Moni A; Kareem Kehinde T; Nsa Imade Y; Hughes Jackies, D. A.

2007-01-01

330

Economics of Insecticides Usage among Cowpea Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria  

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This study carried out an economics of insecticides usage among cowpea farmers in Kaduna State. Specifically, the study estimated insecticides marginal productivity; the degree of response of demand for insecticides to changes in its prices and the return to cowpea production due to insecticides usage. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 150 cowpea farmers who used insecticides in controlling pest in cowpea production in the study area. Information collected includes those ...

2011-01-01

331

A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the development of tailor-made varieties. Forty-seven cowpea accessions were collected from traders interviewed for morphological characterization to ascertain the degree of diversity. Data was subjected to H...

Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E. S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J. P.; Ruivenkamp, G. T. P.

2011-01-01

332

Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas / Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación). Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica [...] y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante alto Abstract in english In the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment) were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nu [...] trients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

Drago, Silvina R; González, Rolando J; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Valencia, Mirta E.

333

Effect of cowpea seeds contamination rate by the Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus on epidemics development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV) diseased seeds provide at seedling, virus infected plants which are the only source of primary inoculum. Secondary infections are bequeathed by aphids. The objective of this research is to study the development of the secondary infection in field. Therefore, eight cowpea varieties with different seed contamination rate (0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5%) were used over consecutive four years. The infected plants were recorded every week from the tenth day after sowing and over seven weeks. In the same way, aphids' population were evaluated in plots 30 days after sowing. There was no difference for the incidence rate between the average of plots sown with virus free-seeds and those sown with infected seeds with a rate of 0, 5%. In any case, the disease progressed lowly leading to incidences less than 50% at the post-flowering period in spite of a relatively high initial contamination rate of seed. For this group of varieties, the low progression of the disease indicated a high level of resistance to the infection. The high levels of infection especially observed with the varieties with high level of virus transmission to seed, translated the need to reduce aphids' population density notably by the use of insecticides during cowpea growing cycle. The high number of aphids and inoculum availability in the neighbouring plots were undoubtedly at the source of this result. This situation laid out the problematic of the use of seeds then little or not contaminated by the virus. PMID:19093498

Néya, B J; Zabré, J; Millogo, R J; Ginko, S; Konaté, G

2007-12-15

334

Effect of Cowpea Seeds Contamination Rate by the Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus on Epidemics Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV diseased seeds provide at seedling, virus infected plants which are the only source of primary inoculum. Secondary infections are bequeathed by aphids. The objective of this research is to study the development of the secondary infection in field. Therefore, eight cowpea varieties with different seed contamination rate (0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5% were used over consecutive four years. The infected plants were recorded every week from the tenth day after sowing and over seven weeks. In the same way, aphids` population were evaluated in plots 30 days after sowing. There was no difference for the incidence rate between the average of plots sown with virus free-seeds and those sown with infected seeds with a rate of 0, 5%. In any case, the disease progressed lowly leading to incidences less than 50% at the post-flowering period in spite of a relatively high initial contamination rate of seed. For this group of varieties, the low progression of the disease indicated a high level of resistance to the infection. The high levels of infection especially observed with the varieties with high level of virus transmission to seed, translated the need to reduce aphids` population density notably by the use of insecticides during cowpea growing cycle. The high number of aphids and inoculum availability in the neighbouring plots were undoubtedly at the source of this result. This situation laid out the problematic of the use of seeds then little or not contaminated by the virus.

B.J. Neya

2007-01-01

335

[Quality standard study on Vigna radiata].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to control the quality of Vigna radiata, the quality control method and standard were established in this study. The tests of water content, ash and ethanol-soluble extractives of V. radiata were carried out according to the methods recoded in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition, volume 1). The TLC method was established by using vitexin and isovitexin as references, and a mixture of acetate-method-water (10: 1.7 : 1.3) as the developing solvent system on GF254 thin layer plate. The contents of vitexin and isovitexin were determined by HPLC on a Prevail C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column, using acetonitrile: water (23 : 77) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature is 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength is 337 nm. As a result, vitexin, isovitexin and the other constituents were well separated on TLC detected under the UV light (254 nm). The methodology validation for the assay of vitexin and isovitexin presented that they were in good linear correlation in the ranges of 6.12-98 mg x L(-1) and 6.85-109.6 mg x L(-1), with the regression equations of Y = 46.213X - 7.100 (r = 1.000) and Y = 54.515X + 6.829 (r = 1.000), and the average recoveries were 98.2% (RSD 1.9%) and 97.2% (RSD 0.79%), respectively. The content ranges of vitexin and isovitexin from 25 different batches of V. radiata were 1.076-2.062 mg x g(1) and 1.127-2.303 mg x g(-1), respectively. suggesting that the qualities of V. radiata are relatively stable. The ethanol-soluble extractives, water content and total ash of 25 samples varied in the ranges of 13.27% - 18.46%, 9.59% - 12.43% and 2.63% - 3.53%, respectively. All of the above data proved that the established quality of control method V. radiata is specific and accurate, which can be used for the quality control of this drug. PMID:24754176

Li, Yan-Rong; Zou, Ping-Ping; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

2014-01-01

336

Período de convivência das plantas daninhas com cultivares de feijão-caupi em várzea no Amazonas / Weed coexistence with cowpea cultivars in the Amazonas floodplain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar o período de convivência das plantas daninhas com três cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) em solo de várzea no Estado do Amazonas. A semeadura do feijão-caupi foi em outubro de 2007 no sistema convencional. O delineamento experimental foi o de [...] blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por 11 períodos de convivência entre o feijão-caupi e as plantas daninhas: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias após sua semeadura; depois desses períodos, as plantas daninhas foram eliminadas semanalmente por capina. Nas subparcelas foram colocados os cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN V69 e BR8 Caldeirão. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijão-caupi reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o peso de mil grãos. A produtividade dos cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 Caldeirão e BR IPEAN V69 foi reduzida em 59,78, 68,18 e 90,18%, respectivamente. O período anterior à interferência foi de 0 a 5 dias após a semeadura para o cultivar BR IPEAN V69, enquanto para os cultivares BR8 Caldeirão e EV x 91-2E-2 foi de até 6 e 7 DAS, respectivamente. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the period of weed coexistence with three cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata) in the lowlands of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Cowpea was sown in October 2007 under the conventional system. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications [...] in split-plots. The plots consisted of eleven periods of weed coexistence with