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ENHANCEMENT OF MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF GAP ANALYSIS AND THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE MCA PROGRAM PLAN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An effective safeguards program for nuclear materials is dependent on the integration of activities in the traditional safeguards elements: physical protection, protective force, and material control and accounting (MC&A). The design and integration of these traditional safeguards elements must be based on a technical analysis performed in characterizing the vulnerabilities and related risks of the facility against a designed-basis threat. Each of these elements requires a near seamless integration with each other, as well as within a site's operations organization. One of the key objectives of an effective nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program is to address the threat posed by an active or passive 'insider' who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion or theft of special nuclear material (SNM). The function of material accountancy is to detect the loss or unauthorized removal of special nuclear material from the plant or facility in a timely manner. Detection is accomplished by means of measurements and transfer records of material movements and periodic inventories to verify that all material is accounted for. The function of material control is to assure the integrity of the nuclear material and the accountancy data. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of a detailed material control and accounting program plan that considers both regulatory compliance demands and performance standards. Consideration of both of these demands is necessary to reduce exposure to theft and diversion, to reduce regulatory jeopardy, and to minimize to the extent possible adverse impacts with site operations.

Hasty, T

2008-06-10

2

Dual function of the McaS small RNA in controlling biofilm formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate gene expression through base-pairing with mRNAs, and it has been assumed that these sRNAs act solely by this one mechanism. Here we report that the multicellular adhesive (McaS) sRNA of Escherichia coli uniquely acts by two different mechanisms: base-pairing and protein titration. Previous work established that McaS base pairs with the mRNAs encoding master transcription regulators of curli and flagella synthesis, respectively, resulting in down-regulation and up-regulation of these important cell surface structures. In this study, we demonstrate that McaS activates synthesis of the exopolysaccharide ?-1,6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) by binding the global RNA-binding protein CsrA, a negative regulator of pgaA translation. The McaS RNA bears at least two CsrA-binding sequences, and inactivation of these sites compromises CsrA binding, PGA regulation, and biofilm formation. Moreover, ectopic McaS expression leads to induction of two additional CsrA-repressed genes encoding diguanylate cyclases. Collectively, our study shows that McaS is a dual-function sRNA with roles in the two major post-transcriptional regulons controlled by the RNA-binding proteins Hfq and CsrA. PMID:23666921

Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Thomason, Maureen K; Havelund, Johannes; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Storz, Gisela

2013-05-10

3

Dual function of the McaS small RNA in controlling biofilm formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate gene expression through base-pairing with mRNAs, and it has been assumed that these sRNAs act solely by this one mechanism. Here we report that the multicellular adhesive (McaS) sRNA of Escherichia coli uniquely acts by two different mechanisms: base-pairing and protein titration. Previous work established that McaS base pairs with the mRNAs encoding master transcription regulators of curli and flagella synthesis, respectively, resulting in down-regulation and up-regulation of these important cell surface structures. In this study, we demonstrate that McaS activates synthesis of the exopolysaccharide ?-1,6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) by binding the global RNA-binding protein CsrA, a negative regulator of pgaA translation. The McaS RNA bears at least two CsrA-binding sequences, and inactivation of these sites compromises CsrA binding, PGA regulation, and biofilm formation. Moreover, ectopic McaS expression leads to induction of two additional CsrA-repressed genes encoding diguanylate cyclases. Collectively, our study shows that McaS is a dual-function sRNA with roles in the two major post-transcriptional regulons controlled by the RNA-binding proteins Hfq and CsrA.

Jørgensen MG; Thomason MK; Havelund J; Valentin-Hansen P; Storz G

2013-05-01

4

MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING (MC&A) SOFTWARE REFERENCE AND MODELING TOOLS FOR ENHANCED MC&A MANAGEMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past several years, Russia and the United States have been developing and implementing enhanced MC&A policies and procedures. Specialists from the Russian Methodological and Training Center and specialists from the Department of Energy's MPC&A Program are jointly developing a suite of computer-based tools in an effort to facilitate this implementation. At the core of the software development are two basic components: the established policies and regulations annotated in a machine-readable format and a computer model of the facility which includes, but is not limited to the buildings, MBAs, flow and inventory KMPs, organizational charts, and procedures.

Ryazanov, Boris; Gourunov, Victor; Crawford, Cary E.; Kelley, Gregory S.; Howard, Mark W.; Fuller, Sheldon

2003-07-30

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MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCA) FOR EVALUATION OF INTELLIGENT ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because the electrical installations are nowadays a lot of options and variants, it is necessary to evaluate these complex installation process from several perspectives and objectively. Due to the complexity of evaluation of electrical installation is design a methodology that uses multi-criteria analysis - MCA.

Miroslav Haluza; Jan Machacek

2011-01-01

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Use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for supporting community forest management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable forest management usually involves the use of criteria and indicators (C&I) allowing the monitoring, reporting and assessment of management activities at national, regional and forest management unit levels. Experiences of such concepts are scarce in Nepal, particularly with regard to the evaluation of management activities within a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) framework. In this contribution we describe how a MCA approach can be used to efficiently exploit information, knowledge, and preferences of stakeholders to address community forest management problems. Beside rating and ranking techniques, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to examine the importance of six criteria and forty-four indicators in a sustainable forest management context with a broad range of stakeholder groups. An evaluation of four management strategies in the Shree Gyneshwar community forest user group allows to demonstrate the relevance of changing priorities for different criteria. A passive adaptive management strategy focusing on a multiple use of natural resources and the introduction of production-oriented measures were identified as the most preferable option. The results of this study show that the multi-criteria analysis approach, and in particular the AHP, can assist decision-makers in efficiently evaluating management problems and generating ideas for the long-term strategic planning process of community forest management, even under complex socio-economic and ecological conditions. In that context, compromise solutions enjoy a higher possibility of being successful, taking into account the different views of stakeholder groups.

Khadka C; Vacik H

2012-01-01

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Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in. × 4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K(40), U(238) and Th(232). This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants.

Kukreti BM; Sharma GK

2012-05-01

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Malignant MCA territory infarction in the pediatric population: subgroup analysis of the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions are thought to be rare in children. In a recent hospital-based study, only 1.3 % of pediatric ischemic strokes were malignant MCA infarctions. However, population-based rates have not been published. We performed subgroup analysis of a population-based study to determine the rate of malignant MCA infarctions in children. METHODS: In 2005 and 2010, all ischemic stroke-related emergency visits and hospital admissions among the 1.3 million residents of the five-county Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area were ascertained. Cases that occurred in patients 18 years and younger were reviewed in detail, and corresponding clinical and neuroimaging findings were recorded. Infarctions were considered malignant if they involved 50 % or more of the MCA territory and resulted in cerebral edema and mass effect. RESULTS: In 2005, eight pediatric ischemic strokes occurred in the study population, none of which were malignant infarctions. In 2010, there were also eight ischemic strokes. Of these, two malignant MCA infarctions were identified: (1) a 7-year-old boy who underwent hemicraniectomy and survived with moderate disability at 30 days and (2) a 17-year-old girl with significant prestroke disability who was not offered hemicraniectomy and died following withdrawal of care. Thus, among 16 children over 2 years, there were two malignant MCA infarctions (12.5 %, 95 % CI 0-29). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant MCA infarctions in children may not be as rare as previously thought. Given the significant survival and functional outcome benefit conferred by hemicraniectomy in adults, future studies focusing on its potential role in pediatric patients are warranted.

Rahme R; Jimenez L; Bashir U; Adeoye OM; Abruzzo TA; Ringer AJ; Kissela BM; Khoury J; Moomaw CJ; Sucharew H; Ferioli S; Flaherty ML; Woo D; Khatri P; Alwell K; Kleindorfer D

2013-01-01

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[Fractal analysis of MCA blood flow velocity fluctuations in migraine--preliminary report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many reports confirm the existence of long-range correlations between fluctuations of various physiological signals in healthy subjects and demonstrate disappearance of these correlations in pathological conditions. Blood flow velocity in intracranial vessels is changeable over time and depends on complex physiological regulatory mechanisms. The character of blood flow velocity fluctuations may indicate the presence of vascular disorders associated with various diseases. The aim of our study was to establish whether fluctuations in MCA blood flow velocity are fractal in physiological conditions and if so, whether this feature is lost in migraine, as the role of vasomotoric disturbances has been already evidenced in pathophysiology of this disease. The axial flow velocity changes averaged over a cardiac beat interval were monitored continuously via two channels through the temporal windows using a DWL Multi-DopT TCD device with 2-MHz probes. The examinations were performed in supine rest in two-hour periods in two groups: of 7 patients with clinically confirmed migraine with aura during headache-free intervals (15 recordings), and in the control group of 4 young, healthy volunteers (10 recordings). The results in the form of time series were analysed using the methods of fractal statistics. Multifractality in the recordings in physiological conditions was clearly confirmed, as well as its absence in the averaged recordings in the group of migraneurs. The findings justify a supposition that the breakdown of multifractal properties of MCA blood flow time series in migraine may result from the vasomotor disturbances present even during headache-free intervals. However, possible usefulness of this method in the diagnostics of migraine requires further investigation. PMID:15174233

Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, MirosLaw; Latka, Dariusz; Bury, Wies?aw; Pierzcha?a, Krystyna

10

[Fractal analysis of MCA blood flow velocity fluctuations in migraine--preliminary report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many reports confirm the existence of long-range correlations between fluctuations of various physiological signals in healthy subjects and demonstrate disappearance of these correlations in pathological conditions. Blood flow velocity in intracranial vessels is changeable over time and depends on complex physiological regulatory mechanisms. The character of blood flow velocity fluctuations may indicate the presence of vascular disorders associated with various diseases. The aim of our study was to establish whether fluctuations in MCA blood flow velocity are fractal in physiological conditions and if so, whether this feature is lost in migraine, as the role of vasomotoric disturbances has been already evidenced in pathophysiology of this disease. The axial flow velocity changes averaged over a cardiac beat interval were monitored continuously via two channels through the temporal windows using a DWL Multi-DopT TCD device with 2-MHz probes. The examinations were performed in supine rest in two-hour periods in two groups: of 7 patients with clinically confirmed migraine with aura during headache-free intervals (15 recordings), and in the control group of 4 young, healthy volunteers (10 recordings). The results in the form of time series were analysed using the methods of fractal statistics. Multifractality in the recordings in physiological conditions was clearly confirmed, as well as its absence in the averaged recordings in the group of migraneurs. The findings justify a supposition that the breakdown of multifractal properties of MCA blood flow time series in migraine may result from the vasomotor disturbances present even during headache-free intervals. However, possible usefulness of this method in the diagnostics of migraine requires further investigation.

Glaubic-Latka M; Latka M; Latka D; Bury W; Pierzcha?a K

2003-11-01

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Development of 8K-MCA Add-on based on FPGA technique with a control of VB6 software application under windows environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The multichannel analyzer is the heart of most experimental measurements. Today, it becomes popular and convenient. It can play a role of getting, processing data and easily interfacing to PC. Some standard-alone multichannel analysis systems can be replaced by Add-on MCA card. Especially, MCA card is necessary for application in nuclear physics research. The main aim of this sub-project is to focus on a design and construction of an 8K-MCA Add-on served for studying nuclear structure, for development of Gamma spectroscopy system, and for a production of low-cost electronics instruments as well. Some experimental results were obtained through the aforementioned card combining with other needed functional analog units. A multichannel data processing (MCD) circuit for nuclear spectroscopy application was developed using a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) as the central processing element. In addition to the first role, A 13-bit analog-to-digital converter (8k ADC) circuit for nuclear spectroscopy application was also developed using a successive approximation ADC with a control of FPGA technology. The FPGA operates a program that builds the distributed functions of data collected by the ADC and then corrects the ADC differential non-linearity (DNL) via the sliding scale method. The acquisition routine runs in 3.7? s. the conversion time is approximated 2.2? s, and the integral non-linearity ? 0.14%. (author)

2003-01-01

12

Steady State Assessment of Shunt Compensated EHV Insulated Cables by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author has already presented some papers which allow studying cable systems by means of the multiconductor cell analysis (MCA). This method considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The multiconductor matrix procedure based on the use of admittance matrices, which account for the line cells (with earth return currents), different types of screen bonding, possible multiple circuits (single and double circuit or more), allows predicting the steady-state regime of any cable system. In the previous papers, these matrix algorithms have been presented with reference to a short extra-high voltage (EHV) double-circuit cross-bonded (CB) underground cable (UGC) system. Since the cable link was short, the shunt reactive compensation was not necessary and consequently not considered. In this paper the procedure is generalized in order to take into account three single-phase (or also one three-phase) reactors installed at the cable ends or also at intermediate locations.

Roberto Benato

2012-01-01

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The use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for evaluating feasible countermeasures after an accidental release of radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to establish a system that enables rational decisions to be taken for reducing (if necessary) the radiological risk to a population. These decisions normally concern whether a particular food product will be consumed or not, as well as wether it should be diverted for other uses. To evaluate the consequences of such actions, many different criteria have to be taken into account such as the radiological risk, nutritional and environmental criteria, current technical intervention levels, economic costs and public reaction. Under the guidance of the Institute of Automation and Operations Research at the University of Fribourg a Multi-Criteria-Analysis (MCA) approach, based on the most recent developments in decision theory, is being elaborated. MCA requires input from a suite of sub-models combined with basic input data. For the radiological impact model the German code ECOSYS will be adapted for Swiss conditions. Furthermore, input data on the effect of food processing on radionuclide content of foodstuffs and consumption habits are needed. MCA thus allows the consequences of different countermeasures to be assessed in relation to the different governing criteria. In order to allow efficient use of this technique it shall be implemented as a user friendly computerized decision support system. In this paper, an example of different countermeasures to reduce the dose from milk contaminated with I-131 resulting from a reactor accident is given.

1988-01-01

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Convergence analysis of deterministic discrete time system of a unified self-stabilizing algorithm for PCA and MCA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unified algorithms for principal and minor components analysis can be used to extract principal components and if altered simply by the sign, it can also serve as a minor component extractor. Obviously, the convergence of these algorithms is an essential issue in practical applications. This paper studies the convergence of a unified PCA and MCA algorithm via a corresponding deterministic discrete-time (DDT) system and some sufficient conditions to guarantee convergence are obtained. Simulations are carried out to further illustrate the theoretical results achieved.

Kong X; An Q; Ma H; Han C; Zhang Q

2012-12-01

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Methyl Cation Affinity (MCA) Values for Phosphanes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Methyl cation affinity (MCA) values have been calculated for a variety of phosphanes at the MP2(FC)/6-31+G(2d,p)//B98/6-31G(d) level of theory. The analysis of MCA values for tri-alkyl phosphanes reveals that substituent effects are additive for unbranched and cyclic alkyl substitue...

16

Material control and accountability (MC&A) recovery from the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the week of May 10-14, 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire scorched over 40,000 acres of prime forestland and destroyed over 400 homes in the Los Alamos community and several structures at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Of the land affected by the fire, nearly one quarter of it was Laboratory property. All of LANL's 64 material balance areas (MBAs) were affected to some degree, but one Category I technical area and several Category I11 and IV areas sustained heavy damage. When the MC&A personnel were allowed to return to work on May 23, they addressed the following problems: How do we assure both ourselves and the Department of Energy (DOE) that no nuclear materials had been compromised? How do we assist the nuclear material (NM) custodians and their operating groups so that they can resume normal MC&A operations? Immediately after the return to work, the Laboratory issued emergency MC&A assurance actions for Category I through Category IV facilities. We conducted special inventories, area walkthroughs, and other forms of evaluation so that within a month after the fire, we were able to release the last MBA to resume work and assure that all nuclear material had been accounted for. This paper discusses the measures LANL adopted to ensure that none of its nuclear material had been compromised.

Haag, William Earl

2001-01-01

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NTS MC&A History  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past three years, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has progressed from a Category IV to a Category I facility. In accordance with direction from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Administrator, NTS received shipments of large quantities of special nuclear material from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and other sites in the DOE complex. September 2004 was the first occurrence of Category I material at the NTS, with the exception of two weeks of underground testing in 2001, since 1992. The Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program was originally a joint-lab effort by LANL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Bechtel Nevada (BN), but in March 2006 the NNSA Nevada Site Office appointed the NTS Management and Operations contractor with sole responsibility. This paper will discuss the process and steps taken to transition the NTS MC&A program from multiple disciplines to a single entity and from a Category IV to a Category I program. This transition flourished as MC&A progressed from the 2004 Office of Assessment (OA) rating of “Significant Weakness” to the 2007 OA assessment rating of “Effective Performance.” The paper will provide timelines, funding and staffing issues, OA assessment findings and corrective actions, and future expectations. The process has been challenging, and MC&A’s innovative responses to the challenges have been very successful.

Mary Alice Price; Kim R. Young

2008-03-01

18

NTS MC&A History  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past three and a half years, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has progressed from a Category IV to a Category I nuclear material facility. In accordance with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Administrator, NTS received shipments of large quantities of special nuclear material from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and other sites in the DOE complex. December 2004 was the first occurrence of Category I material at the NTS, with the exception of two weeks of sub-critical underground testing in 2001, since 1992. The Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program was originally a jointlab effort by LANL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Bechtel Nevada, but in March 2006 the NNSA Nevada Site Office appointed the NTS Management and Operations contractor with sole responsibility. This paper will discuss the process and steps taken to transition the NTS MC&A program from multiple organizations to a single entity and from a Category IV to a Category I program. This transition flourished as MC&A progressed from the 2004 Office of Assessment (OA) rating of “Significant Weakness” to the 2007 OA assessment rating of “Effective Performance.” The paper will provide timelines, funding and staffing issues, OA assessment findings and corrective actions, and future expectations. The process has been challenging, but MC&A’s innovative responses to the challenges have been very successful.

Mary Alice Price; Kim Young

2008-07-01

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Assessment of Cerebrovascular Reserve before and after STA-MCA Bypass Surgery by SPECT and SPM Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the efficacy of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery using Technetium (Tc)-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients who underwent STA-MCA bypass surgery. Brain perfusion SPECT images obtained at baseline and after the administration of acetazolamide were reconstructed using statistical parametric mapping in 23 patients, both before and after STA-MCA bypass surgery. The clinical outcomes of the surgery were also recorded and compared with the hemodynamic changes. A voxel with an uncorrected p-value of less than 0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. SPECT images of the territory supplied by the bypass graft showed an increase in both cerebrovascular flow and reserve at baseline, and the increase was significantly higher following the administration of acetazolamide. All patients showed improvement of clinical symptoms and increased blood flow to the left temporal, parietal, and frontal cortices as well as the thalamus. Brain SPECT effectively and objectively demonstrated the improved outcomes of STA-MCA bypass surgery, and thus may be used in postoperative analyses.

2007-01-01

20

Rapid and accurate identification of isolates of Candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. We evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA) as an identification tool for distinguishing between 16 Candida spp., i.e. Candida albicans, Candida bracarensis, Candida dubliniensis, Candida famata, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida inconspicua, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida lipolytica, Candida lusitaniae, Candida nivariensis, Candida norvegensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida sojae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one species pair, i.e. Candida metapsilosis/Candida orthopsilosis. Starting from a cultured isolate, ITS2-MCA led to differentiation of these species within 6 h. According to our findings, ITS2-MCA offers a simple, rapid and cost-effective method for identification of cultured isolates of the clinically most relevant and prevalent Candida species. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate how it performs on mixed samples and clinical samples.

Decat E; Van Mechelen E; Saerens B; Vermeulen SJ; Boekhout T; De Blaiser S; Vaneechoutte M; Deschaght P

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) System Upgrades and Performance Testing at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) VNIIEF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), founded in 1946 at the historic village of Sarov, in Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast, is the largest nuclear research center in the Rosatom complex. In the framework of international collaboration, the United States (US) Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency, in cooperation with US national laboratories, on the one hand, Rosatom and VNIIEF on the other hand, have focused their cooperative efforts to upgrade the existing material protection control and accountability system to prevent unauthorized access to the nuclear material. In this paper we will discuss the present status of material control and accounting (MC&A) system upgrades and the preliminary results from a pilot program on the MC&A system performance testing that was recently conducted at one technical area.

Bushmelev, Vadim [RFNC-VNIIEF; Viktorov, Vladimir [RFNC-VNIIEF; Zhikharev, Stanislav [RFNC-VNIIEF; Yuferev, Vladimir [RFNC-VNIIEF; Singh, Surinder Paul [ORNL; Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hogan, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McKisson, Jacquelin [U.S. Department of Energy

2008-01-01

22

Remote effects in MCA territory ischemic infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using positron computed tomography (PCT) and the 15O labeled gas steady-state inhalation technique, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (rCMRO2), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) can be measured quantitatively in humans. We quantitatively examined the relationship between focal ischemic lesions and intact regions as detected by X-ray CT in such areas as the territory of the contralateral middle cerebral artery (MCA), thalami, pons, and cerebellar hemispheres. Twenty-three PCT measurements in 13 patients with unilateral ischemic infarction in the MCA territory as detected by X-ray CT were performed. Remote effects from cerebral infarction of the MCA territory were observed in the contralateral MCA territory, ipsilateral thalamus, brainstem, and contralateral cerebellar hemisphere. Slight depression of rCBF and rCMRO2 was also observed in the contralateral thalamus and ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere; rOEF was normal in these areas. Though the depression of rCBF and rCMRO2 due to remote effects was detected in all periods, it was mildly observed 0 to 6 days after onset. The reduction of rCBF and rCMRO2 due to remote effects was less than the morphological as well as the functional threshold. The phenomenon is probably caused by neuronal deactivation, and the regions with depressed blood flow and metabolism may be in a ''resting'' state. (author)

1987-01-01

23

Developing standard performance testing procedures for MC&A components at a site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements, documentation and the human factor, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following elements and subsystems or components for a material control and accountability system: (1) MC&A Elements: Information subsystem, Measurement subsystem, NM access subsystem, including a tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated information-gathering subsystem; and (2) Detecting NM Loses Elements: Inventory differences, Shipper/receiver differences, Confirmatory measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or seal violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems (from the list above). Additionally this work includes a review of the status of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system components and potential criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a pilot Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the MBAs of SSC RF IPPE.

Scherer, Carolynn [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

24

The MC&A Council at SSC RF-IPPE as a Coordinating Body for System Sustainability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute of Physics and Power Engineering's (SSC RF - IPPE) practice of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) has undergone significant changes during the period of cooperation with U.S. national laboratories from 1995 to the present. These changes corresponded with general changes of the Russian system of state control and accounting of nuclear materials resulting from the new Concept of the System for State Regulating and Control of Nuclear Materials (1996) and further regulatory documents, which were developed and implemented to take into account international experience in the MC&A [1]. During the upgrades phase of Russian-U.S. cooperation, an MC&A laboratory was specially created within the SSC RF - IPPE for the purpose of guiding the creation of the upgraded MC&A system, coordinating the activities of all units involved in the creation of this system, and implementing a unified technical policy during the transition period. After five years of operation of the MC&A laboratory and the implementation of new components for the upgraded MC&A system, it was decided that a greater degree of attention must be paid to the MC&A system's operation in addition to the coordination activities carried out by the MC&A laboratory. To meet this need, an organization for operation of the nuclear material (NM) control and accounting system was created as part of the Division of NM Transportation and Storage. It was also recognized that a new mechanism was required for effective coordination of MC&A activities in IPPE, including the implementation of a unified MC&A policy in methodological, technical and practical areas. This mechanism should allow the IPPE management to gain an objective evaluation of the MC&A system status and provide leading specialists with objective recommendations on maintenance of MC&A system and on basic directions for further improvements. Preliminary discussions indicated that such a mechanism could be created through the establishment of an MC&A Council at SSC RF - IPPE. The MC&A Council has been created in SSC RF - IPPE as an advisory body without administrative functions. However it is stated in the Council Regulations that if the IPPE Director General or his Deputy responsible for NM control and accounting approves Council recommendations, the recommendations become obligatory. In this paper, the experience of the Council and its initial activities are presented and discussed in, as are possible activities and roles the Council could play in the future.

Poplavko, V; Skorkin, V; Myakishev, G

2004-07-12

25

Improved MCA programmed by LabVIEW language  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] PC based Multichannel analyser (MCA) is a popular instrument in the nuclear physics experiment. The authors introduce one kind of improved MCA which is programmed by LabVIEW language. This MCA has many advantages such as powerful data processing capability, more friendly interface and is easy to use. The basic principle of this MCA and the core technology of its software are described. Some results of experiment are presented too

1999-01-01

26

Metabolic Control Analysis: A Tool for Designing Strategies to Manipulate Metabolic Pathways  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional experimental approaches used for changing the flux or the concentration of a particular metabolite of a metabolic pathway have been mostly based on the inhibition or over-expression of the presumed rate-limiting step. However, the attempts to manipulate a metabolic pathway by following such approach have proved to be unsuccessful. Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) establishes how to determine, quantitatively, the degree of control that a given enzyme exerts on flux and on the concentration of metabolites, thus substituting the intuitive, qualitative concept of rate limiting step. Moreover, MCA helps to understand (i) the underlying mechanisms by which a given enzyme exerts high or low control and (ii) why the control of the pathway is shared by several pathway enzymes and transporters. By applying MCA it is possible to identify the steps that should be modified to achieve a successful alteration of flux or metabolite concentration in pathways of biotechnological (e.g., large scale metabolite production) or clinical relevance (e.g., drug therapy). The different MCA experimental approaches developed for the determination of the flux-control distribution in several pathways are described. Full understanding of the pathway properties when working under a variety of conditions can help to attain a successful manipulation of flux and metabolite concentration.

Rafael Moreno-Sánchez; Emma Saavedra; Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez; Viridiana Olín-Sandoval

2008-01-01

27

The SO-20.3 MC&A modernization plan final report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) provides assurance to the nation that nuclear materials are controlled in accordance with their strategic and economic importance and that the misuse, theft or diversion of these materials will be detected. MC&A plays an important part in security at nuclear facilities, especially in addressing threats such as theft of materials, environmental contamination, and nuclear safety incidents associated with nuclear materials. For this reason, it is important that MC&A takes advantage of new technologies and methods in order to provide information on a site's nuclear materials in the most timely and useful manner possible. Within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Security Policy, Policy Integration and Technical Support Program (SO-20.3) is responsible for the development of safeguards and security technology that enables DOE and NNSA facilities to safeguard their Special Nuclear Materials. The SO-20.3 Program tasked safeguards personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory to lead a project with representatives from the Y-12 Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Site to prepare an MC&A Modernization Plan that provides recommendations for development new technologies and methodologies for MC&A in both new and existing DOE facilities. The team was tasked with taking into account new concerns about the protection of nuclear material following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Opportunities for applying new MC&A approaches and technologies that provide increased freedom of operation, increased security and provide a potential for cost savings in existing and new DOE facilities are discussed in this report.

Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Ensslin, Norbert; Files, C. (Chistina); Joseph, Joshua A., Jr.; Rudy, C. R. (Clifford R.); Smith, M. K. (Morag K.); Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Wilkey, D. D. (David Dennis); Pickett, C. (Chris); Brosey, W. (William); Swanson, J. (Joel)

2004-01-01

28

Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of Aspergillus nidulans grown on media containing xylose, and a concentration up to 30 mM was found. Applying MCA showed thatthe first polyol dehydrogenase (XDH) in the catabolic pathway of xylose exerted the main flux control in the two strains of A. nidulans and A. niger NW324, but the flux control was exerted mainly at the first enzyme of the pathway (XR) of A. niger NW 296.

Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.

2003-01-01

29

Performance Evaluation of the RSG-GAS Micronomad MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MicroNOMAD-MCA is a gamma spectrometer for radiation exposure measurement using matrix respond method. The equipment used NAI detector to produced pulse spectrum and then covert to quantities of dosimeter by a computer program. Performance evaluation of the MCA-MicroNOMAD has been done to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the measurement result. The evaluation was done by comparison test with standard survey meter. Measurement of gamma radiation was performed in the experimental Hall, Operation Hall of the RSG-GAS and outside of reactor building with 15 MW reactor power. The gamma radiation exposure measurement result in the Experimental Hall using the MicroNOMAD MCA and Ion Chamber survey meter are 92,4 x 10 exp 6 rad/hour and (62 ? 88) x 10 exp 6 rad/hour, respectively. The gamma radiation exposure in the Operation Hall using the MicroNOMAD MCA and Ion Chamber are 165,4 x 10 exp 6 rad/hour and (167 ? 194) x 10 exp 6 rad/hour, respectively. By means of this result it can concluded that the reading error of the MicroNOMAD MCA with standard survey meter is small enough. Beside the point the MicroNOMAD MCA has a good performance for gamma radiation measurement in the energy range of 0,2 - 9 MeV.

1999-01-00

30

US-Russian Cooperation in Upgrading MC&A System at Rosatom Facilities: Measurement of Nuclear Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improve protection of weapons-usable nuclear material from theft or diversion through the development and support of a nationwide sustainable and effective Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program based on material measurement. The material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) cooperation has yielded significant results in implementing MC&A measurements at Russian nuclear facilities: (1) Establishment of MEM WG and MEMS SP; (2) Infrastructure for development, certification, and distribution of RMs; and (3) Coordination on development and implementation of MMs.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Jensen, Bruce A [ORNL

2011-01-01

31

Body protein status in Fischer 344 rats bearing the MCA sarcoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of a methylcholanthrene (MCA) sarcoma on the protein status of adult, male, Fischer-344 rats was investigated. Three groups of ten rats were used. One group (TB) was inoculated with MCA sarcoma tissue, control (C) and pair-fed (PF) groups received saline only. Rats were fed a purified (20% casein, 20% fat, 45% sucrose) diet from day 7 post-transplant, when tumors became palpable. Food intake of TB was depressed relative to C at day 15 PT. Animals were killed at day 22 PT. In comparison to C, tumor growth was associated with a decrease in gastrocnemius muscle protein content and an increase in spleen weight and protein content. There was no effect of tumor growth on the weight or protein content of liver, heart, or kidneys. Data from PF animals suggested that decreased gastrocnemius muscle protein content was partly attributable to decreased food intake and partly to tumor growth; the increased spleen protein was due to tumor growth per se. Thus, growth of the MCA sarcoma affects host protein status. Some of these effects are caused partly by hypophagia and partly by tumor growth and others are due to tumor growth per se.

Radcliffe, J.D.

1986-03-05

32

Multi criteria analysis in environmental management: Selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited in the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper presents the application of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool in choosing the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. The results obtained from the application of MCA in stormwater pollution control have many benefits to the contractors, consultants and decision makers by making them able to select the best control measure for every stage of construction.

Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malyasia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-07-01

33

Multi criteria analysis in environmental management: Selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited in the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper presents the application of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool in choosing the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. The results obtained from the application of MCA in stormwater pollution control have many benefits to the contractors, consultants and decision makers by making them able to select the best control measure for every stage of construction.

Ibrahiem Abdul Razak Al-Hadu, Lariyah Mohd Sidek, Mohamed Nor Mohamed Desa, Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri

2011-01-01

34

Estimating the robustness of composite CBA & MCA assessments by variation of criteria importance order  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stake-holder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis described is based on the fact that when using MCA as a decision-support tool, questions often arise about the weighting (or prioritising) of the included criteria. This part of the MCA is seen as the most subjective part and could give reasons for discussion among the decision makers or stakeholders. Furthermore, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives [1]. Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness of weights used in additive utility models. When assessing larger transport infrastructure projects often several non-monetised impacts could be relevant to include in the appraisal [2]. For many decision makers and stakeholders the task of setting the criteria weights for several criteria can be very difficult. To overcome this, the proposed method uses surrogate weights based on rankings of the criteria, by the use of Rank Order Distribution (ROD) weights [3]. This reduces the problem to assigning a rank order value for each criterion. A method for combining the MCA with the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is applied as described by Salling et al. in [4]. This methodology, COSIMA, uses a calibration indicator which expresses the trade-off between the CBA and MCA part resulting in a total rate expressing the attractiveness of each alternative. However, it should be mentioned that the proposed procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights is not limited to the ROD and COSIMA methods described above. The proposed framework is applied to the case of choosing the best corridor for a high speed railway in Sweden, between Linköping and Norrköping. This link is a part of a larger railway project called Ostlänken. 4 possible corridors have been indentified between the two cities and the preliminary studies have found 8 non-monetised criteria, which all are not included in the conducted CBA. The alternatives are compared to each other with respect to each criterion by using the REMBRANDT methodology. With 8 criteria there are 40340 (8!) possible combinations of ranking the criteria which have been made use of. The proposed method calculates all combinations and produces a set of rank variation graphs for each alternative and for different values of the trade-off indicator. This information is relatively easy to grasp for the decision-makers. The result is compared with the results from a conducted decision conference about the railway link. During the decision conference the different stakeholder preferences were unveiled by the participants who had to assign weights. The proposed method also introduces a more constrained approach. In this approach the stakeholders/decision makers have the possibility to set up some constraint to the decision problem. This could for example be that criterion XX cannot assume a rank lower than 3 or criterion XX always have to be ranked higher than criterion YY. This would mean that the outcome of the method is a subset of the total solution space. The paper finishes up with a discussion and considerations about how to present the results. The question whether to present a single decision criterion, such as the benefit-cost rate or the net present value, or instead to present graphs showing the robustness of the decision analysis is discussed. Furthermore a perspective, for estimating the robustness of weights using other MCA methodologies (and weighting methods) than the proposed framework, is discussed.

Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

35

MC&A software assistance to Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application that is being developed as part of the U.S. assistance program to Ukraine in Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A). The AIMAS software prototype was designed to provide a starting point for joint U.S./Ukraine system development. Computer systems with AIMAS prototypes have been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy & Industry (SINEI) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety database management system (RDBMS) and application development environment. It has been designed to be highly flexible and configurable, and to support a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration and security). Security measures include multilevel password access controls, all transactions logged with the user ID, and system administration controls. Interfaces to external modules are being designed to provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. 1 ref.

Ewing, T.; McWilliams, C.; Olson, A. [and others

1997-09-01

36

MCA Based Performance Evaluation of Project Selection  

CERN Multimedia

Multi-criteria decision support systems are used in various fields of human activities. In every alternative multi-criteria decision making problem can be represented by a set of properties or constraints. The properties can be qualitative & quantitative. For measurement of these properties, there are different unit, as well as there are different optimization techniques. Depending upon the desired goal, the normalization aims for obtaining reference scales of values of these properties. This paper deals with a new additive ratio assessment method. In order to make the appropriate decision and to make a proper comparison among the available alternatives Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and ARAS have been used. The uses of AHP is for analysis the structure of the project selection problem and to assign the weights of the properties and the ARAS method is used to obtain the final ranking and select the best one among the projects. To illustrate the above mention methods survey data on the expansion of optic...

Bakshi, Tuli

2011-01-01

37

MCA Based Performance Evaluation of Project Selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision support systems are used in various fields of human activities. In every alternativemulti-criteria decision making problem can be represented by a set of properties or constraints. Theproperties can be qualitative & quantitative. For measurement of these properties, there are differentunit, as well as there are different optimization techniques. Depending upon the desired goal, thenormalization aims for obtaining reference scales of values of these properties. This paper deals with anew additive ratio assessment method. In order to make the appropriate decision and to make a propercomparison among the available alternatives Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and ARAS have beenused. The uses of AHP is for analysis the structure of the project selection problem and to assign theweights of the properties and the ARAS method is used to obtain the final ranking and select the best oneamong the projects. To illustrate the above mention methods survey data on the expansion of optical fibrefor a telecommunication sector is used. The decision maker can also used different weight combination inthe decision making process according to the demand of the system.

Tuli Bakshi; Bijan Sarkar

2011-01-01

38

Microvascular imaging of asymptomatic MCA steno-occlusive patients using ultra-high-field 7T MRI.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is common that physicians are faced with patients who have severe steno-occlusion of intracranial arteries in the absence of clinical symptoms. This study is to determine whether a 7T magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) could provide the improved depiction of microvessels of asymptomatic patients with steno-occlusive middle cerebral artery (MCA) and possible clues for diagnosis of their clinical symptoms. All the patients who were identified as severe MCA steno-occlusions underwent a 7T MRA study. Three of these also underwent conventional angiography (TFCA). The vascular densities around the steno-occlusive MCA and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) branches as control vessels were measured and the difference between the median values of 7T and 3T MRA data was also analyzed. The results of 7T MRA revealed numerous microvessels not visible by conventional MRA. These 7T MRA images were also comparable to those obtained by an invasive conventional angiography (TFCA). The median values of vascular densities observed by 7T MRA were significantly higher than those by 3T MRA (5.28 at 7T vs. 1.45 at 3T for steno-occlusive MCA, p = 0.012, while 3.39 at 7T vs. 3.32 at 3T for normal PCA, p = 0.093). Ultra-high-field 7T MRA is a totally noninvasive angiographic technique that is capable of visualizing microvascular circulation that is usually difficult with conventional MRA. This visualization technique, therefore, could provide an important avenue on the diagnosis of steno-occlusion as well as the search of the roles of the microvessel, especially collaterals, in the preservation of normal blood circulation in patients with asymptomatic MCA steno-occlusion.

Cho ZH; Lee YB; Kang CK; Yang JW; Jung IH; Park CA; Park CW; Kim YB

2013-01-01

39

Automation of a pneumatic system by controlling a microcomputer equipped with a custom add on board for neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An automated sample transfer system associated with a 3 x 592 GBq Am-Be neutron source has been constructed at the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (CINAA). The pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an IBM PS/1 personal computer which is equipped with a custom add-on board for relevant hardware and control software written in Turbo Pascal. The system computer interactively works with a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for proper data acquisition. The sample transfer system also runs manually. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (Author)

1997-01-01

40

Real-time PCR/MCA assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the genotyping of resistance related DHPS-540 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been abandoned as first- or second-line treatment by most African malaria endemic countries in favour of artemisinin-based combination treatments, but the drug is still used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. However, resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing in the past few years and, although the link between molecular markers and treatment failure has not been firmly established, at least for pregnant women, it is important to monitor such markers. Methods This paper reports a novel sensitive, semi-quantitative and specific real-time PCR and melting curve analysis (MCA) assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the detection of DHPS-540, an important predictor for SP resistance. FRET/MCA was evaluated using 78 clinical samples from malaria patients and compared to PCR-RFLP. Results Sixty-two samples were in perfect agreement between both assays. One sample showed a small wild type signal with FRET/MCA that indicates a polyclonal infection. Four samples were not able to generate enough material in both assays to distinguish mutant from wild-type infection, six samples gave no signal in PCR-RFLP and five samples gave no amplification in FRET/MCA. Conclusion FRET/MCA is an effective tool for the identification of SNPs in drug studies and epidemiological surveys on resistance markers in general and DHPS-540 mutation in particular.

Mens Petra F; van Overmeir Chantal; Bonnet Maryline; Dujardin Jean-Claude; d'Alessandro Umberto

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

MUC3 and MCA serum levels and steroid receptor content in breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucins are an important class of complex glycoproteins expressed by many epithelial cells and their malignant counterparts. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of MUC3 and mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen (MCA) in patients with primary breast cancer and to analyze the possible relationships between these two mucins and the steroid receptor status. The preoperative basal serum levels of MUC3 (ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody 1143/B7) and MCA (EIA assay with anti-MCA mouse monoclonal antibody b-12) were determined in 44 patients with breast cancer while estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) levels were measured by the dextran-coated charcoal method in the cytosol of neoplastic tissue. MUC3 was expressed in 43/44 serum samples while high MCA serum levels were found in 16/44 only; the mean values of both markers did not correlate with menopausal status, tumor size, nodal involvement or ER. The only significant difference observed was a lower median value of MCA in patients with small tumors (T1-T2). No statistically significant correlation between MUC3 and MCA, MUC3 and ER or MCA and ER was observed; a statistically significant direct correlation between MUC3 and PgR+ status and a statistically significant inverse correlation between MCA and PgR+ were observed. Our results suggest that further investigations are necessary to establish whether progesterone can modulate MUC3 and MCA expression in breast cancer. PMID:15255542

Quaranta, M; Coviello, M; Daniele, A; Abbate, I; Durrant, L G; Paradiso, A; Schittulli, F

42

Effect of transformation induced in vitro by combined treatment with Co-60 gamma rays and 3-MCA on human embryo lung cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous carcinogens in the environment such as radiation, chemicals and viruses may act on human body simultaneously and cause carcinogenesis. It is, therefore, important to study the possible synergistic effects of these carcinogens on carcinogenesis. In this report some preliminary results are given of biological and morphological characteristics of transformation induced in vitro by combined treatment with Co-60 gamma rays and 3-methylcho-eanthrene (3-MCA) on diploid human embryo lung cell line (HEL-8315, passages 7). The results indicated that the transformation rate of human embryo long cells increased considerably when treated with both gamma rays (1.0 Gy) and 3-MCA (1.0 ?g/ml). The transformed cells in the combined treatment group were different from those in the control group, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, less than 0.01% in the culture media)-treated group and those treated with 3-MCA or gamma rays alone respectively: (a) The chromosome aberration rate of the combined treatment group is higher than that of other groups. Aberration of chromatid type was also observed in the group. (b) The ability to form colonies in semi-soft agar media was enhanced in the combined treatment group and higher than that in other groups. (c) Ring foci were formed only in the combined treatment group. The results suggest that the transformation rate of the combined treatment group is higher than that of the group treated by either gamma rays or 3-MCA.

1992-01-01

43

Design of High-Level Application of SSRF Low-Energy Transport Based on AT and MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] AT and MCA are accelerator physics MATLAB toolboxes that resides between the high-level application and the low-level accelerator control system. This paper will describe the design of high-level application of SSRF low-energy transport based on the two toolboxes. From the result of offline and online simulation, we can see that the high-level application of SSRF low-energy transport works well. The result match the parameters of SSRF low-energy transport well, and the calculation in simulation mode can achieve the request of SSRF R and D. (authors)

2009-01-01

44

Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DSD-2056-4K portable multi-channel analyzer (PMCA) is a standard tool used in both international and domestic safeguards. This tool and the built-in user programs have been field proven. For applications where the manpower to program built-in programs is not available, programs in external computers can control the PMCA. A set of general purpose setup and analysis subroutines have been written in BASIC to be used directly or as a guide in the external applications. While safeguards and the nuclear industry are just beginning to make use of the present PMCA, we are looking into ways of making it easier to write internal programs for the PMCA and into replacing its current 8-bit processor with a 16-bit processor to give it the capability to do very involved analysis such as peak fitting and detailed plutonium isotopic analysis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Cameron, R.A.

1985-01-01

45

Total Quality development of Material Control Accountability software: LANMAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines require Material Control & Accountability (MC&A) software to meet Total Quality certification requirements. Some MC&A software has met site quality standards, but only after extensive documentation rework. Mandating Total Quality methods during development virtually guarantees MC&A software certification.

Woychick, M.R. [ed.; Yearsley, D.; McRae, L.P.

1993-07-01

46

Detection of focal hypoxic-ischemic injury and neuronal stress in a rodent model of unilateral MCA occlusion/reperfusion using radiolabeled annexin V  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we wished to determine whether technetium-99m annexin V, an in vivo marker of cellular injury and death, could be used to noninvasively monitor neuronal injury following focal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion injury. Sixteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (along with four controls) underwent left (unilateral) MCA intraluminal beaded thread occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion. One hour following tail vein injection of 5-10 mCi of 99mTc-annexin V, animals underwent either single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or autoradiography followed by immunohistochemical analyses. There was abnormal, bilateral, multifocal uptake of 99mTc-annexin V in each cerebral hemisphere as seen by both SPECT and autoradiography at 4 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after initiation of occlusion. The average maximal annexin V uptake at 4 h was 310%±85% and 365%±151% above control values (P

2004-01-01

47

Process analysis and optimal control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presented publication should considered to be an introduction into some problems of process analysis and optimal control with respect to complex systems. An essential aspect of the work is to present this matter with the view of using microcomputers. The publication contains chapters on some mathematical and theoretical terms, real time regime, process analysis, optimal control, and control of complex systems. (author)

1977-01-01

48

Metabolic control analysis of cellular respiration in situ in intraoperational samples of human breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze quantitatively cellular respiration in intraoperational tissue samples taken from human breast cancer (BC) patients. We used oxygraphy and the permeabilized cell techniques in combination with Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) to measure a corresponding flux control coefficient (FCC). The activity of all components of ATP synthasome, and respiratory chain complexes was found to be significantly increased in human BC cells in situ as compared to the adjacent control tissue. FCC(s) were determined upon direct activation of respiration with exogenously-added ADP and by titrating the complexes with their specific inhibitors to stepwise decrease their activity. MCA showed very high sensitivity of all complexes and carriers studied in human BC cells to inhibition as compared to mitochondria in normal oxidative tissues. The sum of FCC(s) for all ATP synthasome and respiratory chain components was found to be around 4, and the value exceeded significantly that for normal tissue (close to 1). In BC cells, the key sites of the regulation of respiration are Complex IV (FCC?=?0.74), ATP synthase (FCC?=?0.61), and phosphate carrier (FCC?=?0.60); these FCC(s) exceed considerably (~10-fold) those for normal oxidative tissues. In human BC cells, the outer mitochondrial membrane is characterized by an increased permeability towards adenine nucleotides, the mean value of the apparent K(m) for ADP being equal to 114.8?±?13.6 ?M. Our data support the two-compartment hypothesis of tumor metabolism, the high sum of FCC(s) showing structural and functional organization of mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthasome as supercomplexes in human BC. PMID:22836527

Kaambre, Tuuli; Chekulayev, Vladimir; Shevchuk, Igor; Karu-Varikmaa, Minna; Timohhina, Natalja; Tepp, Kersti; Bogovskaja, Jelena; Kütner, Riina; Valvere, Vahur; Saks, Valdur

2012-07-27

49

Metabolic control analysis of cellular respiration in situ in intraoperational samples of human breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyze quantitatively cellular respiration in intraoperational tissue samples taken from human breast cancer (BC) patients. We used oxygraphy and the permeabilized cell techniques in combination with Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) to measure a corresponding flux control coefficient (FCC). The activity of all components of ATP synthasome, and respiratory chain complexes was found to be significantly increased in human BC cells in situ as compared to the adjacent control tissue. FCC(s) were determined upon direct activation of respiration with exogenously-added ADP and by titrating the complexes with their specific inhibitors to stepwise decrease their activity. MCA showed very high sensitivity of all complexes and carriers studied in human BC cells to inhibition as compared to mitochondria in normal oxidative tissues. The sum of FCC(s) for all ATP synthasome and respiratory chain components was found to be around 4, and the value exceeded significantly that for normal tissue (close to 1). In BC cells, the key sites of the regulation of respiration are Complex IV (FCC?=?0.74), ATP synthase (FCC?=?0.61), and phosphate carrier (FCC?=?0.60); these FCC(s) exceed considerably (~10-fold) those for normal oxidative tissues. In human BC cells, the outer mitochondrial membrane is characterized by an increased permeability towards adenine nucleotides, the mean value of the apparent K(m) for ADP being equal to 114.8?±?13.6 ?M. Our data support the two-compartment hypothesis of tumor metabolism, the high sum of FCC(s) showing structural and functional organization of mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthasome as supercomplexes in human BC.

Kaambre T; Chekulayev V; Shevchuk I; Karu-Varikmaa M; Timohhina N; Tepp K; Bogovskaja J; Kütner R; Valvere V; Saks V

2012-10-01

50

MCA Center of Excellence Through Benchmarking and INMM Involvement - Key Tools for Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Materials Management Department, a BWXT-corporate partner with Westinghouse Savannah River Company, has established a vision for positioning the organization as a Global Center of Excellence for Strategic Materials Management. NMM's Road to Excellence results from a changing business environment where flexibility and adaptability have become key demands from the Department of Energy customer. Flexibility and adaptability are integral components of the department's MC&A Center of Excellence philosophy in the pursuit of improvement technologies that meet domestic and international safeguards requirements. The customer challenge has put the organization in the forefront of change where benchmarking with other MC&A programs, applying human performance technologies and leveraging INMM leadership and participation opportunities are key ingredients to influencing improvements and changes in existing MC&A standards, policies and practices. The paper challenges MC&A professionals, MC&A program owners and organizational leaders to engage in the debate of new ideas, partnering arrangements and timely deployment of technologies (human performance and technical-based applications) to exponentially improve safeguards programs. Research and development efforts in support of safeguards improvements need to seriously consider deployment to field practitioners within a 2-3 year time frame from inception. INMM plays a crucial role in accelerating such opportunities and establishing improved performance standards above our normal governmental and organizational bureaucracies.

JAY, JEFFERY

2005-10-07

51

Construction of a reasonable multi channel analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In resent years, the performances of new electronic devices, for example FPGA or so on, have been improved, and these devices become more cost-effective ones year by year. Moreover, prices of personal computers have become less expensive, and the programming environment on PC becomes much user-friendly and easy to operate in this decimal year. These advancements have possibilities to provide a great help for self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments, which needed huge cost and work to construct in the past. Then, I tried to construct a reasonable Mulch Channel Analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board named EDX-005 (HuMANDATA ltd.), and conduct test measurements of the MCA. The MCA was constructed in a short period, and its cost was just under 50 thousands yen. The MCA normally works at 200 [cps/ch] count rate with a NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The description of the MCA and some points of self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments are provided in this paper. (author)

2010-01-01

52

Linking least-cost energy system costs models with MCA: An assessment of the EU renewable energy targets and supporting policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several technoeconomic modeling approaches that provide quantitative results such as costs and the level of achievement of certain renewable energy (RE) policy targets. These approaches often do not consider other important factors for policy implementation (such as socio-political aspects and stakeholders' preferences). Recent multicriteria analysis (MCA) approaches attempt to integrate these multiple aspects in decision making process. In this respect, aim of this paper is to combine technoeconomic modeling and MCA approaches in a general analytical framework incorporating multiple aspects. Each method in an RE policy interaction problem can feed in the necessary policy information for the subsequent steps of an ex-ante and an ex-post assessment in a decision tree, starting from recognizing the need for implementing a new policy in parallel to the incumbent ones, assessing the actual policy costs and finally identifying the social acceptability of these RE policies.

2011-01-01

53

Linking least-cost energy system costs models with MCA: An assessment of the EU renewable energy targets and supporting policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are several technoeconomic modeling approaches that provide quantitative results such as costs and the level of achievement of certain renewable energy (RE) policy targets. These approaches often do not consider other important factors for policy implementation (such as socio-political aspects and stakeholders' preferences). Recent multicriteria analysis (MCA) approaches attempt to integrate these multiple aspects in decision making process. In this respect, aim of this paper is to combine technoeconomic modeling and MCA approaches in a general analytical framework incorporating multiple aspects. Each method in an RE policy interaction problem can feed in the necessary policy information for the subsequent steps of an ex-ante and an ex-post assessment in a decision tree, starting from recognizing the need for implementing a new policy in parallel to the incumbent ones, assessing the actual policy costs and finally identifying the social acceptability of these RE policies.

Oikonomou, V., E-mail: vlasis@jiqweb.or [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn, 300, Groningen (Netherlands); Flamos, A., E-mail: aflamos@unipi.g [Department of Industrial Management and Technology, University of Piraeus, 80 Karaoli and Dimitriou str., 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Gargiulo, M., E-mail: Maurizio.gargiulo@e4sma.co [Energy Engineering Economic Environment Systems Modelling and Analysis S.r.L (34SMA), Turin (Italy); Giannakidis, G., E-mail: ggian@cres.g [Energy Systems Analysis Laboratory, Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Savings, 19th Km Marathonos Ave. 19009 Pikermi, Attiki (Greece); Kanudia, A., E-mail: amit@kanors.co [Kanors, Vasundhra Enclave, Delhi (India); Spijker, E. [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn, 300, Groningen (Netherlands); Grafakos, S., E-mail: s.grafakos@ihs.n [Dutch Research Institute For Transitions (Drift) and Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS), Erasmus University Rotterdam, BurgemeesterOudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1935, 3000 BX, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2011-05-15

54

Dual phases of respiration chain defect-augmented mROS-mediated mCa 2+ stress during oxidative insult in normal and ? 0 RBA1 astrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) deficits, resulting in augmented mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation, underlie pathogenesis of astrocytes. However, mtDNA-depleted cells (? (0)) lacking RC have been reported to be either sensitive or resistant to apoptosis. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of RC-enhanced mitochondrial stress following oxidative insult. Using noninvasive fluorescence probe-coupled laser scanning imaging microscopy, the ability to resist oxidative stress and levels of mROS formation and mitochondrial calcium (mCa(2+)) were compared between two different astrocyte cell lines, control and ? (0) astrocytes, over time upon oxidative stress. Our results showed that the cytoplasmic membrane becomes permeated with YO-PRO-1 dye at 150 and 130 minutes in RBA-1 and ? (0) astrocytes, respectively. In contrast to RBA-1, 30 minutes after 20 mM H2O2 exposure, ? (0) astrocytes formed marked plasma membrane blebs, lost the ability to retain Mito-R, and showed condensation of nuclei. Importantly, H2O2-induced ROS and accompanied mCa(2+) elevation in control showed higher levels than ? (0) at early time point but vice versa at late time point. Our findings underscore dual phase of RC-defective cells harboring less mitochondrial stress due to low RC activity during short-term oxidative stress but augmented mROS-mediated mCa(2+) stress during severe oxidative insult.

Peng TI; Lin MS; Jou MJ

2013-01-01

55

Dual phases of respiration chain defect-augmented mROS-mediated mCa 2+ stress during oxidative insult in normal and ? 0 RBA1 astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) deficits, resulting in augmented mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation, underlie pathogenesis of astrocytes. However, mtDNA-depleted cells (? (0)) lacking RC have been reported to be either sensitive or resistant to apoptosis. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of RC-enhanced mitochondrial stress following oxidative insult. Using noninvasive fluorescence probe-coupled laser scanning imaging microscopy, the ability to resist oxidative stress and levels of mROS formation and mitochondrial calcium (mCa(2+)) were compared between two different astrocyte cell lines, control and ? (0) astrocytes, over time upon oxidative stress. Our results showed that the cytoplasmic membrane becomes permeated with YO-PRO-1 dye at 150 and 130 minutes in RBA-1 and ? (0) astrocytes, respectively. In contrast to RBA-1, 30 minutes after 20 mM H2O2 exposure, ? (0) astrocytes formed marked plasma membrane blebs, lost the ability to retain Mito-R, and showed condensation of nuclei. Importantly, H2O2-induced ROS and accompanied mCa(2+) elevation in control showed higher levels than ? (0) at early time point but vice versa at late time point. Our findings underscore dual phase of RC-defective cells harboring less mitochondrial stress due to low RC activity during short-term oxidative stress but augmented mROS-mediated mCa(2+) stress during severe oxidative insult. PMID:23533684

Peng, Tsung-I; Lin, Muh-Shi; Jou, Mei-Jie

2013-03-10

56

J-ACT II. Differences in rate of valid recanalization and of a favorable outcome by site of MCA occlusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The background and purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the effects of alteplase differ with occlusion site of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). An exploratory analysis was made of 57 patients enrolled on the Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial II (J-ACT II). The residual vessel length (mm), determined on pretreatment MR angiography (MRA), was used to reflect the occluded site. The proportions of patients with valid recanalization (modified Mori grade 2-3) at 6 and 24 hours, and a favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1 at 3 months) were compared between the groups dichotomized according to their lengths of residual vessel. Multiple logistic regression models were generated to elucidate the predictors of valid recanalization and a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that 5 mm was the practical cutoff length for the dichotomization. In patients with M1 length

2010-01-01

57

The safety and efficacy of bridging full-dose IV-IA thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with MCA occlusion: A comparison with IV thrombolysis alone.  

Science.gov (United States)

AIMS: Early recanalization of the occluded cerebral artery is substantial for clinical improvement in acute ischemic stroke (IS) patients. The rate of achieved recanalizations using IVT is low. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of bridging full-dose intravenous-intraarterial (IV-IA) thrombolysis to IVT alone in acute IS patients with occluded MCA. METHODS: Seventy-nine consecutive IS patients with MCA occlusion were treated either with IVT alone (historic controls, Group 1) or with full-dose IV-IA thrombolysis (Group 2). Stroke severity was evaluated using NIHSS, achieved recanalizations using transcranial Doppler (Group 1) or angiography (Group 2). Occurrence of ICH including SICH was evaluated after 24 hours. 90-day clinical outcome was evaluated using modified Rankin Scale (mRS). RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 50 patients (24 males, mean age 70.8 ± 10.2 years) and Group 2 of 29 patients (14 males, mean age 67.8 ± 10.0 years). No difference was found in the initial NIHSS (median 16 vs. 17) and other baseline parameters including time from stroke onset to IVT. Patients treated with bridging therapy had a higher number of achieved MCA recanalization (75.9 vs. 32.0%, P=0.0002), similar number of SICH (6.0 vs. 6.9%, P=1.000) and 34.5% of them achieved mRS 0-2 versus 28.0% of patients treated with IVT (P=0.546). Patients with shorter TR had significantly better clinical outcome (P=0.019). CONCLUSION: Bridging IV-IA thrombolysis seems to be safe and more effective than IVT alone in acute stroke patients with MCA occlusion. PMID:23446208

Sanak, Daniel; Kocher, Martin; Veverka, Tomas; Kral, Michal; Cerna, Marie; Zapletalova, Jana; Burval, Stanislav; Skoloudik, David; Bartkova, Andrea; Cechakova, Eva; Dornak, Tomas; Herzig, Roman; Kanovsky, Petr

2013-02-18

58

Correlação de três variáveis na descrição da permeabilidade nasal (HD, MCA, escala NOSE) de pacientes saudáveis/ Correlation of three variables describing nasal patency (HD, MCA, NOSE score) in healthy subjects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Rinoresistometria e rinometria acústica são dois métodos utilizados na avaliação da função respiratória nasal. Ambos utilizam variáveis diferentes para descrever a permeabilidade nasal: o diâmetro hidráulico, HD, na rinoresistometria; e as áreas mínimas da seção transversal, MCA1 (istmo nasal) e MCA2 (cabeça do corneto inferior e corpo cavernoso do septo nasal), na rinometria acústica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre HD e MCA em pacientes sem afecç? (more) ?es nasais e identificar se tais variáveis objetivas apresentam correlação com a escala NOSE, uma ferramenta validada para avaliar a percepção subjetiva de permeabilidade nasal. MÉTODO: Coleta estruturada dos dados de 24 indivíduos saudáveis sem afecções nasais. RESULTADOS: Correlações estatisticamente significativas de fracas a moderadas foram identificadas entre HD e MCA2 antes do descongestionamento. Foi identificada correlação moderada entre HD, MCA2 e escala NOSE no lado mais estreito. CONCLUSÃO: Na avaliação de permeabilidade nasal, parece ser recomendável determinar HD, MCA1 e MCA2, bem como uma variável subjetiva como a escala NOSE, que não aparentam ser variáveis completamente redundantes. Estudos futuros devem avaliar a correlação destas variáveis em pacientes com afecções nasais. Abstract in english Rhinoresistometry and acoustic rhinometry are two established apparative methods to objectify the respiratory function of the nose. Both methods use different variables to describe nasal patency: "hydraulic diameter", HD, in rhinoresistometry, and "minimal cross-sectional area", MCA1 (nasal isthmus) and MCA2 (head of the inferior turbinate and cavernous body of the nasal septum), in acoustic rhinometry. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the mutual correlation of HD and MCA a (more) s a pilot study in patients without nasal pathologies. Additionally, we investigated if these objective variables correlate with the NOSE score, a validated tool to measure subjective perception of nasal patency. METHOD: Planned data collection in a collective of 24 healthy subjects without nasal pathologies. RESULTS: Statistically significant, weak to moderate correlations were found between HD and MCA2 before decongestion. A moderate correlation was found between both HD and MCA2 and the NOSE score on the narrower side. CONCLUSION: In the assessment of nasal patency, it seems advisable to determine HD, MCA1 and MCA2, but also a subjective variable such as the NOSE score, which all seem to be not fully redundant variables. In further studies, the correlation of the variables should be assessed in patients with nasal pathologies.

Braun, Thomas; Rich, Maria; Kramer, Matthias F.

2013-06-01

59

Subcubic Control Flow Analysis Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We give the first direct subcubic algorithm for performing control flow analysis of higher-order functional programs. Despite the long held belief that inclusion-based flow analysis could not surpass the ``cubic bottleneck, '' we apply known set compression techniques to obtain an algorithm that runs in time O(n^3/log n) on a unit cost random-access memory model machine. Moreover, we refine the initial flow analysis into two more precise analyses incorporating notions of reachability. We give subcubic algorithms for these more precise analyses and relate them to an existing analysis from the literature.

Midtgaard, Jan; Van Horn, David

2009-01-01

60

An unexpected evolution of symptomatic mild middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis: asymptomatic occlusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it has been reported more frequently in Asians and African-American people, but the finding of intracranial stenosis as a cause of ischemic stroke is relatively common also in Caucasians. The prognosis of patients with stroke due to intracranial steno-occlusion is strictly dependent on the time of recanalization. Moreover, the course of the vessel involvement is highly dynamic in both directions, improvement or worsening, although several data are derived from the atherosclerotic subtype, compared to other causes. Case description We report the clinical, neurosonological and neuroradiological findings of a young woman, who came to our Stroke Unit because of the abrupt onset of aphasia during her work. An urgent neurosonological examination showed a left M1 MCA stenosis, congruent with the presenting symptoms; magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding and identified an acute ischemic lesion on the left MCA territory. The past history of the patient was significant only for a hyperinsulinemic condition, treated with metformine, and a mild overweight. At this time a selective cerebral angiography was not performed because of the patient refusal and she was discharged on antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy, having failed to identify autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Within 1 month, she went back to our attention because of the recurrence of aphasia, lasting about ten minutes. Neuroimaging findings were unchanged, but the patient accepted to undergo a selective cerebral angiography, which showed a mild left distal M1 MCA stenosis. During the follow-up the patient did not experienced any recurrence, but a routine neurosonological examination found an unexpected evolution of the known MCA stenosis, i.e. left M1 MCA occlusion. Neuroradiological imaging did not identify new lesions of the brain parenchyma and a repeated selective cerebral angiography confirmed the left M1 MCA occlusion. Conclusions Regardless of the role of metabolic and/or inflammatory factors on the aetiology of the intracranial stenosis in this case, the course of the vessel disease was unexpected and previously unreported in the literature at our knowledge.

Malferrari Giovanni; Zedde Marialuisa; De Berti Gianni; Maggi Massimo; Marcello Norina

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Hemodynamic effects of decompressive craniotomy in MCA infarction: evaluation with perfusion CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decompressive craniotomy in hemispheric infarction has been reported to reduce mortality and improve outcome. Identifying tissue at risk and monitoring the benefit of craniotomy is hardly practical and has not been reported thus far. Perfusion CT was applied before and immediately after decompressive craniotomy in a patient with space-occupying middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. Before surgery, perfusion CT revealed malperfused but still vital tissue in the vicinity of the infarction core which returned to normal after decompressive surgery. The final infarct size did not exceed the area of the initial hypodensity on unenhanced CT scan. In critically ill patients, the practicability of perfusion CT allows for demonstration of tissue at risk around the infarct core in space-occupying MCA infarction. Moreover, it may be used to monitor the effect of decompressive craniotomy. (orig.)

2003-01-01

62

XRF analysis for sulfur control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The value of the modern X-ray spectrometer as a tool for flexible analysis over a wide range of multi-element determinations in the hydrocarbon industry is explained. Although the initial investment may be high in monetary terms, this is more than compensated for by the rapid and inexpensive sample preparation and analysis. Through the standard hardware and software interfaces, the process analytical X-ray system is easily integrated into the customer's quality and process control. The system is particularly useful for sulfur analysis and ISO 14596 describes the determination of sulfur in petroleum products by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

Uhlig, S.; Buehler, A. [Bruker Advanced X-ray Solutions GmbH (Germany)

2000-09-01

63

NuSTAR ground calibration: The Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5-80 keV ) telescope to orbit. The ground calibration of the three flight optics was carried out at the Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF) built for this purpose. In this article we present the facility and its use for the ground calibration of the three optics.

Brejnholt, Nicolai; Christensen, Finn Erland

2011-01-01

64

Enhanced lung colonization and tumorigenicity of fused cells isolated from primary MCA tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells derived from cell-cell fusion events were clonally isolated from primary methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced tumors in allophenic mice. Compared with non-fused cells isolated from the same cultures, the fused cells had markedly greater experimental metastasizing (lung colonizing) activity, but only slightly greater tumorigenicity and the same cloning efficiency in soft agar. Cell-cell fusion may thus contribute to the generation of tumor heterogeneity that underlies the process of tumor progression. PMID:2265408

Fortuna, M B; Dewey, M J; Furmanski, P

1990-12-01

65

Enhanced lung colonization and tumorigenicity of fused cells isolated from primary MCA tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cells derived from cell-cell fusion events were clonally isolated from primary methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced tumors in allophenic mice. Compared with non-fused cells isolated from the same cultures, the fused cells had markedly greater experimental metastasizing (lung colonizing) activity, but only slightly greater tumorigenicity and the same cloning efficiency in soft agar. Cell-cell fusion may thus contribute to the generation of tumor heterogeneity that underlies the process of tumor progression.

Fortuna MB; Dewey MJ; Furmanski P

1990-12-01

66

Data transfer among Apple-II microcomputer, S-80 MCA and PDP-11 computer system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The data communication method described in this paper is designed to facilitate the data transfer among S-80 MCA, MS-900 Moessbauer spectrometer based on Apple-II microcomputer and PDP-11 computer system. Some simple processing for spectral data is available in the microcomputer. The least square fitting for spectral data is performed in PDP-11 computer system while the microcomputer is used as a terminal

1989-01-01

67

NATO-ASTEC-matrix-research environment, information sharing and MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The successful implementations of the NATO-ASTECMATRIX project in Armenia are essential contribution into security, stability and solidarity among regional nations, by applying the best technical expertise to problem solving. Collaboration, networking and capacity-building are means used to accomplish these goals. A further aim is to promote the co-operation with new partners and the ASTEC are creating links between scientists and organizations in formerly separated communities, developing new strategy concentrating support on security related collaborative projects and finding answers to critical questions and a way of connecting nations. The NATO-ASTECMATRIX within Armenia leads to a network of high standards laboratories that will drastically improve the overview and the technical infrastructure for monitoring, accounting and control of CBRN materials in the Armenia. This new infrastructure will enhance the exchange of information on this vital issue via the IRIS. In follow-up phases, it will also help to better define the needs and requirements for a policy to enhance legal tools for the management of these materials, and for the creation of one or several agencies aiming at dealing with wastes or no longer useful materials containing CBRN components in Armenia

2010-01-01

68

Induced hypertension for the treatment of acute MCA occlusion beyond the thrombolysis window: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of stroke patients is eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Small pilot case series have hinted that elevation of incident arterial blood pressure might be associated with a favorable prognosis either in acute or subacute stroke. However, these patients were not considered for thrombolytic therapy and were not followed – up systematically. We used pharmacologically induced hypertension in a stroke patient with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion ineligible for thrombolysis that was followed-up by radiological, clinical and functional outcome assessment. Case presentation A patient with acute embolic MCA occlusion producing a large, ischemic penumbra confirmed by perfusion CT was treated by induced hypertension with phenylephrine started within 4 h of admission. Increase in the mean arterial pressure by 20% led to a reduction of neurological deficit by 3 points on the National Institute of Stroke Scale. MRI and CT scans performed during phenylephrine infusion showed the presence of limited subcortical and cortical infarct changes that were clearly less extensive than the perfusion deficit in the brain perfusion CT at baseline, found in the absence of MCA patency. No complications due to induced hypertension therapy occurred. Moderate functional improvement up to modified Rankin scale 2 at follow up took place. Conclusion Induced hypertension in acute ischemic stroke seems clinically feasible and may be beneficial in selected normo- or hypotensive stroke patients not eligible for thrombolytic recanalization therapy.

Bogoslovsky Tanya; Häppölä Olli; Salonen Oili; Lindsberg Perttu J

2006-01-01

69

Prediction of fetal anemia by different thresholds of MCA-PSV and Delta-OD in first and second intrauterine transfusions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to compare different thresholds of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) and amniotic fluid delta optical density (Delta-OD) with fetal hemoglobin (Hb) during first and second intrauterine transfusions (IUT). METHODS: We determined serial MCA-PSV and Delta-OD in 27 red blood cell alloimmunized fetuses who needed IUT. Before the second IUT, MCA-PSV was measured. The sensitivity and specificity of MCA-PSV and Delta-OD were calculated and compared with fetal hemoglobin  levels. RESULTS: From 27 fetuses, first time IUT MCA-PSV with a normal median value (MOM) cutoff of > 1.29 detected 60% of the moderate and 100% of the severe anemia cases. MCA-PSV of MOM > 1.5 detected none of the moderate and 93% of severe anemia cases. Delta-OD detected 50% of moderate anemic and 80% of severe anemic cases. At the second IUT, 91% of severe anemia cases were confirmed by MCA-PSV with MOM > 1.5 whereas MCA-PSV with MOM > 1.29 confirmed all cases. One case of moderate anemia was de-tected by MCA-PSV of MOM > 1.29 and none were detected by MCA-PSV with MOM > 1.5. CONCLUSION: Different thresholds of MCA-PSV have higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting moderate and severe fetal anemia compared with Delta-OD. It also has a high sensitivity at the second IUT.

Rahimi-Sharbaf F; Shariat M; Mirzaie F; Dehghan P; Dastgardy E; Adabi K

2012-03-01

70

Experimental regional cerebral ischemia in the middle cerebral artery territory in primates. Part 2: Effects on brain water and electrolytes in the early phase of MCA stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acute regional cerebral ischemia was produced in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by selective embolization of the internal carotid (ICA) bifurcation with minimum surgical intervention in the neck under sedated conditions. Two of five hours after embolization, brain water (measurement of dry weight) and tissue concentration of sodium and potassium were determined in the tissues of the sylvian cortex, putamen and subcortical white matter in the affected MCA territory. As early as three hours, initial increase in brain water was detected in the samples of the putament without noticeable change in tissue electrolytes in two of three animals. Gross ischemic swelling of the gray matter, in both the sylvian cortex and putamen, became obvious in six of eight animals after four to five hours. This swollen gray matter showed marked increase in brain water (up to 36% swelling), increase in tissue sodium (up to 100% of the control value), and decrease in tissue potassium (down to 55%). On the other hand, edema in the white matter, if present at all, was minimal without detectable change in tissue electrolytes and was always accompanied by much greater ( greater than two to seven times) edema in the gray matter. Thus, the gray matter edema, in both the deep subcortical structures and the cortex, appeared to play the major role in the development of hemispheric swelling of the brain which may begin within hours of the onset of the MCA stroke in monkeys. Microscopically, the swollen gray matter which showed more than 10% swelling with a definite shift of tissue sodium and potassium content appeared to be dead tissue. However, early edema in the gray matter which showed less than 10% swelling without detectable change in electrolytes might be caused by simple diffusion of water through the dysfunctional capillary wall or cell membrane with or without a permeability gradient between the intravascular cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral tissue compartment and might possibly be reversible.

Watanabe O; West CR; Bremer A

1977-01-01

71

Application Of The Digital Signal Processing Technique For The Design And Construction Of Gamma DSP-Based MCA 8K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL code then programing into FPGA device. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing technique then application for design and construction of DSP-based MCA 8K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, almost component such as low pass filter, high pass filter, math function module as adder/subtractor and multiplier, logic control, First In First Out, register, memory and Central processing unit needed for our design can be synthesized and implemented. The VHDL source design has been compiled and implemented by xilinx ISE 10.1 software toolkit and then used to configuration the Spartan XC3S400 device. The main Spartan 3 development board named Siphec XC3S400-TB is used for design of the project. An application software is written in LabVIEW 8.5. The firmware to control the USB interface and interface between FPGA and PC is design in Keil C51 compiler toolkit. (author)

2011-01-01

72

BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

The report concerns an analysis of the benefits anticipated from control of combined sewer overflows. The subject of benefit analysis is uniquely important to anyone contemplating combined sewer overflow controls because of the nature of the overflows themselves, the distribution...

73

Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Directional Solidification Process of Turbine Blade Casting with MCA Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel-based superalloy turbine blade castings are widely used as a key part in aero engines. However, due to the complex manufacturing processes, the complicated internal structure, and the interaction between different parts of the turbine blade, casting defects, such as stray grains, often happen during the directional solidification of turbine blade castings, which causes low production yield and high production cost. To improve the quality of the directionally solidified turbine blade castings, modeling and simulation technique has been employed to study the microstructure evolution as well as to optimize the casting process. In this article, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) method was used to simulate the directional solidification of turbine blade casting. The MCA method was coupled with macro heat transfer and micro grain growth kinetics to simulate the microstructure evolution during the directional solidification. In addition, a ray tracing method was proposed to calculate the heat transfer, especially the heat radiation of multiple blade castings in a Bridgman furnace. A competitive mechanism was incorporated into the grain growth model to describe the grain selection behavior phenomena of multiple columnar grains in the grain selector. With the proposed models, the microstructure evolution and related defects could be simulated, while the processing parameters optimized and the blade casting quality guaranteed as well. Several experiments were carried out to validate the proposed models, and good agreement between the simulated and experimental results was achieved.

Xu, Qingyan; Zhang, Hang; Qi, Xiang; Liu, Baicheng

2013-08-01

74

Comparative Analysis of Control Strategies  

CERN Document Server

Different ways of modelling quantum control systems, formulating control problems and solving the resulting problems are considered and compared. In particular, we compare the performance of geometric and optimal control, as well as iterative techniques for optimal control design versus local gradient optimization using a Lyapunov-type potential function for two problems of general interest: global control of qubits and entanglement generation in the form of Bell state preparation.

Schirmer, Sonia G; Wang, Xiaoting

2008-01-01

75

Early thrombolysis inhibits peri-infarct depolarizations in embolic MCA occlusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rats submitted to middle cerebral artery (MCA) clot embolism were treated with tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) 1.5 and 3.5 h post-occlusion. Reperfusion patterns were monitored by measuring cortical laser-Doppler flow; the direct current potential was measured to detect peri-infarct depolarizations (PID), a known mechanism of ischemic injury. TPA treatment induced reperfusion in 58% of treated animals that was delayed by 41 +/- 7 min (mean +/- s.e.m.) from treatment onset. The probability of reperfusion did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. TPA treatment led to a 3-fold reduced frequency of PID if administered early or if successful reperfusion was observed (each p < 0.001). Early thrombolysis inhibits, but does not block, PID as an important mechanism of ischemic injury in embolic stroke. PMID:11742216

Schüler, O G; Plesnila, N; Otto, D; Baethmann, A J; Back, T

2001-12-21

76

Early thrombolysis inhibits peri-infarct depolarizations in embolic MCA occlusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rats submitted to middle cerebral artery (MCA) clot embolism were treated with tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) 1.5 and 3.5 h post-occlusion. Reperfusion patterns were monitored by measuring cortical laser-Doppler flow; the direct current potential was measured to detect peri-infarct depolarizations (PID), a known mechanism of ischemic injury. TPA treatment induced reperfusion in 58% of treated animals that was delayed by 41 +/- 7 min (mean +/- s.e.m.) from treatment onset. The probability of reperfusion did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. TPA treatment led to a 3-fold reduced frequency of PID if administered early or if successful reperfusion was observed (each p < 0.001). Early thrombolysis inhibits, but does not block, PID as an important mechanism of ischemic injury in embolic stroke.

Schüler OG; Plesnila N; Otto D; Baethmann AJ; Back T

2001-12-01

77

Prediction of the outcome of STA-MCA anastomosis by I-123 IMP brain SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery might improve the cerebral blood flow (CBF), but it does not necessarily mean a good surgical outcome. We estimated the resting CBF and vasoreactivity before and after surgery using I-123 IMP brain SPECT with acetazolamide, and compared them with the surgical outcome. We classified 20 patients into group I (n=10); a post-surgical improvement in CBF>10%, and group II (n=10); an improvement in CBF 10%. The improvement of vasoreactivity was 31.9 ± 19.3% and 28.2 ± 17.2% in groups I and II, respectively (n.s). The improvement of CBF was 20.3 ± 7.7% and 0.9 ± 6.7% in groups I and II, respectively (p

1997-01-01

78

Controllability analysis of decentralised linear controllers for polymeric fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with the control of polymeric fuel cells. It includes a linear analysis of the system at different operating points, the comparison and selection of different control structures, and the validation of the controlled system by simulation. The work is based on a complex non linear model which has been linearised at several operating points. The linear analysis tools used are the Morari resiliency index, the condition number, and the relative gain array. These techniques are employed to compare the controllability of the system with different control structures and at different operating conditions. According to the results, the most promising control structures are selected and their performance with PI based diagonal controllers is evaluated through simulations with the complete non linear model. The range of operability of the examined control structures is compared. Conclusions indicate good performance of several diagonal linear controllers. However, very few have a wide operability range. (author)

Serra, Maria; Aguado, Joaquin; Ansede, Xavier; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2005-10-10

79

RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socio-economic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

Sue-Mari Maass

2012-01-01

80

Rent control: a comparative analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders - and consequential homelessness - on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a r (more) ight to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socioeconomic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fash

Maass, S

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Analysis of TRACON Controller: Pilot Voice Communications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this analysis was to examine pilot-controller communication practices in the TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) environment. Forty-eight hours of communications recorded on the voice tapes for eight TRACONs were analyzed. There were 1...

K. M. Cardosi B. Brett S. Han

1996-01-01

82

Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy of an Occluded Superior Division Branch of the Left MCA for Acute Cardioembolic Stroke  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhageas time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanicalthrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due toa recent myocardial infarction. Intra-arterial administration of 4 mgrt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours,symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents

2003-01-01

83

A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on t...

Aruna Lolla

84

Plasmodium falciparum metacaspase PfMCA-1 triggers a z-VAD-fmk inhibitable protease to promote cell death.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activation of proteolytic cell death pathways may circumvent drug resistance in deadly protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania. To this end, it is important to define the cell death pathway(s) in parasites and thus characterize proteases such as metacaspases (MCA), which have been reported to induce cell death in plants and Leishmania parasites. We, therefore, investigated whether the cell death function of MCA is conserved in different protozoan parasite species such as Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania major, focusing on the substrate specificity and functional role in cell survival as compared to Saccharomyces cerevisae. Our results show that, similarly to Leishmania, Plasmodium MCA exhibits a calcium-dependent, arginine-specific protease activity and its expression in yeast induced growth inhibition as well as an 82% increase in cell death under oxidative stress, a situation encountered by parasites during the host or when exposed to drugs such as artemisins. Furthermore, we show that MCA cell death pathways in both Plasmodium and Leishmania, involve a z-VAD-fmk inhibitable protease. Our data provide evidence that MCA from both Leishmania and Plasmodium falciparum is able to induce cell death in stress conditions, where it specifically activates a downstream enzyme as part of a cell death pathway. This enzymatic activity is also induced by the antimalarial drug chloroquine in erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, we found that blocking parasite cell death influences their drug sensitivity, a result which could be used to create therapeutic strategies that by-pass drug resistance mechanisms by acting directly on the innate pathways of protozoan cell death.

Meslin B; Beavogui AH; Fasel N; Picot S

2011-01-01

85

Metabolic control analysis applied to mitochondrial networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the control and regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism a generalized matrix method of Metabolic Control Analysis has been applied to a computational model of mitochondrial energetics. The computational model of Cortassa et al. (2003) encompasses oxidative phosphorylation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and ion dynamics across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Control of respiration and ATP synthesis fluxes were found to be distributed among various mitochondrial processes. Control is shared by processes associated with ATP synthesis and ATP/ADP transport, as well as by Ca(2+) dynamics. The analysis of flux control coefficients and response coefficients has led to the notion of control by diffuse loops, that points to the regulatory interactions exerted by processes that are mechanistically only indirectly related with each other. The approach we have utilized demonstrates how properties of integrated systems may be understood through applications of computational modeling and control analysis. PMID:22255380

Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A; O'Rourke, Brian; Winslow, Raimond L

2011-01-01

86

Metabolic control analysis applied to mitochondrial networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To understand the control and regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism a generalized matrix method of Metabolic Control Analysis has been applied to a computational model of mitochondrial energetics. The computational model of Cortassa et al. (2003) encompasses oxidative phosphorylation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and ion dynamics across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Control of respiration and ATP synthesis fluxes were found to be distributed among various mitochondrial processes. Control is shared by processes associated with ATP synthesis and ATP/ADP transport, as well as by Ca(2+) dynamics. The analysis of flux control coefficients and response coefficients has led to the notion of control by diffuse loops, that points to the regulatory interactions exerted by processes that are mechanistically only indirectly related with each other. The approach we have utilized demonstrates how properties of integrated systems may be understood through applications of computational modeling and control analysis.

Cortassa S; Aon MA; O'Rourke B; Winslow RL

2011-01-01

87

Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Mn2+-activated M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mn2+-doped M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors have been prepared by a solid-state reaction method at high temperature and their photoluminescence properties were investigated. The Mn2+-activated M2Si5N8 phosphors exhibit narrow emission bands in the wavelength range of 500-700 nm with peak center at about 599, 606 and 567 nm for M=Ca, Sr, Ba, respectively, due to the 4T1(4G)?6A1(6S) transition of Mn2+. The long-wavelength emission of Mn2+ ion in the host of M2Si5N8 is attributed to the effect of a strong crystal-field of Mn2+ in the nitrogen coordination environment. Also it is observed that there exists energy transfer between M2Si5N8 host lattice and activator (Mn2+). The potential applications of these phosphors have been pointed out. - Graphical abstract: The luminescence properties of Mn2+ in M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) have been investigated. All M2Si5N8:Mn2+ phosphors show narrow symmetric bands in the wavelength range of 500-700 nm with peak center at about 599, 606 and 567 nm for M=Ca, Sr, Ba, respectively. The observed band emission is ascribed to the 4T1(4G)?6A1(6S) transition of Mn2+ in M2Si5N8 host lattice

2008-01-01

88

Measurement of Length of Hyperdense MCA Sign in Acute Ischemic Stroke Predicts Disappearance after IV tPA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the hypothesis that length and volumes of middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombus were associated with disappearance of the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of acute ischemic stroke patients with MCA occlusion admitted to the University Hospital in Canada. The length and volumes of the HMCAS was measured on the plain CT by placing CTA images (CTA source images or MIP images) side-by-side. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients with acute stroke having HMCAS on noncontrast CT (NCCT) with M1 MCA occlusion confirmed by CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography and received tPA. The treatments received were: IV tPA 41(53.9%) and endovascular treatment ± IV tPA 35 (46.1%). In the IV tPA group, the rate of disappearance varied depending on the baseline HMCAS length. Short length HMCAS (<10 mm) disappeared in 6/7 (85.7%) (P < .001). Medium length HMCAS (10-20 mm) disappeared in 9/24 (37.5%). No cases of long length HMCAS (>20 mm) disappeared (0/10) (P= .05). Rate of disappearance of HMCAS was found to be volume dependent (P < .002). CONCLUSION: HMCAS length >10 mm infrequently disappears with IV tPA suggesting a potential need for ancillary therapy in this group.

Shobha N; Bal S; Boyko M; Kroshus E; Menon BK; Bhatia R; Sohn SI; Kumarpillai G; Kosior J; Hill MD; Demchuk AM

2013-01-01

89

LANL material control indicator analysis program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of SNM diversion/theft is a major concern to organizations charged with control of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Several methods have been put in place to deter and or detect losses of SNM. These include inventory, material control physical barriers and the use of material control indicators (MCI). This paper will discuss the multi-tier LANL review mechanism for detecting and isolating missing SNM by the use of Material Control Indicators. Los Alamos MCI include daily analysis and review of item adjustments, weekly review of item adjustments, monthly analysis and review of inventory differences by Process Status and by Material Balance Areas, and quarterly analysis and review of Propagation of Variance. This paper, by providing an introduction to a site-specific application of MCI's, assists safeguards professionals in understanding the importance of an MCI Program in detecting accumulation for subsequent diversion/theft of special nuclear material.

Roybal, G. S. (Gilbert S.)

2001-01-01

90

Generalizing direct load control program analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

End-use load data analysis is assuming a growing role for utility demand-side planners around the country. This paper describes the results of implementing several transferable analysis tools for the analysis and evaluation of end-use monitoring, direct load control programs. These tools are the Duty Cycle Model and the Demand-Side Design and Analysis Workstation. The PC-based Workstation has proven itself to be a viable, cost-effective means of analyzing the voluminous data used in the program evaluation. Unlike other program evaluation techniques, the Duty Cycle Model can calculate the load impact of virtually any load control strategy, not just those operated by the utility. Using air conditioner (AC) data from the Athens (Tennessee) Automation and Control Experiment, the authors calculated that average peak period AC load reduction was 0.92 kW under a 40% cycling strategy.

Ryan, N.E.; Powers, J.T.; Smith, B.A.; Braithwait, S.D.

1989-02-01

91

Control performance analysis of tandem EDG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because tandem EDG(Emergency Diesel Generator) is composed of one generator in center and two engines in sides, the problem of load unbalance between two engine remains systematically. The tandem EDG is controlled by proportional integral differential controller, and control performance is closely related with load unbalance, hunting, starting time, and fast load change stability. When the problems about load unbalance, hunting, starting time, and fast load change stability occur in tandem EDG, these can be solved by the analysis of control performance.

Bae, S. M.; Jeong, H. S.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, K. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, H. J.; Choi, K. H. [KEPCO KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1998-10-01

92

76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations...outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully...

2011-05-16

93

Next-Generation Online MC&A Technologies for Reprocessing Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As power-production nuclear fuel cycles propagate across the globe, a new generation of measurement technologies is needed to support safeguards monitoring of fuel reprocessing facilities. This paper describes the simulation and analysis of two potential technologies for meeting the challenges of 1) direct measurement of fissile isotopic content in irradiated fuel to detect partial defects, and 2) near-real-time monitoring of process chemistry to detect protracted diversion scenarios. Lead slowing-down spectroscopy is the core of the spent fuel assay technology and multi-isotope indicators via high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is the foundation of the process chemistry verification approach. The safeguards context and methods for each technology are described and the results of preliminary performance studies are presented. The quantitative results for both studies are promising but more comprehensive analysis and empirical validation is needed to adequately assess their potential value as next-generation online materials control and accountability measures.

Smith, Leon E.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Douglas, Matt; Anderson, Kevin K.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Durst, Casey; Orton, Chris; Christensen, Robert P.

2007-08-03

94

Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?  

Science.gov (United States)

|Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

Hopkins, B. L.

1995-01-01

95

A portable, photon analysis spectrometer for the assay of X- and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A portable, battery-po dered, multichannel analyzer (MCA) for use with Ge spectrometers has been developed for in-field use for the assay of x- and ?-ray emitting radionuclides. The spectrometer is capable of operating to rates greater than 150,000 counts per second. The analyzer is a Canberra InSpector MCA, that is equipped with the INEEL ultra-stable dual-energy pulser, and pulse injection with subsequent removal (PISR) circuitry. PCGAP, a set of MCA control and spectral analysis programs, was developed for use on a PC with a Windows NT Operating System. It includes an interactive peak analysis program as well as automatic spectral analysis programs for the X- and ?-ray regions, and a number of utility programs. The pulser peaks are calibrated with radioactive sources in terms of energy (i.e., their energy equivalents are measured) using the PCGAP spectral analysis package so that energy shifts, including those due to changes in temperature or count rate, do not cause a loss of energy calibration. The number of injected low- and high-energy-equivalent pulses is known so the stored pulser pulses can be used for a dead-time and random summing correction. The pulser peaks are also used to monitor any deterioration in spectral quality caused by noise, ground loops, etc. The results of performance tests to demonstrate the capabilities of this pulser-equipped InSpector are reported. (author)

1998-01-01

96

A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the course.

Aruna Lolla

2012-01-01

97

Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

Plott, B. [Alion Science and Technology, MA and D Operation, 4949 Pearl E. Circle, 300, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

2006-07-01

98

Induction motors. Analysis and torque control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides a thorough approach for mastering the behavior and operation of induction motors, an essential device in the modern industrial world. Its way of presentation renders this book suitable for selfteaching by students, engineers, and researchers in the field of electrical engineering. It covers the modern theory of induction motor applications and control methods. The transient analysis of both three-phase and single-phase induction motors as well as that of the double-cage motors are developed. The principles of such modern control methods as Field-Oriented Control, Direct Torque Control and Computed Charges Acceleration Method are clearly treated in this monograph. Numerous equations, simulations, and figures are presented. (orig.)

Amin, B. [INRETS, Arcueil (France)

2002-07-01

99

Analysis and control of distributed cooperative systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of DARPA Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) Software for Distributed Robotics (SDR) Program, Sandia National Laboratories has developed analysis and control software for coordinating tens to thousands of autonomous cooperative robotic agents (primarily unmanned ground vehicles) performing military operations such as reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition; countermine and explosive ordnance disposal; force protection and physical security; and logistics support. Due to the nature of these applications, the control techniques must be distributed, and they must not rely on high bandwidth communication between agents. At the same time, a single soldier must easily direct these large-scale systems. Finally, the control techniques must be provably convergent so as not to cause undo harm to civilians. In this project, provably convergent, moderate communication bandwidth, distributed control algorithms have been developed that can be regulated by a single soldier. We have simulated in great detail the control of low numbers of vehicles (up to 20) navigating throughout a building, and we have simulated in lesser detail the control of larger numbers of vehicles (up to 1000) trying to locate several targets in a large outdoor facility. Finally, we have experimentally validated the resulting control algorithms on smaller numbers of autonomous vehicles.

Feddema, John Todd; Parker, Eric Paul; Wagner, John S.; Schoenwald, David Alan

2004-09-01

100

Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Analysis and control of Boolean networks  

CERN Document Server

""Analysis and Control of Boolean Networks"" presents a systematic new approach to the investigation of Boolean control networks. The fundamental tool in this approach is a novel matrix product called the semi-tensor product (STP). Using the STP, a logical function can be expressed as a conventional discrete-time linear system. In the light of this linear expression, certain major issues concerning Boolean network topology - fixed points, cycles, transient times and basins of attractors - can be easily revealed by a set of formulae. This framework renders the state-space approach to dynamic co

Cheng, Daizhan; Li, Zhiqiang

2010-01-01

102

TaMCA4, a novel wheat metacaspase gene functions in programmed cell death induced by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a physiological process to remove redundant or harmful cells, for the development of multicellular organisms, or for restricting the spread of pathogens (hypersensitive response). Metacaspases are cysteine-dependent proteases which play an essential role in PCD. Triticum aestivum metacaspase 4 (TaMCA4) is a type II metacaspase gene cloned from 'Suwon11' wheat, with typical structural features such as peptidase C14 caspase domain and a long linker sequence between the two subunits. Transient expression of TaMCA4 in tobacco leaves failed to induce PCD directly but enhanced cell death triggered by a mouse Bax gene or a candidate effector gene from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Enhancement of PCD was also observed in wheat leaves co-bombarded with TaMCA4. When challenged with the avirulent race of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, the expression level of TaMCA4 in wheat leaves was sharply upregulated, whereas the transcript level was not significantly induced by the virulent race. Moreover, knocking down TaMCA4 expression by virus-induced gene silencing enhanced the susceptibility of Suwon11 to the avirulent race of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and reduced the necrotic area at infection sites.

Wang X; Wang X; Feng H; Tang C; Bai P; Wei G; Huang L; Kang Z

2012-06-01

103

Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for a wide-ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands;multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system;secondary and tertiary effects; and time-delay. Current environmental impact analysis techniques are described and discussed and it is concluded that none are yet able to satisfy fully the problems posed by the formulation and implementation of water pollution control strategies. The application of percentile water quality standards is discussed briefly and some of the principal difficulties outlined. The use of water quality indices is also commented upon.

Lumbers, J.P.

1985-01-01

104

Causal analysis of case-control data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In a series of papers, Robins and colleagues describe inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) estimation in marginal structural models (MSMs), a method of causal analysis of longitudinal data based on counterfactual principles. This family of statistical techniques is similar in concept to weighting of survey data, except that the weights are estimated using study data rather than defined so as to reflect sampling design and post-stratification to an external population. Several decades ago Miettinen described an elementary method of causal analysis of case-control data based on indirect standardization. In this paper we extend the Miettinen approach using ideas closely related to IPTW estimation in MSMs. The technique is illustrated using data from a case-control study of oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction.

Newman Stephen C

2006-01-01

105

Intelligent Sensor Analysis and Actuator Control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a tool called Isaac (intelligent sensor analysis and actuator controller) that autonomously explores the behavior of a dynamical system and uses the resulting knowledge to help build and test mathematical models of that system. Isaac is a unified knowledge representation and reasoning framework for input/output modeling that can be incorporated into any automated tool that reasons about dynamical models. It is based on two modeling paradigms, intelligent sensor data analysis and qualitative bifurcation analysis, which capture essential parts of an engineer's reasoning about modeling problems. We demonstrate Isaac's power and adaptability by incorporating it into the Pret automated system identification tool and showing how input/output modeling expands Pret's repertoire.

Matthew Easley; Rockwell Scienti

106

Assessment of intracranial blood flow velocities using a computer controlled vasoactive stimulus: A comparison between phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography and transcranial doppler ultrasonography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare measurements of blood flow velocity (BFV) and BFV changes in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) acquired from phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) during controlled manipulation of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO2 ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo TCD and PCMRA velocity data from the M1 segment in the MCA of nine healthy adult volunteers were acquired during precise targeting of PetCO2 induced by a computer-controlled gas delivery system. Doppler spectra and phase contrast data were processed into time-averaged peak-velocity (TAPV) values for comparison. Changes in velocity between baseline and hypercapnia were analyzed in terms of velocity-based cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). RESULTS: Good correlation between the pairs of velocity measurements acquired from the two modalities were found (? = 0.81), but Bland-Altman analysis indicates a significant bias error. There was relatively weak agreement between the pairs of computed CVR values (? = -0.26). CONCLUSION: Under precise PetCO2 control, PCMRA proves to be more consistent than TCD. Despite issues with variability, TCD is qualitatively comparable to PCMRA measures of velocity in the MCA. However, PCMRA velocity results are better suited for analyses that require quantitative values, such as CVR. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;38:733-738. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Leung J; Behpour A; Sokol N; Mohanta A; Kassner A

2013-09-01

107

Human reliability analysis of control room operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

108

Overview of systems analysis, market assessment, and controls work  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on the following: heat pump analysis, absorption and Rankine cooling analysis, and desiccant cooling analysis. National energy savings, meeting cost and performance goals, recent simulation analysis, and controls research are discussed. (MHR)

Warren, M.L.

1981-08-01

109

Large scale systems approximation: Analysis and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This work concerns the study of the approximation of high dimensional systems by low order models. This approximation is defined by aggregation methods, the method based on singular perturbations and a relatively recent method. This later one is formulated in a particular representation of the system and is called balanced realisation method. The application of the approximation is then studied in the case of suboptimal control theory for the several defined models. The results of numerical simulation for the analysis and control are carried on two examples defined by a model of a nuclear reactor core of order nine and a steam generator of a fuel station of order twenty and permitted to develop a comparative study of the performances of the different methods analysed in the case of open loop and closed loop models

1986-01-01

110

Studying On Digital Signal Processing Method For Tested Design And The Construction Of DSP-Based MCA 1K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments for Physics research. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing for tested design and construction of DSP-based MCA 1K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, memory and Central processing unit are created. An application software for receiving data is written in LabVIEW 8.5. Spartan 3E starter kit is used for design of the project, combining with ISE software, XilinX 9.2i. (author)

2010-01-01

111

Intensive post-operative follow-up of breast cancer patients with tumour markers: CEA, TPA or CA15.3 vs MCA and MCA-CA15.3 vs CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel in the early detection of distant metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer current guidelines do not recommend the routine use of serum tumour markers. Differently, we observed that CEA-TPA-CA15.3 (carcinoembryonic (CEA) tissue polypeptide (TPA) and cancer associated 115D8/DF3 (CA15.3) antigens) panel permits early detection and treatment for most relapsing patients. As high sensitivity and specificity and different cut-off values have been reported for mucin-like carcinoma associated antigen (MCA), we compared MCA with the above mentioned tumour markers and MCA-CA15.3 with the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Methods In 289 breast cancer patients submitted to an intensive post-operative follow-up with tumour markers, we compared MCA (cut-off values, ? 11 and ? 15 U/mL) with CEA or CA15.3 or TPA for detection of relapse. In addition, we compared the MCA-CA15.3 and CEA-TPA-CA15.3 tumour marker panels. Results Distant metastases occurred 19 times in 18 (6.7%) of the 268 patients who were disease-free at the beginning of the study. MCA sensitivity with both cut-off values was higher than that of CEA or TPA or CA15.3 (68% vs 10%, 26%, 32% and 53% vs 16%, 42%, 32% respectively). With cut-off ? 11 U/mL, MCA showed the lowest specificity (42%); with cut-off ? 15 U/mL, MCA specificity was similar to TPA (73% vs 72%) and lower than that of CEA and CA15.3 (96% and 97% respectively). With ? 15 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA sensitivity increased from 53% to 58% after its association with CA15.3. Sensitivity of CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel was 74% (14 of 19 recurrences). Eight of the 14 recurrences early detected with CEA-TPA-CA15.3 presented as a single lesion (oligometastatic disease) (5) or were confined to bony skeleton (3) (26% and 16% respectively of the 19 relapses). With ? 11 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA-CA15.3 association showed higher sensitivity but lower specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value than the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Conclusion At both the evaluated cut-off values serum MCA sensitivity is higher than that of CEA, TPA or CA15.3 but its specificity is similar to or lower than that of TPA. Overall, CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel is more accurate than MCA-CA15.3 association and can "early" detect a few relapsed patients with limited metastatic disease and more favourable prognosis. These findings further support the need for prospective randomised clinical trial to assess whether an intensive post-operative follow-up with an appropriate use of serum tumour markers can significantly improve clinical outcome of early detected relapsing patients.

Nicolini Andrea; Tartarelli Gianna; Carpi Angelo; Metelli Maria; Ferrari Paola; Anselmi Loretta; Conte Massimo; Berti Piero; Miccoli Paolo

2006-01-01

112

Applications toolkit for accelerator control and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has taken a unique approach to creating high-level software applications for accelerator operation and analysis. The approach is based on self-describing data, modular program toolkits, and scripts. Self-describing data provide a communication standard that aids the creation of modular program toolkits by allowing compliant programs to be used in essentially arbitrary combinations. These modular programs can be used as part of an arbitrary number of high-level applications. At APS, a group of about 70 data analysis, manipulation, and display tools is used in concert with about 20 control-system-specific tools to implement applications for commissioning and operations. High-level applications are created using scripts, which are relatively simple interpreted programs. The Tcl/Tk script language is used, allowing creating of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a library of algorithms that are separate from the interface. This last factor allows greater automation of control by making it easy to take the human out of the loop. Applications of this methodology to operational tasks such as orbit correction, configuration management, and data review will be discussed

1997-01-01

113

Efficacy Assessment of Endovascular Stenting in Patients with Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Using Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping Analysis of Basal/Acetazolamide Brain Perfusion SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic changes after endovascular stenting in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis using statistical probabilistic anatomical mapping (SPAM) analysis of basal/acetazolamide (ACZ) Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Eight patients (3 men and 5 women, 64.8±10.5 years) who underwent endovascular stenting for unilateral MCA stenosis were enrolled. Basal/ACZ Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT studies were performed by one-day protocol before and after stenting. Using SPAM analysis, we compared basal cerebral perfusion (BCP) counts and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) index of the MCA territory before stenting with those after stenting. After stenting, no patient had any complication nor additional stroke. In SPAM analysis, 7 out of the 8 patients had improved BCP counts of the MCA territory and 7 out of the 8 patients had improved CVR index of the MCA territory after stenting. Before stenting, the mean BCP counts and CVR index in the affected MCA territory were 47.1±2.2 ml/min/100 g and -2.1±2.9%, respectively. After stenting, the mean BCP counts and CVR index in the affected MCA territory were improved significantly (48.3±2.9 ml/min/100 g, p=0.025 and 0.1±1.3%, p=0.036). This study revealed that SPAM analysis of basal/ACZ brain perfusion SPECT would be helpful to evaluate hemodynamic efficacy of endovascular stenting in unilateral MCA stenosis

2009-01-01

114

Quantum optimal control: Hessian analysis of the control landscape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeking an effective quantum control entails searching over a landscape defined as the objective as a functional of the control field. This paper considers the problem of driving a state-to-state transition in a finite level quantum system, and analyzes the local topology of the landscape of the final transition probability in terms of the variables specifying the control field. Numerical calculation of the eigenvalues of the Hessian of the transition probability with respect to the control field variables reveals systematic structure in the spectra reflecting the existence of a generic and simple control landscape topology. An illustration shows that the number of nonzero Hessian eigenvalues is determined by the number of quantum states in the system. The Hessian eigenvectors associated with its nonzero eigenvalues are shown to give insight into the cooperative roles of the control variables. The practical consequences of these findings for quantum control are discussed.

2006-05-28

115

[Detection of epileptic spike wave in EEG signals based on morphological component analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposed a morphological component analysis (MCA) method, which is based on sparse representation, to detect the spike wave in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It takes the advantage of MCA being able to extract the background waves and the spike waves from the EEG signals, respectively,as the dictionaries and chooses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the daubechies order 4 wavelet (db4) transformation as the dictionaries of MCA to detect the spike waves from the epileptic EEG. The experiment results showed that the MCA could detect epileptic spike waves in EEG signals very effectively, and it yielded high selectivity of 89.01% and sensitivity of 90.71%. As a feature extraction/decomposition algorithm, MCA can be used to extract the spike waves from EEG signals. PMID:24059041

Ma, Donghua; Zheng, Xuyuan; Wang, Zhen

2013-08-01

116

[Detection of epileptic spike wave in EEG signals based on morphological component analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper proposed a morphological component analysis (MCA) method, which is based on sparse representation, to detect the spike wave in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It takes the advantage of MCA being able to extract the background waves and the spike waves from the EEG signals, respectively,as the dictionaries and chooses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the daubechies order 4 wavelet (db4) transformation as the dictionaries of MCA to detect the spike waves from the epileptic EEG. The experiment results showed that the MCA could detect epileptic spike waves in EEG signals very effectively, and it yielded high selectivity of 89.01% and sensitivity of 90.71%. As a feature extraction/decomposition algorithm, MCA can be used to extract the spike waves from EEG signals.

Ma D; Zheng X; Wang Z

2013-08-01

117

Effect of cilostazol in acute lacunar infarction based on pulsatility index of transcranial Doppler (ECLIPse): a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study is intended to evaluate the propensities of cilostazol to reduce the pulsatility index (PI) in patients with acute lacunar infarction using the serial transcranial Doppler (TCD) examinations. METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 100 mg cilostazol twice a day as well as aspirin 100 mg a day. The primary outcomes were the changes of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery (BA) PIs at 14 and 90 days from the baseline TCD study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00741286). RESULTS: Trial medication was given to 203 patients, with 100 receiving cilostazol and 103 receiving placebo, and 164 were included in the per-protocol analysis of the primary outcome. Results from the linear mixed model showed that significant effects were obtained for time-by-group interactions (p = 0.008 in right MCA, p = 0.015 in left MCA, p = 0.002 in BA), suggesting that changes of PIs from the baseline to the 90-day study were different across the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Cilostazol further decreased TCD PIs at 90 days from baseline compared to placebo in acute lacunar infarction. This result may be related to pleiotropic effects, such as vasodilation, beyond its antiplatelet activity.

Han SW; Lee SS; Kim SH; Lee JH; Kim GS; Kim OJ; Koh IS; Lee JY; Suk SH; Lee SI; Nam HS; Kim WJ; Yong SW; Lee KY; Park JH

2013-01-01

118

User controlled analysis of gamma ray spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program 'ANGES' was designed as a general purpose high-resolution ? ray spectrometry program. It offers all main features as commercial software packages except control of acquisition process. The program is able to perform automatic analysis of spectra but it is announced as 'user controlled' because it supplies all intermediate results and gives the opportunity these results to be analyzed and corrected by the user. ANGES offers: multi document Windows interface; detailed visualization of spectra; nuclide library based on another contribution to CRP; energy and FWHM calibrations calculated by means of orthonormal polynomial fitting; peak processing engine based on a non-linear LSQ method for fitting peaks; peak location engine, based on first derivative method is provided to ease the preparation of a spectrum for processing; two methods for efficiency calibration (an efficiency calibration curve and reference table); peak identification and activity calculation procedure; a number of corrections (true coincidence summing, background correction, pile up rejection and so on); an option for processing series of similar spectra. The fitting procedure can be applied to the whole spectrum or to a single Region-of-Interest (ROI). The assumed peak shape is pure Gaussian. All peaks in single ROI are assumed to have the same FWHM. The maximum number of peaks in a single ROI is restricted to 25, the maximum ROI length is 512 cls, and the baseline is described with a polynomial of a degree up to 4. As a result of the identification procedure a report file is issued containing spectrum processing results, list of identified and not identified peaks, list of identified nuclides and background nuclides. (author)

2002-01-01

119

Effects of IL-1 molecules on growth patterns of 3-MCA-induced cell lines: an interplay between immunogenicity and invasive potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The balance between inflammation and immunity is cardinal for the outcome of the malignant process. Local attenuated inflammatory responses mediated by innate cells may provide accessory signals for the development of acquired immunity against malignant cells. In contrast, excessive inflammatory responses accompany tumorigenesis and tumor invasiveness, by the induction of immunosuppression. In the present study, we have assessed the role of tumor cell-derived IL-1 in determining the invasive versus immunostimulatory potential of tumor cells. For this purpose, we have used 3-MCA-induced fibrosarcoma cell lines from IL-1 knockout (KO) versus control mice. Cell lines with no IL-1 failed to establish tumors in intact mice, while lines obtained from control mice were invasive and induced a potent angiogenic response. In contrast, cell lines from IL-1KO mice were more immunogenic. SDF-1 and IL-6, each induced by IL-1, were the two major cytokines whose levels differed in cell lines with or without IL-1. We could not detect differences in cell surface markers related to immunogenicity, such as MHC Class I, co-stimulatory, or adhesion molecules between both types of cells. However, more T-cells were observed at the inoculation site of tumor cells devoid of IL-1 and more pronounced parameters related to anti-tumor immunity were observed in the spleen (IL-12 and IFNgamma) of these mice, compared to mice bearing tumors derived from control mice, where host-derived IL-1 is present. In addition, injection of tumor cells devoid of IL-1, which failed to grow in mice, induced an anti-tumor cell immune memory, while in mice injected with tumor cells from control mice; no immune memory could be detected. From the results, it seems that IL-1 is a crucial factor in determining the balance between immunity and inflammation in tumor-bearing mice. This suggests that manipulation of IL-1 could be useful in anti-tumor therapy, by reducing invasiveness and promoting immunity against the malignant cells.

Voronov E; Reich E; Dotan S; Dransh P; Cohen I; Huszar M; Fogel M; Kleinman HK; White RM; Apte RN

2010-03-01

120

Effects of IL-1 molecules on growth patterns of 3-MCA-induced cell lines: an interplay between immunogenicity and invasive potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

The balance between inflammation and immunity is cardinal for the outcome of the malignant process. Local attenuated inflammatory responses mediated by innate cells may provide accessory signals for the development of acquired immunity against malignant cells. In contrast, excessive inflammatory responses accompany tumorigenesis and tumor invasiveness, by the induction of immunosuppression. In the present study, we have assessed the role of tumor cell-derived IL-1 in determining the invasive versus immunostimulatory potential of tumor cells. For this purpose, we have used 3-MCA-induced fibrosarcoma cell lines from IL-1 knockout (KO) versus control mice. Cell lines with no IL-1 failed to establish tumors in intact mice, while lines obtained from control mice were invasive and induced a potent angiogenic response. In contrast, cell lines from IL-1KO mice were more immunogenic. SDF-1 and IL-6, each induced by IL-1, were the two major cytokines whose levels differed in cell lines with or without IL-1. We could not detect differences in cell surface markers related to immunogenicity, such as MHC Class I, co-stimulatory, or adhesion molecules between both types of cells. However, more T-cells were observed at the inoculation site of tumor cells devoid of IL-1 and more pronounced parameters related to anti-tumor immunity were observed in the spleen (IL-12 and IFNgamma) of these mice, compared to mice bearing tumors derived from control mice, where host-derived IL-1 is present. In addition, injection of tumor cells devoid of IL-1, which failed to grow in mice, induced an anti-tumor cell immune memory, while in mice injected with tumor cells from control mice; no immune memory could be detected. From the results, it seems that IL-1 is a crucial factor in determining the balance between immunity and inflammation in tumor-bearing mice. This suggests that manipulation of IL-1 could be useful in anti-tumor therapy, by reducing invasiveness and promoting immunity against the malignant cells. PMID:20001788

Voronov, Elena; Reich, Eli; Dotan, Shahar; Dransh, Pavel; Cohen, Idan; Huszar, Monica; Fogel, Mina; Kleinman, Hynda K; White, Rosalyn M; Apte, Ron N

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Deployment Analysis and Control of Modularized Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Deployment behavior of modularized structures is numerically analyzed from the viewpoint of synchronism. Elastic panels with single and double accordion folding patterns are examined as examples of modularized structures. Through computer simulations, it is shown that asynchronous deployments are caused by inertia forces. To improve the synchronism of the deployment, an autonomous distributed control method is introduced. Because the control method uses only local information, some advantages are expected; parallel processing, flexible extensibility and fault-tolerance. The control rule is derived by the analogy of heat conduction. Stable characteristic of heat conduction implies stability of the control method. Furthermore physical sense of control parameters can be understood intuitively because the control method is based on real physical phenomenon. It is confirmed that the autonomous distributed control can improve the synchronism of the deployment.

Ishimura, Kosei; Natori, M. C.; Higuchi, Ken

122

Experimental study of albumen microspheres modified with stannous chloride-99mTc, MCA intended for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Functional fitness of 99mTc-MCA (albumin microspheres), a radiopharmaceutical for perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs was studied. The study was carried out with 310 rats and 5 rabbis. Radiometry was performed using Minor Gamma Laboratory device (Gamma, Hungary) and scintigraphy with DSX gamma chamber (Sopha, France). 97% of the agent is accumulated in the lungs as early as 3 min after infusion, and its half-life period in the lungs is 17 h. The agents discharged mainly through the kidneys. Scintigraphic examination of rabbits showed that scintigrams obtained with 99mTc-MCA are not inferior to those obtained with a foreign analog CIS International TCK-5. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

1997-01-01

123

Techniques of quantitative reliability analysis for control rod drive systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliability analysis is a method by which the degree of successful performance of a system, under certain stipulated conditions, may be expressed in quantitative terms. Techniques of quantitative reliability analysis for control rod drive systems, which are presented, consist in: drawing up of system block diagrams as basis for the reliability analysis for normal and scram operation; estimation of possible fault rates (''mean rates'') of system components; reliability analysis of the complete control systems (total number of control rod drive mechanisms) on the basis of the analysis of the indjvidual rod drives. (author).

1980-01-01

124

Logic reliability analysis of adaptive control strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An approach is developed for the evaluation of the reliability of logic of adaptive control strategies, taking into account logic structural complexity and potential failure of programming modules. Flaws in the control system algorithm may not be discovered during debugging or initial testing and may only affect the performance under abnormal situations although the system may appear reliable in normal operations. Considering an adaptive control system designed for use in control of equipment employed in nuclear power stations, logic reliability evaluation is demonstrated. The approach given is applicable to any other designs and may be used to compare different control system logic structures from the reliability viewpoint. Evaluation of the reliability of control systems is essential to automated operation of equipment used in nuclear power plants. (author)

1989-01-01

125

Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Eu2+ doped silicate glasses were prepared of the system 52SiO2-48MO: xEu2+(in molar ratio, M=Ca, Sr, Ba; x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9) by a high temperature melt-quenching method in a reducing atmosphere. Glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-phosphors were obtained after the heat treatment of the glass samples. The excitation, emission spectra and lifetime decay curves of 4f65d1?4f7 of Eu2+ were measured and interpreted with respect to their crystal structures and multi-site occupations of divalent europium in the hosts. Their excitation bands mainly extend from 450 to 250 nm, which is adaptable to the main emission region of the UV LED chip. With UV light excitation, the Eu2+ emission in CaSiO3, SrSiO3 and BaSiO3 shows blue, green and yellow colors centered at 440, 505 and 555 nm, respectively. The critical Eu2+concentration was studied and determined to be x=5 for both CaSiO3 and SrSiO3 and x=7 for BaSiO3 phosphors. The results show that the Eu2+ doped glass ceramic phosphors containing MSiO3 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-crystals can be used as potential matrix materials for a high power white LED pumped by the UV LED chip. - Highlights: ? Glass ceramic containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors prepared. ? Derived phosphors emit intensively blue, green and yellow colors. ? Their luminescence properties and crystal structures have been investigated. ? Concentration quenching effects observed and analyzed. ? Potential application for UV chip exciting white LED evaluated.

2012-01-01

126

Sensitivity analysis of the Smith predictor controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sensitivity of the Smith predictor controller to variations in system parameters is analyzed. The parameters considered are system gain, time constant, and delay or dead time. Both simulated and experimental results are discussed. First- and second-order models are studied. For the first-order model, a proportional plus integral control is used with the Smith predictor. A proportional plus integral plus derivative control is used with the Smith predictor for the second-order system. The controller is implemented digitally. An application of the Smith predictor with a model of the system obtained by a nonlinear least-squares parameter identification method is demonstrated on an experimental system.

Herget, C.J.; Pomernacki, C.L.; Frazer, J.W.

1980-01-01

127

Control of lead: cost benefit analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods of surveying and sampling the different environmental carriers of lead, the possibilities for controlling these to the limits required by present or pending legislation and the difficulties expected in some of these areas are discussed, together with methods and points of note regarding the control measures and the expected effects on the costs to achieve these.

Harding, P.

1981-01-01

128

Cell type specific upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in an MCA-occlusion model of cerebral infarct.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell specific mitogen that has been implicated in hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. We used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) in the rat to investigate VEGF mRNA and protein localization, and VEGFR-1 mRNA and VEGFR-2 mRNA expression in cerebral ischemia. By nonradioactive in situ hybridization we observed upregulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGFR-1 mRNA, but not of VEGFR-2 mRNA in the hemisphere ipsilateral to MCA occlusion. VEGF mRNA was upregulated in the periphery of the ischemic area commencing 3 hours (h) after onset of MCAO, reached a peak after 24 h, and remained expressed at lower levels until 7 days (d) after MCAO. Double labelling experiments revealed that the majority of VEGF expressing cells in the penumbra and within the infarct were immunoreactive for Ox-42, Iba-1, and Ed1, but not for GFAP and neurofilament proteins, suggesting that microglial cells/macrophages are the major cell type expressing VEGE Since VEGF was also expressed in Ox-42 immunoreactive cells distant from the infarct (e.g. in the corpus callosum and hippocampus), activated microglial cells expressing VEGF may migrate towards the ischemic stimulus. VEGF protein was also detected on capillaries within the peri-ischemic area, suggesting that VEGF produced and secreted by microglial cells/macrophages binds to its receptors on nearby vascular endothelial cells and initiates an angiogenic response which counterbalances tissue hypoxia. Accordingly, apoptosis of neuroectodermal cells in the penumbra was highly depressed after the onset of angiogenesis. The spatial and temporal correlation between the induction of angiogenesis with VEGF and VEGFR-1 expression suggests that the ischemic upregulation of VEGF represents a physiological response of the brain to counterbalance hypoxia/ischemia in order to protect neuroectodermal tissue.

Plate KH; Beck H; Danner S; Allegrini PR; Wiessner C

1999-06-01

129

Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented.

Zardecki, A.

1994-08-01

130

Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented

1994-01-01

131

Controllability analysis of thermally coupled distillation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of the controllability properties of three thermally coupled distillation sequences (Petlyuk, sequence with side rectifier, and sequence with side stripper) using singular value decomposition is developed. Those properties are also compared to the energy consumption required for separating ternary mixtures. The parameters obtained via singular value decomposition show that sequences with a side rectifier or a side stripper have better control properties than the Petlyuk system, although the Petlyuk scheme has lower energy requirements than the systems with side columns.

Hernandez, S.; Jimenez, A.

1999-10-01

132

Integration of Design and Control Through Model Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A systematic analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. It is shown that the same set of process (control) variables and design (manipulative) variables is employed with different objectives in design and control. Analysis of the phenomena models representing the process model identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control issues. The model analysis is highlighted through examples involving processes with mass and/or energy recycle. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter

2000-01-01

133

Analysis of Lyapunov Method for Control of Quantum Systems  

CERN Document Server

We present a detailed analysis of the convergence properties of Lyapunov control for finite-dimensional quantum systems based on the application of the LaSalle invariance principle and stability analysis from dynamical systems and control theory. For a certain class of ideal Hamiltonians, convergence results are derived both pure-state and mixed-state control, and the effectiveness of the method for more realistic Hamiltonians is discussed.

Wang, Xiaoting

2008-01-01

134

INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by public entities. Internal Audit, along its evolution - characterized by complex dynamics and adaptability - created confusion regarding the concept of control. The research presented in this paper is based on works published to date regarding the conceptual boundaries of this notion.

MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU; N?T?LI?A-MIHAELA LESCONI-FRUMU?ANU

2010-01-01

135

An analysis of safety control effectiveness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cost of injuries and 'accidents' to an organisation is very important in establishing how much it should spend on safety control. Despite the usefulness of information about the cost of a company's accidents, it is not customary accounting practice to make these data available. Of the two kinds of costs incurred by a company through occupational injuries and accidents, direct costs and indirect costs; the direct costs are much easier to estimate. However, the uninsured costs are usually more critical and should be estimated by each company. The authors investigate a general model to estimate the above costs and hence to establish efficient safety control. One construction company has been a pilot for this study. By analysing actual company data for three years, it is found that the efficient safety control cost should be 1.2-1.3% of total contract costs.

Son, K.S.; Melchers, R.E.; Kal, W.M

2000-06-01

136

Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2008-12-15

137

Risk Analysis of Safety-Critical Control Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with problems associated with risks analysis of a safety-critical control system. In the paper there are introduced recommendations enabling practical enforceability of risk analysis by the assurance of sufficient objectivity level. In the initial phases of the system lifecycle risk analysis serves for a tolerable hazard rate definition for individual safety relevant functions. In the end of the control system development process the risk analysis (an analysis of failures consequences on system safety) serves for the verification of system safety attributes.

Karol Rastocny

2008-01-01

138

Analysis and Control of the Pan System via Sliding Mode Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain new results for the analysis and control of the Pan system (2010) using sliding mode control (SMC). The stability results derived in this paper for the control of the Pan system to stabilize about its unstable equilibrium at the origin have been derived using sliding mode control and Lyapunovstability theory. Numerical simulations are depicted to demonstrate the control results derived in this paper.

Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

2012-01-01

139

Analysis of Reconfigured Control Loop with a Virtual Actuator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control reconfiguration changes the control structure in response to a fault detected in the plant. This becomes necessary, because a major fault like loss of an actuator breaks the corresponding control loop and therefore renders the whole system inoperable.  An important aim of control reconfiguration is to change the control structure as little as possible, since every change bears the potential of practical problems. The proposed solution is to keep the original controller in the loop and to add an extension called virtual actuator that implements the necessary changes of the control structure. The virtual actuator translates between the signals of the nominal controller and the signal of the faulty plants. This paper is concerned with the analysis of reconfigured loop with a virtual actuator for the system with the faulty actuator. The proposed analysis is illustrated on numerical example.

Anna Filasova; Vladimir Serbak; Daniel Gontkovic

2011-01-01

140

Emissions reduction through analysis, modelling and control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of ERAMAC were to: - develop methods for the characterisation of organic emissions from coke-making and EAF steelmaking processes; - characterise air quality in the vicinity of steelworks; - identify priorities for emission control; - develop predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) for CO, NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions in coke making, of pollutant emissions in EAF steelmaking and for improved control of reheating furnaces; - investigate the use of an Amazone contactor for removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx in sintering emissions. The methods developed and applied to characterise organic emissions from coke plants revealed that fugitive emissions from coke oven doors and from by-products plant storage tanks were the main priorities for improved control measures. For ambient air monitoring, an Opsis differential optical absorption spectrometry system was used to carry out real-time measurements of benzene, toluene and xylene for reverse dispersion modelling estimates of releases. Predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) were developed for the measurement of CO, NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions in coke making and for predicting organic emissions from EAF steelmaking. Although PEMS were shown to be potentially useful for improving the control of reheating furnaces, implementation requires individual control of air/fuel flows to burners. The Amazone contactor was inadequate for the desulphurisation of sinter waste gas owing to massive evaporation losses of glycerol and the consequent fire risk. However, partial waste gas denitrification was feasible at low temperatures with ozone as an oxidant and aqueous sodium hydroxide as an absorbent. Strong recommendations are made for further work to implement and enhance techniques developed in ERAMAC. 75 refs., 180 figs., 116 tabs., 2 apps.

Anderson, D.R.; Aries, E.; Saiepour, M. [Corus - Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Integration of Design and Control through Model Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A systematic computer aided analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. The process model equations are classified in terms of balance equations, constitutive equations and conditional equations. Analysis of the phenomena models representing the constitutive equations identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control. Furthermore, the analysis is able to identify a set of process (control) variables and design (manipulative) variables that may be employed with different objectives in design and control for the integrated problem. The computer aided model analysis is highlighted through illustrative examples, involving processes with mass and/or energy recycle, where the important design and control (structure selection) issues for the integrated problems are considered. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter

2002-01-01

142

Analysis and control of nurse staffing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An information and reporting system based on a regression analysis of historical nurse staffing data is described. The system provides a concise monthly report from which administrators can evaluate the efficiency of scheduling procedures used by nurse supervisors to meet varying patient loads.

Kaplan, R S

143

Analysis of pressurizer pressure control system using MAAP5 code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text of publication follows. MAAP4 code is a severe accident analysis code, widely used in nuclear industry. Pressurizer response plays an important role in transient and accident analysis. However, only simplified pressurizer pressure control system model is included in MAAP4 code. The purpose of the paper is to modify the pressurizer pressure control system model in MAAP4 without compiling the code, promoting the simulation capability and accuracy of the MAAP4 code. The typical proportional and integral (PI) controller model is successfully coupled with current code without compiling. Typical control system analysis is analyzed using MAAP4. Furthermore, the characteristic of PI controller is demonstrated, which reduces the steady state error to zero. With the revised pressurizer pressure control system, the transient responses are more realistic. It can be coupled with balance of plant model for whole plant simulation in MAAP5 code in the near future. (authors)

2011-01-01

144

An Introduction to Nonlinear Analysis of Fuzzy Control Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the design methodology for fuzzy controllers has proven itself in certain commercial and industrial applications, there is a signficant need to perform mathematical analysis of fuzzy control systems prior to implementation: (i)to verify and certify their behavior so that, for example, instabilities can be avoided for application demanding highly reliable operation such as aircraft and nuclear reactor control, an (ii) to provide insight to the expert on how to modify the fuzzy controller to guarantee that performance specification are met (e.g., to guarantee a specified rise-time or the absence of steady state tracking error). In this paper we provide a survey of, and an introduction to the area of nonlinear analysis of fuzzy control systems. We begin by overviewing several approaches to stability analysis including Lyapunov's Direct a n InP rect Methods, an the Circle Criterion. We provide examples to illustrate how to design stable fuzzy control systems and...

David F; Jen Kin

145

Quality control guidance for sampling and analysis of air toxics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All environmental measurements require quality control to support the usability of analytical results, which is why effective and comprehensive quality control procedures are critical in performing accurate air toxics measurements. Lack of quality control can add significant error to environmental measurements. The US EPA has estimated that 95 percent of the total error in environmental measurements is due to sample collection and handling (85 percent from sample collection and 10 percent from subsampling in the laboratory) and that 5 percent is due to the laboratory analysis. Effective quality control measures help reduce analytical errors and produce meaningful analytical results. This paper provides quality control guidance for performing accurate air toxics measurements of ambient air and source emissions samples for volatile organic chemicals, including equipment handling, field sampling and laboratory analysis. The recommended frequency for quality control procedures as well as acceptance criteria are discussed. Quality control guidance for equipment handling includes checks on flow controllers, vacuum gauges, pressure gauges, manometers and canisters. Quality control guidance for field sampling covers sampling equipment checks, sample handling and quality control. Quality control guidance for laboratory analysis include certified standards, instrument calibration, laboratory control samples, blanks, duplicates, internal standards and surrogate standards. Also addressed are guidelines for field and laboratory documentation. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Farrell, P.; Rosecrance, A.; Naran, R. [Core Laboratories, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

146

Magnetic field regulation control system analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study comprises (1) an analytical characterization of the Cameca ion microscope`s magnetic field regulation circuitry and (2) comparisons between the analytical predictions and the measured performance of the control system. It is the first step in a project to achieve routine field regulation better than 10ppm. The control loop was decomposed into functional subcircuits and simulated in SPICE to determine DC, AC, and transient response. Transfer functions were extracted from SPICE, simplified, and analyzed in MATLAB. Both SPICE and MATLAB simulations were calculated for step inputs, and these results were compared to actual measurements. Magnetic field fluctuations were measured at high mass resolving power. The frequency spectrum of the fluctuations was analyzed by FFT. Difficulties encountered and implications for future work are discussed.

Badelt, S.W. [Lawrence Livremore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-05-01

147

Pushdown Control-Flow Analysis of Higher-Order Programs  

CERN Document Server

Context-free approaches to static analysis gain precision over classical approaches by perfectly matching returns to call sites---a property that eliminates spurious interprocedural paths. Vardoulakis and Shivers's recent formulation of CFA2 showed that it is possible (if expensive) to apply context-free methods to higher-order languages and gain the same boost in precision achieved over first-order programs. To this young body of work on context-free analysis of higher-order programs, we contribute a pushdown control-flow analysis framework, which we derive as an abstract interpretation of a CESK machine with an unbounded stack. One instantiation of this framework marks the first polyvariant pushdown analysis of higher-order programs; another marks the first polynomial-time analysis. In the end, we arrive at a framework for control-flow analysis that can efficiently compute pushdown generalizations of classical control-flow analyses.

Earl, Christopher; Van Horn, David

2010-01-01

148

Analysis of Lyapunov Control for Hamiltonian Quantum Systems  

CERN Multimedia

We present detailed analysis of the convergence properties and effectiveness of Lyapunov control design for bilinear Hamiltonian quantum systems based on the application of LaSalle's invariance principle and stability analysis from dynamical systems and control theory. For a certain class of Hamiltonians, strong convergence results can be obtained for both pure and mixed state systems. The control Hamiltonians for realistic physical systems, however, generally do not fall in this class. It is shown that the effectiveness of Lyapunov control design in this case is significantly diminished.

Wang, Xiaoting

2008-01-01

149

The Analysis on Financial Cooperative Controlling Mechanism of Enterprise Group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the core of modern market economy, enterprise group is an advanced form of organization after productive forces reached to a certain stage. For the reason of complexity and specificity of organizational form of enterprise group, the issue of financial cooperative control has been widespread concerned by theorists. Although many researches have been done, but there are still lacking of systematic research results especially in the fields of mechanism of financial cooperative control. After exploring the relationship of value effect and financial control, this paper puts forword a system model of financial cooperative control. It also gives a system analysis including system hierarchy analysis, synergy analysis and coupling analysis. All of these can provide a decision making support for the collaborative mana- gement of enterprise group.

Ziqin Feng

2010-01-01

150

The Computer-Controlled Experiment and On-Line Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis procedure and data accumulation scheme that allows an interactive computer-control system to be implemented for a class of physical experiments is described in terms of continuously derivable experimental results. The method is applicable when...

R. Kaplow H. Posen

1969-01-01

151

National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes the requirements, design, and analysis of the control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The network uses Ethernet technology throughout and ATM is used for efficient digital video transport.

Bryant, R M; Claybourn, R V; Pavel, G; Schaefer, W J

2001-01-01

152

Discrete Mechanics and Optimal Control: an Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

The optimal control of a mechanical system is of crucial importance in many realms. Typical examples are the determination of a time-minimal path in vehicle dynamics, a minimal energy trajectory in space mission design, or optimal motion sequences in robotics and biomechanics. In most cases, some sort of discretization of the original, infinite-dimensional optimization problem has to be performed in order to make the problem amenable to computations. The approach proposed in this paper is to directly discretize the variational description of the system's motion. The resulting optimization algorithm lets the discrete solution directly inherit characteristic structural properties from the continuous one like symmetries and integrals of the motion. We show that the DMOC approach is equivalent to a finite difference discretization of Hamilton's equations by a symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta scheme and employ this fact in order to give a proof of convergence. The numerical performance of DMOC and its relationsh...

Ober-Bloebaum, S; Marsden, J E

2008-01-01

153

Analysis of SANS from controlled pore glasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been performed on several samples of silica controlled pore glasses with pore sizes ranging from roughly 7 to 30 nm. The scattering intensity is strongly peaked at small Q and shows approximate Porod law behavior at large Q. Contrast variation measurements have shown that the pore space in these samples is entirely interconnected and thus forms a bicontinuous microstructure. The scattering data have been analyzed using the leveled wave method based on an early scheme for representing two-phase microstructures resulting from spinodal decomposition. In this approach interfaces are modeled by the contours of a stochastic standing wave composed of plane wave components propagating in random directions with random phases and having wave numbers distributed according to a given probability density, P(k)

1989-12-02

154

Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategies for an Inverted pendulum system model are presented for stabilized controlling such as Proportional-Integral-Derivatives (PID) and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) Controllers. Matlab Simulation has been performed on Simulink platform shows that both controllers successfully controls Multi-output Inverted pendulum system. However PID is more efficient and has a better time response characteristics than FLC control strategy.

Aleem Ahmed Khan; Kashan Hussain

2012-01-01

155

COMQC, Quality Control Statistical Analysis for Means, Errors, Skewness, Kurtosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: COMQC is a quality control data analysis statistical program that calculates mean, standard deviation, range, skewness and kurtosis. Tolerance limits, confidence limits on the percent defective, and a one-way analysis of variance are also provided. 2 - Method of solution: The program consists of four subroutines which produce the following: histograms, control charts, group comparisons, and process capability study. Standard statistical methods and techniques are employed

1978-01-01

156

Perfusion-weighted imaging-derived collateral flow index is a predictor of MCA M1 recanalization after i.v. thrombolysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies highlight the role of CC in preserving ischemic penumbra. Some authors suggested the quality of CC could also impact recanalization. The purpose of this study is to test this hypothesis in patients who were treated with i.v. thrombolysis for MCA-M1 occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A normalized index derived from Tmax maps (MR-PWI) was defined to quantify the CC deficit (nCCD) in 64 patients with stroke who underwent i.v. thrombolysis. Correlations between nCCD and parameters that may be altered by CC quality were tested (baseline NIHSS, volume of diffusion abnormalities, modified Rankin Scale at 3 months). The correlation between baseline nCCD and MCA-M1 recanalization rate at 24 hours was tested. RESULTS: The nCCD is significantly correlated with NIHSS and with lesional volume (Pearson correlation test, positive correlations, respectively, 0.40, 0.57; P = .00089, P = 8.7e-07). The nCCD also has a significant predictive value on the full recanalization at 24 hours that decreases as TTT increases (logistic regression, P = .021). Furthermore, among patients who were treated within 3 hours, nCCD and recanalization are significantly correlated (correlation ratio test, eta2 = 0.23, P = .0023): Patients who did not achieve full recanalization have significantly higher nCCD than fully recanalized patients (Mann-Whitney U test, P = .007). In addition, the probability of full recanalization decreases as the nCCD increases (P = .021). nCCD (OR 0.988, 95% CI 0.977-0.999, P = .042) and full recanalization at 24 hours (OR 4.539, 95% CI 1.252-16.456, P = .021) are independent predictors of functional independence at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The nCCD index is a predictor of full MCA-M1 recanalization in patients treated with i.v. thrombolysis.

Nicoli F; Lafaye de Micheaux P; Girard N

2013-01-01

157

Team One (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. Progress report for the two quarters ending March 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report covers progress by Team One of the DOE/OFE/D and T 12 Tesla Coil Development Program during the first and second quarters of fiscal 1981. General Atomic Company is the Team One leader, with Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) as industrial subcontractor. The basic mission of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and establish an engineering data base for utilizing bath cooled NbTi alloy to generate a peak toroidal field of 12 tesla in a tokamak reactor

1981-01-01

158

Team One (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. Progress report, April 1-September 30, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report covers progress by Team One of the DOE/OFE/D and T 12 Tesla Coil Development Program during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal 1981. General Atomic Company is the Team One leader, with Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) as industrial subcontractor. The basic mission of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and establish an engineering data base for utilizing bath-cooled NbTi alloy to generate a peak toroidal field of 12 tesla in a tokamak reactor

1981-01-01

159

Team One (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. Progress report for the two quarters ending March 31, 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers progress by Team One of the DOE/OFE/D and T 12 Tesla Coil Development Program during the first and second quarters of fiscal 1981. General Atomic Company is the Team One leader, with Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) as industrial subcontractor. The basic mission of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and establish an engineering data base for utilizing bath cooled NbTi alloy to generate a peak toroidal field of 12 tesla in a tokamak reactor.

Alcorn, J.S.; Purcell, J.R.; Chen, W.Y.; Hsu, Y.H.

1981-04-01

160

Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a model?based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “work...

Seiji Naito; Youngwoo Kim; Goro Obinata

 
 
 
 
161

Isotopic analysis of plutonium by computer controlled mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Isotopic analysis of plutonium chemically purified by ion exchange is achieved using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. Data acquisition from and control of the instrument is done automatically with a dedicated system computer in real time with subsequent automatic data reduction and reporting. Separation of isotopes is achieved by varying the ion accelerating high voltage with accurate computer control

1974-01-01

162

A performance requirements analysis of the SSC control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of analysis of the performance requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider Control System. We quantify the performance requirements of the system in terms of response time, throughput and reliability. We then examine the effect of distance and traffic patterns on control system performance and examine how these factors influence the implementation of the control network architecture and compare the proposed system against those criteria. (author)

1992-01-01

163

[Import risk analysis in animal disease control].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office risk analyses are conducted according to international standards. A risk analysis contains the elements risk management, risk assessment and risk communication. A risk assessment is based on risk profile, hazard identification and a pathway model. All available information is gathered, documented and assessed and the risk estimated. The question. "What is the probability that unprocessed wild boar meat imported to Switzerland from the federal state Mecklenburg Western Pommerania is contaminated with classical swine fever virus?" was answered by a release assessment. The hazard identification recognized classical swine fever virus and attenuated live virus vaccine used for oral immunization as hazards. The probability of contamination was estimated to be small. The question: "What is the likelihood to introduce Aujeszky's disease to Switzerland and infect the indigenous pig population with the disease, by means of importing pork and meat products?" was answered by assessing the release, exposure and resulting consequences. The risk of an infection of the indigenous pig population was estimated to be very small, as 80% of the imported products derive from countries or zones free from Aujeszky's disease. Furthermore the majority of the imported products are processed. The strict implementation of the regulations governing feeding of food wastes to pigs reduces the probability of exposure. In all assessments the risk management decides on a strategy to deal with the risk, taking into consideration the results and recommendations derived from the risk assessment as well as other relevant factors. PMID:15188677

Hauser, Ruth; Breidenbach, Eric; Thür, Barbara; Griot, Christian; Engels, Monika; Stärk, Katharina

164

Batch treatment controls corrosion in pumping wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conoco recently developed a batch treatment program to control corrosion in sucker rod pumped wells. The program was intended to prolong equipment life, reduce pulling jobs and cut operating costs. Tested on MCA Unit near Maljamar in southeast New Mexico, and since applied to more than 400 producing wells near Hobbs, the new program has been remarkably successful. Pulling jobs, which had totaled 178 a year at MCA Unit, dropped to 50 a year, reduced inhibitor requirements cut treatment costs by an estimated $6,100 per month and production increased.

Evans, S.; Doran, C.R.

1984-02-01

165

National Ignition Facility main laser stray light analysis and control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stray light analysis has been carried out for the main laser section of the National Ignition Facility main laser section using a comprehensive non-sequential ray trace model supplemented with additional ray trace and diffraction propagation modeling. This paper describes the analysis and control methodology, gives examples of ghost paths and required tilted lenses, baffles, absorbers, and beam dumps, and discusses analysis of stray light ?pencil beams? in the system.

English, R E; Miller, J L; Peterson, G; Schweyen, J

1998-06-26

166

Stability analysis of Static Synchronous Compensator with reactive current controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents stability analysis of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) (with detailed model) with reactive current controller. The discrete time model of the system is derived. The stability region in the parameter space is obtained for different values of reactive current. The analysis is done for type II controller where the parameters are the proportional and integral gains. It is found that increase in integral gain results in period doubling bifurcation and increase in proportional gain results in border collision bifurcation. The stability analysis is compared with that for simplified STATCOM model neglecting harmonics. The condition for stability for simplified STATCOM model (neglecting harmonics) with losses being ignored, is derived. (author)

Krishna, S. [M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, M.S.R.I.T. Post, Bangalore 560054 (India)

2008-06-15

167

Application of hazard analysis and critical control points in shipbuilding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in the shipbuilding is considered. HACCP definitions are presented; the system origin is described and HACCP principles are characterized. It is noted that HACCP principles accepted nowadays are used only in food industry but cannot be applied in shipbuilding. The suggestions on adaptation and integration of the given principles at realization of shipbuilding projects within risk analysis are given. There has been made a conclusion on the possibility of application of the system and the principles of the hazard analysis and critical control points in shipbuilding under conditions of adaptation of the given system to the shipbuilding project.

Putilina Ekaterina Yurievna

2013-01-01

168

Defect flow analysis of control-rod-drive operational events  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A defect flow analysis of License Event Report data involving control-rod (CR) and control-rod-drive mechanism (CRDM) operational events was conducted to extract the lessons to be learned from the past experience of light water nuclear reactors operating in the United States. The results of the analysis are used to formulate characteristics of CR/CRDM defects. Among those formulated are (1) the leading direct causes of defects are inadequate design and inadequate operator training, (2) a relatively large number of defects are systematic, and (3) defects that result in system failure are rare. The analysis results indicate that most defects could easily have been prevented.

Thaggert, H.L. (General Electric Co., Sunnyvale, CA); Jacobs, I.M.; Crellin, G.L.; Smith, A.M.

1981-07-01

169

Analysis of water heater data from Athens load control experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes water heater load control experiments on the Athens Utilities Board distribution system in Athens, Tennessee. Data from experimental days are compared to data from days of normal operation to assess the effects of the control experiments. Plots are presented to describe water heater operation. Water heater models are used to estimate water usage. Results indicate that water heater control reduces energy demand but may have adverse effects on daily load patterns. Analysis also shows that the operation of load control receivers deteriorates as the time duration of the control period is increased. Methods used to improve data integrity are presented. The results are based on the filtered data set. The problems of identifying the associated time skew in the data and the timing-out of load control receivers are addressed. These results should be of interest to utilities performing similar load control management.

Reed, J.H.; Thompson, J.C.; Broadwater, R.P.; Chandrasekaran, A.

1989-04-01

170

Analysis of water heater data from Athens load control experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes water heater load control experiments on the Athens Utilities Board distribution system in Athens, Tennessee. Data from experimental days are compared to data from days of normal operation to assess the effects of the control experiments. Plots are presented to describe water heater operation. Water heater models are used to estimate water usage. Results indicate that water heater control reduces energy demand but may have adverse effects on daily load patterns. Analysis also shows that the operation of load control receivers deteriorates as the time duration of the control period is increased. Methods used to improve data integrity are presented. The results are based on the filtered data set. The problems of identifying the associated time skew in the data and the timing-out of load control receivers are addressed. These results should be of interest to utilities performing similar load control management. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reed, J.H.; Thompson, J.C.; Broadwater, R.P.; Chandrasekaran, A.

1988-01-01

171

Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating. (author)

Tian, Jian; Feng, Quanke; Zhu, Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-05-15

172

Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating

2008-01-01

173

Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating.

Tian Jian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)], E-mail: tjian@mailst.xjtu.edu.cn; Feng Quanke; Zhu Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-05-15

174

Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

Schoenwald, D.A.

1993-07-01

175

Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

1985-01-01

176

Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) in air condition  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, the reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in solids needs an annealing process in a reducing atmosphere. In this paper, it is of great interest and importance to find that the reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ can be realized in a series of alkaline-earth metal aluminum silicates MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) just in air condition. The Eu2+-doped MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) powder samples were prepared in air atmosphere by Pechini-type sol-gel process. It was found that the strong band emissions of 4f65d1-4f7 from Eu2+ were observed at 417, 404 and 373 nm in air-annealed CaAl2Si2O8, SrAl2Si2O8 and BaAl2Si2O8, respectively, under ultraviolet excitation although the Eu3+ precursors were employed. In addition, under low-voltage electron beam excitation, Eu2+-doped MAl2Si2O8 also shows strong blue or ultraviolet emission corresponding to 4f65d1-4f7 transition. The reduction mechanism from Eu3+ to Eu2+ in these compounds has been discussed in detail.

Zhang, Cuimiao; Yang, Jun; Lin, Cuikun; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

2009-07-01

177

Using bioluminescent biosensors for hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) in wastewater control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Starting from a new approach for water pollution control and wastewater treatment plant management, the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) quality concept, the interest for the development of new rapid and sensitive methods such as bioluminescence-based methods is evident. After an introduction of the HACCP procedure, a bibliographic study of the bioluminescence potentiality is presented and discussed.

Valat C; Champiat D; Degorce-Dumas JR; Thomas O

2004-01-01

178

REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems.

D.W. Markman

1999-09-17

179

REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems.

1999-01-01

180

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 2. AGRICULTURAL SEDIMENT CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely effects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting...

 
 
 
 
181

Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of Fuzzy Control Systems. Mechatronics Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of fuzzy control systems is usually performed by heuristicmeans, incorporating human skills, the drawback being in the lack of general-purposedevelopment methods. A major problem, which follows from this development, is theanalysis of the structural properties of the control system, such as stability, controllabilityand robustness. Here comes the first goal of the paper, to present a stability analysismethod dedicated to fuzzy control systems with mechatronics applications based on the useof Popov’s hyperstability theory. The second goal of this paper is to perform the sensitivityanalysis of fuzzy control systems with respect to the parametric variations of the controlledplant for a class of servo-systems used in mechatronics applications based on theconstruction of sensitivity models. The stability and sensitivity analysis methods provideuseful information to the development of fuzzy control systems. The case studies concerningfuzzy controlled servo-systems, accompanied by digital simulation results and real-timeexperimental results, validate the presented methods.

Radu-Emil Precup; Stefan Preitl

2006-01-01

182

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

1981-08-01

183

Analysis and design of voltage control of static condenser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The STATic CONdenser (STATCON) is a shunt connected voltage source converter using self commutating device like GTOs. The principle of working is similar to that of a synchronous condenser. This paper is concerned with the application of the STATCON for the reactive power compensation of a long transmission line by regulating the voltage at its midpoint. The design of the voltage controller and the analysis of its dynamic behavior using eigenvalue analysis and digital simulation is presented. An important observation is that the plant transfer function is generally of the nonminimum phase type. This precludes the use of large gains in a PI controller as there is a risk of instability of an oscillatory mode of frequency between 200--300 rad/s. Eigenvalue analysis using linearized model was carried out to design a compensator in cascade with an integral controller to overcome this problem.

Padiyar, K.R.; Kulkarni, A.M. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-12-31

184

Cluster Analysis of A Tobacco Control Data Set  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of theoretical and methodological frameworks in data analysis is fundamental for modeling complex tobacco control systems. Following this idea, a new optimization based approach was introduced in the paper through two distinct methods: the modified linear least square fit and a heuristic algorithm for feature selection based on optimization techniques. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, optimization-based methods have the potential to detect nonlinearity, and therefore to be more effective analysis tools of complex data set. In this study we evaluate the modified global k-means clustering algorithm by applying it to a massive set of real-time tobacco control survey data. Cluster analysis identified fixed and stable clusters in the studied data. These clusters correspond to groups of smokers with similar behavior and the identification of these clusters may allow us to give recommendations on modification of existing tobacco control systems and on the design of future data acquisition surveys.

Z. Dzalilov; A. Bagirov

2010-01-01

185

REACTOR ANALYSIS AND VIRTUAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT (RAVEN) FY12 REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RAVEN is a complex software tool that will have tasks spanning from being the RELAP-7 user interface, to using RELAP-7 to perform Risk Informed Safety Characterization (RISMC), and to controlling RELAP-7 calculation execution. The goal of this document is to: 1. Highlight the functional requirements of the different tasks of RAVEN 2. Identify shared functions that could be aggregate in modules so to obtain a minimal software redundancy and maximize software utilization. RAVEN is in fact a software framework that will allow exploiting the following functionalities: • Derive and actuate the control logic required to: o Simulate the plant control system o Simulate the operator (procedure guided) actions o Perform Monte Carlo sampling of random distributed events o Perform event three based analysis • Provide a GUI to: o Input a plant description to RELAP-7 (component, control variable, control parameters) o Concurrent monitoring of Control Parameters o Concurrent alteration of control parameters • Provide Post Processing data mining capability based on o Dimensionality reduction o Cardinality reduction In this document it will be shown how an appropriate mathematical formulation of the control logic and probabilistic analysis leads to have most of the software infrastructure leveraged between the two main tasks. Further, this document will go through the development accomplished this year, including simulation results, and priorities for the next years development

Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Joshua Cogliati; Diego Mandelli; Robert Kinoshita

2012-09-01

186

Reactor axial power distribution control and power capability analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A computer code developed for reactor axial power distribution control and power capability analysis based on one-dimensional equivalent principle and synthetic technique is introduced. The calculation precision of the code is in agreement with that of the requirements for engineering designs. In nuclear design of 2 x 600 MWe reactors of Qinshan NPP-2, using the code, the load following calculation and various typical operating power transient analysis of the 600 MWe nuclear power plant reactor have been finished and an operational control mode and axial power offset safety protective setting values of the reactor have been established. (9 figs., 1 tab.)

1995-01-01

187

Frame-based safety analysis technique for digital control systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposes a novel frame-based safety analysis approach for digital control systems. First, an analytical framework Two Frame Model (TFM) is developed to study the working and failure mechanisms of computer controlled systems. In this model, a computerized system is separated into two subsystems: the logical frame and the physical frame, representing information processes and physical processes, respectively. Two important issues derived from TFM: loss of isomorphism failure mode and competing process effect. Frame-based fault tree analysis and event tree analysis techniques under TFM are then developed to analyze this failure mode and its critical effects. Conventional one-frame approach to safety analysis provides only a correctness-based viewpoint, which cannot attach a context for logical errors, and thus, can never predict any potential competing possibilities. The proposed approach overcomes these problems. Case study is given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our methods. (author)

Yih, Swu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tang, TW (China); Fan, Chin-Feng

1996-10-01

188

Control in childbirth: a concept analysis and synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To report a concept analysis of control in childbirth. BACKGROUND: Control has a variety of definitions from a wide range of disciplines. In childbirth, however, the concept is more tenuous and depends on the context. It can be viewed in relationship to a woman's body and labour progression, pain, environment and the ability to request her method of birth. DATA SOURCES: Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched between 1970-2011 using the keywords, 'control', 'childbirth', 'labour' and 'delivery'. REVIEW METHODS: Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used for this review. In addition, cases were placed before defining attributes as recommended by Risjord. RESULTS: Four attributes of control were identified: decision-making, access to information, personal security and physical functioning. Antecedents include pregnancy and expectations of the birth. Consequences include childbirth satisfaction, childbirth experience, emotional well-being, fulfilment and the transition into motherhood. A model case, contrary case and borderline case are described. CONCLUSION: Clarifying the definition of control in childbirth and defining its attributes can help inform women and maternity providers throughout the world. This analysis provides clarity to a previously tenuous concept and allows practitioners to better understand the critical relationship between control in childbirth and satisfaction with the childbirth experience. It also has the potential to affect perinatal outcomes and subsequently healthcare costs.

Meyer S

2013-01-01

189

Analysis and control of an anaerobic upflow Fixed bed bioreactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents the bifurcation analysis in an anaerobic upflow fixed bed bioreactor, which is an anaerobic digestion system useful for wastewater treatment. In the dynamic analysis part, the equilibrium points, linear stability and bifurcation curves are studied, focusing in the washout condition. For the self tuning regulator the parameter estimation and control law are designed, and an integral action is introduced in order to address the disturbances. The simulation studies show the improvement of the performance when a disturbance appears.

2009-01-01

190

Using the Prony Analysis for Assessing Servo Drive Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Prony Analysis is already used in different fields of science and industries. The described new approach intends assessing the performance of Servo Drive Control. The basic approach is, that two important dynamic parameters of closed loop behavior, damping and frequency, are estimated by the Prony method. Hence analyzing a control loop in this way leads to a statement concerning the quality of control and allows comparing different parameter sets. The paper presents results achieved by using this method on a test rig.

Reimund Neugebauer; Ruben Schönherr; Holger Schlegel

2011-01-01

191

Probabilistic models for analysis of urban runoff control systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the significant urban runoff impacts on many receiving waters and the massive costs of future investments in drainage infrastructure, the design of urban runoff control systems must be cost-effective. Cost-effective design requires that various runoff control system alternatives be investigated at the planning stage so that cost-effective runoff control systems can be identified for design level analysis. To analyze the runoff control performance of various combinations of runoff control systems at the planning stage, efficient screening models are acutely needed. For this purpose, analytical probabilistic models were applied to analyze the runoff quantity/quality control performance of various combinations of storage and treatment systems. These analytical probabilistic models are developed with derived probability distribution theory whereby the input meteorology to the catchment is described by probability density functions (PDFs) of the meteorological characteristics that are transformed by hydrologic/hydraulic functions to PDFs of the system performance variables. The resulting PDFs are then used to determine the average performance conditions. These models provide closed-formed solutions of the performance equations that are highly efficient in both a conceptual and computational sense. As a result, they are particularly useful for the screening analysis of urban runoff control alternatives.

Li, J.Y.; Adams, B.J.

2000-03-01

192

Analysis and control of quadrotor via a Normal Form approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the analysis and control of some mathematical models representing the dynamics of a quadrotor. By using a normal form approach, the highly coupled parts in the quadrotor system are eliminated, while all possible properties of the original system are not changed. The bifurcation...

Wang, Jing; Boussaada, Islam; Cela, Arben; Mounier, Hugues; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian

193

Method of Non-optimum Analysis on Risk Control System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses in detail the theory of non-optimum analysis on risk management systems. It points out that the main problem of exploring an indefinite system’ optimum lies in the lack of non- optimum analysis on the risk management system. The paper establishes the syndrome and empirical analysis based on the non-optimum category of the risk. At the same time, through the concept of intervenient optimum, it analyzes the actual significance of the optimum of the risk control. Based on non-optimum analysis, it puts out the academic idea of extension risk analysis. At the same time, it also puts forward the non-optimum measurement of the risk system along with non-optimum tracing and self-organization of the risk systems.

Zengtang Qu; Ping He

2009-01-01

194

Chaos in electric drive systems analysis control and application  

CERN Multimedia

In Chaos in Electric Drive Systems: Analysis, Control and Application authors Chau and Wang systematically introduce an emerging technology of electrical engineering that bridges abstract chaos theory and practical electric drives. The authors consolidate all important information in this interdisciplinary technology, including the fundamental concepts, mathematical modeling, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and hardware implementation. The book provides comprehensive coverage of chaos in electric drive systems with three main parts: analysis, control and application. Corresponding drive systems range from the simplest to the latest types: DC, induction, synchronous reluctance, switched reluctance, and permanent magnet brushless drives.The first book to comprehensively treat chaos in electric drive systemsReviews chaos in various electrical engineering technologies and drive systemsPresents innovative approaches to stabilize and stimulate chaos in typical drivesDiscusses practical application of cha...

Chau, K T

2011-01-01

195

Control volume based hydrocephalus research; analysis of human data  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrocephalus is a neuropathophysiological disorder primarily diagnosed by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure within the brain. To date, utilization of clinical measurements have been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs enforce volume conservation principles in terms of pressure. Control volume analysis, through the integral mass and momentum conservation equations, ensures that pressure and volume are accounted for using first principles fluid physics. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians into a simple, direct and robust mechanics based framework. Clinical data obtained for analysis are discussed along with data processing techniques used to extract terms in the conservation equation. Control volume analysis provides a non-invasive, physics-based approach to extracting pressure information from magnetic resonance velocity data that cannot be measured directly by pressure instrumentation.

Cohen, Benjamin; Wei, Timothy; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Anor, Tomer

2010-11-01

196

Cost/benefit analysis of eliminating poison control in LWRs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the economics of power generation determines, to a large extent,a utility's choice of reactor systems, the cost of electricity from a spectral shift control (SSC) reactor is a crucial measure of the SSC reactor's competitiveness. Thus, a preliminary cost analysis is an important part of our overall assessment. The economic comparisons in this work focus on the cost differences between a standard pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the breeder/moderator controlled/burner light water reactor (BMB-LWR) design concept. The BMB-LWR is a typical large current design PWR with a minimum of changes. The BMB-LWR does not use any poison for reactivity control in the cycle length range of interest (1 to 2 yr) and uses soluble poison only for refueling purposes, to provide a sufficient additional negative reactivity margin to supplement the water displacement system. However, the water displacement system is very similar to the control rod system from a mechanical design point of view, differing mainly in the characteristics of the in-core control pins. Mixing both poison and displacer pins in the same core introduces added complexity, but not necessarily at a large cost impact; e.g., the advanced PWR has substantial water displacement control components, whereas the BMB-LWR primarily increases the displacer-to-poison ratio. The annual credits and penalties of replacing the standard PWR with the BMB-LWR concept are covered in the analysis.

Abu-Zaied, G.

1988-01-01

197

Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model?based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “working memory” [1]. In order to investigate how mental workload in working memory influences standing posture control, we consider the feedback groups in the standing posture control mechanism which include the viscoelastic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system and sensory feedback. We use a centre of pressure (COP)?based tracking task to investigate the influence of mental workload on voluntary (tracking) movement. Maurer?Peterka’s model is applied to analyse the standing posture control mechanism, with respect to a change in the internal processes. The simulation results show the relationship of the feedback gain and its delay from the central nervous system with the standing posture control performance. The proposed model?based scheme provides a comprehensive view for physiological data analysis of human body movement in relation to mental workload.

Seiji Naito; Youngwoo Kim; Goro Obinata

2012-01-01

198

Design analysis for the control and drive retrofit of a numerically controlled lathe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system approach to the retrofit of a numerically controlled two-axis lathe was taken to identify component function and interrelation. The dynamic system of the motor and machine was modeled and parameter identification experiments were done. This model, in state equation form, was used with the parameters data as the basis of a digital simulation of the system. From this and further analysis of the control characteristics, recommendations for component selection were presented.

Cotter, S.L.

1980-01-01

199

Page: a program for gamma spectra analysis in PC microcomputers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] PAGE is a software package, written in BASIC language, to perform gamma spectra analysis. It was developed to be used in a high-purity intrinsic germanium detector-multichannel analyser-PC microcomputer system. The analysis program of PAGE package accomplishes functions as follows: peak location; gamma nuclides identification; activity determination. Standard nuclides sources were used to calibrate the system. To perform the efficiency x energy calibration a logarithmic fit was applied. Analysis of nuclides with overlapping peaks is allowed by PAGE program. PAGE has additional auxiliary programs for: building and list of isotopic nuclear data libraries; data acquisition from multichannel analyser; spectrum display with automatic area and FWHM determinations. This software is to be applied in analytical process control where time response is a very important parameter. PAGE takes ca. 1.5 minutes to analyse a complex spectrum from a 4096 channels MCA. (author)

1991-01-01

200

Improving statistical analysis of matched case-control studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Matched case-control research designs can be useful because matching can increase power due to reduced variability between subjects. However, inappropriate statistical analysis of matched data could result in a change in the strength of association between the dependent and independent variables or a change in the significance of the findings. We sought to ascertain whether matched case-control studies published in the nursing literature utilized appropriate statistical analyses. Of 41 articles identified that met the inclusion criteria, 31 (76%) used an inappropriate statistical test for comparing data derived from case subjects and their matched controls. In response to this finding, we developed an algorithm to support decision-making regarding statistical tests for matched case-control studies.

Conway A; Rolley JX; Fulbrook P; Page K; Thompson DR

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Experimental Bifurcation Analysis By Control-based Continuation - Determining Stability’  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The newly developed control-based continuation technique has made it possible to perform experimental bifurcation analysis, e.g. to track stable as well as unstable branches of frequency responses directly in experiments. The method bypasses mathematical models, and systematically explores how vibration characteristics of dynamical systems change under variation of parameters. The method employs a control scheme to modify the response stability. While this facilitates exploration of the unstable branches of a bifurcation diagram, it unfortunately makes it impossible to distinguish previously stable and unstable equilibrium states. We present the ongoing work of developing and applying the control-based continuation method to an experimental mechanical test-rig, consisting of a harmonically forced nonlinear impact oscillator controlled by electromagnetic actuators. Furthermore we propose and test ideas on how to determine the stability of equilibria states during continuation.

Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar

2012-01-01

202

Implementation of the Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996; regulation of pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products and reports of certain transactions to nonregulated persons. Final rule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DEA is amending its regulations to implement the requirements of the Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996 (MCA) with respect to the regulation of pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products as List I chemicals, and the reporting of certain transactions involving pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products. The MCA removed the previous exemption from regulation as List I chemicals which had applied to pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products. This action makes persons who distribute the products subject to the registration requirement. Also, distributions, importations, and exportations of the products became subject to the existing chemical controls relating to regulated transactions, except in certain circumstances specified in the MCA. The MCA also requires that reports be submitted for certain distributions involving pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and ephedrine (including drug products containing those chemicals) by Postal Service or private or commercial carrier to nonregulated persons. This final rule amends the regulations to make them consistent with the language of the MCA and to establish specific procedures to be followed to satisfy the new reporting requirement. DEA has, where possible, taken action to limit the public impact of these new requirements while remaining consistent with the intent of the MCA to attack the diversion of regulated drug products to the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine.

2002-03-01

203

Rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis for hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke patients after early non-responsive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The outcome of patients who show no early response to intravenous (i.v.) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy is poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) therapy for acute ischemic stroke patients after an early non-responsive i.v. tPA therapy. Patients with proximal MCA occlusions who were treated by LIT (n=10) after failure of early response [no improvement or improvement of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of {<=}3] to i.v. tPA therapy (0.9 mg/kg - 10% bolus and 90% i.v. infusion over 60 min) were selected. The recanalization rates, incidence of post-thrombolysis hemorrhage and clinical outcomes [baseline and discharge NIHSS scores, mortality, 3 months Barthel index (BI) and modified Rankin score (mRS)] were evaluated. Rescue LIT therapy was performed on ten MCA occlusion patients (male:female=3:7, mean age 71 years). The mean time between the initiation of i.v. tPA therapy and the initiation of intra-arterial urokinase (i.a. UK) was 117{+-}25.0 min [time to i.v. tPA 137{+-}32 min; time to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) 221{+-}42 min; time to i.a. UK 260{+-}46 min]. The baseline NIHSS scores showed significant improvement at discharge (median from 18 to 6). Symptomatic hemorrhage and, consequent, mortality were noted in 2/10 (20%) patients. Three months good outcome was noted in 4/10 (40%, mRS 0-2) and 3/10 (30%, BI {>=}95). In conclusion, rescue LIT therapy can be considered as a treatment option for patients not showing early response to full dose i.v. tPA therapy. Larger scale studies for further validation of this protocol may be necessary. (orig.)

Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seo Hyun [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Wonju (Korea); Lee, Kyung Yeol [Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea); Heo, Ji Hoe; Han, Sang Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea)

2005-08-01

204

Rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis for hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke patients after early non-responsive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The outcome of patients who show no early response to intravenous (i.v.) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy is poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) therapy for acute ischemic stroke patients after an early non-responsive i.v. tPA therapy. Patients with proximal MCA occlusions who were treated by LIT (n=10) after failure of early response [no improvement or improvement of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of ?3] to i.v. tPA therapy (0.9 mg/kg - 10% bolus and 90% i.v. infusion over 60 min) were selected. The recanalization rates, incidence of post-thrombolysis hemorrhage and clinical outcomes [baseline and discharge NIHSS scores, mortality, 3 months Barthel index (BI) and modified Rankin score (mRS)] were evaluated. Rescue LIT therapy was performed on ten MCA occlusion patients (male:female=3:7, mean age 71 years). The mean time between the initiation of i.v. tPA therapy and the initiation of intra-arterial urokinase (i.a. UK) was 117±25.0 min [time to i.v. tPA 137±32 min; time to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) 221±42 min; time to i.a. UK 260±46 min]. The baseline NIHSS scores showed significant improvement at discharge (median from 18 to 6). Symptomatic hemorrhage and, consequent, mortality were noted in 2/10 (20%) patients. Three months good outcome was noted in 4/10 (40%, mRS 0-2) and 3/10 (30%, BI ?95). In conclusion, rescue LIT therapy can be considered as a treatment option for patients not showing early response to full dose i.v. tPA therapy. Larger scale studies for further validation of this protocol may be necessary. (orig.)

2005-01-01

205

TTC staining of damaged brain areas after MCA occlusion in the rat does not constrict quantitative gene and protein analyses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In models of ischemic stroke, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining is commonly applied for the fast and reliable visualization of hypoxic brain tissue and for defining the size of cerebral infarction and penumbra. Deciphering molecular processes of pathogenesis within the penumbra is of particular interest for the development of therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to assess whether TTC-stained tissues can easily and in a reliable quantitative manner be processed for further molecular and biochemical analyses. We applied phenol-based RNA isolation, protein lysis by conventional RIPA buffer, and combined RNA/protein isolation with NucleoSpinRNA/Protein-Kit. Gene and protein expression analyses were performed by RT-rtPCR and Western-blotting. Middle cerebral arteria occlusion (MCAO) in rats was performed following a standardized experimental procedure. After MCAO, TTC staining revealed massive cell death in cortical and sub-cortical areas. TTC processing did not affect the quality of tissue RNA and protein. The expression of housekeeping and regulatory genes and proteins revealed no difference between control and TTC-stained groups. The expression of known stroke-regulated genes such as TNFalpha and IL1beta revealed similar induction profiles after TTC staining as described in the literature. TTC staining allows the precise delineation of lesioned and primarily non-lesioned brain areas for subsequent dissection of selected tissue pieces for molecular analysis. Our study demonstrates that TTC-stained tissues in stroke animal models can be used for quantitative gene and protein expression analyses without constriction. Pathomechanisms of ongoing tissue damage within the penumbra region can now be investigated in detail.

Kramer M; Dang J; Baertling F; Denecke B; Clarner T; Kirsch C; Beyer C; Kipp M

2010-03-01

206

[Analysis of complaints in primary care using statistical process control].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze patient complaints in a Primary Health Care District (PHCD) using statistical process control methods compared to multivariate methods, as regards their results and feasibility of application in this context. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive study based on an aggregate analysis of administrative complaints. SETTING: Complaints received between January 2005 and August 2008 in the Customer Management Department in the 3rd PHCD Management Office, Madrid Health Services. Complaints are registered through Itrack, a computer software tool used throughout the whole Community of Madrid. Main variables: Total number of complaints, complaints sorted by Reason and Primary Health Care Team (PHCT), total number of patient visits (including visits on demand, appointment visits and home visits) and visits by PHCT and per month and year. Statistical analysis: Multivariate analysis and control charts were used. RESULTS: 44-month time series with a mean of 76 complaints per month, an increasing trend in the first three years and decreasing during summer months. Poisson regression detected an excess of complaints in 8 out of the 44 months in the series. The control chart detected the same 8 months plus two additional ones. CONCLUSIONS: Statistical process control can be useful for detecting an excess of complaints in a PHCD and enables comparisons to be made between different PHC teams. As it is a simple technique, it can be used for ongoing monitoring of customer perceived quality.

Valdivia Pérez A; Arteaga Pérez L; Escortell Mayor E; Monge Corella S; Villares Rodríguez JE

2009-08-01

207

Locus of control and metabolic control of diabetes: a meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether locus of control (LOC) for internal LOC, powerful others, or chance is correlated with how well people control diabetes (measured by H1C). METHODS: The literature search included Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PsychArticles, Health Source, Academic Search Elite, EMBASE, Current Contents, and BIOsis databases, which yielded 296 articles. Selection criteria for inclusion were adult participants with diabetes mellitus, use of glycosylated hemoglobin (H1C) as a measure of glycemic control, measurement of a locus-of control scale, and a Pearson correlation (r) value. Seventeen articles met all inclusion criteria. The R package "metacor," was used to perform a random effects meta-analysis and estimate correlation coefficients between the 3 LOC measurements and H1C. RESULTS: The strength of subjects ascribing an internal LOC (across 13 studies) was uncorrelated with H1C (r = -0.0099; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.1092, 0.0893). A LOC ascribed to powerful others LOC (across 9 studies) was similarly uncorrelated with H1C (r = 0.0928; 95% CI, -0.0136, 0.1993). Ascribing LOC to chance (across 9 studies) was also uncorrelated with H1C (r = 0.0926; 95% CI, -0.0398, 0.2250). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of 17 studies found no correlation between the control of diabetes and LOC. At best, there may be a weak correlation between powerful others and chance LOC with the metabolic control of diabetes. The use of LOC as a means of designing diabetes care can be discarded as this random effects meta-analysis found no significant correlation with effectiveness of diabetes control in adult patients.

Hummer K; Vannatta J; Thompson D

2011-01-01

208

Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm) of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize) a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

Ioan URSU; Ilinca NASTASE; Sorin CALUIANU; Andreea IFTENE; George TECUCEANU; Adrian TOADER

2013-01-01

209

Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

1989-01-01

210

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONGESTION CONTROL MECHANISMS IN HIGH SPEED NETWORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available : In this paper an effort has been made to study various Congestion control techniques that are used for reducing/easing the level of congestion and subsequently avoiding the congestion of the wired communication networks in general and High Speed Networks in particular. Many authors have suggested several congestion control techniques such as “TCP Congestion control”, Increase and algorithms”, “Congestion avoidance and control”, “Equation-Based Congestion Control for Unicast Application”, “Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance”, “New Techniques for congestion Control Detection and Avoidance”, “A Binary feedback scheme for Congestion Avoidance in Computer”, “Understanding CHOKe: Throughput and spatial characteristics” & “FAST TCP: Motivation Architecture Algorithm Performance” and studied their behavior under various network conditions, for a range of parameters also under heterogeneous networking environments. A special effort has been made to study the problems associated with the TCP congestion control mechanisms and the several solutions that have been proposed to improve its performance. This analysis tries to study the limitations of the suggested solutions, based on various parameters and propose algorithms to overcome these limitations for the High Speed Networks.

Chander Kant

2012-01-01

211

Multihop Medium Access Control for WSNs: An Energy Analysis Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an energy analysis technique applicable to medium access control (MAC) and multihop communications. Furthermore, the technique's application gives insight on using multihop forwarding instead of single-hop communications. Using the technique, we perform an energy analysis of carrier-sense-multiple-access (CSMA-) based MAC protocols with sleeping schemes. Power constraints set by battery operation raise energy efficiency as the prime factor for wireless sensor networks. A detailed energy expenditure analysis of the physical, the link, and the network layers together can provide a basis for developing new energy-efficient wireless sensor networks. The presented technique provides a set of analytical tools for accomplishing this. With those tools, the energy impact of radio, MAC, and topology parameters on the network can be investigated. From the analysis, we extract key parameters of selected MAC protocols and show that some traditional mechanisms, such as binary exponential backoff, have inherent problems.

Haapola Jussi; Shelby Zach; Pomalaza-Ráez Carlos; Mähönen Petri

2005-01-01

212

Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable

2009-01-01

213

Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (1) structuring the problem, (2) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (3) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable. (author)

Buchholz, Thomas; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A. [Department of Forest and Natural Resources Management, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, One Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Rametsteiner, Ewald [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Forestry Program, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg (Austria)

2009-02-15

214

[Literature analysis of schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the methods and effects of schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake region of Jiangxi Province. METHODS: The related literature in Chinese Biomedical Database and PubMed Database was searched and selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methods of bibliometrics and Meta analysis were performed to analyze the literature. RESULTS: A total of 91 papers were selected and analyzed, among which 19 papers related to control effects of chemotherapy, 17 referred to epidemiological survey and strategy report, and 14 related to health education research. The Meta analysis on preventive effect of artemether showed a RR value of 0.07, with the 95% confidence interval of 0.03-0.15. There was no significant difference between the control effect of selective chemotherapy and mass chemotherapy, while the cost of a reduction of 1% of the infection rate of the former was only 63.67% of the latter. The effect of health education among students and female residents was remarkable, by which the contact rate of infested water of students dropped to 0. CONCLUSIONS: There are various methods for schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake region of Jiangxi Province and their effects are obvious. It is necessary to put emphasis on the studies of integrated control measures, and to improve the quality of research design.

Huang AJ

2011-06-01

215

Concurrent analysis of choice and control in childbirth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports original research on choice and control in childbirth. Eight women were interviewed as part of a wider investigation into locus of control in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term (PROM) 1. Methods The following study uses concurrent analysis to sample and analyse narrative aspects of relevant literature along with these interviews in order to synthesise a generalisable analysis of the pertinent issues. The original PROM study had found that women experienced a higher degree of control in hospital, a finding that appeared at odds with contemporary notions of choice. However, this paper contextualises this finding by presenting narratives that lucidly subscribe to the dominant discourse of hospital as the safest place to give birth, under the premise of assuring a live healthy baby irrespective of their management type. Results This complex narrative is composed of the following themes: 'perceiving risk', 'being prepared', 'reflecting on experience', maintaining control' and relinquishing control'. These themes are constructed within and around the medical, foetocentric, risk averse cultural context. Primary data are presented throughout to show the origins and interconnected nature of these themes. Conclusions Within this context it is clear that there is a highly valued role for competent health professionals that respect, understand and are capable of facilitating genuine choice for women.

Snowden Austyn; Martin Colin; Jomeen Julie; Martin Caroline

2011-01-01

216

Nonsmooth optimization analysis and algorithms with applications to optimal control  

CERN Multimedia

This book is a self-contained elementary study for nonsmooth analysis and optimization, and their use in solution of nonsmooth optimal control problems. The first part of the book is concerned with nonsmooth differential calculus containing necessary tools for nonsmooth optimization. The second part is devoted to the methods of nonsmooth optimization and their development. A proximal bundle method for nonsmooth nonconvex optimization subject to nonsmooth constraints is constructed. In the last part nonsmooth optimization is applied to problems arising from optimal control of systems covered by

Makela, M M

1992-01-01

217

Spin system trajectory analysis under optimal control pulses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several methods are proposed for the analysis, visualization and interpretation of high-dimensional spin system trajectories produced by quantum mechanical simulations. It is noted that expectation values of specific observables in large spin systems often feature fast, complicated and hard-to-interpret time dynamics and suggested that populations of carefully selected subspaces of states are much easier to analyze and interpret. As an illustration of the utility of the proposed methods, it is demonstrated that the apparent "noisy" appearance of many optimal control pulses in NMR and EPR spectroscopy is an illusion - the underlying spin dynamics is shown to be smooth, orderly and very tightly controlled.

Kuprov I

2013-08-01

218

Spin system trajectory analysis under optimal control pulses  

Science.gov (United States)

Several methods are proposed for the analysis, visualization and interpretation of high-dimensional spin system trajectories produced by quantum mechanical simulations. It is noted that expectation values of specific observables in large spin systems often feature fast, complicated and hard-to-interpret time dynamics and suggested that populations of carefully selected subspaces of states are much easier to analyze and interpret. As an illustration of the utility of the proposed methods, it is demonstrated that the apparent "noisy" appearance of many optimal control pulses in NMR and EPR spectroscopy is an illusion – the underlying spin dynamics is shown to be smooth, orderly and very tightly controlled.

Kuprov, Ilya

2013-08-01

219

Data Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. A self-appraisal helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. The material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) fault tree was developed to depict the failure of the MPC&A system as a result of poor practices and random failures in the MC&A system. It can also be employed as a basis for assessing deliberate threats against a facility. MSET uses fault tree analysis, which is a top-down approach to examining system failure. The analysis starts with identifying a potential undesirable event called a 'top event' and then determining the ways it can occur (e.g., 'Fail To Maintain Nuclear Materials Under The Purview Of The MC&A System'). The analysis proceeds by determining how the top event can be caused by individual or combined lower level faults or failures. These faults, which are the causes of the top event, are 'connected' through logic gates. The MSET model uses AND-gates and OR-gates and propagates the effect of event failure using Boolean algebra. To enable the fault tree analysis calculations, the basic events in the fault tree are populated with probability risk values derived by conversion of questionnaire data to numeric values. The basic events are treated as independent variables. This assumption affects the Boolean algebraic calculations used to calculate results. All the necessary calculations are built into the fault tree codes, but it is often useful to estimate the probabilities manually as a check on code functioning. The probability of failure of a given basic event is the probability that the basic event primary question fails to meet the performance metric for that question. The failure probability is related to how well the facility performs the task identified in that basic event over time (not just one performance or exercise). Fault tree calculations provide a failure probability for the top event in the fault tree. The basic fault tree calculations establish a baseline relative risk value for the system. This probability depicts relative risk, not absolute risk. Subsequent calculations are made to evaluate the change in relative risk that would occur if system performance is improved or degraded. During the development effort of MSET, the fault tree analysis program used was SAPHIRE. SAPHIRE is an acronym for 'Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations.' Version 1 of the SAPHIRE code was sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1987 as an innovative way to draw, edit, and analyze graphical fault trees primarily for safe operation of nuclear power reactors. When the fault tree calculations are performed, the fault tree analysis program will produce several reports that can be used to analyze the MPC&A system. SAPHIRE produces reports showing risk importance factors for all basic events in the operational MC&A system. The risk importance information is used to examine the potential impacts when performance of certain basic events increases or decreases. The initial results produced by the SAPHIRE program are considered relative risk values. None of the results can be interpreted as absolute risk values since the basic event probability values represent estimates of risk associated with the performance of MPC&A tasks throughout the material balance area (MBA). The RRR for a basic event represents the decrease in total system risk that would result from improvement of that one event to a perfect performance level. Improvement of the basic event with the greatest RRR value produces a greater decrease in total system risk than improvement of any other basic event. Basic events with the greatest potential for system risk reduction are assigned performance improvement values, and new fault tree calculations show the i

Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL

2011-01-01

220

Analysis and control of unified active power filter  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined series and shunt active filters have been proposed to alleviate the power quality problems at the demand-side power systems. However, the conventional approach for the control of the combined active filter systems have resulted in large operating capacity of the shunt active filter because reactive power compensation involves only the shunt active filter. Furthermore, the harmonic mitigation problems are handled mainly by indirect harmonic compensation schemes rather than direct harmonic isolation schemes. This thesis presents the analysis and control of Unified Active Power Filter (UAPF) and proposes a novel concept of load reactive power compensation involving both the series active filter and the shunt active filter. The thesis also applies discrete-time sliding-mode control technique to enhance the performance of the combined active filter system in terms of fast dynamic response and effective solution to harmonic mitigation problems. The thesis also presents simulation and experimental results to provide verification of the proposed UAPF concept. The involvement of series active filter for reactive power compensation is achieved by controlling the phase difference between the load voltage and the utility voltage. The complete steady-state operating characteristics of UAPF are analyzed with the identification of the different operating modes of UAPF and the analysis of active and reactive power handled by the active filter components. The performance of UAPF to meet the stringent power quality standards are realized by applying discrete-time sliding-mode control schemes for the load voltage regulation and the active power factor correction. The control algorithms are developed to track a given load voltage and line current reference signals respectively. The effect of computational delay in DSP implementation is studied extensively and the control law is designed with the consideration for the computational delay. The systematic approach for the design of DC link voltage regulation is also presented in this thesis. A prototype experimental setup including the power circuit for UAPF and DSP based control circuit is built to implement the control and to verify the performance characteristics of UAPF. A real-time control algorithm is developed and is implemented on a DSP TMS320C40 system with PWM implementation by DMA without the intervention of CPU. The operation of UAPF at the optimal operating point is shown to reduce the ratings of the shunt active filter and to improve the efficiency. With the discrete-time sliding mode control, the compensation characteristics of UAPF are shown to meet the stringent power quality standards. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Muthu, Subramanian

1999-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

The HONEYPOT randomized controlled trial statistical analysis plan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The HONEYPOT study is a multicenter, open-label, blinded-outcome, randomized controlled trial designed to determine whether, compared with standard topical application of mupirocin for nasal staphylococcal carriage, exit-site application of antibacterial honey reduces the rate of catheter-associated infections in peritoneal dialysis patients. OBJECTIVE: To make public the pre-specified statistical analysis principles to be adhered to and the procedures to be performed by statisticians who will analyze the data for the HONEYPOT trial. METHODS: Statisticians and clinical investigators who were blinded to treatment allocation and treatment-related study results and who will remain blinded until the central database is locked for final data extraction and analysis determined the statistical methods and procedures to be used for analysis and wrote the statistical analysis plan. The plan describes basic analysis principles, methods for dealing with a range of commonly encountered data analysis issues, and the specific statistical procedures for analyzing the primary, secondary, and safety outcomes. RESULTS: A statistical analysis plan containing the pre-specified principles, methods, and procedures to be adhered to in the analysis of the data from the HONEYPOT trial was developed in accordance with international guidelines. The structure and content of the plan provide sufficient detail to meet the guidelines on statistical principles for clinical trials produced by the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. CONCLUSIONS: Making public the pre-specified statistical analysis plan for the HONEYPOT trial minimizes the potential for bias in the analysis of trial data and the interpretation and reporting of trial results.

Pascoe EM; Lo S; Scaria A; Badve SV; Beller EM; Cass A; Hawley CM; Johnson DW

2013-07-01

222

Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis

1981-01-01

223

Automatic analysis of signals during Eddy currents controls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method and the corresponding instrument have been developed for automatic analysis of Eddy currents testing signals. This apparatus enables at the same time the analysis, every 2 milliseconds, of two signals at two different frequencies. It can be used either on line with an Eddy Current testing instrument or with a magnetic tape recorder[fr] Presentation d'une methode et de l'appareillage correspondant de traitement des signaux obtenus lors de controle par courant de Foucault et permettant d'assurer une analyse du signal en temps reel a une cadence elevee (deux frequences analysees simultanement, un signal elementaire toutes les 2 millisecondes). Cet equipement peut etre utilise aussi bien en ligne avec l'appareil de controle par courant de Foucault, qu'en relecture de bandes magnetiques

1983-06-03

224

Quality control of Citri reticulatae pericarpium: exploratory analysis and discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (PCR) are commonly used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. The quality control of PCR is currently performed by single marker analysis, which can hardly describe the complexity of such natural samples. In this study, a fingerprint methodology for PCR based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and validated. A total of 69 fingerprints of authenticated PCR samples, commercial PCR samples, mixed peel samples, and other Citrus peels were recorded. Exploratory data analysis allowed optimizing the extraction procedure and detecting mixed peel samples. Once the optimizations were performed and the method validated, discrimination between the authentic PCR samples and all other samples was performed by p-Discriminant Partial Least Squares. The established model was able to differentiate between classes with a high reliability for each sample. Furthermore, evaluation of the score and loading plots of the model indicated nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin and hesperidin as important markers for the quality control of PCR. PMID:21962354

Tistaert, Christophe; Thierry, Line; Szandrach, Andrzej; Dejaegher, B; Fan, Guorong; Frédérich, Michel; Vander Heyden, Yvan

2011-04-22

225

Quality control of Citri reticulatae pericarpium: exploratory analysis and discrimination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracts of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (PCR) are commonly used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. The quality control of PCR is currently performed by single marker analysis, which can hardly describe the complexity of such natural samples. In this study, a fingerprint methodology for PCR based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and validated. A total of 69 fingerprints of authenticated PCR samples, commercial PCR samples, mixed peel samples, and other Citrus peels were recorded. Exploratory data analysis allowed optimizing the extraction procedure and detecting mixed peel samples. Once the optimizations were performed and the method validated, discrimination between the authentic PCR samples and all other samples was performed by p-Discriminant Partial Least Squares. The established model was able to differentiate between classes with a high reliability for each sample. Furthermore, evaluation of the score and loading plots of the model indicated nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin and hesperidin as important markers for the quality control of PCR.

Tistaert C; Thierry L; Szandrach A; Dejaegher B; Fan G; Frédérich M; Vander Heyden Y

2011-10-01

226

Interference control in low-level analysis of iodine 129  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work analyses the integration of several steps applied to control potentials sources of error in the determination of 129I and prevent spurious results in order to achieve the minimum detection limit. The procedure of pre and post-irradiation purification, neutron irradiation, radioactive counting and data analysis are needed. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used for detection and measurement of low level interferences. (author)

2000-01-01

227

Analysis of factors influencing local control of medulloblastoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To examine the influence of various prognostic factors on local control of medulloblastoma. Sixty-five patients who had been treated between 1980 and 1990 at our six hospitals were retrospectively studied. Factors included in the Cox`s multivariate analysis were sex, age (log(y.o.+1)), performance status, pretreatment T-stage (judged from the findings of CT and/or MRI; T1: 3 patients, T2: 17, T3 (with hydrocephalus): 44, T4: 1), extent of surgical resection (total: 30 patients, less than total: 35), total dose (21-87 Gy, median: 55) and overall treatment time (19-163 days, median: 54) of local irradiation, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Recurrence occurred in one T2 patient and in 17 T3 patients. The multivariate analysis showed that local tumor control decreased with advance in T-stage (p=0.04) and with prolonged overall treatment times (p=0.003), and that it increased with higher total doses (p=0.01). When analysis was limited to T3 patients, usefulness of the chemotherapy was also suggested (p=0.03). However, the influence of the extent of resection on local tumor control was not statistically significant because resectability depended on T-stage. This analysis showed that local control of medulloblastoma was influenced by pretreatment T-stage, total dose and overall irradiation treatment time, and probably by the adjuvant chemotherapy used. Some of the observed losses by prolongations in radiotherapy may reflect proliferation of tumor cells during radiotherapy. (author)

Inakoshi, Hideki [Niigata Univ. (Japan). College of Biomedical Technology; Sakai, Kunio; Sueyama, Hiroo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Wakushima, Hiroshi; Obara, Toya; Shibamoto, Yuta

1997-09-01

228

Real-time film analysis system. Minicomputer control program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for the control program of the minicomputer in the many-computer complex oriented for primary analysis of track detector films is offered. The choice for this model is based on application of the concept of logic input devices as well as in the introduced concept of virtual devices of typical graphic object scanning and interruption processing. This enables to represent the model as a system of finite automata.

1982-01-01

229

An Unified Approach for Process Quality Analysis and Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract— The process in a company finally results in product of the company, which represents the company standard. Hence, during the process execution time quality of the process needs to be taken care before and after the work done. In this paper, an unified approach to quality analysis and control of a process development is presented. This approach gives an overview of what the task the company assigned to the employers. The process is defined as the set of action items to achieve the work completion. Quality means grade of excellence. Quality analysis of a process is an improvement of the process and making sure that all the standard procedures are followed. An unified approach designed in this paper is a combination of software cost estimation and a financial market forecasting with the support of historical data, statistical data mining technique and artificial neural networks, which helps the developers as well as investors in strategic planning and investment decision making. Therefore, the paper describes a recommended process to develop software (SW) cost estimates for software managers, perform financial market forecasting to control quality of process development. As a result, the improvement and analysis of the process quality can be performed from basic level to the corporate level. By this work, we conclude that the process quality control can be made easier and efficient compared to the old graphical analytics technique.

Prof.Chandrakanth Biradar,Aruna Kawdi

2012-01-01

230

Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

2007-08-01

231

Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

2007-09-01

232

Spatial Analysis for Flood Control by Using Environmental Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To create the final spatial information and analysis, flood hazard maps and land development priority maps and information, data for the flood events to 2009 in north of Iran were incorporated with using Geo-spatial Information System data of physiographic divisions, geologic divisions, land cover classification, elevation, drainage network, administrative districts and population density and environmental parameters modeling. Special analysis also attention was paid to population density for the construction of the land development priority map and using satellite image analysis to determine land use changes and analysis of geo-spatial information, because highly dense populated areas represent the highly important urban and industrial areas. While geo-information technology offers an opportunity to support flood management adequate geo-spatial information is a prerequisite for sustainable development, but many parts of the world lack adequate information on environmental resources. Such information providing, which serves as an important tool for decision-making in land use planning, can help provide effective information to natural disaster management. This paper develops a framework for flood control and begins with some general comments on the importance of land use planning and outlines some current environmental issues and then presenting environmental models to use in disaster management plan by using GIS and remote sensing results. Flood control is a complex problem that requires cooperation of many scientists in different fields. The article also discusses the role that geo-information and environmental planning and GIS and remote sensing technology play in disaster management control to reduce negative impacts of flood and present proper alternatives for developing of Gorganrood in the north of Iran. Advanced high-resolution sensor technology has provided immense scope to the decision makers for analysis of flood and damages details using GIS and remote sensing.

Alireza Gharagozlou; Hassan Nazari; Mohammadjavad Seddighi

2011-01-01

233

Asymptotic Analysis of a Leaky Bucket Controlled ATM Multiplexer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cell loss rate of a statistical multiplexer fed bya number of leaky bucket controlled sources is analyzed usingan asymptotic approximation. The tail distribution of the queuelength in the multiplexer buffer has a structured spectral expansionsolution form and is approximated by the dominant term inthe spectral expansion solution. Compared to exact analysis, theapproximation yields fairly accurate results at low cell loss rates.The approximation method is used to investigate the effectivenessof the leaky bucket as a policing mechanism and evaluate cell lossrate, for dimensioning the multiplexer buffer and for admissioncontrol.1 IntroductionA leaky bucket controlled ATM multiplexer supporting balancedtraffic has been analyzed in [2]. Cell loss, which canoccur at the cell level and at the burst level, is a sensitive performancemeasure. With the leaky bucket controlled ATMmultiplexing system shown in Fig. 1, cell level losses occurat the individual leaky bucket contro...

Jing-fei Ren; Jon W. Mark

234

Robust Stability Analysis with Time Delay Using PI Controller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, real time implementation of PI and PID controllers is Investigated for stabilizing an arbitrary-order plant or system. Simple closed loop feedback ,PI controller can overcome all the problems of uncertainties like time delay in LTI (Linear Time Invariant) system.This paper will give us an implortant alogorithm to be imlemented in MATLAB for achieving the robust stability in LTI plant in presence of any type of perturbations or external disturbances. In this paper, a single input and single output (LTI) linear time invariant plant under perturbed conditions with additive uncertainity weight senstivity is considered. In this paper especially, I have found all set of PI gains Kp,Ki which will promise us for the stability in a given disturbed (SISO) (LTI) system by achieving the robust stability constraint ? <=1 can be found by obtaining the PI controller gains Kp,Ki using frequency domain analysis .

Gursewak Singh

2012-01-01

235

Neuroblastoma and paternal occupation. A case-control analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The peak incidence of neuroblastoma during early infancy suggests that prezygotic or prenatal exposures to carcinogens could be implicated. Several recent epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between parental exposure to petrochemicals and ionizing radiation and the development of cancer in the offspring. This paper is a population-based case-control analysis of the birth certificate data of 157 children who died in Texas from neuroblastoma in 1964-1978 and 314 controls randomly selected from all live births in Texas. Children of fathers employed in occupations with electromagnetic field exposure were at significantly increased risk (odds ratio = 2.13). The odds ratio was 11.75 for children of fathers who reported themselves to be electronics workers (6 cases, 1 control).

Spitz MR; Johnson CC

1985-06-01

236

Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

2009-01-01

237

Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop  

CERN Multimedia

We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

2009-01-01

238

Quality control and reference materials in speciation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This contribution describes the need and some strategies for a rigid quality control in speciation analysis. Firstly, the term ``chemical speciation`` is defined and differentiated from experimental concepts now called ``operationally defined speciation`` or ``functionally defined speciation``. The need for quality control in speciation is given by the big number of sources of errors during sampling, sample preparation, separation and detection. Errors such as stability problems, contaminations or losses, spectral interferences etc. are discussed. On the other hand, several concepts for problem solutions are described. One of these solutions is the use of certified reference materials (CRM). Unfortunately, species-certified CRM are only available for few matrices and few elements, e.g. mercury in fish or sediments, lead in solutions and urban dust etc. Therefore special quality control strategies are necessary for each part of the analytical speciation procedure. Several examples of such procedures are given and discussed. (orig.) With 4 figs., 52 refs.

Michalke, B. [GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Ecological Chemistry

1999-03-01

239

Highly purified water control and analysis on power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recently, the quality control of water has become more and more important to secure the safety of instruments and various pipes in an atomic power station and also to increase their lifetimes. The control of trace ion impurities in pure water of the secondary system in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has become very strict year after year. Here, the present situations on the analysis and the control of the impurities were described in addition to the quality criteria of the water in atomic power stations. The analysis of trace ions in ultrapure water is carried out by on-line ionchromatography (IC). IC has been used since 1975 and now it became possible to determine the highly accurate concentrations of trace ions by various developments and improvements of the concerned makers. The control of water quality are considered in terms of make-up water system, thermal power plant, condensate and feed water, boiling water reactor and PWR secondary system. At present, determinations of Na+ and Cl- concentrations became necessary to reduce the incomes of impurities from the make-up water. However, it was confirmed that on-line IC developed for the measurement of ultrapure water is able to detect those ions at 0.01 ppb. (M.N.)

1996-01-01

240

Contribution to stability analysis of nonlinear control systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Popov criterion for the stability of nonlinear control systems is considered. The Popov criterion gives sufficient conditions for stability of nonlinear systems in the frequency domain. It has a direct graphical interpretation and is convenient for both design and analysis. In the article presented, a table of transfer functions of linear parts of nonlinear systems is constructed. The table includes frequency response functions and offers solutions to the stability of the given systems. The table makes a direct stability analysis of selected nonlinear systems possible. The stability analysis is solved analytically and graphically.Then it is easy to find out if the nonlinear system is or is not stable; the task that usually ranks among the difficult task in engineering practice.

?varc Ivan

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

An analysis of en route controller-pilot voice communications  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this analysis was to examine current pilot-controller communication practices in the en route environment. Forty-eight hours of voice tapes from eight different Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC's) were examined. There were 5,032 controller-to-pilot transmissions and 3,576 clearances (e.g., instructions to maneuver or change radio frequencies, routing changes, etc.) in this sample. The complexity of the clearance (i.e., the number of pieces of information) was examined and the number of erroneous readbacks and pilot requests for repeats were analyzed as a function of clearance complexity. Pilot acknowledgements were also analyzed; the numbers of full and partial readbacks, and acknowledgements only (i.e., 'roger') were tallied. Fewer than one percent of the clearances resulted in communications errors. Among the error factors examined were the following: complexity of the clearance, type of acknowledgement, use of call sign in the acknowledgement, type of information in error, and whether or not the controller responded to the readback error. Instances in which the controller contacted the aircraft with one call sign and the pilot acknowledged the transmission with another call sign were also examined. The report concludes with recommendations to further reduce the probability of communication problems.

Cardosi, Kim M.

1993-03-01

242

Component-based analysis of embedded control applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The widespread use of embedded systems requires the creation of industrial software technology that will make it possible to engineer systems being correct by construction. That can be achieved through the use of validated (trusted) components, verification of design models, and automatic configuration of applications from validated design models and trusted components. This design philosophy has been instrumental for developing COMDES—a component-based framework for distributed embedded control systems. A COMDES application is conceived as a network of embedded actors that are configured from instances of reusable, executable components—function blocks (FBs). System actors operate in accordance with a timed multitasking model of computation, whereby I/O signals are exchanged with the controlled plant at precisely specified time instants, resulting in the elimination of I/O jitter. The paper presents an analysis technique that can be used to validate COMDES design models in SIMULINK. It is based on a transformation of the COMDES design model into a SIMULINK analysis model, which preserves the functional and timing behaviour of the application. This technique has been employed to develop a feasible (light-weight) analysis method based on runtime observers. The latter are conceived as special-purpose actors running in parallel with the application actors, while checking system properties specified in Linear Temporal Logic. Observers are configured from reusable FBs that can be exported to SIMULINK in the same way as application components, making it possible to analyze system properties via simulation. The discussion is illustrated with an industrial case study—a Medical Ventilator Control System, which has been used to validate the developed design and analysis methods.

Angelov, Christo K.; Guan, Wei

2011-01-01

243

Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), C. hominis (×5), C. meleagridis (×1), C. canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs.

Lalonde LF; Reyes J; Gajadhar AA

2013-09-01

244

Analysis of scientific truth status in controlled rehabilitation trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical guidelines (reviews) are intended to inform clinical practice, and in this sense can be thought of as scientific truthmakers. High-quality controlled trials should align to this truth, and method quality markers should predict truth status. We sought to determine in what way controlled trial quality relates to scientific truth, and to determine predictive utility of trial quality and bibliographic markers. METHOD: A sample of reviews in rehabilitation medicine was examined. Two scientific truth dimensions were established based on review outcomes. Quality and bibliographic markers were extracted from associated trials for use in a regression analysis of their predictive utility for trial truth status. Probability analysis was undertaken to examine judgments of future trial truth status. RESULTS: Of the 93 trials included in contemporaneous reviews, overall, n = 45 (48%) were true. Randomization was found more in true trials than false trials in one truth dimension (P = 0.03). Intention-to-treat analysis was close to significant in one truth dimension (P = 0.058), being more commonly used in false trials. There were no other significant differences in quality or bibliographic variables between true and false trials. Regression analysis revealed no significant predictors of trial truth status. Probability analysis reported that the reasonable chance of future trials being true was between 2 and 5%, based on a uniform prior. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are at odds with what is considered gold-standard research methods, but in line with previous reports. Further work should focus on scientific dynamics within healthcare research and evidence-based practice constructs.

Kerry R; Madouasse A; Arthur A; Mumford SD

2013-08-01

245

Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cinnamon seems to be highly bioactive, appearing to mimic the effect of insulin through increased glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles. This systematic review and Meta analysis examined the effect of cinnamon on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted from the earliest possible date through to 01 August 2011. Search terms included free text terms, MeSH and Medline medical index terms such as: "cinnamon", "cinnamomum", "cinnamomum cassia", "cinnamomum zeylanicum", "type 2 diabetes mellitus". Each was crossed with the term "diabetes mellitus". In addition, references of key articles were hand searched. RESULTS: A total of 6 clinical trials met the strict inclusion criteria and considered a total of 435 patients; follow up between 40 days-4 months, doses ranging from 1 g to 6 g per day. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed a significant decrease in mean HbA1c [0.09%; 95% CI was 0.04-0.14] and mean FPG [0.84 mmol/l; 95% CI was 0.66-1.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Use of cinnamon showed a beneficial effect on glycaemic control (both HbA1c and FPG) and the short term (<4 months) effects of the use of cinnamon on glycaemic control looks promising.

Akilen R; Tsiami A; Devendra D; Robinson N

2012-10-01

246

Extended support for accident analysis in the Test Control Room  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Test Control Room (TCR) is an engineering simulator in a screen-based control room environment. The several purposes of the TCR are described, with emphasis on safety studies of accidental situations which require consideration of the man-machine interface and the feedback imposed by the operating shift's actions. First, the characteristics of the present TCR are described with respect to employed models, visualization, and interactive control. Then, the concept of the TCR extensions for a second development phase are presented, which are intended to offer access to knowledge beyond mere simulation and useful in the analyses proposed. One such knowledge source necessary for procedure analysis consists of the operating and emergency procedures, another one is the vast knowledge acquired by probabilistic analysis. The use of these knowledge sources in decision support systems is discussed. The realization of the extended TCR will rely on a network of workstations or personal computers, with several software agents including on-line expert system shells. (orig.).

Beraha, D.; Jahn, H.; Lupas, O.; Voggenberger, T. (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany))

1993-04-01

247

Control assembly ejection accident analysis for WWER-440 (Armenian NPP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control Assembly ejection in WWER-440 initiated by the loss of integrity of the Control Assemblies drive housing has been analyzed. This event causes a very rapid reactivity insertion to the core and small break LOCA which potentially could lead to rapid power increase and redistribution of heat release in the core resulting in a fuel, cladding and coolant temperature rise; primary pressure increase, radiological consequences due to loss of primary coolant and potential loss of cladding integrity and fuel disintegration (if applicable). Methodology of the analysis is based on conservative assumptions as well as on deterministic approach for selection of functioning logic of systems and equipment's to maximize reactor core power and minimize power decreasing reactivity feedback. Computational analyses were performed by 3D kinetics PARCS-RELAP coupled code. WWER-440 fuel cross-section libraries, diffusion coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated by HELOS code. In this paper analysis of accident for Hot Full Power was presented. Results of analysis show that ANPP WWER-440 reactor design meets acceptance criteria prescribed for RIA type design based accidents (Authors)

2007-01-01

248

Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes a methodology that integrates quantitative and qualitative assessment. The methodology proposed combines conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) with multi-criteria analysis (MCA). The CBA methodology, based on welfare theory, assures that the project with the highest welfare for society is ranked uppermost. To compare the different impacts, it is necessary to have a common monetary unit. Theoretically, all benefits and all costs should be accounted for in socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. However, this is far from in practical the general case due to difficulties in a valuating all the criteria in monetary terms. Thus CBA does not meet the need for a comprehensive evaluation, for which reason MCA is introduced to overcome this problem. Not only does MCA provides an opportunity to include non-market impacts in the analysis, but MCA also provides a framework for breaking down a problem into its constituent parts in order to better understand the problem and consequently arrive at a decision. However, while MCA opens up for the possibility to include non-market impacts, it does not provide the decision makers with guidance combining the CBA with MCA. In the paper different methods for combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis are examined and compared and a software system is presented. The software system gives the decision makers some possibilities regarding preference analysis, sensitivity and risk analysis. The aim of the software is to facilitate a straightforward method to support decision making involving both quantitative and qualitative impacts. An outcome of this is that the methodology and the results on this basis are easily understood by the different stakeholders, which is seen as important. The methodology and software system are demonstrated by examining the decision problem of choosing between alternatives for a new airport to service the capital of Greenland, Nuuk. Three different alternatives are examined ranging in costs from 90m USD to 400m USD. Furthermore, three sets of different stakeholders’ preferences (decision makers, citizens in Nuuk and other citizens in Greenland) are examined and compared. The cost-benefit analysis of the three airport alternatives includes impacts like travel time (for business and local travellers), waiting time, drawback of shifts, regularity, out of pocket costs, operating costs and not the least construction and maintenance costs. The MCA is made use of to assess noise, land use planning, business potential and tourism impacts for the three alternatives. More technically the software system offers a set of different features to undertake the MCA. Thus the users have two different methods to assess weights for the criteria, either by using the Swing Weight method or the more simple Rank Order Distribution (ROD) method. For evaluating the different alternatives with respect to each criterion the user has the possibility of making use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), REMBRANDT or Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranks (SMARTER) methods. Finally, a feature combining the CBA and MCA results can be provided by applying a trade off between the two methods or by means of the so called efficiency frontier is demonstrated. The presented multi-dimensional methodology and software system for CBA and MCA decision making is finally compared with other methods for combining the CBA and MCA. Ultimately, some conclusions are made and perspectives are drawn. Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Multi-criteria analysis, Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding, Transport infrastructure, Analytical Hierarchy Process, REMBRANDT, SMARTER, stakeholders’ preferences and CBA&MCA Software system.

249

Tobacco control in the Russian Federation--a policy analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. METHODS: We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia's economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. RESULTS: Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia's approval of a "National Tobacco Control Concept" and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. CONCLUSIONS: Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia's tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts.

Lunze K; Migliorini L

2013-01-01

250

Dysregulation of pathways involved in the processing of cancer and microenvironment information in MCA + TPA transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The two-stage cell transformation assay is an in vitro model cell culture system to identify the ability of chemicals to act as initiators or promoters of cell transformation and also to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of chemically induced morphological and neoplastic cell transformation. The global gene expression profiles of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) + 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells are not known. Therefore, we have investigated the global transcriptional profile of MCA + TPA-transformed C3H10T1/2 cells using an 8 × 60 k probe microarray. The study revealed a differential regulation of pathways and gene expressions. Multifold dysregulation was seen in pathways of cancer, phagosomal activity, and tumor cell microenvironment information processing systems, notably the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, actin cytoskeleton regulation, tight junction, axon guidance, and cell adhesion molecules. The genes FGF1, EIF4E1B, MAGI1, and GRIA3 showed upregulation; these encoded the pluripotent fibroblast growth factor, the translation initiation factor, the tight junction scaffolding protein, and the antiapoptotic as well as the enhancer of proliferation and migration, respectively. The genes CXCL7/CXCL5/CXCL12, H2DMB1, and HSPA1A showed downregulation; these encoded the chemotactic agent protein, the protein involved in MHC class II antigen processing/presentation or participating in cell adhesion/phagosomal activity/autoimmune disorder, and the chaperone protein stabilizing the existing as well as newly translated cytosolic/organelle proteins against aggregation, respectively. By loss or gain of function, these dysregulated genes apparently seem to reprogram cells for apoptosis or proliferation and support their transformation into the tumor cell phenotype. The observed molecular changes can be seen as molecular signatures of transformed cells and can be of use as objective evidences to C3H/10T1/2 cell transformation assay in investigations on the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and their mechanism of actions using in vitro carcinogenesis method.

Priya S; Nigam A; Bajpai P; Kumar S

2013-04-01

251

Dysregulation of pathways involved in the processing of cancer and microenvironment information in MCA + TPA transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-stage cell transformation assay is an in vitro model cell culture system to identify the ability of chemicals to act as initiators or promoters of cell transformation and also to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of chemically induced morphological and neoplastic cell transformation. The global gene expression profiles of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) + 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells are not known. Therefore, we have investigated the global transcriptional profile of MCA + TPA-transformed C3H10T1/2 cells using an 8 × 60 k probe microarray. The study revealed a differential regulation of pathways and gene expressions. Multifold dysregulation was seen in pathways of cancer, phagosomal activity, and tumor cell microenvironment information processing systems, notably the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, actin cytoskeleton regulation, tight junction, axon guidance, and cell adhesion molecules. The genes FGF1, EIF4E1B, MAGI1, and GRIA3 showed upregulation; these encoded the pluripotent fibroblast growth factor, the translation initiation factor, the tight junction scaffolding protein, and the antiapoptotic as well as the enhancer of proliferation and migration, respectively. The genes CXCL7/CXCL5/CXCL12, H2DMB1, and HSPA1A showed downregulation; these encoded the chemotactic agent protein, the protein involved in MHC class II antigen processing/presentation or participating in cell adhesion/phagosomal activity/autoimmune disorder, and the chaperone protein stabilizing the existing as well as newly translated cytosolic/organelle proteins against aggregation, respectively. By loss or gain of function, these dysregulated genes apparently seem to reprogram cells for apoptosis or proliferation and support their transformation into the tumor cell phenotype. The observed molecular changes can be seen as molecular signatures of transformed cells and can be of use as objective evidences to C3H/10T1/2 cell transformation assay in investigations on the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and their mechanism of actions using in vitro carcinogenesis method. PMID:23519560

Priya, Shivam; Nigam, Akanksha; Bajpai, Preeti; Kumar, Sushil

2013-03-22

252

Multi-intersection Traffic Light Control Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis  

CERN Document Server

We address the traffic light control problem for multiple intersections in tandem by viewing it as a stochastic hybrid system and developing a Stochastic Flow Model (SFM) for it. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive on-line gradient estimates of a cost metric with respect to the controllable green and red cycle lengths. The IPA estimators obtained require counting traffic light switchings and estimating car flow rates only when specific events occur. The estimators are used to iteratively adjust light cycle lengths to improve performance and, in conjunction with a standard gradient-based algorithm, to obtain optimal values which adapt to changing traffic conditions. Simulation results are included to illustrate the approach.

Geng, Yanfeng

2012-01-01

253

Error analysis of acceleration control loops of a synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For beam control during acceleration, it is conventional to derive the frequency from an external reference, be it a field marker or an external oscillator, to provide phase and radius feedback loops to ensure the phase stability, radial position and emittance integrity of the beam. The open and closed loop behaviors of both feedback control and their response under the possible frequency, phase and radius errors are derived from fundamental principles and equations. The stability of the loops is investigated under a wide range of variations of the gain and time delays. Actual system performance of the AGS Booster is analyzed and compared to commissioning experiences. Such analysis is useful for setting design criteria and tolerances for new proton synchrotrons. 4 refs., 13 figs.

1991-01-01

254

Control and Data Analysis for Emittance Measuring Devices  

CERN Multimedia

Due to the wide range of heavy ion beam intensities and energies in the GSI linac and the associated transfer channel to the synchrotron, several different types of emittance measurement systems have been established. Many common devices such as slit/grid or dipole-sweep systems are integrated into the GSI control system. Other systems like the single shot pepper pot method using CCD-cameras or stand-alone slit/grid set-ups are connected to personal computers. An overview is given about the various systems and their software integration. Main interest is directed on the software development for emittance front-end control and data analysis such as evaluation algorithms or graphical presentation of the results. In addition, special features for improved usability of the software such as data export, project databases and automatic report generation will be presented. An outlook on a unified evaluation procedure for all different types of emittance measurement is given.

Hoffmann, T

2001-01-01

255

An Analysis of the PLLs With Secondary Control Path  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract—The phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used in different areas of applications particularly for synchronization and control purposes in grid connected applications. A major challenge associated with the PLLs is how to improve their dynamic performance without jeopardizing their stability and filtering capability. Recently, some approaches based on adding a secondary control path (SCP) to the PLL structure have been proposed to deal with this challenge. The objective of this letter is to briefly analyze these approaches. The study starts with an overview of the PLLs with SCP. The letter proceeds with the small-signal modeling of some of these PLLs, which significantly simplifies the analysis. Using these models, the effects of adding the SCP on the PLL structure are studied. The obtained results show that the SCP may not be a practical approach to improve the PLL dynamic performance as it aggravates the stability problem.

Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek

2013-01-01

256

Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT) is an interactive computer-based management system developed for the Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security, to assist in defining and prioritizing measurement upgrades programs for Material Control and Accountancy (MC ampersand A). The accountancy upgrades options evaluated by SAMCAT in this study are: (1) improvement of the uncertainties in the SNM measurement methods, (2) reduction of throughputs and/or inventories of SNM, and (3) reduction of the material balance accounting period. The goals of the MC ampersand A upgrades program are reduced inventory differences and associated uncertainties, improved detection probabilities for theft/diversion, decreased operating costs, and enhanced material traceability. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

257

Occupancy-controlled lighting: energy-savings demonstration and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An energy analysis program evaluates the application of automatic occupancy-controlled light switching in two office buildings in New York City. These are the World Trade Center and the Rudin Management offices. The program evaluated energy savings, demand savings, cost savings, effect on total energy consumption equipment performance and user reaction. The devices used were pre-production developmental prototypes comprised of an infrared motion detector and control circuits designed to activate an external relay which switches lights off when it fails to sense a person in the space. The sensor measures both motion and infrared radiation emitted by a body and uses time delay. Substantial energy savings are reported for the lighting system, but the effect on the heating/cooling system energy consumption was found to be negligible. (LEW)

1982-05-01

258

Analysis of pressurizer level control system using MAAP4 code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The code initialization effort has been troubling code users for decades for system transient and severe accident analyses using codes such as RETRAN, MAAP4, MAAP5 and MELCOR. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an approach that could be considered a generic method to address the code initialization problem. This was demonstrated by developing a pressurizer level control model and temperature dependent level control logic in MAAP4 without re-compiling with the source code. The method would enhance the simulation capability and accuracy of a severe accident analysis by transient and severe accident analyses codes. The demonstration case used MAAP4 to show that the adopted proportional-integral controller with the temperature dependent level control logic would reduce its code steady state errors to zero. The subsequent transient response would become more realistic. The proposed method provides a convenient and exemplified approach for code initialization which is applicable to the next generation of codes that couple with the balance of plant models. These codes include the MAAP5 code and others future codes that could simulate the whole plant by a single and elaborate plant model with exhausting component and phenomenological models.

2010-01-01

259

National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements.

Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Claybourn, R V; Pavel, G; Schaefer, W J

2001-10-19

260

Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their kinetic properties were characterized. For the other enzymes of the pathway the kinetic data were available from the literature. The metabolic model was used to analyze flux and metabolite concentration control of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway. The model demonstrated that flux control does not reside at the enzyme following the intermediate with the highest concentration, L-arabitol, but is distributed over the first three steps in the pathway, preceding and following L-arabitol. Flux control appeared to be strongly dependent on the intracellular L-arabinose concentration. At 5 mM intracellular L-arabinose, a level that resulted in realistic intermediate concentrations in the model, flux control coefficients forL-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and L-xylulose reductase were 0.68, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The analysis can be used as a guide to identify targets for metabolic engineering aiming at either flux or metabolite level optimization of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway of A. niger. Faster L-arabinose utilization may enhance utilization of readily available organic waste containing hemicelluloses to be converted into industrially interesting metabolites or valuable enzymes or proteins.

de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements.

2001-01-01

262

Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

2000-06-01

263

Design and Performance Analysis of ZBT SRAM Controller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Memory is an essential part of electronic industry. Since, the processors used in various high performancePCs, network applications and communication equipment require high speed memories. The type ofmemory used depends on system architecture, and its applications. This paper presents an SRAMarchitecture known as Zero Bus Turnaround (ZBT). This ZBT SRAM is mainly developed for networkingapplications where frequent READ/WRITE transitions are required. The other single data rate SRAMs areinefficient as they require idle cycles when they frequently switch between reading and writing to thememory. This controller is simulated on the Spartan 3 device. And the performance analysis is done on thebasis of area, speed and power.

Smriti Sharma; Balwinder Singh

2013-01-01

264

Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

2000-01-01

265

Multinodal control room envelope model used for habitability analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work analyzes the habitability of the control room envelope (CRE) during an off-normal ventilation system condition. The most limiting design basis accident utilized for this analysis is the postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The off-normal condition assumes two rooms within the CRE are at pressures that are lower than adjoining rooms outside the CRE. This pressure differential allows unfiltered in-leakage to enter the CRE through the doors and penetrations in these rooms. This paper quantifies the maximum unfiltered in-leakage.

1995-11-01

266

Cost-benefit analysis in animal disease control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal health economics is a relatively new discipline which is progressively developing a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision making process in optimizing animal health management. Research in this field deals primarily with three interrelated aspects: (1) quantifying the financial effects of animal diseases, (2) developing methods for optimizing decisions when individual animals, herds or populations are affected, and (3) determining the costs and benefits of disease control measures. In the paper the four most common economic modelling techniques in animal health economics (i.e. partial budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, decision analysis, and systems simulation) are described and applied on three levels of veterinary decision making: the animal, herd and national level. Outcomes so far are summarized, and shortcomings indicated and discussed. The importance of a close link between economics and epidemiology is stressed for future development, as well as the need for, and possibilities of, an international exchange of models and procedures. (author)

1998-01-01

267

Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC) method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was applied to the statistical analysis of the selected blast furnace process output parameter with the aim to compare two production methods.

D. Noskievi?ová

2009-01-01

268

Process control analysis of IMRT QA: implications for clinical trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is two-fold: first is to investigate the process of IMRT QA using control charts and second is to compare control chart limits to limits calculated using the standard deviation (?). Head and neck and prostate IMRT QA cases from seven institutions in both academic and community settings are considered. The percent difference between the point dose measurement in phantom and the corresponding result from the treatment planning system (TPS) is used for analysis. The average of the percent difference calculations defines the accuracy of the process and is called the process target. This represents the degree to which the process meets the clinical goal of 0% difference between the measurements and TPS. IMRT QA process ability defines the ability of the process to meet clinical specifications (e.g. 5% difference between the measurement and TPS). The process ability is defined in two ways: (1) the half-width of the control chart limits, and (2) the half-width of ±3? limits. Process performance is characterized as being in one of four possible states that describes the stability of the process and its ability to meet clinical specifications. For the head and neck cases, the average process target across institutions was 0.3% (range: -1.5% to 2.9%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 7.2% (range: 5.3% to 9.8%) compared to 6.7% (range: 5.3% to 8.2%) using standard deviation limits. For the prostate cases, the average process target across the institutions was 0.2% (range: -1.8% to 1.4%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 4.4% (range: 1.3% to 9.4%) compared to 5.3% (range: 2.3% to 9.8%) using standard deviation limits. Using the standard deviation to characterize IMRT QA process performance resulted in processes being preferentially placed in one of the four states. This is in contrast to using control charts for process characterization where the IMRT QA processes were spread over three of the four states with none of the processes in the ideal state. Control charts may be used for IMRT QA in clinical trials to categorize process performance, minimize protocol variation and guide process improvements. For the duration of an institution's participation in a protocol, updated control charts can be periodically sent to the protocol QA center to document continued process performance to protocol specifications.

2008-09-21

269

Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

2008-04-01

270

Analysis and control of high power synchronous rectifier  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The description, steady state/dynamic analysis and control design of a high power synchronous rectifier is presented. The proposed rectifier system exploits selective harmonic elimination modulation techniques to minimize filtering requirements, and overcomes the dc voltage limitations of prior art equipment. A detailed derivation of the optimum pulse width modulation switching patterns, in the low frequency range for high power applications is presented. A general mathematical model of the rectifier is established which is non-linear and time-invariant. The transformation of reference frame and small signal linearization techniques are used to obtain closed form solutions from the mathematical model. The modelling procedure is verified by computer simulation. The closed loop design of the synchronous rectifier based on a phase and amplitude control strategy is investigated. The transfer functions derived from this analysis are used for the design of the regulators. The steady-state and dynamic results predicted by computer simulation are verified by PECAN. A systematic design procedure is developed and a detailed design example of a 1 MV-amp rectifer system is presented. 23 refs., 33 figs.

Singh Tejinder.

1993-01-01

271

Performance Analysis: Work Control Events Identified January - August 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded elements of an institutional work planning and control system. By the end of that year this system was documented and implementation had begun. In 2009, training of the workforce began and as of the time of this report more than 50% of authorized Integration Work Sheets (IWS) use the activity-based planning process. In 2010, LSO independently reviewed the work planning and control process and confirmed to the Laboratory that the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System was implemented. LLNL conducted a cross-directorate management self-assessment of work planning and control and is developing actions to respond to the issues identified. Ongoing efforts to strengthen the work planning and control process and to improve the quality of LLNL work packages are in progress: completion of remaining actions in response to the 2009 DOE Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) evaluation of LLNL's ISM System; scheduling more than 14 work planning and control self-assessments in FY11; continuing to align subcontractor work control with the Institutional work planning and control system; and continuing to maintain the electronic IWS application. The 24 events included in this analysis were caused by errors in the first four of the five ISMS functions. The most frequent cause was errors in analyzing the hazards (Function 2). The second most frequent cause was errors occurring when defining the work (Function 1), followed by errors during the performance of work (Function 4). Interestingly, very few errors in developing controls (Function 3) resulted in events. This leads one to conclude that if improvements are made to defining the scope of work and analyzing the potential hazards, LLNL may reduce the frequency or severity of events. Analysis of the 24 events resulted in the identification of ten common causes. Some events had multiple causes, resulting in the mention of 39 causes being identified for the 24 events. The most frequent cause was workers, supervisors, or experts believing they understood the work and the hazards but their understanding was incomplete. The s

De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R

2011-01-14

272

Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ~10nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. PMID:23910332

Sader, Marcia S; Martins, Virginia C A; Gomez, Santiago; Legeros, Racquel Z; Soares, Gloria A

2013-06-14

273

Temperature-dependent emission spectra of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for green and greenish white LEDs  

Science.gov (United States)

The temperature dependence of emission spectra of alkaline earth ortho-silicates M2SiO4 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) doped with Eu2+ ions is investigated. Two emission bands of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ show the normal redshift with broadening bandwidth and decreasing emission intensity as an increase in temperature. On the other hand, emission bands of Ca2SiO4:Eu2+ and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ show the anomalous blueshift with increasing temperature. For Ca2SiO4:Eu2+ and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+, the temperature dependence of the emission color can be described in terms of back tunneling from the excited state of low-energy emission band to the excited state of high-energy emission band in the configuration coordinate diagram. Our phosphors have a promising potential as phosphors for green or greenish white-light-emitting diode pumped by ultraviolet chip.

Kim, Jong Su; Park, Yun Hyung; Kim, Sun Myung; Choi, Jin Chul; Park, Hong Lee

2005-02-01

274

An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modelling of the CMS Detector Control System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviours and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and checked using a model checking algorithm. For checking local requirements such as endless loop freedom, the Bounded Model Checking technique is applied. This paper discusses these analysis techniques and presents the results of their application on the CMS FSM system.

2011-12-23

275

Re-analysis of the earliest controlled trials of imipramine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Re-analysis of outcomes of the earliest controlled trials of imipramine for comparison to more recent findings in antidepressant trials. METHODS: Controlled trial-reports of imipramine reviewed by Klerman and Cole (1965) were re-analyzed for their methods and response rates, using random-effects meta-analytic modeling. FINDINGS: In 18 early trials (1959-1965), imipramine yielded a large and highly significant, pooled drug/placebo response rate-ratio (RR) of 2.17 (CI: 1.87-2.51), with an estimated number-needed-to-treat (NNT) of 3.1 (CI: 2.1-5.8), even though only 9/18 (50%) trials, individually yielded statistically significant drug-placebo differences. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to imipramine in its earliest controlled trials were much larger than in recent antidepressant trials. Drug-placebo differences declined significantly between 1959 and 1965, with rising placebo-associated responses. Frequent failure to find superior drug-over-placebo outcomes may reflect patient characteristics and limited statistical power. Antidepressant-trial methods have become much more standardized, samples larger and more complex, and effect-sizes much smaller since the 1960s. LIMITATIONS: Some reports did not include relevant information, diagnostic and outcome criteria varied, and only 18/30 trials included responder-rates.

Undurraga J; Tondo L; Schalkwijk S; Vieta E; Baldessarini RJ

2013-05-01

276

Efficient analysis of case-control studies with sample weights.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Analysis of population-based case-control studies with complex sampling designs is challenging because the sample selection probabilities (and, therefore, the sample weights) depend on the response variable and covariates. Commonly, the design-consistent (weighted) estimators of the parameters of the population regression model are obtained by solving (sample) weighted estimating equations. Weighted estimators, however, are known to be inefficient when the weights are highly variable as is typical for case-control designs. In this paper, we propose two alternative estimators that have higher efficiency and smaller finite sample bias compared with the weighted estimator. Both methods incorporate the information included in the sample weights by modeling the sample expectation of the weights conditional on design variables. We discuss benefits and limitations of each of the two proposed estimators emphasizing efficiency and robustness. We compare the finite sample properties of the two new estimators and traditionally used weighted estimators with the use of simulated data under various sampling scenarios. We apply the methods to the U.S. Kidney Cancer Case-Control Study to identify risk factors. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Landsman V; Graubard BI

2013-01-01

277

ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented

2008-07-01

278

ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented.

Solovyanov, O; Solodkov, A; Starchenko, E; Karyukhin, A; Isaev, A; Shalanda, N [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino 142281 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Oleg.Solovyanov@ihep.ru

2008-07-01

279

Analysis of sulfur control strategies for the oil shale industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of the sulfur compounds that are potential pollutants in the oil shale industry, particularly on the distribution of sulfur species in the retort off-gas is presented. The analysis has a dual purpose: 1) to demonstrate what an owner or operator must consider in devising a system to comply with existing SO/sub 2/ emissions limits; and 2) to highlight some of the problems with the data available for making these decisions. Two control systems are considered: the Stretford H/sub 2/S removal process and flue gas desulfurization (FGD). Four model plants (A, B, C, and D) are used in the analysis. Plant A is based on data from the Paraho direct-fired surface retort; Plant B on the Occidental modified in-situ retort; Plant C on the Union SGR-3 indirect-fired hot-gas retort; and Plant D on the TOSCO II retort operating in the indirect-fired, hot-solid mode. The authors determined that Plants C and D should have little problem meeting the Colorado State regulation using Stretford technology. Plants A and B - those based on direct-fired processes - will probably not be able to meet the regulations using only Stretford technology. Plant A was able to achieve compliance using FGD alone, but even a combination of Stretford and FGD may not be able to bring Plant B into compliance. (JMT)

Daum, K.A.; Massoglia, M.F.; Shendrikar, A.D.

1982-04-01

280

Metabolic control and its analysis. Additional relationships between elasticities and control coefficients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing theorems from the analysis of metabolic control have been taken and embedded in a simple matrix algebra procedure for calculating the flux control coefficients of enzymes (formerly known as sensitivities) in a metabolic pathway from their kinetic properties (their elasticities). New theorems governing the flux control coefficients of branched pathways and substrate cycles have been derived to allow the procedure to be applied to complex pathway configurations. Modifications to the elasticity terms used in the equations have been theoretically justified so that the method remains valid for pathways with conserved metabolites (for example, the adenine nucleotide pool or the intermediates of a catalytic cycle such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle) or with pools of metabolites kept very near to equilibrium by very rapid reactions. The matrix equations generated using these theorems and relationships may be solved algebraically or numerically. Algebraic solutions have been used to determine the factors responsible for the degree of amplification of flux control coefficients by substrate cycles and to show that it is possible to derive expressions for the elasticities of a group of enzymes. PMID:3996393

Fell, D A; Sauro, H M

1985-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Metabolic control and its analysis. Additional relationships between elasticities and control coefficients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Existing theorems from the analysis of metabolic control have been taken and embedded in a simple matrix algebra procedure for calculating the flux control coefficients of enzymes (formerly known as sensitivities) in a metabolic pathway from their kinetic properties (their elasticities). New theorems governing the flux control coefficients of branched pathways and substrate cycles have been derived to allow the procedure to be applied to complex pathway configurations. Modifications to the elasticity terms used in the equations have been theoretically justified so that the method remains valid for pathways with conserved metabolites (for example, the adenine nucleotide pool or the intermediates of a catalytic cycle such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle) or with pools of metabolites kept very near to equilibrium by very rapid reactions. The matrix equations generated using these theorems and relationships may be solved algebraically or numerically. Algebraic solutions have been used to determine the factors responsible for the degree of amplification of flux control coefficients by substrate cycles and to show that it is possible to derive expressions for the elasticities of a group of enzymes.

Fell DA; Sauro HM

1985-05-01

282

Second-Order Analysis for Control Constrained Optimal Control Problems of Semilinear Elliptic Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a second-order analysis for a simple model optimal control problem of a partial differential equation, namely, a well-posed semilinear elliptic system with constraints on the control variable only. The cost to be minimized is a standard quadratic functional. Assuming the feasible set to be polyhedric, we state necessary and sufficient second-order optimality conditions, including a characterization of the quadratic growth condition. Assuming that the second-order sufficient condition holds, we give a formula for the second-order expansion of the value of the problem as well as the directional derivative of the optimal control, when the cost function is perturbed. Then we extend the theory of second-order optimality conditions to the case of vector-valued controls when the feasible set is defined by local and smooth convex constraints. When the space dimension n is greater than 3, the results are based on a two norms approach, involving spaces L2(?) and Ls(?) , with s>n/2

1998-01-01

283

Austrian meat: Authenticity control by stable isotope analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The EU has declared that all foodstuff must be able to be traced back from 'fork to farm' to increase the safety of food and the confidence of the consumers in food quality and safety. Additionally, several incidents of 'food diseases and scandals' related with meat (e.g.: BSE, foot and mouth disease, antibiotics abuse, avian flu, etc.) have demonstrated the necessity to trace back the origin of meat, to be able to locate sources of infection/mismanagement. Besides the conventional method of the control of documentation there is the possibility of control of origin by analysing the isotopic composition of meat and herewith controlling the questioned good itself. Stable isotope ratios of the elements HCNOS are varying geographically due to different environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, geology, soil, altitude, geography, etc.) thus every region possesses an individual pattern. The isotopic pattern is imprinted on plants and animals growing in a certain region, and therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can allow the identification of agricultural goods from different regions. For the control of origin of Austrian meat about 500 beef and 500 pork samples have been collected from slaughterhouses and were analysed for the isotopic composition of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur and compared with the isotopic composition of meat samples from neighbouring countries. As Austria, despite being a small country, is very heterogeneous in its environmental conditions, thus there are significant differences in the isotopic patterns of individual Austrian provinces. The isotopic signature of meat samples from neighbouring countries can overlap with the 'Austrian isotope pattern' due to similar environmental conditions. However, a correct statistical classification has been achieved for 80% and 84% of the analysed beef and pork samples, respectively. If the declared origin of meat can be pinned down to an Austrian province, the discrimination power of the database is even significantly better. (author)

2009-01-01

284

Admission hyperglycemia causes infarct volume expansion in patients with ICA or MCA occlusion: association of collateral grade on conventional angiography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hyperglycemia (HG) is associated with infarct volume expansion in acute ischaemic stroke patients. However, collateral circulation can sustain the ischaemic penumbra and limit the growth of infarct volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between HG and infarct volume expansion is dependent on collateral circulation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 93 acute ischaemic stroke patients with internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion within 24 h of onset were retrospectively studied. HG was diagnosed in patients with an admitting blood glucose value ?140 mg/dl. Angiographic collateral grade 0-1 was designated as poor collateral circulation and grade 2-4 as good collateral circulation. Infarct volume was measured at admission and at again within 7 days using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. RESULTS: Among 34 patients with poor collateral grade, the change in infarct volume was significantly greater in the HG group than in the non-HG group (106.0 ml vs. 22.7 ml, P = 0.002). Among the 59 patients with good collateral circulation, the change in infarct volume was greater in the HG group than in the non-HG group (53.3 ml vs. 10.9 ml, P = 0.047). Multiple regression analysis indicated that admission HG (P = 0.004), baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (P = 0.018), and poor collateral circulation (P = 0.040) were independently associated with infarct volume expansion. CONCLUSIONS: Infarct volume expansion was greater in individuals with HG on admission regardless of collateral circulation status.

Shimoyama T; Shibazaki K; Kimura K; Uemura J; Shiromoto T; Watanabe M; Inoue T; Iguchi Y; Mochio S

2013-01-01

285

Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design--such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I and C system designs--makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I and C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development.

2007-01-01

286

Control and inhibition analysis of complex formation processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key event in tumour metastasis and invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that degrade most of the components of the ECM. Several broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) have been developed, but have had little success due to side effects. Thus, it is important to develop mathematical methods to provide new drug treatment strategies. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activation occurs via a mechanism involving complex formation that consists of membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2) and MMP2. Here, we focus on developing a method for analysing the complex formation process. Results We used control analysis to investigate inhibitor responses in complex formation processes. The essence of the analysis is to define the response coefficient which measures the inhibitory efficiency, a small fractional change of concentration of a targeting molecule in response to a small fractional change of concentration of an inhibitor. First, by using the response coefficient, we investigated models for general classes of complex formation processes: chain reaction systems composed of ordered steps, and chain reaction systems and site-binding reaction systems composed of unordered multi-branched steps. By analysing the ordered step models, we showed that parameter-independent inequalities between the response coefficients held. For the unordered multi-branched step models, we showed that independence of the response coefficients with respect to equilibrium constants held. As an application of our analysis, we discuss a mathematical model for the MMP2 activation process. By putting the experimentally derived parameter values into the model, we were able to conclude that the TIMP2 and MMP2 interaction is the most efficient interaction to consider in selecting inhibitors. Conclusions Our result identifies a new drug target in the process of the MMP2 activation. Thus, our analysis will provide new insight into the design of more efficient drug strategies for cancer treatment.

Saitou Takashi; Itano Keiko; Hoshino Daisuke; Koshikawa Naohiko; Seiki Motoharu; Ichikawa Kazuhisa; Suzuki Takashi

2012-01-01

287

Engine Control Improvement through Application of Chaotic Time Series Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this program was to investigate cyclic variations in spark-ignition (SI) engines under lean fueling conditions and to develop options to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines at high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. The CIDI activity builds upon an earlier collaboration between ORNL and Ford examining combustion instabilities in SI engines. Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to understand the fundamental causes of combustion instability in spark-ignition engines operating with lean fueling. The results of this earlier activity demonstrated that such combustion instabilities are dominated by the effects of residual gas remaining in each cylinder from one cycle to the next. A very simple, low-order model was developed that explained the observed combustion instability as a noisy nonlinear dynamical process. The model concept lead to development of a real-time control strategy that could be employed to significantly reduce cyclic variations in real engines using existing sensors and engine control systems. This collaboration led to the issuance of a joint patent for spark-ignition engine control. After a few years, the CRADA was modified to focus more on EGR and CIDI engines. The modified CRADA examined relationships between EGR, combustion, and emissions in CIDI engines. Information from CIDI engine experiments, data analysis, and modeling were employed to identify and characterize new combustion regimes where it is possible to simultaneously achieve significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions. These results were also used to develop an on-line combustion diagnostic (virtual sensor) to make cycle-resolved combustion quality assessments for active feedback control. Extensive experiments on engines at Ford and ORNL led to the development of the virtual sensor concept that may be able to detect simultaneous reductions in NOx and PM emissions under low temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. An invention disclosure was submitted to ORNL for the virtual sensor under the CRADA. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the research results were carried out on a regular basis (annual reports and meetings) followed by suggestions for improvement in ongoing work and direction for future work. A significant portion of the industrial support was in the form of experimentation, data analysis, data exchange, and technical consultation.

Green, J.B., Jr.; Daw, C.S.

2003-07-15

288

Use of upper bound delay estimate in stability analysis and robust control compensation in networked control systems  

CERN Multimedia

Recent interest in networked control systems (NCS) has instigated research in various areas of both communication networks and control. The analysis of NCS has often been performed either from the network, or the control point of view and not many papers exist were the analysis of both is done in the same context. Here a simple overall analysis is presented. In the paper the procedure of obtaining the upper bound delay value in the switched Ethernet network is proposed and the obtained delay estimate is used in stability analysis of the feedback loop and in the control compensation. The upper bound delay algorithm is based on the network calculus theory, the stability analysis uses the small gain theorem, and control compensating strategy is based on Smith predictor, where however the upper bound delay is utilised in obtaining the delay estimate.

Georges, J P; Rondeau, E; Jounela, S L J; Georges, Jean-Philippe; Vatanski, Nikolai; Rondeau, Eric; Jounela, Sirkka-Liisa J\\"{a}ms\\"{a}

2006-01-01

289

Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion coefficient. The inherent instability of high density suspensions instigated high speed analysis techniques capable of monitoring suspensions that were undergoing rapid change as well as suggesting novel methods for the evaluation of the state of sample dispersion. (author)

1997-01-01

290

Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO{sub 2} suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion coefficient. The inherent instability of high density suspensions instigated high speed analysis techniques capable of monitoring suspensions that were undergoing rapid change as well as suggesting novel methods for the evaluation of the state of sample dispersion. (author)

Lloyd, Christopher James

1997-07-01

291

Multielemental determination in platinum rocks by nondestructive neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Na, Zn, Re, Sc, Ir, Ru, Pt, Fe and Co were determined in Pt-rock samples from different parts of India by thermal neutron activation analysis followed by nondestructive analysis on a MCA. The accuracy and precision of the method were determined. (author) 1 tab.

1990-01-01

292

Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified the physical processes controlling the functioning of the method. A sensitivity analysis for selected boundary conditions, initial conditions and parameters was carried out to examine how the method behaves under conditions different from the experimental set-up. The simulations show that at the laboratory level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface.

HØier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel

2009-01-01

293

Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes) free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES) based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

A. M. Oliveira Filho

1989-01-01

294

Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2  

CERN Multimedia

In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

2012-01-01

295

Establishment of analysis procedure for control rod reactivity worth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As to the calculation method of control rod reactivity relating to hexagonal assembly, which are used generally in fast reactor, we have investigated the calculation method, the problems to rise during calculation, the degrees of calculation and the enhancement of calculation modeling so on, and estimated the application of calculation method through comparison and analysis of calculation result using the effective cross section generation system, TRANSX/TWODANT, and neutron flux calculation system, diffusion theory code DIF-3D, which are belonged to K-CORE System, and determined the basic calculation method, and extracted the present calculation problem in case of application in K-CORE System and the future improvement items so on

2001-01-01

296

Analysis of a controlled phase gate using circular Rydberg states  

CERN Multimedia

We propose and analyze the implementation of a two qubit quantum gate using circular Rydberg states with maximum orbital angular momentum. The intrinsic quantum gate error is limited by the finite Rydberg lifetime and finite Rydberg blockade shift. Circular states have much longer radiative lifetimes than low orbital angular momentum states and are therefore candidates for high fidelity gate operations. We analyze the dipole-dipole interaction of two circular state Rydberg atoms and present numerical simulations of quantum process tomography to find the intrinsic fidelity of a Rydberg blockade controlled phase gate. Our analysis shows that the intrinsic gate error can be less than $9 \\times10^{-6}$ for circular Cs atoms in a cryogenic environment.

Xia, T; Saffman, M

2013-01-01

297

An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modeling of the CMS Detector Control System  

CERN Multimedia

The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviors and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and c...

Ling Hwong, Yi

2010-01-01

298

Anomaly and error detection in computerized materials control & accountability databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unites States Department of Energy sites use computerized material control and accountability (MC&A) systems to manage the large amounts of data necessary to control and account for their nuclear materials. Theft or diversion of materials from these sites would likely result in anomalies in the data, and erroneous information greatly reduces the value of the information to its users. Therefore, it is essential that MC&A data be periodically assessed for anomalies or errors. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been developing expert systems to provide efficient, cost-effective, automated error and anomaly detection. Automated anomaly detection can provide assurance of the integrity of data, reduce inventory frequency, enhance assurance of physical inventory, detect errors in databases, and gain a better perspective on overall facility operations. The Automated MC&A Database Assessment Project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in MC&A databases and increasing confidence in the data. We are working with data from the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, the Facility`s near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This paper describes progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on our results.

Whiteson, R.; Hoffbauer, B.; Yarbro, T.F. [and others

1997-09-01

299

Multi-fingerprint and quality control analysis of tea polysaccharides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV), infrared absorption spectra (IR) and ion chromatography (IC) techniques were used in fingerprint analysis of tea polysaccharides (TPS). Multi-fingerprint was applied to assess TPS consistency and to discriminate other polysaccharides in order to achieve the quality control of TPS. The experimental data for spectrogram and chromatogram were used for similarity calculation, included angle cosine method and correlation coefficient method. The results showed that the UV absorption spectra, IR absorption spectra and IC of 22 batches of TPS had a high degree of similarity, respectively, and the similar indexes were up to 0.9985 and 0.9475. Other five polysaccharides were compared with the referential fingerprint, which had an obvious difference. It could conclude that some differences were really existed between TPS and other polysaccharides; and multi-fingerprint is a more useful means to control the quality of TPS than one simple fingerprint. This analytical method is highly rapid, effective, visual and accurate for polysaccharides research.

Wang Y; Xian J; Xi X; Wei X

2013-01-01

300

Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM. We also included the comparative analysis of loss rate having different bandwidth for these algorithms.

Sanjeev Patel; P. K. Gupta; Arjun Garg; Prateek Mehrotra; Manish Chhabra

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: DETERMINING UNIVERSITY RISK MITIGATION AND CONTROL MECHANISMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper seeks to examine adequacy of risk mitigation mechanisms by using methodologies derived from quantitative risk analysis in a University context. A questionnaire and an interview schedule were administered. The researchers used ‘risk modal’ responses model for the evaluation of the adequacy of risk mitigation. Furthermore, the researchers incorporated expert judgements, binomial distribution model and one way-repeated measure ANOVA into the risk mitigation analysis. The first category of findings revealed that (1) the University has no adequate control mechanisms to mitigate risk (2) the University does not take adequate account of key risks identified by key stakeholders and thirdly (3) the University’s overall approach to risk management, as assessed for one-academic year is not adequate for its strategic objectives. The second category from general perspective suggested there was a significant relationship between individual key risks been assigned to appropriate managers and risk mitigation. Moreover, there was good reason to suggest a relationship between various committees taking adequate account of key risks identified by key stakeholders and risk mitigation. Lastly the results revealed that there was enough evidence supporting a relationship between institution's overall approach to risk management, and its strategic objectives on risk mitigation.

Anass BAYAGA; Xoliswa MTOSE

2010-01-01

302

Demographic analysis of randomized controlled trials in bladder cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Results from well designed randomized controlled trials usually provide the strongest evidence possible in favour of one medical intervention over another. For this reason, it is of paramount importance to conduct such trials in bladder cancer, where randomized trials are lacking, in particular to answer questions that have so far confounded us or to investigate the efficacy of new diagnostic tools or interventions. This study provides a demographic analysis of randomized controlled trials published in bladder cancer between the years of 1995 and 2010, with only 238 articles identified. Less than one-third of these reported a statistical power calculation, and only 8% were double-blinded. With many publications inaccurately labelled as randomized trials, we reveal the scarcity of trials performed over the given time period, even compared with other cancers with similar incidence, and highlight the need for more well designed trials to be conducted. OBJECTIVE: To demographically examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have been conducted in bladder cancer over a predefined time period. METHODS: Various techniques have been described to detect RCTs using different databases. We searched the MEDLINE database by crossing the heading 'Urinary bladder neoplasms' with the MeSHs 'Clinical trial$.mp. OR clinical trial.pt. OR random:.mp. OR tu.xs.' between 1995 and 2010. For the RCTs identified, analysis was performed on each RCT, placing particular emphasis on modality of intervention, cohort size, principal author, region, journal type, disease status, histology, blinding, number of centres involved, performance of a statistical power calculation, accrual status and trial support. RESULTS: Of 5002 RCT bladder cancer papers retrieved over the given period, only 238 represented actual RCTs after manual appraisal. More than half of the RCTs investigated medical and surgical therapies (54.2%), and only half had a sample size of >100 patients. A small percentage of studies were double-blinded (8.0%), and there was an almost equal distribution of multicentre vs single centre trials (54.6% vs 45.4%). More studies were conducted in Europe (61.3%) than the rest of the world combined, with urologists principally the lead investigators in the majority (72.3%). Most studies were conducted on patients with urothelial carcinoma (97.1%), with less than one-third reporting a statistical power calculation (31.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Only 238 RCTs were published for bladder cancer between 1995 and 2010. RCTs are under-utilized in bladder cancer. More trials need to be designed with larger sample sizes in order to optimize diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with bladder cancer.

Bachir BG; Shariat SF; Zlotta A; Svatek R; Black PC; Shah JB; Kassouf W

2013-03-01

303

Financial analysis of pseudorabies control and eradication in swine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computerized decision-tree analysis and simulation modeling were used to evaluate control and eradication strategies for pseudorabies virus (PRV) in swine. Three alternative actions were considered for a hypothetical 100-sow, farrow-to-finish operation: (1) depopulation-repopulation, (2) test-and-removal of seropositives (T&R), and (3) vaccination (of the entire herd or of sows only). The expected monetary values for the vaccination and T&R alternatives were similar, which was consistent with the long-standing controversy over the best strategy for dealing with PRV. When the prevalence rate of PRV was less than or equal to 57%, T&R was found to be optimal; otherwise, vaccination of sows only was recommended. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine how modifications in some of the original assumptions affected the expected monetary values of each strategy. When higher gross margins for the producer were assumed, T&R was preferred at all prevalence rates. Vaccination was preferred when lower gross margins, lower vaccination costs, or better protective effect of PRV vaccines on reproductive performance were assumed. The use of gene-deleted vaccines in conjunction with the T&R strategy was also evaluated. When this option was available, T&R was favored at any prevalence rate (T&R alone when the prevalence was less than or equal to 20%, or combined with gene-deleted vaccination at prevalences greater than 20%). Depopulation-repopulation was not the best option under any circumstance. Once formulated, a decision-tree analysis can be adapted to the prevailing economic or epidemiologic conditions; hence, it is a useful tool in the PRV decision-making process.

Rodrigues CA; Gardner IA; Carpenter TE

1990-11-01

304

Heat-treatment control by means of acoustic emission analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In acoustic emission, sound waves are emitted by fast release of elastically accumulated energy, the frequency of which extends from audible sound up to supersonic frequencies. The causes for the production of sound are chiefly plastic deformation, phase transformations, crack formation, rupture and friction phenomena. By analyzing the acoustic signals according to origin, amplitudes, frequency, pulse rate, and pulse sum, detailed statements can be made on the behavior of materials under stress. In this summarizing paper, all basic problems of acoustic emission analysis are presented in detail by the example of heat-treatment control (welding, hardening, tempering, annealing) including disturbing effect (formation of steam bubbles, scaling etc.). Quantification of the evidence from acoustic emission analysis in the sense of assigning the signals to type and size of faults is still being worked upon. Acoustic emission analysis until now could be applied successfully mainly to large components such like, e.g., reactor pressure vessels and pipes. Detailed results are given for the individual heat-treatment process. (orig.)[de] Bei der Schallemission werden durch schnelle Freisetzung elastisch gespeicherter Energie Schallwellen ausgesendet, deren Frequenz vom Hoerschall bis zum Ultraschall reicht. Als Ursache fuer die Schallentstehung sind vor allem plastische Verformungen, Phasenumwandlungen, Rissbildungen, Bruch- und Reibungsvorgaenge zu nennen. Durch Analyse der Schallsignale nach Entstehungsort, Amplituden, Frequenz, Impulsrate und Impulssumme koennen weitgehende Aussagen ueber das Verhalten eines Werkstoffes unter Belastung gewonnen werden. In dieser Uebersichtsarbeit werden alle grundlegenden Probleme der Schallemissionsanalyse (SEA) anhand der Ueberwachung von Waermebehandlungen (Schweissen, Haerten, Anlassen, Gluehen) einschliesslich der Stoereffekte (Dampfblasenbildung, Zunderbildung u.ae.) ausfuehrlich dargestellt. An der Quantifizierung der Aussagen der SEA hinsichtlich einer Zuordnung der Signale zu Fehlerart und Fehlergroesse wird noch gearbeitet. Vor allem an grossvolumigen Bauteilen, z.B. Reaktordruckbehaeltern und Rohrleitungen, konnte die SEA bisher mit Erfolg angewendet werden. Zu den einzelnen Waermebehandlungsverfahren werden ausfuehrliche Ergebnisse mitgeteilt. (orig.)

1977-01-01

305

Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides is an integral component of planning and evaluation of insecticide use in malaria control programmes. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, better known as knockdown resistance (kdr). In An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, two different substitutions in the para-type sodium channel, a L1014F substitution common in West Africa and a L1014S replacement found in Kenya, are linked with kdr. Two different allele-specific polymerase chain reactions (AS-PCR) are needed to detect these known kdr mutations. However, these AS-PCR assays rely on a single nucleotide polymorphism mismatch, which can result in unreliable results. Methods Here, a new assay for the detection of knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/Melt Curve analysis (FRET/MCA) is presented and compared with the existing assays. Results The new FRET/MCA method has the important advantage of detecting both kdr alleles in one assay. Moreover, results show that the FRET/MCA is more reliable and more sensitive than the existing AS-PCR assays and is able to detect new genotypes. By using this technique, the presence of the East African kdr mutation (L1014S) is shown for the first time in An. arabiensis specimens from Uganda. In addition, a new kdr genotype is reported in An. gambiae s.s. from Uganda, where four An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes possess both, the West (L1014F) and East (L1014S) African kdr allele, simultaneously. Conclusion The presence of both kdr mutations in the same geographical region shows the necessity of a reliable assay that enables to detect both mutations in one single assay. Hence, this new assay based on FRET/MCA will improve the screening of the kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis.

Verhaeghen Katrijn; Van Bortel Wim; Roelants Patricia; Backeljau Thierry; Coosemans Marc

2006-01-01

306

Analysis of the Optimal Relaxed Control to an Optimal Control Problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relaxed controls are widely used to analyze the existence of optimal controls in the literature. Though there are many optimal control problems admitting no optimal control, rare examples were shown. This paper will solve a particular optimal control problem by analyzing the optimal relaxed controls, showing the ideas we used to study such kind of problems

2009-01-01

307

The value of standards. Essay on a cost-benefit analysis of environmental policy. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In practice, societal cost-benefit analysis (MKBA in Dutch), multicriteria analysis (MCA) and cost effectiveness analysis are applied to compare the costs and beneficial effects of governmental policies. In this report attention is paid to the societal benefits and the economic impacts of environmental standards

2006-01-01

308

Análise do controle por regras/ Rule-Control Analysis/ Analyse du contrôle par des règles/ Análisis del control por reglas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na Análise do Comportamento, há uma proposição que sugere que regras não alterariam a probabilidade do comportamento vir a ocorrer no futuro e outra proposição que sugere que regras podem exercer este efeito. O presente estudo tem como objetivo apresentar essas proposições. Antes disso, apresentam-se a distinção entre o comportamento controlado por regras e o controlado por contingências; alguns procedimentos utilizados para investigar o controle por regras e (more) algumas proposições teóricas acerca de como regras funcionam. Em seguida, apresentam-se algumas razões pelas quais regras são seguidas, destacando os efeitos de consequências atrasadas. Conclui-se apresentando argumentos de que regras podem alterar a probabilidade do comportamento vir a ocorrer no futuro. Abstract in spanish En el Análisis del Comportamiento hay una propuesta que sugiere que reglas no alterarían la probabilidad del comportamiento ocurrir en el futuro y otra que sugiere que reglas pueden ejercer este efecto. Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar estas propuestas. Inicialmente se presenta 1) la distinción entre el comportamiento gobernado por reglas y el moldeado por las contingencias; 2) algunos de los procedimientos utilizados para investigar el control por reglas; y (more) 3) algunas propuestas teóricas acerca de cómo funcionan las reglas. A continuación se presentan algunas razones por las que se siguen reglas, poniendo de relieve los efectos de consecuencias demoradas. Para concluir, se presentan argumentos favorables a la propuesta de que reglas pueden alterar la probabilidad del comportamiento ocurrir en el futuro. Abstract in english In Behavior Analysis there is a proposal in which rules do not alter the probability of behavior future occurrence and another one in which rules can exercise this effect. The present study has the objective of presenting such proposals. Before this, the distinction between rule-controlled behavior and the contingency-controlled behavior are presented, besides some procedures used to investigate rule control and some theoretical propositions concerning how rules function. (more) Afterwards, some reasons why rules are followed are presented, highlighting the effects of delayed consequences. In conclusion, arguments stating that rules can alter the probability of future behavior are presented.

Albuquerque, Luiz Carlos de; Paracampo, Carla Cristina Paiva

2010-06-01

309

A Quality Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials about Erectile Dysfunction  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose A low quality clinical trial could produce errors, and these errors could, in turn, distort the results of the clinical trial. To avoid applying distorted results of trials clinically, a quality analysis of clinical trials is needed. Materials and Methods We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about erectile dysfunction (ED) conducted in Korea using Medline and KoreaMed. Quality assessment of selected RCTs was performed using three assessment tools (Jadad scales, van Tulder scale, Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool [CCRBT]). Results The first RCT about ED conducted in Korea was published in 2002. Since 2002, a total of 20 RCTs have been published in medical journals. Among the 20 articles, only 1 article was found to have a low risk of bias according to the CCRBT. On the Jadad scale, there were 17 high quality articles, while 19 articles were assessed as high quality by the VTS. Only 2 RCTs described the randomization method adequately. Only 1 RCT presented allocation concealment. Conclusions A low quality clinical trial could produce errors, and these errors could, in turn, distort the results of the clinical trial. To avoid applying distorted results of trials clinically, a quality analysis of clinical trials is needed. The quality of RCTs was found to be high because almost all of the selected RCTs were double blinded studies. However, the quality of RCTs was inadequate with regard to the lack of randomization and absence of allocation concealment. Therefore, performing adequate randomization and adding a description of the appropriate concealment of allocation may improve the quality of RCTs.

Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jeong Woo; Jo, Jung Ki; Kim, Kyu Shik

2013-01-01

310

Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two methods. Closing remarks conclude the paper.

Ngo, Trung Dung

2010-01-01

311

Model-based analysis of control performance in sewer systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Design and assessment of control in wastewater systems has to be tackled at all levels, including supervisory and regulatory level. We present here an integrated approach to assessment of control in sewer systems based on modelling and the use of process control tools to assess the controllability of the process. A case study of a subcatchment area in Copenhagen (Denmark) is used to illustrate the combined approach in modelling of the system and control assessment.

Mollerup, Ane HØyer; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel

2012-01-01

312

Zinc and glycemic control: a meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled supplementation trials in humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Impaired zinc metabolism is prominent in chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Zinc has the potential to affect glucose homeostasis in animals and humans and hence impact the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials was conducted to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin and serum zinc concentrations. Relevant studies for inclusion were identified from a literature search of electronic databases up to July 2011. RESULTS: Fourteen reports (n=3978 subjects) were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, a small but statistically significant reduction in fasting glucose concentrations was observed (-0.19±0.08mmol/L, P=0.013) after zinc supplementation. HbA1c tended to decrease in zinc-supplemented individuals (-0.64±0.36%, P=0.072). No significant effect was observed for serum insulin concentrations. Plasma zinc concentrations increased significantly following supplementation (+4.03±0.81?mol/L, P=0.001). In secondary analyses of participants with chronic metabolic disease (types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), zinc supplementation produced a greater reduction in glucose concentrations (-0.49±0.11mmol/L, P=0.001) compared to the effect that was observed in healthy participants. CONCLUSION: The significant albeit modest reduction in glucose concentrations and tendency for a decrease in HbA1c following zinc supplementation suggest that zinc may contribute to the management of hyperglycemia in individuals with chronic metabolic disease.

Capdor J; Foster M; Petocz P; Samman S

2013-04-01

313

Analysis of the reflexive feedback control loop during posture maintenance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In previous work it has been shown in posture experiments of the human arm that reflexive dynamics were substantial for narrow-band stochastic force disturbances. The estimated reflex gains varied substantially with the frequency content of the disturbances. The present study analyses a simplified linear model of the reflexive feedback control loop, to provide an explanation for the observed behaviour. The model describes co-activation and reflexive feedback. The task instruction 'minimize the displacements' is represented mathematically by a cost function that is minimized by adjusting the parameters of the model. Small-amplitude displacements allow the system to be analysed with a quasilinear approach. The optimization results clarify the limited effectiveness of reflexive feedback on the system's closed-loop behaviour, which emanates from the time delay present in the reflex loops. For low-frequency inputs less than 5 Hz, boundary-stable solutions with high reflex gains are predicted to be optimal. Input frequencies near the system's eigenfrequency (about 5 Hz), however, would be amplified and result in oscillatory behaviour. As long as the disturbance does not excite these frequencies, boundary stability will be optimal. The predicted reflex gains show a striking similarity with the estimated reflex gains from the experimental study. The present model analysis also provides a clear explanation for the negative reflex gains, estimated for near-sinusoidal inputs beyond 1.5 Hz.

de Vlugt E; van der Helm FC; Schouten AC; Brouwn GG

2001-02-01

314

Analysis of the reflexive feedback control loop during posture maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous work it has been shown in posture experiments of the human arm that reflexive dynamics were substantial for narrow-band stochastic force disturbances. The estimated reflex gains varied substantially with the frequency content of the disturbances. The present study analyses a simplified linear model of the reflexive feedback control loop, to provide an explanation for the observed behaviour. The model describes co-activation and reflexive feedback. The task instruction 'minimize the displacements' is represented mathematically by a cost function that is minimized by adjusting the parameters of the model. Small-amplitude displacements allow the system to be analysed with a quasilinear approach. The optimization results clarify the limited effectiveness of reflexive feedback on the system's closed-loop behaviour, which emanates from the time delay present in the reflex loops. For low-frequency inputs less than 5 Hz, boundary-stable solutions with high reflex gains are predicted to be optimal. Input frequencies near the system's eigenfrequency (about 5 Hz), however, would be amplified and result in oscillatory behaviour. As long as the disturbance does not excite these frequencies, boundary stability will be optimal. The predicted reflex gains show a striking similarity with the estimated reflex gains from the experimental study. The present model analysis also provides a clear explanation for the negative reflex gains, estimated for near-sinusoidal inputs beyond 1.5 Hz. PMID:11205350

de Vlugt, E; van der Helm, F C; Schouten, A C; Brouwn, G G

2001-02-01

315

Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels.

Yamaguchi M; Matsuda Y; Sasaki S; Sasaki M; Kadoma Y; Imai Y; Niwa D; Shetty V

2013-03-01

316

Performance Analysis Of Shunt Active Filter Using Different Controllers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, Performance of Shunt active power filter (SAPF) is analyzed for various types of non linear loads. Among the various control schemes available for SAPF, indirect current control scheme is used here. PI controller and fuzzy logic controller are used to analyze its performance for various types of nonlinear loads (R, DC motor, Induction motor). The output parameters are Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and power factor. The results are obtained with the conventional PI controller and fuzzy controller. The proposed method offer an efficient control method under the various load conditions results in power factor improvement and THD reduction. Simulation of the proposed controller(PI and fuzzy logic controller) of a shunt active power filter has been carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the aim is to reduce the THD and improve the power factor.

K.Sarasvathi#1 , R.Rajalakshmi#2 , Member, IEEE

2013-01-01

317

Novel analysis of Petri-net-based controllers by means of TCT implementation tool of supervisory control theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of discrete event systems (DES) has been widely studied in the past two decades. Finite-state automata (FSA) and Petri nets (PN) are the two principal modelling formalisms for this study. Supervisory control theory (SCT), based on language and FSA concepts, is a well established framework for the study of discrete event control systems (DECS). PN-based approaches to the control design have been considered as an alternative framework. In the PN-based control of DES, given an uncontrolled PN model of a system and a set of specifications, a PN-based controller consisting of monitors (control places) is synthesised to solve the problem. In general, forbidden-state specifications are considered. Another heavily studied specification is to obtain the live system behaviour (non-blockingness in SCT terminology) for a given PN model by computing a PN-based controller. Unfortunately, PN-based analysis tools cannot deal with uncontrollable transitions. Therefore, to date there is no general technique for the correctness analysis of the computed PN-based controllers. This paper proposes a novel and general methodology to carry out the correctness analysis for the computed PN-based controllers by using the TCT implementation tool of SCT. Three examples are considered for illustration.

Murat Uzam

2010-01-01

318

Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

1998-01-01

319

Direct Torque Control in presence of Current sensor failure in Variable Speed Wind System: Effect analysis, detection and control reconfiguration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study of current sensor failure in a Direct Torque Control applied to a Double Fed Induction Generator based Variable Speed Wind System. The effect of scaling and offset current sensor errors is discussed through sensibility analysis. A control reconfiguration is then proposed to remedy this sensor failure. Simulation results emphasize the good performances of the proposed current sensor fault tolerant control

A. J. Arbi; I. Slama-Belkhodja

2008-01-01

320

Quality control analysis of imported fertilizers used in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty three (23) imported fertilizer samples of 5 fertilizer types have been analysed to determine their quality. The main objective of this research was to validate specifications indicated by manufacturers' on their fertilizer products. To achieve this objective, the fertilizer samples were analysed using five analytical techniques (INAA, AAS, flame photometer, kjeldahl method and UV-visible spectroscopy) to determine the concentrations of macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca and S), micronutrients (Cu, Na, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Hg and Pd) in the fertilizer samples. Results obtained from analysis were compared with certified values obtained from the companies and with standard values obtained from MOFA to establish whether the imported fertilizers met standards. Two reference materials (IAEA Soil-7 and SRM 1646a Estuarine Sediment) were used to validate the quantitative methods employed in the INAA and AAS techniques. Good agreements (98%) were obtained between the measured and verified concentrations for most of the elements. Analytical results revealed that the concentrations of the primary macronutrients (N, P and K) claimed by the manufacturers were valid. In contrast, manufacturers' claims for micronutrient concentrations did not agree with analytical results. The concentrations recorded were far below the minimum plant nutrient guarantees. For instance, the highest values recorded for Cu and Zn were 0.0265% and 0.00305% respectively, whiles the minimum guaranteed values were set at 0.05%. Heavy metal levels recorded in the fertilizers were insignificant and therefore do not present possible contamination problems during fertilizer application. In conclusion, not all the nutrient requirements expected of imported fertilizers were met. There is therefore the need for a good quality control system to monitor the chemical compositions of fertilizers imported into Ghana (au).

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The Modeling of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor for control analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), the development of a pre-conceptual design for an HTGR is to be carried out. For the control characteristics and dependence of the control on the system design features, HTR-10 was used as the reference design for simulating the control. This paper describes the development of analysis program for reactor control.

Song, Soon Ja; Park, Won Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

322

Design and Analysis of a Sliding Table Controller for Diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A discrete insulin infusion based on long-time interval measurement is the classic technique for diabetes treatment. Nevertheless, in this research, a closed-loop control system was proposed for continuous drug infusion to overcome the drawbacks of these typical discrete methods and develop more practical diabetes therapy systems. A blood glucose-insulin system was implemented relying on continuous insulin injection model. Based on this model, two controllers were designed to deal with the control dilemma of the resulting highly nonlinear plant. The controllers designed in this paper are: proportional integral derivative (PID), and sliding table controllers. Simulation results have shown that the sliding table controller can outperform the PID controller even with severe circumstances of disturbance in glucose, such as exercise, delay or noise in glucose sensor and nutrition mixed meal absorption at meal times.

Ahmed Y. Ben Sasi; Mahmud A. Elmalki

2013-01-01

323

Zonal frequency analysis of the gyral and sulcal extent of cerebral infarcts. Part III: Middle cerebral artery and watershed infarcts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We tested the hypothesis that frequency analysis of the anatomic zones affected by single anterior (A), posterior (P), and middle (M) cerebral artery (CA), multivessel, and watershed infarcts will disclose specific sites (peak zones) most frequently involved by each type, sites most frequently injured by multiple different types (vulnerable zones), and overlapping sites of equal relative frequency for two or more different types of infarct (equal frequency zones). We adopted precise definitions of each vascular territory. CT and MRI studies of 50 MCA, 20 ACA-MCA, three PCA-MCA, and 30 parasagittal watershed infarcts were mapped onto a standard template. Relative infarct frequencies in each zone were analyzed within and across infarct types to identify the centers and peripheries of each, vulnerable zones, and equal frequency zones. These data were then correlated with the prior analysis of 47 ACA, PCA, dual ACA-PCA, and ACA-PCA-MCA infarcts. Zonal frequency data for MCA and watershed infarcts, the sites of peak infarct frequency, the sites of vulnerability to diverse infarcts, and the overlapping sites of equal infarct frequency are tabulated and displayed in standardized format for direct comparison of different infarcts. This method successfully displays the nature, sites, and extent of individual infarct types, illustrates the shifts in zonal frequency and lesion center that attend dual and triple infarcts, and clarifies the relationships among the diverse types of infarct. (orig.)

Naidich, T.P.; Firestone, M.I. [Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave Levy Place, Box 1234, 10029, New York, New York (United States); Blum, J.T. [Department of Radiology, Westside Regional Medical Center, 8201 West Broward Boulevard, 33324, Plantation, Florida (United States); Abrams, K.J. [Department of Radiology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, 8900 North Kendall Drive, 33176, Miami, Florida (United States)

2003-11-01

324

Zonal frequency analysis of the gyral and sulcal extent of cerebral infarcts. Part III: Middle cerebral artery and watershed infarcts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We tested the hypothesis that frequency analysis of the anatomic zones affected by single anterior (A), posterior (P), and middle (M) cerebral artery (CA), multivessel, and watershed infarcts will disclose specific sites (peak zones) most frequently involved by each type, sites most frequently injured by multiple different types (vulnerable zones), and overlapping sites of equal relative frequency for two or more different types of infarct (equal frequency zones). We adopted precise definitions of each vascular territory. CT and MRI studies of 50 MCA, 20 ACA-MCA, three PCA-MCA, and 30 parasagittal watershed infarcts were mapped onto a standard template. Relative infarct frequencies in each zone were analyzed within and across infarct types to identify the centers and peripheries of each, vulnerable zones, and equal frequency zones. These data were then correlated with the prior analysis of 47 ACA, PCA, dual ACA-PCA, and ACA-PCA-MCA infarcts. Zonal frequency data for MCA and watershed infarcts, the sites of peak infarct frequency, the sites of vulnerability to diverse infarcts, and the overlapping sites of equal infarct frequency are tabulated and displayed in standardized format for direct comparison of different infarcts. This method successfully displays the nature, sites, and extent of individual infarct types, illustrates the shifts in zonal frequency and lesion center that attend dual and triple infarcts, and clarifies the relationships among the diverse types of infarct. (orig.)

2003-01-01

325

Control of interferences in the analysis of low-concentration I 129  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traces of uranium, cesium and tellurium interfere in the determination of I 129 by neutron activation analysis. The paper describes the procedures used to control or eliminate the interferences in the different steps of the analysis

1999-01-01

326

Analysis of control rod worth in experimental fast reactor JOYO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In JOYO, the measurement of control rod worths have been carried out in the beginning of the each cycle, using both period method and neutron source multiplication method. In this paper, the calculational method of control rod worths in the design stage and the comparison with the design values and measured ones are shown. The reasons that the control rod worths change slightly in each cycle, are also investigated. (author). 13 figs, 12 tabs

1988-01-01

327

Accident analysis and control options in support of the sludge water system safety analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hazards analysis was initiated for the SWS in July 2001 (SNF-8626, K Basin Sludge and Water System Preliminary Hazard Analysis) and updated in December 2001 (SNF-10020 Rev. 0, Hazard Evaluation for KE Sludge and Water System - Project A16) based on conceptual design information for the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS) and 60% design information for the cask and container. SNF-10020 was again revised in September 2002 to incorporate new hazards identified FR-om final design information and FR-om a What-if/Checklist evaluation of operational steps. The process hazards, controls, and qualitative consequence and FR-equency estimates taken FR-om these efforts have been incorporated into Revision 5 of HNF-3960, K Basins Hazards Analysis. The hazards identification process documented in the above referenced reports utilized standard industrial safety techniques (AIChE 1992, Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures) to systematically guide several interdisciplinary teams through the system using a pre-established set of process parameters (e.g., flow, temperature, pressure) and guide words (e.g., high, low, more, less). The teams generally included representation FR-om the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), K Basins Nuclear Safety, T Plant Nuclear Safety, K Basin Industrial Safety, fire protection, project engineering, operations, and facility engineering.

2003-01-01

328

Simulation Based Analysis of Two Different Control Strategies for PMSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In low power application generally permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are used. Because of their high performance/cost ratio, the attention toward PMSM in variable speed application, is greater. Control of torque, rotation speed and position for four quadrants and low speed operation, with high-performance dynamic behaviour, are often required in industrial applications but they are sensitive from the standpoint of the control strategies reliability. Vector control based on fieldoriented control (FOC) is one of the methods most investigated and discussed by many researcher and now it is an industry standard. Traditional control methods based on FOC use position sensors result to be very expensive in electrical drive with low power. The aim of this paper is to show that sensorless control strategy based on MRAS approach can be applied successfully in PMSM drives with low cost. The results are obtained from comparison of two algorithms of vector control of PMSM: traditional FOC using position sensor and model reference adaptive system (MRAS) approach based on sensorless vector control .Based on results obtained, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed control structures will be discussed.

Lindita Dhamo#1 , Aida Spahiu

2013-01-01

329

An evaluation of cusum analysis and control charts applied to quantitative gamma-camera uniformity parameters for automated quality control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-camera uniformity is often monitored for quality control of performance. Many parameters can be derived from computer analysis of the image of a uniform (flood) source to obtain quantitative measures of uniformity. To compare the various parameters and assess two techniques used for their analysis, a series of Tc-99m flood images were obtained consecutively. After establishing a baseline from repeated images, uniformity was degraded by offsetting the PHA window by a small amount. Nine non-uniformity parameters were calculated for each flood image and the uniformity index and the percentage of pixels more than 5% from the mean. All parameters were calculated for both central field-of-view (CFOV) and useful field-of-view (UFOV). Eighty such trials were carried out on two gamma-cameras. The PHA offsets ranged from 1-10 keV. The two techniques used for analysis were the control chart and cusum analysis. Decision levels were set for each parameter, as multiples of SD for the control charts or by varying the dimensions of a truncated V-mask for cusum analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were then used for an objective comparison of the parameters and of the analysis techniques. The area under the ROC curve was used to rank the parameters in order of sensitivity to change in uniformity. The uniformity index and NEMA integral non-uniformity were found to be the most sensitive. Cusum analysis improved the sensitivity of those parameters that appeared to have low sensitivity to change when subjected to control chart analysis. However, there was little difference between the two analysis techniques for the more sensitive parameters. The ROC curves could also be used to provide a method for selecting decision levels, hence establishing an automated method for gamma-camera quality control. (orig.).

1992-01-01

330

An evaluation of cusum analysis and control charts applied to quantitative gamma-camera uniformity parameters for automated quality control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma-camera uniformity is often monitored for quality control of performance. Many parameters can be derived from computer analysis of the image of a uniform (flood) source to obtain quantitative measures of uniformity. To compare the various parameters and assess two techniques used for their analysis, a series of Tc-99m flood images were obtained consecutively. After establishing a baseline from repeated images, uniformity was degraded by offsetting the PHA window by a small amount. Nine non-uniformity parameters were calculated for each flood image and the uniformity index and the percentage of pixels more than 5% from the mean. All parameters were calculated for both central field-of-view (CFOV) and useful field-of-view (UFOV). Eighty such trials were carried out on two gamma-cameras. The PHA offsets ranged from 1-10 keV. The two techniques used for analysis were the control chart and cusum analysis. Decision levels were set for each parameter, as multiples of SD for the control charts or by varying the dimensions of a truncated V-mask for cusum analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were then used for an objective comparison of the parameters and of the analysis techniques. The area under the ROC curve was used to rank the parameters in order of sensitivity to change in uniformity. The uniformity index and NEMA integral non-uniformity were found to be the most sensitive. Cusum analysis improved the sensitivity of those parameters that appeared to have low sensitivity to change when subjected to control chart analysis. However, there was little difference between the two analysis techniques for the more sensitive parameters. The ROC curves could also be used to provide a method for selecting decision levels, hence establishing an automated method for gamma-camera quality control. (orig.).

Knight, A.C.; Williams, E.D. (District General Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom). Regional Medical Physics Dept.)

1992-02-01

331

Empirical Analysis of Interactive Control’s Effectiveness: A Parent-Subsidiary Company’s Interdependence Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the increasingly complex business environment and the principal-agent relationship, the enterprise group should establish a control system to prevent agency risk. Besides traditional system control, the parent company tends to adopt an interactive control including decentralized decision making, process communication and target incentive to guide and govern the subsidiaries. As an elastic control mechanism, the interactive control’s effectiveness could be influenced by the resources dependence relationship which is objective existence between the parent and subsidiary company. Based on the classical literature review, this study analyzes the effects of interaction control to the performance (“interactive control ? performance”) and the interdependence’s regulating role by a total sample and a multiple-group structural equation analysis based on Chinese groups’ data, the results show that the interactive control could improve the subsidiaries’ performance, but different control process has its particular applicable interdependence situation. In the conclusions, we proposed some suggestions to promote the interactive control’s effectiveness in the enterprise group’s management practices.

Biao Luo; Jie-Jie Yu; Hong-Mei Ji

2012-01-01

332

Adaptive control of a refrigeration system. Feasibility analysis and controller design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim was to develope adaptive control of a refrigeration system for industrial purposes. The proposed control scheme and controller design methods are described. The STAC (Self-Tuning Adaptive Control) method is principally utilized. This is a design procedure where known system parameters are first chosen and then applied to the unknown system in which the unknown parameters are estimated by an online identification method. The refrigeration system and the control objective are described in addition to the basic principles of adaptive control. Commonly used online identification logarithms and the underlying controller design methods are presented. It is concluded that adaptive control techniques are suitable for the refrigeration system in which plant parameters change with time and are not well known. Some suggestions for improving the method are offered. (AB) (30 refs.).

Zhou Jian-jun

1990-02-01

333

Control-loop-based performance analysis; Regelkreisbasierte Performance-Analyse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a lot of plant information permanently available in control loops. That can be opened up to identify strengths and weaknesses of plant performance. The paper summarizes knowledge from control system based performance analyses in the area of power station. (orig.)

Rode, M. [ABB-Forschungszentrum, Ladenburg (Germany); Fachhochschule Heidelberg (Germany); Berufsakademie Mannheim (Germany); Frick, A.; Budde, J. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany)

2007-07-01

334

Error analysis of positioning control for container CT inspection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces briefly the principles of 60Co container CT inspection system, and analyzes the stable state error of PID control subsystem in detail. It also sets forth other reasons which lead into positioning error. It is proved that the final positioning error control can meet the demand of inspection system. (authors)

2007-01-01

335

Analysis of three phase controlled rectifier with the same distance control as compared to the same angle control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aim to compare the firing of the same distance and the same angle control at three phase controlled rectifier with seen generated harmonic at input (AC side). Then calculate of rectifier efficiency and power factor comparison from both the control type. The rectifier use passive filter with resistance 11 ohm and is analysed with program simulation using PSPICE version 7.1. Result of research indicate that use of the same distance control generates the 5th and 7th harmonics, while the same angle control generates the 3rd , 5th and 7th harmonics at the input (AC side). At the output (DC side), the same distance control type generates the 6th voltage ripples, while the same angle control generates the 2nd, and 6th voltage ripples. The result of calculation of voltage ripples that happened equal to 3.5% with efficiency 99.8% at same distance control, while at the same angle control obtained voltage ripples equal to 4% with efficiency 99.7% . At the firing angle 300 obtained by THD input equal to 50.26% with power factor equal to 0.89 at same distance control type, while the same angle control obtained by THD input equal to 53,831% with power factor to 0,87. From this result indicate that the firing of thyristor with the same distance better then is the same angle control.

Sudirman S; Sri Kurniati A

2007-01-01

336

Classification Aided Analysis of Oscillatory Signatures in Controlled Retrieval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Control processes are critical for both facilitating and suppressing memory retrieval, but these processes are not well understood. The current work, inspired by a similar fMRI design [8], used a modified Think/No-Think(TNT) paradigm to investigate the neural signatures of volition over enhancing and suppressing memory retrieval. Previous studies have shown memory enhancement when well-learned stimulus pairs are restudied in cued recall ("Recall or think of studied pair item"), and degradation when restudied with cued suppression ("Avoid thinking of studied pair item"). We used category-based (faces vs. scenes) multivariate classification of electroencephalography signals to determine if individual target items were successfully retrieved or suppressed. A logistic regression based on classifier output determined that retrieval activation during the cued recall/suppression period was a predictor for subsequent memory. Labeling trials with this internal measure, as opposed to their nominal Think vs. No-Think condition, revealed the classic TNT pattern of enhanced memory for successful cued-retrieval and degraded memory for cued-suppression. This classification process enabled a more selective investigation into the time-frequency signatures of control over retrieval. Comparing controlled retrieval vs. controlled suppression, results showed more prominent Theta oscillations (3 to 8 Hz) in controlled retrieval. Beta oscillations (12 to 30 Hz) were involvedin high levels of both controlled retrieval and suppression, suggesting it may have a more general control-related role. These results suggest unique roles for these frequency bands in retrieval processes.

Ketz N; O'Reilly RC; Curran T

2013-07-01

337

Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then tested using a nonlinear simulation.

Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

1998-01-01

338

Qantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then evaluated using a nonlinear simulation.

Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

1998-01-01

339

Game Analysis of Internal Control and Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on examining links and differences between internal control and risk management from their definition,this paper mainly analyzes their relation with game theory. A complete information static game model isestablished and payoff functions for managers and investors are designed. The result shows that the decrease ofbusiness risk cannot be realized by severe penalties, instead, the frequency of internal control in risk monitoringmust be taken into consideration, and otherwise it will stimulate enterprise risk monitoring paradox. It is aneffective way for enterprises to reduce risk by lowering the cost of internal control in risk monitoring andimproving the ability of risk prevention.

Yanhong Pang; Qing Li

2013-01-01

340

Control-flow analysis of function calls and returns by abstract interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract interpretation techniques are used to derive a control-flow analysis for a simple higher-order functional language. The analysis approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, the analysis computes for each expression an abstract call-stack, effectively approximating where function calls return. The analysis is systematically derived by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Flanagan et al. using a series of Galois connections. We prove that the analysis is equivalent to an analysis obtained by first transforming the program into continuation-passing style and then performing control flow analysis of the transformed program. We then show how the analysis induces an equivalent constraint-based formulation, thereby providing a rational reconstruction of a constraint-based CFA from abstract interpretation principles.

Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Project analysis and environmental pollution control for the expansion project of the Shanghai aluminum plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic analysis of environmental pollution control for a project focuses on the costs and benefits of controlling pollution. The economic analysis of environmental pollution control starts from the production processes and assesses the emissions, then identifies the pollution-control technology and the standards, estimates the costs of pollution control and applies the financial and economic analysis techniques to analyze the cost/benefit of pollution control for the project. An acceptable social discount rate, differing from the applied discount rate for the financial and economic analysis, may be applied for the analysis of pollution control. The conclusions from the case study of project analysis and environmental pollution control for the Expansion Project of the Shanghai Aluminum Plant indicate that: (1) The appropriate choice of technology transfer options between imported advanced technology and utilization of abundant labor will increase total factor productivity in China; (2) A rational price system will ensure that prices reflect cost efficiency and socially beneficial production of profit and loss from investment in a project; (3) Labor hiring flexibility will allow the enterprise to dismiss idle or negligent workers and link wages with labor productivity; and (4) An incentive pollution control policy will encourage the industry to internalize pollution control costs or to consider possible cost reduction options.

Chang, J.C.

1986-01-01

342

Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech.

Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri

343

Robustness Analysis of a Class of Optimal Control Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with a class of optimal control systems, where the controller. in addition to minimizing a quadratic criterion, also shall give the closed-loop system prescribed eigenvalues. Three methods for analysing the robustness of such systems under parameter perturbations are discussed: Eigenvalue sensitivity, singular values and the block Gerschgorin theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the different methods.

Ole A. Solheim

1983-01-01

344

A Viability Analysis of Fishery Controlled by Investment Rate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work presents a stock/effort model describing both harvested fish population and fishing effort dynamics. The fishing effort dynamic is controlled by investment which corresponds to the revenue proportion generated by the activity. The dynamics are subject to a set of economic and biological state constraints. The analytical study focuses on the compatibility between state constraints and controlled dynamics. By using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal situations and management options that guarantee a sustainable system.

Sanogo C; Raïssi N; Ben Miled S; Jerry C

2013-09-01

345

Reliability analysis of a dual-redundant engine controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Markov model is developed to predict the reliability of a full-authority, dual-redundant aircraft engine controller. The effects of failures of any of the controllers sensors, electronic interface modules, processors and actuators, as well as the consequences of redundancy management decisions are modeled. The model issued to study parameter sensitivity and to develop quantitative data in support of design tradeoffs. The effects of scheduled maintenance of the inflight shutdown rate of the engine are determined.

Gai, E.; Harrison, J.V.; Luppold, R.H.

1983-04-01

346

Analysis on electronic control unit of continuously variable transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuously variable transmission system can ensure that the engine work along the line of best fuel economy, improve fuel economy, save fuel and reduce harmful gas emissions. At the same time, continuously variable transmission allows the vehicle speed is more smooth and improves the ride comfort. Although the CVT technology has made great development, but there are many shortcomings in the CVT. The CVT system of ordinary vehicles now is still low efficiency, poor starting performance, low transmission power, and is not ideal controlling, high cost and other issues. Therefore, many scholars began to study some new type of continuously variable transmission. The transmission system with electronic systems control can achieve automatic control of power transmission, give full play to the characteristics of the engine to achieve optimal control of powertrain, so the vehicle is always traveling around the best condition. Electronic control unit is composed of the core processor, input and output circuit module and other auxiliary circuit module. Input module collects and process many signals sent by sensor and , such as throttle angle, brake signals, engine speed signal, speed signal of input and output shaft of transmission, manual shift signals, mode selection signals, gear position signal and the speed ratio signal, so as to provide its corresponding processing for the controller core.

Cao, Shuanggui

347

Comparative analysis of some aspects of mitochondrial metabolism in differentiated and undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study is to clarify some aspects of the mechanisms of regulation of mitochondrial metabolism in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Experiments were performed on murine Neuro-2a (N2a) cell line, and the same cells differentiated by all-trans-retinoic acid (dN2a) served as in vitro model of normal neurons. Oxygraphy and Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) were applied to characterize the function of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in NB cells. Flux control coefficients (FCCs) for components of the OXPHOS system were determined using titration studies with specific non-competitive inhibitors in the presence of exogenously added ADP. Respiration rates of undifferentiated Neuro-2a cells (uN2a) and the FCC of Complex-II in these cells were found to be considerably lower than those in dN2a cells. Our results show that NB is not an exclusively glycolytic tumor and could produce a considerable part of ATP via OXPHOS. Two important enzymes - hexokinase-2 and adenylate kinase-2 can play a role in the generation of ATP in NB cells. MCA has shown that in uN2a cells the key sites in the regulation of OXPHOS are complexes I, II and IV, whereas in dN2a cells complexes II and IV. Results obtained for the phosphate and adenine nucleotide carriers showed that in dN2a cells these carriers exerted lower control over the OXPHOS than in undifferentiated cells. The sum of FCCs for both types of NB cells was found to exceed significantly that for normal cells suggesting that in these cells the respiratory chain was somehow reorganized or assembled into large supercomplexes.

Klepinin A; Chekulayev V; Timohhina N; Shevchuk I; Tepp K; Kaldma A; Koit A; Saks V; Kaambre T

2013-09-01

348

Control-Flow Analysis of Function Calls and Returns by Abstract Interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack, effectively approximating where function calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is systematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Flanagan et al. using a series of Galois connections. Abstract interpretation provides a unifying setting in which we 1) prove the analysis equivalent to the composition of a continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation followed by an abstract interpretation of a stack-less CPS machine, and 2) extract an equivalent constraint-based analysis formulation, thereby providing a rational reconstruction of a constraint-based control-flow analysis from abstract interpretation principles.

Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

2009-01-01

349

Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed.

Firestone, M.A.

1981-09-01

350

Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed

1981-01-01

351

DESCRIBING FUNCTION METHOD FOR PI-FUZZY CONTROLLED SYSTEMS STABILITY ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper proposes a global stability analysis method dedicated to fuzzy control systems containing Mamdani PI-fuzzy controllers with output integration to control SISO linear / linearized plants. The method is expressed in terms of relatively simple steps, and it is based on: the generalization of the describing function method for the considered fuzzy control systems to the MIMO case, the approximation of the describing functions by applying the least squares method. The method is applied to the stability analysis of a class of PI-fuzzy controlled servo-systems, and validated by considering a case study.

Radu-Emil PRECUP; Stefan PREITL

2004-01-01

352

Hexokinase and not glycogen synthase controls the flux through the glycogen synthesis pathway in frog oocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here we set out to evaluate the role of hexokinase and glycogen synthase in the control of glycogen synthesis in vivo. We used metabolic control analysis (MCA) to determine the flux control coefficient for each of the enzymes involved in the pathway. Acute microinjection experiments in frog oocytes were specifically designed to change the endogenous activities of the enzymes, either by directly injecting increasing amounts of a given enzyme (HK, PGM and UGPase) or by microinjection of a positive allosteric effector (glc-6P for GS). Values of 0.61 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.03, and -0.06 ± 0.08 were obtained for the flux control coefficients of hexokinase EC 2.7.1.1 (HK), phosphoglucomutase EC 5.4.2.1 (PGM), UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase EC 2.7.7.9 (UGPase) and glycogen synthase EC 2.4.1.11 (GS), respectively. These values satisfy the summation theorem since the sum of the control coefficients for all the enzymes of the pathway is 0.87. The results show that, in frog oocytes, glycogen synthesis through the direct pathway is under the control of hexokinase. Phosphoglucomutase and UDPG-pyrophosphorylase have a modest influence, while the control exerted by glycogen synthase is null.

Preller A; Wilson CA; Quiroga-Roger D; Ureta T

2013-09-01

353

Hexokinase and not glycogen synthase controls the flux through the glycogen synthesis pathway in frog oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we set out to evaluate the role of hexokinase and glycogen synthase in the control of glycogen synthesis in vivo. We used metabolic control analysis (MCA) to determine the flux control coefficient for each of the enzymes involved in the pathway. Acute microinjection experiments in frog oocytes were specifically designed to change the endogenous activities of the enzymes, either by directly injecting increasing amounts of a given enzyme (HK, PGM and UGPase) or by microinjection of a positive allosteric effector (glc-6P for GS). Values of 0.61±0.07, 0.19±0.03, 0.13±0.03, and -0.06±0.08 were obtained for the flux control coefficients of hexokinase EC 2.7.1.1 (HK), phosphoglucomutase EC 5.4.2.1 (PGM), UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase EC 2.7.7.9 (UGPase) and glycogen synthase EC 2.4.1.11 (GS), respectively. These values satisfy the summation theorem since the sum of the control coefficients for all the enzymes of the pathway is 0.87. The results show that, in frog oocytes, glycogen synthesis through the direct pathway is under the control of hexokinase. Phosphoglucomutase and UDPG-pyrophosphorylase have a modest influence, while the control exerted by glycogen synthase is null. PMID:23831065

Preller, Ana; Wilson, Christian A M; Quiroga-Roger, Diego; Ureta, Tito

2013-07-03

354

The Analysis of the Structure and Security of Home Control Subnet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lot of technologies can be used in home control subnet, but the hardware and software resources available for the home control subnet are limited. There are security problems easily seen. The paper gives the system-atic analysis of the structure and function of home control subnet based on the gen...

Chengyi WANG; Yun ZHANG

355

Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

2008-01-01

356

Harmonic analysis of semi-active control with MR dampers  

Science.gov (United States)

Semi-active control systems are becoming more popular because they offer both the reliability of passive systems and the versatility of active control systems without imposing heavy power demands. In particular, it has been found that magnetorheological (MR) fluids can be designed to be very effective vibration control actuators, which use MR fluids to produce controllable damping force. The objective of this paper is to study a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) isolation system with a MR fluid damper under harmonic excitations. A mathematical model of the MR fluid damper with experimental verification is adopted. The motion characteristics of the SDOF system with the MR damper are studied and compared with those of the system with a conventional viscous damper. The energy dissipated and equivalent damping coefficient of the MR damper in terms of input voltage, displacement amplitude, and frequency are investigated. The relative displacement with respect to the base excitation is also quantified and compared with that of the conventional viscous damper through updating equivalent damping coefficient with changing driving frequency. In addition, the transmissibility of the MR damper system with semi-active control is also discussed. The results of this study are valuable for understanding the characteristics of the MR damper to provide effective damping for the purpose of vibration isolation or suppression.

Liao, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Chun Y.

2002-06-01

357

Harmonic analysis of a magnetorheological damper for vibration control  

Science.gov (United States)

Semi-active control systems are becoming more popular because they offer both the reliability of passive systems and the versatility of active control systems without imposing heavy power demands. In particular, it has been found that magnetorheological (MR) fluids can be designed to be very effective vibration control actuators, which use MR fluids to produce controllable damping force. The objective of this paper is to study a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) isolation system with an MR fluid damper under harmonic excitations. A mathematical model of the MR fluid damper with experimental verification is adopted. The motion characteristics of the SDOF system with the MR damper are studied and compared with those of the system with a conventional viscous damper. The energy dissipated and equivalent damping coefficient of the MR damper in terms of input voltage, displacement amplitude and frequency are investigated. The relative displacement with respect to the base excitation is also quantified and compared with that of the conventional viscous damper through updating the equivalent damping coefficient with changing driving frequency. In addition, the transmissibility of the MR damper system with semi-active control is also discussed. The results of this study are valuable for understanding the characteristics of the MR damper to provide effective damping for the purpose of vibration isolation or suppression.

Liao, W. H.; Lai, C. Y.

2002-04-01

358

Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

2006-01-01

359

Analysis and control of a shunt active power filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with active power filtering of low-frequency current harmonics. The active filter consists of a forced-commutated voltage source inverter with a digital control system. The aim of this master thesis is to investigate the performance of a shunt active power filter, and the parameters influence on the system performance. Three different harmonic identification methods are presented and compared. The shunt active power filter is very well suited for harmonic current reduction, provided that the phase shift due to the digital implementation of the control system is compensated. The performance of the active power filter depends on the switching frequency. When using individual harmonic detection methods the amount of compensation can be fully controlled for each current harmonic.

Ottersten, R.; Petersson, Andreas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

1999-09-01

360

Analysis and control of nitriding and nitrocarburizing atmospheres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a summary of research on control parameters and the factors which influence formation of compound layers in the nitriding and ferritic nitrocarburizing processes. The major gas-exchange reactions, mass-transfer mechanisms, and their kinetics are discussed for both these processes. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen activities are calculated as a function of atmosphere gas composition. These activities are compared to experimental values and the obtained microstructures are analyzed. Development of a control scheme for these processes has been hindered both by a fundamental understanding of the atmosphere kinetics and a reliable means of monitoring the atmosphere. However, today there are possibilities to control such an atmosphere by means of an oxygen probe, utilizing software to calculate the atmosphere activities based upon the incoming gas mixture, temperature, and probe millivolt signal.

Sproge, L. [AGA AB Lidingo (Sweden); Midea, S.J. [AGA Gas, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
361

Use of process hazard analysis to control chemical process hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One objective of this project was to demonstrate how the PrHA could satisfy OSHA`s requirements. OSHA requires that the PrHA address: the hazards of the process; the identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace; engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships; consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls; facility siting; human factors; and a qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace. In addition, OSHA requires that the PrHA must be conducted by a team with at least one member having expertise in engineering and process operations, one having experience and knowledge specific to the process being evaluated, and a team leader knowledgeable in the specific PrHA methodology being used.

Piatt, J.A.

1994-07-01

362

Visual analysis and dynamical control of phosphoproteomic networks  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents novel graph algorithms and modern control solutions applied to the graph networks resulting from specific experiments to discover disease-related pathways and drug targets in glioma cancer stem cells (GSCs). The theoretical framework applies to many other high-throughput data from experiments relevant to a variety of diseases. In addition to developing novel graph and control networks to predict therapeutic targets, these algorithms will provide biochemists with techniques to identify more metabolic regions and biological pathways for complex diseases, and design and test novel therapeutic solutions.

Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Görke, Robert; Lobbes, Marc; Emmett, Mark R.; Nilsson, Carol L.

2013-05-01

363

Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

2011-09-26

364

Analysis and control of transient overvoltages on UHV transmission systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a comprehensive study of transient overvoltages on a UHV transmission network are presented. In the study, the expected magnitudes of switching overvoltages due to the energization and reclosing operations were evaluated for a conceptual 1500-kV system. Fault initiation and fault clearing overvoltages were also studied. The sensitivity of transient overvoltages to network configuration and to key system parameters was examined. The effectiveness of various means of overvoltage control was evaluated. It is demonstrated that the overvoltages can be reduced to a practical level depending on the type and complexity of the control technique utilized.

Fakheri, A.J.; Belanger, J.; Bhatt, N.B.; Sybille, G.; Ware, B.J.

1983-10-01

365

Economic Analysis of the Birth-Control Law in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the two approaches of governments’ population policy: command-and-control regulation and market-oriented incentive. From both the micro and macro perspective, this paper draws a conclusion that the population market has its own autonomous principles and too much government intervention like the birth-control law in China is harmful. Policy-makers should provide guarantee from the political regime. And in case of market failure, the government should adopt the market-oriented approach to complement.

Chenhao Zhu

2009-01-01

366

Reliability analysis of a dual-redundant engine controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Markov model is developed to predict the reliability of a full-authority, dual-redundant aircraft engine controller. The effects of failures of any of the controller's sensors, electronic interface modules, processors and actuators, as well as the consequences of redundancy management decisions are modeled. The use of the model to perform parameter sensitivity studies and to develop quantitative data in support of design tradeoffs is described. The effects of scheduled maintenance on the inflight shutdown rate of the engine are determined. 6 refs.

Gai, E.; Harrison, J.V.; Luppold, R.H.

1981-01-01

367

The Asthma Control Test and Asthma Control Questionnaire for assessing asthma control: Systematic review and meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Currently, the cornerstone of asthma management is the achievement and maintenance of optimal asthma control, but the diagnostic performances of the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) have not been evaluated systematically. OBJECTIVE: We explored the diagnostic performances of and statistically compared the ACT and ACQ. METHODS: Studies that examined the accuracy of the ACT, ACQ, or both in the assessment of asthma control were found by searching PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Ovid, and Embase. Summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios for the different levels of asthma control were determined by using bivariate random-effects models and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic models. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies with 11,141 subjects assessed with the ACT and 12,483 assessed with the ACQ were identified. The ACT had good diagnostic accuracy for assessment of controlled and not well-controlled asthma, and the ACQ (ACQ-7 and ACQ-6) had good diagnostic accuracy for assessment of not well-controlled asthma at prespecified cutoff points. The ACT and ACQ had significant differences in the assessment of controlled and not well-controlled asthma after adjusting for potential factors (P = .001 and P = .015). For assessment of uncontrolled asthma, the ACT had poor accuracy, with a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.69, and the cutoff point for the ACQ has not been established. CONCLUSION: The ACT is preferable to the ACQ in clinical practice, and the ACQ requires further cross-validation. Moreover, neither the ACT nor the ACQ is useful for the assessment of uncontrolled asthma.

Jia CE; Zhang HP; Lv Y; Liang R; Jiang YQ; Powell H; Fu JJ; Wang L; Gibson PG; Wang G

2013-03-01

368

Analysis of the control rod drop accident in ABB Atom BWRs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the results from the Control Rod Drop Accident (CRDA) analysis for ABB Atom BWRs. Oskarshamn 3 (03) was selected as the main object for the analysis. The range of analysis, however, is wide enough to provide results which can be gene...

M. Stepniewski S. Andersson

1989-01-01

369

Industry sector analysis, Czechoslovakia: Air pollution control. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article is derived from a report titled: 'The Air Pollution Control Market in Czechoslovakia', dated October 1992, prepared by Emiliana Ulrychova, American Embassy - Prague. The article consists of 8 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sale Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

1993-04-24

370

Analysis of Rabies in China: Transmission Dynamics and Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human rabies is one of the major public-health problems in China. The number of human rabies cases has increased dramatically in the last 15 years, partially due to the poor understanding of the transmission dynamics of rabies and the lack of effective control measures of the disease. In this articl...

Zhang, Juan; Jin, Zhen; Sun, Gui-Quan; Zhou, Tao; Ruan, Shigui

371

Detector, data acquisition system, instrument control, and data analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SACLA generates intense femtosecond X-ray laser pulses by SASE mechanism. Each X-ray pulse is so intense to induce the frequent specimens damage, which demands the shot-by-shot data acquisition synchronizing with the pulse X-rays. This system also enables the post analysis to correlate the obtained data and the pulse fluctuation inherent in SASE XFEL. In this report, we summarize the development of the detectors and data acquisition system. The raw data stream becomes maximum 2 TB/hour at SACLA. The current status of the development for large-scale data analysis is also addressed. (author)

2012-01-01

372

A proficiency testing program of hemoglobin analysis in prevention and control of severe hemoglobinopathies in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: No external quality assessment program for hemoglobin (Hb) analysis in the prevention and control of thalassemia has been established in Thailand. To improve the first line provisional diagnostics, the first proficiency testing (PT) program has been established. METHODS: External Hb controls prepared at our center were sent to Hb analysis laboratories all over the country. Three cycles per year were performed in 2010 and 2011. In each cycle, two control samples with corresponding hematological parameters, designated as husband and his pregnant wife were supplied for Hb analysis. Each member analyzed the control samples in their routine practices. The results of Hb analysis, laboratory interpretation and risk assessment of the expected fetus for severe thalassemia diseases targeted for prevention and control were entered into the report form and sent back to our center. Participants reports were analyzed and classified into four different quality groups; Excellent (when all the three parameters are correct), Good (correct Hb analysis and interpretation but incorrect risk assessment), Fair (correct Hb analysis but incorrect interpretation and risk assessment) and Needs improvement (incorrect Hb analysis). RESULTS: It was found that most participants could report correct Hb types and quantifications but some misinterpretations and risk assessments were noted. These were clearly seen when control samples with more complexity were supplied. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a further improvement is required in the laboratory interpretation and knowledge of the laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia. The established system should facilitate the prevention and control program of thalassemia in the region.

Karnpean R; Fucharoen G; Pansuwan A; Changtrakul D; Fucharoen S

2013-06-01

373

Analysis of pollution controls for bridge painting. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was performed to evaluate pollution control measures for bridge painting. A field comparison was performed to evaluate the following techniques: abrasive blasting with low dusting abrasive; abrasive blasting with metallic abrasive; vacuum blasting with recyclable abrasive; vacuum blasting with slag abrasive; and power tool cleaning. Technical feasibility, productivity and cost were analyzed for the different techniques. Impact on air, water, sediment and soil was measured. A literature and information search was performed on surface preparation techniques for cleaning bridge steel and environmental impact from bridge cleaning activities. The results from the research were used to make recommendations to PennDOT on changes to their Guidelines for Environmental Pollution Controls for Bridge Painting Contracts.

Smith, L.

1991-07-01

374

Segmentation methodology analysis for effective digital control system implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The digital control system is one of the advanced design features adopted for improving the technical and economical advantages for Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). Due to the safety constraints of nuclear power plant, the advanced I and C and MMI systems have been required to be designed to protect the system against failures of I and C and MMI equipment which may degrade the performance of more than one major control or monitoring function. The functional and physical designs of these systems are segmented or explicitly incorporate other functional defensive measures to inhibit the propagation of failures across major functions. The functional and component grouping methodology, which is called 'segmentation', has been analyzed and the optimal segmentation methodology is suggested in this paper

2000-01-01

375

Overflow risk analysis for designing a nonpoint sources control detention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a design method by which the overflow risk related to a detention for managing nonpoint pollutant sources in urban areas can be evaluated. The overall overflow risk of a nonpoint pollutant sources control detention can be estimated by inherent overflow risk and operational overflow risk. For the purpose of calculating overflow risk, the 3-parameter mixed exponential distribution is applied to describe the probability distribution of rainfall event depth. As a rainfall-runoff calculation procedure required for deriving a rainfall capture curve, the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service runoff curve number method is applied to consider the nonlinearity of the rainfall-runoff relation. Finally, the detention overflow risk is assessed with respect to the detention design capacity and drainage time. The proposed overflow risk assessment is expected to provide a baseline to determine quantitative parameters in designing a nonpoint sources control detention.

Choi CH; Cho S; Park MJ; Kim S

2012-05-01

376

Legal strategic analysis planning and evaluation control system and method  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention is directed to a strategic planning control system, and more particularly to a computer-based, closed-loop legal strategic planning system and method having iterative convergence to an optimal strategy and dynamic tracking of current prevailing legal climates. The system of this invention includes a computer-generated legal strategy for streamlining the legal process by converting it from a traditional task-oriented system to a process-oriented system. By so doing, predetermined objectives and tasks are defined according to a disciplined time schedule, cost targets are defined, and deliverables agreed upon prior to beginning the legal process. A key aspect of the system and method of this invention is a series of computer programs which provide a strategic planning template outlining the objectives and tasks, and their associated timing. The template is case category and case type specific and presents the "best practices" strategic process from which to launch a legal action. The "best practices" are taken from previously concluded well managed cases having a similar case category and case type as the instant case, and which have been identified as paradigms. Three closed-loop control systems are integrated into the system and method of this invention for dynamically monitoring and measuring legal cost reporting and billing, for dynamically monitoring and measuring attainment of objectives and milestone tasks, and for dynamically measuring and controlling the deliverables derived from the timely completion of the legal objectives and tasks. These control systems have special features for maximizing the likelihood of a desired legal outcome, increasing legal productivity, minimizing the cost to achieve that outcome.

1999-02-23

377

Analysis of the position control system of ASDEX Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A technique for determing the location of the plasma centre in a Tokamak using magnetic flux and field measurements outside the plasma to extrapolate to the plasma boundary is presented and its implimentation as a feedback control system is discussed. Magnetic field distributions computed from toroidal equilibrium calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the technique as installed on the ASDEX Tokamak. (orig.)

1980-01-01

378

Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082). Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

Harrison Wayne N; Mohammed Mohammed A; Wall Michael K; Marshall Tom P

2004-01-01

379

Probing control of fed-batch cultivations: analysis and tuning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Production of various proteins can today be made using genetically modified Escherichia coli bacteria. In cultivations of E. coli it is important to avoid accumulation of the by- product acetate. Formation of acetate occurs when the specific glucose uptake exceeds a critical value and can be avoided by a proper feeding strategy. A difficulty is that the critical glucose uptake often is poorly known and even time varying. We here analyze an approach for control of glucose feeding that enables feeding at the critical glucose uptake without prior information. The key idea is to superimpose a probing signal to the feed rate in order to obtain information used to determine if the feed rate should be increased or decreased. The main contribution of this paper is to derive guidelines for tuning of the probing controller. A sufficient condition for stability is presented. By introducing proportional and proportional- integral control action it is possible to improve performance with an unchanged stability guarantee. This also gives a possibility to maintain a minimum specified distance to the critical glucose uptake where acetate formation starts.

Åkesson, Mats Fredrik; Hagander, P.

2001-01-01

380

STC/DBS Power subsystem control loop stability analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many types of solar array regulation schemes are utilized throughout the spacecraft design community. Ensuring adequate control loop stability margins while achieving acceptable transient response performance is a complex and difficult task due to the extremely large number of variables and nonlinearities inherent in these systems. In recent years significant improvements in computer software have made this task more manageable and enabled a better understanding of the effects of system parameters. This paper describes the analytical approach utilized to evaluate and optimize the control loops for two partial shunt systems used on Satellite Television Corporation's Direct Broadcast Satellite presently in development at RCA Astro-Electronics. The 100V payload bus regulator is a linear sequential partial shunt system, and the 35.3V housekeeping bus utilizes a linear parallel partial shunt approach. For each case, detailed models of the solar arrays, control electronics, and spacecraft loads were developed and then combined to simulate the complete system. The analytical results have been and/or are being verified by test. The results will be verified with illuminated solar arrays during full-up spacecraft systems testing.

Peck, S.R.; Devaux, R.N.

1984-08-01