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Sample records for control analysis mca

  1. ENHANCEMENT OF MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF GAP ANALYSIS AND THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE MCA PROGRAM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasty, T

    2008-06-10

    An effective safeguards program for nuclear materials is dependent on the integration of activities in the traditional safeguards elements: physical protection, protective force, and material control and accounting (MC&A). The design and integration of these traditional safeguards elements must be based on a technical analysis performed in characterizing the vulnerabilities and related risks of the facility against a designed-basis threat. Each of these elements requires a near seamless integration with each other, as well as within a site's operations organization. One of the key objectives of an effective nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program is to address the threat posed by an active or passive 'insider' who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion or theft of special nuclear material (SNM). The function of material accountancy is to detect the loss or unauthorized removal of special nuclear material from the plant or facility in a timely manner. Detection is accomplished by means of measurements and transfer records of material movements and periodic inventories to verify that all material is accounted for. The function of material control is to assure the integrity of the nuclear material and the accountancy data. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of a detailed material control and accounting program plan that considers both regulatory compliance demands and performance standards. Consideration of both of these demands is necessary to reduce exposure to theft and diversion, to reduce regulatory jeopardy, and to minimize to the extent possible adverse impacts with site operations.

  2. Development of the Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA: Normative and Preliminary Aphasic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pak Hin Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Compared to the English literature, there is a great paucity of studies focusing on quantitative analysis of aphasic oral discourse in Chinese, especially for native speakers of Taiwanese-Mandarin residing in Taiwan. Several studies that investigated deficits of aphasic discourse have been conducted in Cantonese Chinese, including the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM, Kong & Law, 2004, Main Concept Analysis (MCA; Kong, 2009, and Cantonese version of the Quantitative Production Analysis (Law, 2001; Yiu & Worrall, 1996. Clinical or research application of these systems to the Taiwanese population is limited by the differences of phonology, semantics, and grammar between Taiwanese Mandarin and Cantonese. The current study, therefore, aimed to develop a culturally appropriate Taiwan Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA, by translating and adapting the MCA in Cantonese (Kong, 2009, 2011, and then to validate the tool on the basis of normal speakers and people with aphasia in Taiwan. Method Picture stimuli and main concepts for the TM-MCA: Eight certified Taiwanese SLPs participated and listed all main concepts upon presentation of the sequential pictures in Kong (2009. A main concept referred to a statement consisting of only one main verb with two or more pieces of essential information accurately related to the pictures and informative about the content. All main concepts mentioned by six out of eight SLPs were included in a preliminary main concept list. Further validation of the list involved recruiting eight normal speakers to orally describe the same picture sets. Only those scored as Accurate and Complete (AC or Accurate but Incomplete (AI by at least five speakers were put in the final list. Normative and aphasic data collection and analysis: Thirty six native Taiwanese Mandarin speakers and ten individuals with aphasia orally perform the same picture description tasks. Six measures, including Number of Accurate and Complete (AC, Accurate but Incomplete (AI, Inaccurate (IN, and Absent (AB concepts, overall main concept score (MC, as well as AC per minute, were used to analyze each language samples. A pair-sample t-test was conducted to evaluate the different performance between the aphasic and control groups. External validity of the TM-MCA was established by conducting Pearson product-moment correlations between the TM-MCA measures and the overall aphasia score in the Concise Chinese Aphasia Test (CCAT; Chung, Li, & Chang, 2003 and Linguistic Communication Measure adapted for Taiwanese Mandarin (TM-LCM. Results and Discussion The results suggested that both age and education affected the oral discourse performance in our normal subjects. Significant differences on the measures in TM-MCA were noted between the normal and aphasic groups. It was also found that overall aphasia severity, as reflected by the CCAT, affected the picture description performances. Finally, significant correlations between most TM-MCA measures and related TM-LCM indices were noted. In conclusion, the TM-MCA is culturally appropriate to the Taiwanese Mandarin population as a supplement to existing standardized aphasia batteries, which typically do not include comprehensive and objective evaluation of oral discourse.

  3. Performance analysis of morphological component analysis (MCA) method for mammograms using some statistical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Kamel, Nidal; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Hussain, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Early detection of breast cancer helps reducing the mortality rates. Mammography is very useful tool in breast cancer detection. But it is very difficult to separate different morphological features in mammographic images. In this study, Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) method is used to extract different morphological aspects of mammographic images by effectively preserving the morphological characteristics of regions. MCA decomposes the mammogram into piecewise smooth part and the texture part using the Local Discrete Cosine Transform (LDCT) and Curvelet Transform via wrapping (CURVwrap). In this study, simple comparison in performance has been done using some statistical features for the original image versus the piecewise smooth part obtained from the MCA decomposition. The results show that MCA suppresses the structural noises and blood vessels from the mammogram and enhances the performance for mass detection.

  4. 'Membership matters': applying Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA) to qualitative data using Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) Software

    OpenAIRE

    King, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and outlines a methodology that may be unfamiliar to some qualitative researchers: Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA). The first section of the paper explains the basic principles of MCA and why it is a valid method for exploring the power of categorisations in texts and talk. Additionally, it explains why MCA differs from other forms of qualitative data analysis. The second section begins with a discussion of why researchers might or might not use Computer?Assiste...

  5. VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC&A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

    2008-07-01

    A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC&A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 “Fundamental Elements” in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC&A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC&A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC&A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC&A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC&A Functional Model, relationship between the MC&A Functional Model and the MC&A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process.

  6. Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in.×4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K40, U238 and Th232. This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K40, U238 and Th232) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. - Highlights: ► Geometrical enhancement for ppm range primordial radio elemental determination. ► Experimental constraints include detector setup, background and counting time. ► Gamma spectrometric performance monitored on digital and analog MCA systems. ► Study indicates higher variance of Compton stripping constants on digital MCA system.

  7. Design and implementation of an MCA card with double ADC for nuclear radiation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid development of technology has triggered several interesting trends in nuclear instrumentation. In particular, the introduction of add-on cards that can serve as multichannel analyzer and offer adequate performance for most of the nuclear applications. The purpose of this thesis has been the design of a multichannel analyser inserted into microcomputer. The originality of this prototype MCA card with its innovative concept is the use of two analog digital converters or ADC of which the objective is to reduce to minima the lost of pulses during the acquisition and the signals processing. The first ADC works as the main converter (or master) and the second ADC the slave converter. The first ADC begins the first signals acquisition, while it will be busy for the processing, the second ADC continues the acquisition, thus there will be no lost pulses or precisely lost of pulses will be reduced to minima.The three main points for a multichannel analyzer will be studied such a the pile-up, the differential non-linearity or 'DNL' and the dead time. In the first part of this thesis the function of the MCA has been described and the different roles of the composed modules have been developed. In the second part, spectra analysis has been done with the MCA prototype as well the comparison with other MCAs such as MCAs S100, TISA, MCA35+, and the Inspector.

  8. Use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA for supporting community forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadka C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management usually involves the use of criteria and indicators (C&I allowing the monitoring, reporting and assessment of management activities at national, regional and forest management unit levels. Experiences of such concepts are scarce in Nepal, particularly with regard to the evaluation of management activities within a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA framework. In this contribution we describe how a MCA approach can be used to efficiently exploit information, knowledge, and preferences of stakeholders to address community forest management problems. Beside rating and ranking techniques, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to examine the importance of six criteria and forty-four indicators in a sustainable forest management context with a broad range of stakeholder groups. An evaluation of four management strategies in the Shree Gyneshwar community forest user group allows to demonstrate the relevance of changing priorities for different criteria. A passive adaptive management strategy focusing on a multiple use of natural resources and the introduction of production-oriented measures were identified as the most preferable option. The results of this study show that the multi-criteria analysis approach, and in particular the AHP, can assist decision-makers in efficiently evaluating management problems and generating ideas for the long-term strategic planning process of community forest management, even under complex socio-economic and ecological conditions. In that context, compromise solutions enjoy a higher possibility of being successful, taking into account the different views of stakeholder groups.

  9. Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability : combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsma, Frans J.,

    2006-01-01

    General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about the positive and negative aspects of using the main judgement-oriented evaluation tools of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) together in the context of sustainability...

  10. Determination of Steady-State and Faulty Regimes of Overhead Lines by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guglielmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase positive sequence modelling is often used in power systems when power flows and short circuit analysis are assessed. Of course, the use of single-phase positive sequence modelling assumes purely three-phase configurations and perfectly symmetrical ones so that single-phase modelling considers that all the phase conductors behave in the same way. When considering the physical reality of power networks, this assumption can be questionable and the behaviors of all the system conductors including the passive ones (earth wires for overhead lines, metallic screens and armours for cables and enclosures for gas insulated lines is completely unknown. Therefore, the present multiconductor cell analysis (MCA becomes necessary, since it allows one to achieve great precision results on the regimes of both phase conductors and passive conductors. MCA offers a powerful tool in order to validate (or less approximated and simplified computation methods. In particular, for single and double circuit overhead lines (OHLs, the current phasors induced in the earth wires and the ground return current alongside the line can be directly computed by MCA in steady state and faulty regimes. It is worth noting that, for faulty regimes, MCA allows also evaluating the approximation degree and validity field of screening factors k.

  11. Steady State Assessment of Shunt Compensated EHV Insulated Cables by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has already presented some papers which allow studying cable systems by means of the multiconductor cell analysis (MCA. This method considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The multiconductor matrix procedure based on the use of admittance matrices, which account for the line cells (with earth return currents, different types of screen bonding, possible multiple circuits (single and double circuit or more, allows predicting the steady-state regime of any cable system. In the previous papers, these matrix algorithms have been presented with reference to a short extra-high voltage (EHV double-circuit cross-bonded (CB underground cable (UGC system. Since the cable link was short, the shunt reactive compensation was not necessary and consequently not considered. In this paper the procedure is generalized in order to take into account three single-phase (or also one three-phase reactors installed at the cable ends or also at intermediate locations.

  12. The use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for evaluating feasible countermeasures after an accidental release of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to establish a system that enables rational decisions to be taken for reducing (if necessary) the radiological risk to a population. These decisions normally concern whether a particular food product will be consumed or not, as well as wether it should be diverted for other uses. To evaluate the consequences of such actions, many different criteria have to be taken into account such as the radiological risk, nutritional and environmental criteria, current technical intervention levels, economic costs and public reaction. Under the guidance of the Institute of Automation and Operations Research at the University of Fribourg a Multi-Criteria-Analysis (MCA) approach, based on the most recent developments in decision theory, is being elaborated. MCA requires input from a suite of sub-models combined with basic input data. For the radiological impact model the German code ECOSYS will be adapted for Swiss conditions. Furthermore, input data on the effect of food processing on radionuclide content of foodstuffs and consumption habits are needed. MCA thus allows the consequences of different countermeasures to be assessed in relation to the different governing criteria. In order to allow efficient use of this technique it shall be implemented as a user friendly computerized decision support system. In this paper, an example of different countermeasures to reduce the dose from milk contaminated with I-131 resulting from a reactor accident is given

  13. System of accounting and control of nuclear materials (MCA) relative to IAEA safeguards and improvement of radioecological situation of the Joint Stock Company ULBA Metallurgical Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following goals must be accomplished following this Project : - Develop computerized and automated MCA data system; - Provide up-to-date and reliable accounting and control of availability and transfer of nuclear materials, detect loss or theft of nuclear materials; - Improve book keeping of nuclear materials, provide paperwork for raw materials and finished products sales and purchase control, process nuclear materials shipment data; - Reduce sampling error and to obtain precise measure of nuclear materials to obtain ESADRA target values; - Thorium concentrates transfer preliminary released from raw Beryllium to the new storage to prevent environment radiation pollution and obvious fire accidents; - Improve radioecological situation of the territory caused by old storage dismantling and decontamination of site; - Improve accounting, storing and Physical Protection of Thorium Following is the proposal to obtain goals of the Project : - Develop accounting and control systems - Develop basic standards and procedures for MCA system - Develop users specifications of MCA data system - Develop software of MCA data system - Assembly and adjustment of local network at the production facilities - Automated MCA data system personnel training - Develop measurement system - Determination of the mistakes in sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content - Develop the procedures of sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content providing ESADRA target values - Develop measure control program covering scales and analytical equipment and measuring methods - Develop software for measure control program support - Thorium shipment, decontamination and improvement of Physical Protection of Thorium storage - Accounting of Thorium containing materials when transferring to the new storage - Arrange storage decontamination - Develop new systems of Thorium Containment/Surveillance and Physical Protection

  14. The hardware design of digital MCA based on FPGA and USB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An digital MCA (multi-channel analyzer) based on FPGA and USB2.0 technology is introduced. FPGA is the main processor. The nuclear signal through the amplifier circuit and AD converter is processed in FPGA. then the result is transferred to host computer through USB2.0 interface. The design achieves full digital control. Verilog HDL is used for FPGA programming and the interface software on the host computer is written in QT. The software on the host computer accomplishes the acquisition and display of the input signal and the MCA spectrum. The MCA pulse-amplitude analysis is achieved digitally in FPGA. (authors)

  15. NTS MC&A History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Alice Price; Kim Young

    2008-07-01

    Within the past three and a half years, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has progressed from a Category IV to a Category I nuclear material facility. In accordance with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Administrator, NTS received shipments of large quantities of special nuclear material from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and other sites in the DOE complex. December 2004 was the first occurrence of Category I material at the NTS, with the exception of two weeks of sub-critical underground testing in 2001, since 1992. The Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program was originally a jointlab effort by LANL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Bechtel Nevada, but in March 2006 the NNSA Nevada Site Office appointed the NTS Management and Operations contractor with sole responsibility. This paper will discuss the process and steps taken to transition the NTS MC&A program from multiple organizations to a single entity and from a Category IV to a Category I program. This transition flourished as MC&A progressed from the 2004 Office of Assessment (OA) rating of “Significant Weakness” to the 2007 OA assessment rating of “Effective Performance.” The paper will provide timelines, funding and staffing issues, OA assessment findings and corrective actions, and future expectations. The process has been challenging, but MC&A’s innovative responses to the challenges have been very successful.

  16. Evaluating the anomaly resolution capability of an MC&A system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, R.; Smith, G.

    1991-07-01

    Discrepancies in accounting for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) require quick and accurate resolution. The ability to make a definitive resolution often depends on the types of measurement data available and on the way records are maintained in the Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system. A new method is presented for systematically evaluating the overall anomaly detection and resolution capability of an MC&A system. The method begins with a detailed specification of the material process cycle including, all authorized material locations, possible unauthorized locations, and the procedures for measuring and recording movement between locations. The analysis proceeds by identifying the types of errors that could logically occur in the measurement and recording system and estimating their frequency. A method is described for quantifying the detection capability and resolution effectiveness for each possible error. A new metric is also proposed for quantifying the overall effectiveness of the MC&A system.

  17. MCA Learning Algorithm for Incident Signals Estimation:A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been many works on adaptive subspace filtering in the signal processing literature. Most of them are concerned with tracking the signal subspace spanned by the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of the signal plus noise data. Minor Component Analysis (MCA is important tool and has a wide application in telecommunications, antenna array processing, statistical parametric estimation, etc. As an important feature extraction technique, MCA is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will present a MCA learning algorithm to extract minor component from input signals, and the learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Simulation results will be furnished to illustrate the theoretical results achieved.

  18. Improved MCA-TV algorithm for interference hyperspectral image decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia; Zhao, Junsuo; Cailing, Wang

    2015-12-01

    The technology of interference hyperspectral imaging, which can get the spectral and spatial information of the observed targets, is a very powerful technology in the field of remote sensing. Due to the special imaging principle, there are many position-fixed interference fringes in each frame of the interference hyperspectral image (IHI) data. This characteristic will affect the result of compressed sensing theory and traditional compression algorithms used on IHI data. According to this characteristic of the IHI data, morphological component analysis (MCA) is adopted to separate the interference fringes layers and the background layers of the LSMIS (Large Spatially Modulated Interference Spectral Image) data, and an improved MCA and Total Variation (TV) combined algorithm is proposed in this paper. An update mode of the threshold in traditional MCA is proposed, and the traditional TV algorithm is also improved according to the unidirectional characteristic of the interference fringes in IHI data. The experimental results prove that the proposed improved MCA-TV (IMT) algorithm can get better results than the traditional MCA, and also can meet the convergence conditions much faster than the traditional MCA.

  19. A data processor interface for 4-K MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data processing system has been designed for use with the indigenous 4-K MCA. It consists of Micro 2200 - a programmable calculator, Micro data Interface (MDI), floppy disk attachment to Micro and a Data Interface specially designed for the transfer of data from MCA to Micro 2200 and for reverse transfer. This complete system enables one to transfer the spectrum from MCA, and to carry out desired spectrum analysis. The system has been used for routine analysis of energy dispersive XRF spectra. The report describes the hardware design of the Data Interface and the software of data transfer and standard spectrum analysis routines. Listing of Micro programmes for transfer and analysis are also given in the report. (author)

  20. Remote effects in MCA territory ischemic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using positron computed tomography (PCT) and the 15O labeled gas steady-state inhalation technique, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (rCMRO2), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) can be measured quantitatively in humans. We quantitatively examined the relationship between focal ischemic lesions and intact regions as detected by X-ray CT in such areas as the territory of the contralateral middle cerebral artery (MCA), thalami, pons, and cerebellar hemispheres. Twenty-three PCT measurements in 13 patients with unilateral ischemic infarction in the MCA territory as detected by X-ray CT were performed. Remote effects from cerebral infarction of the MCA territory were observed in the contralateral MCA territory, ipsilateral thalamus, brainstem, and contralateral cerebellar hemisphere. Slight depression of rCBF and rCMRO2 was also observed in the contralateral thalamus and ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere; rOEF was normal in these areas. Though the depression of rCBF and rCMRO2 due to remote effects was detected in all periods, it was mildly observed 0 to 6 days after onset. The reduction of rCBF and rCMRO2 due to remote effects was less than the morphological as well as the functional threshold. The phenomenon is probably caused by neuronal deactivation, and the regions with depressed blood flow and metabolism may be in a ''resting'' state. (author)

  1. Improved MCA programmed by LabVIEW language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PC based Multichannel analyser (MCA) is a popular instrument in the nuclear physics experiment. The authors introduce one kind of improved MCA which is programmed by LabVIEW language. This MCA has many advantages such as powerful data processing capability, more friendly interface and is easy to use. The basic principle of this MCA and the core technology of its software are described. Some results of experiment are presented too

  2. Evaluating and prioritizing technologies for adaptation to climate change. A hands on guidance to multi criteria analysis (MCA) and the identification and assessment of related criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this guidance is to guide consultants, decision makers and technical experts on how to facilitate discussions for prioritizing adaptation technologies, and to support the stakeholders in identifying appropriate criteria for this analysis.

  3. A Simulation of Energy Storage System for Improving the Power System Stability with Grid-Connected PV using MCA Analysis and LabVIEW Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrich Stuchly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale penetration of distributed, Renewable power plants require transfers of large amounts of energy. This, in turn, puts a high strain on the energy delivery infrastructure. In particular, photovoltaic power plants supply energy with high intermittency, possibly affecting the stability of the grid by changing the voltage at the plant connection point. In this contribution, we summarize the main negative effects of selected and real-operated grid connected photovoltaic plant. Thereafter a review of suitable Energy storage systems to mitigate the negative effects has been carried out, compared and evaluated using Multi-criterion analysis. Based on this analysis, data collected at the plant and the grid, are used to design the energy storage systems to support connection of the plant to the grid. The cooperation of these systems is then analysed and evaluated using simulation tools created in LabVIEW for this purpose. The simulation results demonstrate the capability of energy storage system solutions to significantly reduce the negative feedback effects of Photovoltaic Power Plan to the low voltage grid.

  4. TOWARD A CONTROL THEORY ANALYSIS OF AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Aging is due to the accumulation of damage over time that affects the function and survival of the organism; however, it has proven difficult to infer the relative importance of the many processes that contribute to aging. To address this, here we outline an approach that may prove useful in analyzing aging. In this approach, the function of the organism is described as a set of interacting physiological systems. Degradation of their outputs leads to functional decline and death as a result of aging. In turn, degradation of the system outputs is attributable to changes at the next hierarchical level down, the cell, through changes in cell number or function, which are in turn a consequence of the metabolic history of the cell. Within this framework, we then adapt the methods of metabolic control analysis (MCA) to determine which modifications are important for aging. This combination of a hierarchical framework and the methodologies of MCA may prove useful both for thinking about aging and for analyzing it experimentally. PMID:18318658

  5. Geotail MCA Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1997-01-01

    The primary goals of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program are identifying, studying, and understanding the source, movement, and dissipation of plasma mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and the Earth. The GEOTAIL spacecraft was built by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and has provided extensive measurements of entry, storage, acceleration, and transport in the geomagnetic tail and throughout the Earth's outer magnetosphere. GEOTAIL was launched on July 24, 1992, and began its scientific mission with eighteen extensions into the deep-tail region with apogees ranging from around 60 R(sub e) to more than 208 R(sub e) in the period up to late 1994. Due to the nature of the GEOTAIL trajectory which kept the spacecraft passing into the deep tail, GEOTAIL also made 'magnetopause skimming passes' which allowed measurements in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, magnetosheath, bow shock, and upstream solar wind regions as well as in the lobe, magnetosheath, boundary layers, and central plasma sheet regions of the tail. In late 1994, after spending nearly 30 months primarily traversing the deep tail region, GEOTAIL began its near-Earth phase. Perigee was reduced to 10 R(sub e) and apogee first to 50 R(sub e) and finally to 30 R(sub e) in early 1995. This orbit provides many more opportunities for GEOTAIL to explore the upstream solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, and outer magnetosphere as well as the near-Earth tail regions. The WIND spacecraft was launched on November 1, 1994 and the POLAR spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996. These successful launches have dramatically increased the opportunities for GEOTAIL and the GGS spacecraft to be used to conduct the global research for which the ISTP program was designed. The measurement and study of plasma waves have made and will continue to make important contributions to reaching the ISTP/GGS goals and solving the significant problems of sun-earth connections. Plasma waves are involved in the energization and de-energization of plasma and energetic particles via numerous wave-particle interaction processes. Plasma waves in many instances are the source for the heating or cooling of the particles. They can cause particle precipitation by scattering particles into the loss cone. They move particles across boundaries in mass and energy dependent ways. Identifying the waves and the instabilities which produce them are thus crucial for understanding the plasma processes. Wave-particle interaction processes are especially important at various boundaries between the different regions of geospace including the bow shock, magnetopause, and interfaces in the geomagnetic tail between the magnetosheath, lobe, plasmasheet, boundary layers, and neutral sheet. In addition to identifying the characteristics of the instabilities and generation mechanisms encountered, plasma wave measurement are used in conjunction with other fields and particle measurements to identify the region of space the spacecraft is in or the boundary that is being crosed.

  6. Cortical Reorganization of Language Functioning Following Perinatal Left MCA Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa M.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Schmithorst, Vince J.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Functional MRI was used to determine differences in patterns of cortical activation between children who suffered perinatal left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and healthy children performing a silent verb generation task. Methods: Ten children with prior perinatal left MCA stroke (age 6-16 years) and ten healthy age matched…

  7. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of Aspergillus nidulans grown on media containing xylose, and a concentration up to 30 mM was found. Applying MCA showed thatthe first polyol dehydrogenase (XDH) in the catabolic pathway of xylose exerted the main flux control in the two strains of A. nidulans and A. niger NW324, but the flux control was exerted mainly at the first enzyme of the pathway (XR) of A. niger NW 296.

  8. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

  9. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: Control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuett, William J; Beard, Daniel A; Qian, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Background Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA), flux balance analysis (FBA), correlation metric construction (CMC), and biochemical circuit theory (BCT), have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS) biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RTBS and STBS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA). PMID:18482450

  10. 32 CFR 644.417 - For MCA family housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true For MCA family housing. 644.417 Section 644.417... family housing. The Act of 1 September 1954, Pub. L. 765, 83rd Congress (68 Stat. 1119), as amended by... Construction-Army Family Housing at Military Installations and Facilities.”...

  11. Estimating the robustness of composite CBA & MCA assessments by variation of criteria importance order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stake-holder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis described is based on the fact that when using MCA as a decision-support tool, questions often arise about the weighting (or prioritising) of the included criteria. This part of the MCA is seen as the most subjective part and could give reasons for discussion among the decision makers or stakeholders. Furthermore, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives [1]. Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness of weights used in additive utility models. When assessing larger transport infrastructure projects often several non-monetised impacts could be relevant to include in the appraisal [2]. For many decision makers and stakeholders the task of setting the criteria weights for several criteria can be very difficult. To overcome this, the proposed method uses surrogate weights based on rankings of the criteria, by the use of Rank Order Distribution (ROD) weights [3]. This reduces the problem to assigning a rank order value for each criterion. A method for combining the MCA with the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is applied as described by Salling et al. in [4]. This methodology, COSIMA, uses a calibration indicator which expresses the trade-off between the CBA and MCA part resulting in a total rate expressing the attractiveness of each alternative. However, it should be mentioned that the proposed procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights is not limited to the ROD and COSIMA methods described above. The proposed framework is applied to the case of choosing the best corridor for a high speed railway in Sweden, between Linköping and Norrköping. This link is a part of a larger railway project called Ostlänken. 4 possible corridors have been indentified between the two cities and the preliminary studies have found 8 non-monetised criteria, which all are not included in the conducted CBA. The alternatives are compared to each other with respect to each criterion by using the REMBRANDT methodology. With 8 criteria there are 40340 (8!) possible combinations of ranking the criteria which have been made use of. The proposed method calculates all combinations and produces a set of rank variation graphs for each alternative and for different values of the trade-off indicator. This information is relatively easy to grasp for the decision-makers. The result is compared with the results from a conducted decision conference about the railway link. During the decision conference the different stakeholder preferences were unveiled by the participants who had to assign weights. The proposed method also introduces a more constrained approach. In this approach the stakeholders/decision makers have the possibility to set up some constraint to the decision problem. This could for example be that criterion XX cannot assume a rank lower than 3 or criterion XX always have to be ranked higher than criterion YY. This would mean that the outcome of the method is a subset of the total solution space. The paper finishes up with a discussion and considerations about how to present the results. The question whether to present a single decision criterion, such as the benefit-cost rate or the net present value, or instead to present graphs showing the robustness of the decision analysis is discussed. Furthermore a perspective, for estimating the robustness of weights using other MCA methodologies (and weighting methods) than the proposed framework, is discussed.

  12. MCA Based Performance Evaluation of Project Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Bakshi, Tuli

    2011-01-01

    Multi-criteria decision support systems are used in various fields of human activities. In every alternative multi-criteria decision making problem can be represented by a set of properties or constraints. The properties can be qualitative & quantitative. For measurement of these properties, there are different unit, as well as there are different optimization techniques. Depending upon the desired goal, the normalization aims for obtaining reference scales of values of these properties. This paper deals with a new additive ratio assessment method. In order to make the appropriate decision and to make a proper comparison among the available alternatives Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and ARAS have been used. The uses of AHP is for analysis the structure of the project selection problem and to assign the weights of the properties and the ARAS method is used to obtain the final ranking and select the best one among the projects. To illustrate the above mention methods survey data on the expansion of optic...

  13. MCA Based Performance Evaluation of Project Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuli Bakshi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision support systems are used in various fields of human activities. In every alternativemulti-criteria decision making problem can be represented by a set of properties or constraints. Theproperties can be qualitative & quantitative. For measurement of these properties, there are differentunit, as well as there are different optimization techniques. Depending upon the desired goal, thenormalization aims for obtaining reference scales of values of these properties. This paper deals with anew additive ratio assessment method. In order to make the appropriate decision and to make a propercomparison among the available alternatives Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and ARAS have beenused. The uses of AHP is for analysis the structure of the project selection problem and to assign theweights of the properties and the ARAS method is used to obtain the final ranking and select the best oneamong the projects. To illustrate the above mention methods survey data on the expansion of optical fibrefor a telecommunication sector is used. The decision maker can also used different weight combination inthe decision making process according to the demand of the system.

  14. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  15. Identity of cofactor bound to mycothiol conjugate amidase (Mca) influenced by expression and purification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Evren; Liu, Hualan; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-08-01

    Mycothiol serves as the primary reducing agent in Mycobacterium species, and is also a cofactor for the detoxification of xenobiotics. Mycothiol conjugate amidase (Mca) is a metalloamidase that catalyzes the cleavage of MS-conjugates to form a mercapturic acid, which is excreted from the mycobacterium, and 1-D-myo-inosityl-2-amino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranoside. Herein we report on the metal cofactor preferences of Mca from Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Importantly, results from homology models of Mca from M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis suggest that the metal binding site of Mca is identical to that of the closely related protein N-acetyl-1-D-myo-inosityl-2-amino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranoside deacetylase (MshB). This finding is supported by results from zinc ion affinity measurements that indicate Mca and MshB have comparable K(D)(ZnII) values (~10-20 pM). Furthermore, results from pull-down experiments using Halo-Mca indicate that Mca purifies with (stoichiometric) Fe(2+) when purified under anaerobic conditions, and Zn(2+) when purified under aerobic conditions. Consequently, Mca is likely a Fe(2+)-dependent enzyme under physiological conditions; with Zn(2+)-Mca an experimental artifact that could become biologically relevant under oxidatively stressed conditions. Importantly, these findings suggest that efforts towards the design of Mca inhibitors should include targeting the Fe(2+) form of the enzyme. PMID:26044118

  16. Automation of a pneumatic system by controlling a microcomputer equipped with a custom add on board for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated sample transfer system associated with a 3 x 592 GBq Am-Be neutron source has been constructed at the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (CINAA). The pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an IBM PS/1 personal computer which is equipped with a custom add-on board for relevant hardware and control software written in Turbo Pascal. The system computer interactively works with a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for proper data acquisition. The sample transfer system also runs manually. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (Author)

  17. Real-time PCR/MCA assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the genotyping of resistance related DHPS-540 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujardin Jean-Claude

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been abandoned as first- or second-line treatment by most African malaria endemic countries in favour of artemisinin-based combination treatments, but the drug is still used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. However, resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing in the past few years and, although the link between molecular markers and treatment failure has not been firmly established, at least for pregnant women, it is important to monitor such markers. Methods This paper reports a novel sensitive, semi-quantitative and specific real-time PCR and melting curve analysis (MCA assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET for the detection of DHPS-540, an important predictor for SP resistance. FRET/MCA was evaluated using 78 clinical samples from malaria patients and compared to PCR-RFLP. Results Sixty-two samples were in perfect agreement between both assays. One sample showed a small wild type signal with FRET/MCA that indicates a polyclonal infection. Four samples were not able to generate enough material in both assays to distinguish mutant from wild-type infection, six samples gave no signal in PCR-RFLP and five samples gave no amplification in FRET/MCA. Conclusion FRET/MCA is an effective tool for the identification of SNPs in drug studies and epidemiological surveys on resistance markers in general and DHPS-540 mutation in particular.

  18. MCaVoH: A toolkit for mining, classification and visualization of human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Maryum; Noureen, Nighat; Fazal, Sahar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Human body is the home for a large number of microbes. The complexity of enterotype depends on the body site. Microbial communities in various samples from different regions are being classified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. With the improvement in sequencing technologies various computational methods have been used for the analysis of microbiome data. Despite several available machine learning techniques there is no single platform available which could provide several techniques for clustering, multiclass classification, comparative analysis and the most significantly the identification of the subgroups present within larger groups of human microbial communities. We present a tool named MCaVoH for this purpose which performs clustering and classification of 16S rRNA sequence data and highlight various groups. Our tool has an added facility of biclustering which produces local group of communities present within larger groups (clusters). The core objective of our work was to identify the interaction between various bacterial species along with monitoring the composition and variations in microbial communities. MCaVoH also evaluates the performance and efficiency of different techniques using comparative analysis. The results are visualized through different plots and graphs. We implemented our tool in MATLAB. We tested our tool on several real and simulated 16S rRNA data sets and it outperforms several existing methods. Our tool provides a single platform for using multiple clustering, classification algorithms, local community identification along with their comparison which has not been done so far. Tool is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mcavoh/. PMID:26193336

  19. Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography to digital subtraction angiography for diagnosis of MCA stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRA in detecting MCA stenosis or occlusion compared with DSA. Methods: 35 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease underwent both MRA and DSA. Based on the results of DSA, the gold standard, we analyzed the diagnostic value of MRA for detecting MCA stenosis of different degrees. Results: 70 middle cerebral arteries (MCA) are examined in 35 patients. Based on the results of MRA, 28 arteries are normal, 42 arteries are stenostic or occlusive, and 47 segments are stenostic or occlusive. 53 segments are diagnosed consistently by MRA and DSA. The rate of coincidence is 70.67%. The degree of stenosis in MRA is higher than in DSA in 22 segments. In mild degree stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of MRA are 100%, positive Likelihood Ratio is ?, and negative predictive value is 0. In moderate degree, they are 100%, 71.4%, 73.1%, 17.6%, 100%, 3.5, 0; In severe degree, they are 100%, 81.4%, 82%, 15.4%, 100%, 5.38, 0; In occlusive MCA, they are 100%, 96.8%, 977.3%, 86.7%, 100%, 31.25, 0. For diagnosis of MRA in mild, moderate, severe degree of stenotic or occlusive MCA, Kappa values are 1.0, 0.224, 0.222, 0.912. Conclusion: Compared with DSA, the diagnostic values of MRA for detecting MCA stenosis are different according to different degrees of stenosis. The sensitivity and specificity are highest in MRA diagnosis of mild degree MCA stenosis. So MRA is a suitable option for MCA stenosis screening. The diagnostic values of MRA are lower in moderate, and severe degree MCA stenosis. The means of DSA is more helpful. Though there is a high accordance rate in occlusive MCA, the results of MRA should be also treated carefully. (authors)

  20. Clipping of bilateral MCA aneurysms and a coiled ACOM aneurysm through a modified lateral supraorbital craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Ziad A; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-01-01

    We showcase the microsurgical clipping of a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm-(B) done through a modified right lateral supraorbital craniotomy, as well as clipping of a previously coiled anterior communicating (ACOM) artery aneurysm-(C) and a bilobed right MCA aneurysm-(A). Splitting of the right sylvian fissure is initially performed following which a subfrontal approach is used to expose and dissect the contralateral sylvian fissure. The left MCA aneurysm is identified and clipped. The ACOM aneurysm is then clipped following multiple clip repositioning based on flow measurements. The right MCA aneurysm is then identified and each lobe is clipped separately. The first picture showcased in this video is a side to side right and left ICA injection in AP projection. In this picture, (A) points to the bilobed right MCA aneurysm, (B) to the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm, and (C) to the previously coiled anterior communicating (ACOM) artery aneurysm. The red dotted line shows that both MCA aneurysms lie within the same plane which makes it easier to clip both of them, through one small craniotomy. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/4cQC7nHsL5I . PMID:25554841

  1. Inspector-2000. A DSP-based, portable, multi-purpose MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various in-situ gamma-spectroscopy applications need a versatile, multi-purpose, portable multi-channel analyzer (MCA). Recently, Canberra has introduced the Inspector-2000 for this purpose. It uses digital signal processing (DSP) technology and weighs only about 1.2 kg. It also supports CdTe, NaI and Ge detectors. Due to its use of DSP technology, the Inspector-2000 also provides a longer battery life, a better detector resolution and a better temperature stability than most portable MCAs. A short description of the Inspector-2000 MCA is included and its performance characteristics compared to an analog MCA. (author)

  2. Myoendothelial Gap Junction Frequency does not Account for Sex Differences in EDHF Responses in Rat MCA

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoya, Elke M.; Burns, Alan R.; Marrelli, Sean P; Chen, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory have shown that dilations to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) are less in females compared to males. Myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) appear to mediate the transfer of hyperpolarization between endothelium and smooth muscle in males. In the present study we hypothesized that MEGJs are the site along the EDHF pathway which is compromised in female rat MCA.

  3. Unilateral Moyamoya Phenomenon Due to MCA Occlusion in a Child Presenting with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth, S. G.; Nagarajan, K.; Chandrashekar, H.S.; Vasudev, M.K.; Pillai, Shibu V.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion leading to moyamoya phenomenon is different from classical moyamoya disease. Previous studies have reported such phenomena in adults with ischemic lesions, except for a solitary case in a child. We report a case of a ten-year old girl who presented with a deep intracerebral hematoma and a normal ipsilateral middle cerebral artery on initial evaluation by CT. Subsequently, on follow-up angiography, the ipsilateral MCA was occluded with evidenc...

  4. In-house development of an FPGA-based MCA8K for gamma-ray spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanh, Dang; Son, Pham Ngoc; Son, Nguyen An

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is domestic development of electronics instruments. It used for measuring ionization radiation and practical training at Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The aim of this work is to study and develop a novel MCA8k for Gamma-ray spectrometer concerning experimental nuclear physics. An approach for design and construction of the aforementioned instrument is to apply logic integrating techniques via Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) under Max?+?PlusII, Altera. The instrument allows interfacing to PC with self-developed application software. Scientific significance of this work is partly to contribute to opening a research direction in the field of nuclear electronics science for design and construction of radiation measurement instruments with the advanced IC technology in Vietnam. Practical significance of this work is partly to contribute to enhancement of capabilities in developing radiation measurement instruments for experimental research as well as practical training in nuclear physics. The advantages of FPGA: overcoming ballistic deficit, decrement of serial and parallel noise, flexible in programming, control of the system by software without an interfere of hardware. The disadvantages of FPGA: requirement of good knowledge of VHDL and professional tools for development of a expected project. A new electronics module of MCA8k has been achieved. Some main results obtained from the experimental testing are as follows: differential nonlinearity (DNL) of FPGA-MCA8k approximately 1.27%, integral nonlinearity (INL) = 0.607%, time conversion???2.2 ?s, deadtime (DT) is 0.75%. Data Acquisition Program MCANRI written in VC (+ +)6.0, self-executed under Windows XP environment. PMID:25485201

  5. Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Cameron, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The DSD-2056-4K portable multi-channel analyzer (PMCA) is a standard tool used in both international and domestic safeguards. This tool and the built-in user programs have been field proven. For applications where the manpower to program built-in programs is not available, programs in external computers can control the PMCA. A set of general purpose setup and analysis subroutines have been written in BASIC to be used directly or as a guide in the external applications. While safeguards and the nuclear industry are just beginning to make use of the present PMCA, we are looking into ways of making it easier to write internal programs for the PMCA and into replacing its current 8-bit processor with a 16-bit processor to give it the capability to do very involved analysis such as peak fitting and detailed plutonium isotopic analysis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Process analysis and optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented publication should considered to be an introduction into some problems of process analysis and optimal control with respect to complex systems. An essential aspect of the work is to present this matter with the view of using microcomputers. The publication contains chapters on some mathematical and theoretical terms, real time regime, process analysis, optimal control, and control of complex systems. (author)

  7. MIIGe(PO4)2 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba): Crystal structure, phase transitions and thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three earth alkali-germanium monophosphates MIIGe(PO4)2 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) were prepared by solid state reaction and their structures, previously unknown, studied by Rietveld analysis. BaGe(PO4)2 and high-temperature ?-SrGe(PO4)2 (space group C2/m, Z=2) are fully isotypic with yavapaiite, whereas CaGe(PO4)2 and low-temperature ?-SrGe(PO4)2 (C2/c, Z=4) are distorted derivatives. The phase transition between the two forms is observed for the first time. The thermal expansion, resulting from several structural mechanisms, is very anisotropic. - Graphical abstract: The superstructure of SrGe(PO4)2 at room temperature (?) results from the off-centering of cation SrII. Highlights: ? Crystal structures of yavapaiite-type MIIGe(PO4)2 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) have been solved. ? Distortion and superstructure result from Ca and Sr off-centering. ? A global scheme for the polymorphism of yavapaiites is proposed.

  8. Construction of a reasonable multi channel analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In resent years, the performances of new electronic devices, for example FPGA or so on, have been improved, and these devices become more cost-effective ones year by year. Moreover, prices of personal computers have become less expensive, and the programming environment on PC becomes much user-friendly and easy to operate in this decimal year. These advancements have possibilities to provide a great help for self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments, which needed huge cost and work to construct in the past. Then, I tried to construct a reasonable Mulch Channel Analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board named EDX-005 (HuMANDATA ltd.), and conduct test measurements of the MCA. The MCA was constructed in a short period, and its cost was just under 50 thousands yen. The MCA normally works at 200 [cps/ch] count rate with a NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The description of the MCA and some points of self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments are provided in this paper. (author)

  9. MCA Center of Excellence Through Benchmarking and INMM Involvement - Key Tools for Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAY, JEFFERY

    2005-10-07

    Nuclear Materials Management Department, a BWXT-corporate partner with Westinghouse Savannah River Company, has established a vision for positioning the organization as a Global Center of Excellence for Strategic Materials Management. NMM's Road to Excellence results from a changing business environment where flexibility and adaptability have become key demands from the Department of Energy customer. Flexibility and adaptability are integral components of the department's MC&A Center of Excellence philosophy in the pursuit of improvement technologies that meet domestic and international safeguards requirements. The customer challenge has put the organization in the forefront of change where benchmarking with other MC&A programs, applying human performance technologies and leveraging INMM leadership and participation opportunities are key ingredients to influencing improvements and changes in existing MC&A standards, policies and practices. The paper challenges MC&A professionals, MC&A program owners and organizational leaders to engage in the debate of new ideas, partnering arrangements and timely deployment of technologies (human performance and technical-based applications) to exponentially improve safeguards programs. Research and development efforts in support of safeguards improvements need to seriously consider deployment to field practitioners within a 2-3 year time frame from inception. INMM plays a crucial role in accelerating such opportunities and establishing improved performance standards above our normal governmental and organizational bureaucracies.

  10. Diskursanalyse af fortællinger i praksis : levende fortællinger, små fortællinger og MCA.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann Starbæk; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    I nærværende kapitel præsenteres tre tilgange til analyse af fortællinger i praksis (storytelling): levende fortællinger (oversat fra living stories), positioneringsteori og små fortællinger (oversat fra small stories) og membership categorization analysis (MCA). Fælles for de tre perspektiver er deres opgør med traditionelle bibliografiske tilgange til narrativitet, der ofte analytisk efterfølger kanoniske, lineære og kohærente fortællinger med et klart plot. I modsætning hertil er de tre tilgange sensitive overfor hvordan de ’små diskursive aspekter’ af fortællende handlinger, som fx ambivalenser, brud og konflikter kan analyseres i forskellige praksisser. Særligt for kapitlet er, at vi zoomer ind på de tre tilganges potentialer til diskursanalyse af interaktion med specifikt fokus på interviewsituationer. Vi diskuterer løbende ligheder og forskelle og reflekterer over, hvorledes de tre tilgange fordrer varierende analytiske detaljegrader, spændende fra et mere overordnet organisatorisk perspektiv til næranalyse af interaktionelle fortællende praksisser. Deraf følger naturligt forskelle i typer af data og behandlingen heraf, hvilket der reflekteres over i kapitlets analytiske eksempler og diskussioner. En vigtig pointe med kapitlet er, at de tre tilgange bidrager med forskellige dimensioner til at forstå og analysere situerede fortællende praksisser, der kan stå hver for sig men også med fordel kan forenes i en samlet analysestrategi.

  11. Linking least-cost energy system costs models with MCA: An assessment of the EU renewable energy targets and supporting policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several technoeconomic modeling approaches that provide quantitative results such as costs and the level of achievement of certain renewable energy (RE) policy targets. These approaches often do not consider other important factors for policy implementation (such as socio-political aspects and stakeholders' preferences). Recent multicriteria analysis (MCA) approaches attempt to integrate these multiple aspects in decision making process. In this respect, aim of this paper is to combine technoeconomic modeling and MCA approaches in a general analytical framework incorporating multiple aspects. Each method in an RE policy interaction problem can feed in the necessary policy information for the subsequent steps of an ex-ante and an ex-post assessment in a decision tree, starting from recognizing the need for implementing a new policy in parallel to the incumbent ones, assessing the actual policy costs and finally identifying the social acceptability of these RE policies.

  12. Linking least-cost energy system costs models with MCA: An assessment of the EU renewable energy targets and supporting policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V., E-mail: vlasis@jiqweb.or [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn, 300, Groningen (Netherlands); Flamos, A., E-mail: aflamos@unipi.g [Department of Industrial Management and Technology, University of Piraeus, 80 Karaoli and Dimitriou str., 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Gargiulo, M., E-mail: Maurizio.gargiulo@e4sma.co [Energy Engineering Economic Environment Systems Modelling and Analysis S.r.L (34SMA), Turin (Italy); Giannakidis, G., E-mail: ggian@cres.g [Energy Systems Analysis Laboratory, Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Savings, 19th Km Marathonos Ave. 19009 Pikermi, Attiki (Greece); Kanudia, A., E-mail: amit@kanors.co [Kanors, Vasundhra Enclave, Delhi (India); Spijker, E. [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn, 300, Groningen (Netherlands); Grafakos, S., E-mail: s.grafakos@ihs.n [Dutch Research Institute For Transitions (Drift) and Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS), Erasmus University Rotterdam, BurgemeesterOudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1935, 3000 BX, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    There are several technoeconomic modeling approaches that provide quantitative results such as costs and the level of achievement of certain renewable energy (RE) policy targets. These approaches often do not consider other important factors for policy implementation (such as socio-political aspects and stakeholders' preferences). Recent multicriteria analysis (MCA) approaches attempt to integrate these multiple aspects in decision making process. In this respect, aim of this paper is to combine technoeconomic modeling and MCA approaches in a general analytical framework incorporating multiple aspects. Each method in an RE policy interaction problem can feed in the necessary policy information for the subsequent steps of an ex-ante and an ex-post assessment in a decision tree, starting from recognizing the need for implementing a new policy in parallel to the incumbent ones, assessing the actual policy costs and finally identifying the social acceptability of these RE policies.

  13. MCA and CA-125 tumor markers in diagnosis and follow-up of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical information content in determination of MCA and CA-125 tumor markers at the stages of diagnosis and treatment was considered on a basis of examination results of 320 health women and 85 patients with breast cancer. The method of combined treatment of patients consisted in large-fraction preoperative gamma-therapy with integral foci dose of 24 Gy and polychemotherapy. It was concluded that MCA could be used for diagnosis of breast cancer with rather significance. Increase of Ca-125 concentration in blood was observed in progression of the process more than in 60% of cases. Simultaneous determination of MCA and Ca-125 in blood permits to diagnose the process progression more than in 90% of cases

  14. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  15. Reprint of "Cortical Reorganization of Language Functioning Following Perinatal Left MCA Stroke" [Brain and Language 105 (2008) 99-111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa M.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Schmithorst, Vince J.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Functional MRI was used to determine differences in patterns of cortical activation between children who suffered perinatal left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and healthy children performing a silent verb generation task. Methods: Ten children with prior perinatal left MCA stroke (age 6-16 years) and ten healthy age matched…

  16. NuSTAR ground calibration: The Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Hailey, Charles J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Stern, Marcela; Thornhill, Doug; Sleator, Clio; Zhang, Shuo; Craig, William W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Decker, Todd; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Vogel, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5-80 keV ) telescope to orbit. The ground calibration of the three flight optics was carried out at the Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF) built for thi...

  17. Serodiagnosis of leptospirosis in China by the one-point MCA method.

    OpenAIRE

    Arimitsu, Y; Matuhasi, T; Kobayashi, S.; Sato, T; Cui, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The one-point MCA method is very simple to perform and useful as a screening test in diagnosing leptospirosis in routine clinical laboratories. The kit, sensitized with six serovars occurring in Japan, was also useful in detecting serum antibodies of patients with leptospirosis in China.

  18. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on MCA102 tumor cell immunogenicity and sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of UV irradiation to induce immunogenicity of the nonimmunogenic major histocompatibility complex-negative MCA102 fibrosarcoma was studied. In parallel, the effect of short wavelength UVC light on the sensitivity of tumor cells to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was also investigated. MCA102 fibrosarcoma cells were irradiated in vitro twice with UVC light (610 and 457 J/m2). Surviving cells were expanded and maintained in vitro as the MCA102UV subline. UV treatment changed tumor cell morphology and increased their in vitro rate of proliferation. However, after inoculation of 1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(6) MCA102UV cells into C57BL/6 mice, growth of these cells was completely prevented. Lyt2.2 and not L3T4 lymphocytes were responsible for the rejection of these tumor cells. To determine the minimal and optimal dose of UV irradiation capable of increasing tumor cell immunogenicity, MCA102 cells were irradiated once or twice with different doses (76 to 610 J/m2) of UV light. After a single dose of UV treatment, tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice was inhibited, particularly with lines irradiated at the highest doses (610 or 457 J/m2). After a second round of irradiation, tumor cells became more immunogenic, and the level of tumor growth inhibition increased with higher doses of UV irradiation. Thus, cells irradiated twice with 610 and 457 J/m2 became rejectable in all immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. The increase in tumor cell immunogenicity induced by UV light was not associated with the appearance of Class I H-2 antigens. In parallel with the induction of tumor cell immunogenicity, UV irradiation made tumor cells more sensitive to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity and to lysis by TNF

  19. An unexpected evolution of symptomatic mild middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis: asymptomatic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malferrari Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it has been reported more frequently in Asians and African-American people, but the finding of intracranial stenosis as a cause of ischemic stroke is relatively common also in Caucasians. The prognosis of patients with stroke due to intracranial steno-occlusion is strictly dependent on the time of recanalization. Moreover, the course of the vessel involvement is highly dynamic in both directions, improvement or worsening, although several data are derived from the atherosclerotic subtype, compared to other causes. Case description We report the clinical, neurosonological and neuroradiological findings of a young woman, who came to our Stroke Unit because of the abrupt onset of aphasia during her work. An urgent neurosonological examination showed a left M1 MCA stenosis, congruent with the presenting symptoms; magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding and identified an acute ischemic lesion on the left MCA territory. The past history of the patient was significant only for a hyperinsulinemic condition, treated with metformine, and a mild overweight. At this time a selective cerebral angiography was not performed because of the patient refusal and she was discharged on antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy, having failed to identify autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Within 1 month, she went back to our attention because of the recurrence of aphasia, lasting about ten minutes. Neuroimaging findings were unchanged, but the patient accepted to undergo a selective cerebral angiography, which showed a mild left distal M1 MCA stenosis. During the follow-up the patient did not experienced any recurrence, but a routine neurosonological examination found an unexpected evolution of the known MCA stenosis, i.e. left M1 MCA occlusion. Neuroradiological imaging did not identify new lesions of the brain parenchyma and a repeated selective cerebral angiography confirmed the left M1 MCA occlusion. Conclusions Regardless of the role of metabolic and/or inflammatory factors on the aetiology of the intracranial stenosis in this case, the course of the vessel disease was unexpected and previously unreported in the literature at our knowledge.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Two Different Industrial Foam Filters with LiMCA II Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Martin; Bao, Sarina

    2015-04-01

    Plant-scale filtration experiments with molten aluminum have been carried out with two different types of 10 × 10 × 2 in, 30 ppi ceramic foam filters. The filters were produced in the same production line where the only difference was the composition of the ceramic slurry used for the filter production. The inclusion contents in the aluminum melt before and after the filters were measured with two constantly running liquid metal cleanliness analyzer (LiMCA) II units. Three methods for analyzing the recorded data are presented. A significant difference in the filtration performance as function of time was found when settling of inclusions in the melt was taken into account. Statistical treatment of the time dependent LiMCA II data was performed.

  1. NATO-ASTEC-matrix-research environment, information sharing and MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful implementations of the NATO-ASTECMATRIX project in Armenia are essential contribution into security, stability and solidarity among regional nations, by applying the best technical expertise to problem solving. Collaboration, networking and capacity-building are means used to accomplish these goals. A further aim is to promote the co-operation with new partners and the ASTEC are creating links between scientists and organizations in formerly separated communities, developing new strategy concentrating support on security related collaborative projects and finding answers to critical questions and a way of connecting nations. The NATO-ASTECMATRIX within Armenia leads to a network of high standards laboratories that will drastically improve the overview and the technical infrastructure for monitoring, accounting and control of CBRN materials in the Armenia. This new infrastructure will enhance the exchange of information on this vital issue via the IRIS. In follow-up phases, it will also help to better define the needs and requirements for a policy to enhance legal tools for the management of these materials, and for the creation of one or several agencies aiming at dealing with wastes or no longer useful materials containing CBRN components in Armenia

  2. NuSTAR ground calibration: The Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5-80 keV ) telescope to orbit. The ground calibration of the three flight optics was carried out at the Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF) built for this purpose. In this article we present the facility and its use for the ground calibration of the three optics.

  3. Treatment of a pediatric recurrent fusiform middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with a flow diverter

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Anthony M.; Zipfel, Gregory; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric patients with aneurysm often have different localizations and morphologies from adults and recurrences are not uncommon after successful clip reconstruction/obliteration. Treatment of a recurrent pediatric aneurysm after clip ligation is a technical challenge. We present the case of an adolescent with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysm which recurred following clip reconstruction and bypass. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular flow diversion.

  4. Induced hypertension for the treatment of acute MCA occlusion beyond the thrombolysis window: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Oili

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of stroke patients is eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Small pilot case series have hinted that elevation of incident arterial blood pressure might be associated with a favorable prognosis either in acute or subacute stroke. However, these patients were not considered for thrombolytic therapy and were not followed – up systematically. We used pharmacologically induced hypertension in a stroke patient with middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion ineligible for thrombolysis that was followed-up by radiological, clinical and functional outcome assessment. Case presentation A patient with acute embolic MCA occlusion producing a large, ischemic penumbra confirmed by perfusion CT was treated by induced hypertension with phenylephrine started within 4 h of admission. Increase in the mean arterial pressure by 20% led to a reduction of neurological deficit by 3 points on the National Institute of Stroke Scale. MRI and CT scans performed during phenylephrine infusion showed the presence of limited subcortical and cortical infarct changes that were clearly less extensive than the perfusion deficit in the brain perfusion CT at baseline, found in the absence of MCA patency. No complications due to induced hypertension therapy occurred. Moderate functional improvement up to modified Rankin scale 2 at follow up took place. Conclusion Induced hypertension in acute ischemic stroke seems clinically feasible and may be beneficial in selected normo- or hypotensive stroke patients not eligible for thrombolytic recanalization therapy.

  5. Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy of an Occluded Superior Division Branch of the Left MCA for Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhageas time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanicalthrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due toa recent myocardial infarction. Intra-arterial administration of 4 mgrt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours,symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents

  6. Application Of The Digital Signal Processing Technique For The Design And Construction Of Gamma DSP-Based MCA 8K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL code then programing into FPGA device. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing technique then application for design and construction of DSP-based MCA 8K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, almost component such as low pass filter, high pass filter, math function module as adder/subtractor and multiplier, logic control, First In First Out, register, memory and Central processing unit needed for our design can be synthesized and implemented. The VHDL source design has been compiled and implemented by xilinx ISE 10.1 software toolkit and then used to configuration the Spartan XC3S400 device. The main Spartan 3 development board named Siphec XC3S400-TB is used for design of the project. An application software is written in LabVIEW 8.5. The firmware to control the USB interface and interface between FPGA and PC is design in Keil C51 compiler toolkit. (author)

  7. Ukrainian National System of MC&A Training on Regular Basis at the George Kuzmych Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The George Kuzmych Training Center (GKTC) was created at the Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research as a result of collaborative efforts between the United States and Ukraine in 1998. Later the European Commission (EC) and Sweden joined the USA supporting MC&A aspects of the GKTC activity. The GKTC was designated by the Ukrainian Government to provide the MPC&A training and methodological assistance to nuclear facilities and nuclear specialists. In order to increase the efficiency of State MC&A system an essential number of new regulations, norms and rules was developed demanding regular and more intensive MC&A experts training from the Regulatory Body of Ukraine and all nuclear facilities. For this purpose ten training courses were developed by the GKTC under the EC contract taking into account both specifics of Ukrainian nuclear facilities and expertise level of their personnel. Along with the NDA training laboratory created with the US DOE financial support and methodological assistance in 2003, a new surveillance and containment laboratory was created under the EC contract and with US DOE financial support as well. Moreover, under the EC contract the laboratory was equipped with the state-of-the-art and most advanced means of surveillance and containment strengthening even more the GKTC training opportunities. As a result, the MC&A experts from all nuclear facilities and Regulatory Body of Ukraine can regularly be trained practically on all MC&A issues. This paper briefly describes the practical efforts applied to improve Ukrainian MC&A systems both at the State and facility levels and real results on the way to develop the National System for MC&A regular training at the GKTC, problems encountered and their solution, comments, suggestions and recommendations for the future activity to promote and improve the nuclear security culture in Ukraine. (author)

  8. Left pterional craniotomy for thrombectomy and clipping of ruptured left MCA giant aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, William T; Cutler, Aaron; Neil, Jayson A

    2015-07-01

    Giant aneurysms present a challenge to cerebrovascular surgeons on many fronts. These lesions have significant mass effect on surrounding tissues and are often partially thrombosed with thickened or calcified walls; these difficulties are amplified in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The treatment of these lesions often requires debulking or resection of the aneurysm with or without trapping and bypassing the aneurysm segment. The case presented is of a man with a ruptured giant left middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm presenting with seizure. The treatment of this giant aneurysm involves dissection, opening and internal evacuation including the use of ultrasonic aspiration, resection, and clipping. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively in preparation for possible superficial temporal artery-MCA or saphenous vein bypass if clipping was not possible. Vessel patency was evaluated using intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact. At 1 year his modified Rankin Scale is 1, with his only symptom being intermittent headache. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/8dimNdiIObE . PMID:26132607

  9. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Directional Solidification Process of Turbine Blade Casting with MCA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyan; Zhang, Hang; Qi, Xiang; Liu, Baicheng

    2014-04-01

    Nickel-based superalloy turbine blade castings are widely used as a key part in aero engines. However, due to the complex manufacturing processes, the complicated internal structure, and the interaction between different parts of the turbine blade, casting defects, such as stray grains, often happen during the directional solidification of turbine blade castings, which causes low production yield and high production cost. To improve the quality of the directionally solidified turbine blade castings, modeling and simulation technique has been employed to study the microstructure evolution as well as to optimize the casting process. In this article, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) method was used to simulate the directional solidification of turbine blade casting. The MCA method was coupled with macro heat transfer and micro grain growth kinetics to simulate the microstructure evolution during the directional solidification. In addition, a ray tracing method was proposed to calculate the heat transfer, especially the heat radiation of multiple blade castings in a Bridgman furnace. A competitive mechanism was incorporated into the grain growth model to describe the grain selection behavior phenomena of multiple columnar grains in the grain selector. With the proposed models, the microstructure evolution and related defects could be simulated, while the processing parameters optimized and the blade casting quality guaranteed as well. Several experiments were carried out to validate the proposed models, and good agreement between the simulated and experimental results was achieved.

  10. Detection of methylation in promoter sequences by melting curve analysis-based semiquantitative real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázcoz Paula

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present two melting curve analysis (MCA-based semiquantitative real time PCR techniques to detect the promoter methylation status of genes. The first, MCA-MSP, follows the same principle as standard MSP but it is performed in a real time thermalcycler with results being visualized in a melting curve. The second, MCA-Meth, uses a single pair of primers designed with no CpGs in its sequence. These primers amplify both unmethylated and methylated sequences. In clinical applications the MSP technique has revolutionized methylation detection by simplifying the analysis to a PCR-based protocol. MCA-analysis based techniques may be able to further improve and simplify methylation analyses by reducing starting DNA amounts, by introducing an all-in-one tube reaction and by eliminating a final gel stage for visualization of the result. The current study aimed at investigating the feasibility of both MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in the analysis of promoter methylation, and at defining potential advantages and shortcomings in comparison to currently implemented techniques, i.e. bisulfite sequencing and standard MSP. Methods The promoters of the RASSF1A (3p21.3, BLU (3p21.3 and MGMT (10q26 genes were analyzed by MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in 13 astrocytoma samples, 6 high grade glioma cell lines and 4 neuroblastoma cell lines. The data were compared with standard MSP and validated by bisulfite sequencing. Results Both, MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth, successfully determined promoter methylation. MCA-MSP provided information similar to standard MSP analyses. However the analysis was possible in a single tube and avoided the gel stage. MCA-Meth proved to be useful in samples with intermediate methylation status, reflected by a melting curve position shift in dependence on methylation extent. Conclusion We propose MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth as alternative or supplementary techniques to MSP or bisulfite sequencing.

  11. Analysis of control power in controlled remote state preparation schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xihan; Ghose, Shohini

    2016-01-01

    We quantify and analyze the controller's power in controlled remote state preparation schemes. Our analysis provides a lower bound on the control power required for controlled remote preparation of arbitrary D-dimensional states. We evaluate several existing controlled remote state preparation protocols and show that some proposed non-maximally entangled channels are not suitable for perfect controlled remote preparation of arbitrary quantum states from the con- troller's point of view. We fi...

  12. Rent control: a comparative analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Maass.

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders - and consequential homelessness - on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do [...] not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socioeconomic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

  13. RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Mari Maass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socio-economic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

  14. Controllability analysis of decentralised linear controllers for polymeric fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Aguado, Joaquin; Ansede, Xavier; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-10

    This work deals with the control of polymeric fuel cells. It includes a linear analysis of the system at different operating points, the comparison and selection of different control structures, and the validation of the controlled system by simulation. The work is based on a complex non linear model which has been linearised at several operating points. The linear analysis tools used are the Morari resiliency index, the condition number, and the relative gain array. These techniques are employed to compare the controllability of the system with different control structures and at different operating conditions. According to the results, the most promising control structures are selected and their performance with PI based diagonal controllers is evaluated through simulations with the complete non linear model. The range of operability of the examined control structures is compared. Conclusions indicate good performance of several diagonal linear controllers. However, very few have a wide operability range. (author)

  15. Detection of focal hypoxic-ischemic injury and neuronal stress in a rodent model of unilateral MCA occlusion/reperfusion using radiolabeled annexin V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we wished to determine whether technetium-99m annexin V, an in vivo marker of cellular injury and death, could be used to noninvasively monitor neuronal injury following focal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion injury. Sixteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (along with four controls) underwent left (unilateral) MCA intraluminal beaded thread occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion. One hour following tail vein injection of 5-10 mCi of 99mTc-annexin V, animals underwent either single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or autoradiography followed by immunohistochemical analyses. There was abnormal, bilateral, multifocal uptake of 99mTc-annexin V in each cerebral hemisphere as seen by both SPECT and autoradiography at 4 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after initiation of occlusion. The average maximal annexin V uptake at 4 h was 310%±85% and 365%±151% above control values (P<0.006) within the right and left hemispheres, respectively, peaking on day 3 with values of 925%±734% and 1,194%±643% (P<0.03) that decreased by day 7 to 489%±233% and 785%±225% (P<0.01). Total lesional volume of the left hemisphere was 226%, 261%, and 451% (P<0.03) larger than the right at 4, 24, and 72 h after injury, respectively. Annexin V localized to the cytoplasm of injured neurons ipsilateral to the site of injury as well as to otherwise normal-appearing neurons of the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by dual fluorescent microscopy. It is concluded that there is abnormal bilateral, multifocal annexin V uptake, greater on the left than on the right side, within 4 h of unilateral left MCA ischemic injury and that the uptake peaks at 3 days and decreases by 7 days after injury. This pattern suggests that neuronal stress may play a role in the response of the brain to focal injury and be responsible for annexin V uptake outside the region of ischemic insult. (orig.)

  16. Pathway kinetics and metabolic control analysis of a high-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum during fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pissarra, Pedro de N.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    A kinetic model representing the pathway for the biosynthesis of penicillin by P. chrysogenum has been developed. The model is capable of describing the flux through the biosynthetic pathway, and model simulations correspond well with measurements of intermediates and end products. One feature of the present model structure is that it assumes the kinetics of the enzyme isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) to be first order with respect to the dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0.070 to 0.18 mM (25% to 70% saturation with air). Thus, it indicates the importance that molecular oxygen has on the rate of the reaction catalyzed by this enzyme, and consequently as an enhancer of the specific rate of penicillin production. Using the kinetic model, metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the pathway was performed. The determined flux control coefficients suggested that, during the production phase, the flux is controlled by IPNS as this enzyme becomes saturated with tripeptide delta-(L-alpha-amino-adipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (LLD-ACV). In the simulations, oxygen was shown to be a bottleneck alleviator by stimulating the rate of IPNS which prevents the accumulation of LLD-ACV. As a consequence of this stimulation, the rate-controlling step was moved to another place in the pathway.

  17. Four sibs with dislocated elbows, bowed tibiae, scoliosis, deafness, cataract, microcephaly, and mental retardation: a new MCA/MR syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Mégarbané, A.; Kharrat, K; Kreichati, G

    1998-01-01

    We report four sibs with an MCA/MR syndrome whose parents were first cousins. The sibs had mental retardation, microcephaly, hearing problems, cataract, and multiple osseous malformations, such as dislocated elbows, bowed tibiae, and scoliosis. Review of published reports and the use of the London Dysmorphology Database suggest that this family presents a new syndrome.

  18. Modular Control Flow Analysis for Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2002-01-01

    One problem in analyzing object oriented languages is that the exact control flow graph is not known statically due to dynamic dispatching. However, this is needed in order to apply the large class of known interprocedural analysis. Control Flow Analysis in the object oriented setting aims at det...... determining run-time types of variables, thus allowing to possibly targeted method implementations. We present a flow sensitive analysis that allows separate handling of libraries and thereby efficient analysis of whole programs....

  19. 78 FR 67223 - Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... and Content for the Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) Plan Required for Strategic Special Nuclear Material;'' NUREG-2159, ``Acceptable Standard Format and Content for the Material Control and Accounting..., Revision 3, ``Acceptable Standard Format and Content for the Material Control and Accounting (MC&A)...

  20. Synthesis and luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} doped MWO{sub 4} (M=Ca, Sr and Ba) microcrystalline phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabre, K.V. [Department of Physics, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Koradi, Nagpur (India); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Lochab, Jyoti [Radiotherapy Department, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2014-05-01

    The Ce{sup 3+} doped and undoped samples of alkali earth metal tungstate MWO{sub 4} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) phosphors are synthesized by a co-precipitation method in controlled pH environment. The resulting phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL). XRD pattern and SEM micrographs reveal the formation of agglomerated microcrystalline phosphor. FTIR spectra show the strong absorption around 821 cm{sup ?1} due to characteristic vibrations of (WO{sub 4}){sup 2?} complex. PL excitation spectra show broadband in the UV region having peak at 280 nm, and the emission spectrum shows broadband in the visible region with peak in the blue region. The PL emission intensity increases with Ce{sup 3+} concentration with the most effective concentration at 5 mol%. The complex TL glow curve of Ce{sup 3+} doped phosphors is deconvoluted by using a TLAnal computer program. The trap parameters obtained by TLAnal were compared with those calculated by Chen's method and a possible model for TL is discussed. - Highlights: • M{sub 1?x}WO{sub 4}:Ce{sub x} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) phosphors are synthesized by the co-precipitation method in controlled pH environment. • Phosphor exhibits broad emission band with maximum in the blue region. • Enhancement of PL emission intensity due to doping of Ce in a host lattice. • The complex TL glow curves were deconvoluted by TLAnal. • FTIR spectra show the main transmittance peaks related to v{sub 3} and v{sub 4} vibration modes of W–O bonds.

  1. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) and Insolves LLC

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  2. Structural analysis of safety control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural analysis of reliability of the safety control system of an NPP according to information control theory is given. The theory of the mistake operator minimization optimizing the structure of a control safety system is prepared. The theoretical basis of the protection-in-depth conception is illustrated.

  3. Quality control analysis at the hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control analysis is an integral part of quality assurance. In a system as with radiopharmaceuticals where part of the finishing of the product takes place at individual hospitals, the need for quality control analysis at the hospital can be discussed. Data are presented that stresses the importance of quality control by the manufacturer as a basis for limitation of such work at hospitals. A simplified programme is proposed

  4. MCA4climate - a practical framework for pro-development climate policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevor, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Climate is an inordinate challenge but also an inordinate opportunity to transform economies onto a low-carbon, resourcee !cient Green Economy path. Catalyzing clean energy will not only cut greenhouse-gas emissions as part of e”orts to limit a global temperature rise to under 2 degrees C or more, it also represents a way of curbing healthhazardous air pollution while o”ering a rapid path to address energy poverty, especially in rural areas of developing economies. Meanwhile enhancing ecosystems such as forests, mangroves and seagrasses in order to conserve their carbon stocks can also trigger multiple benefits from boosting water supplies and improving agriculture to maintaining natural sea defences and nurseries for fish. The 17th Conference of the Parties meeting in Durban, South Africa, later this year presents the world with another opportunity to advance the climate agenda and co-operative action under the UN Climate Convention. It is crucial that those actions are designed within a coherent and robust policy-planning framework to ensure that they are both cost-e”ective and compatible with broader social, economic and environmental goals. For developing countries, sound climatepolicy planning will also enhance access to climate finance from the developed ones. Climate-policy planning is a complex undertaking. Many developing countries are only just starting to consider how to go about it and some require improved access to the requisite knowledge, expertise and technical skills. Drawing upon best practices, tried and tested in other parts of the world, is clearly an advantage. The MCA4climate, a new UNEP initiative, is designed to assist policymakers, particularly in the developing world, in that endeavour. It o”ers concrete guidance and recommendations on a number of critical issues and proposes a formal framework for evaluating climate mitigation and adaptation policies, paving a practical way forward so that countries evolve sustainably and grow their economies in a way that keeps humanity’s footprint within planetary boundaries. It draws on the work of leading experts on climate policymaking from around the world and uses an innovative approach to assessing policies that ensures that climate policies and strategies take full account of developmental concerns and objectives. The MCA4climate initiative reflects UNEP’s mission to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations—issues at the centre of Rio+20 next year in Brazil as governments look to scale-up and accelerate the implementation of the agreements, including those relating to climate change, established in Rio in 1992.

  5. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We eventually apply our analysis to an example of gene regulation by positive feedback taken from the literature.

  6. The macroscopic analysis of radio – control problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Bychkovskyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary stage technique’s development is to characterize of radio – control systems broad application. Analysis radio – control systems is based usually on microscopic principle. Actual task is macroscopic point of view in radio – control problem. Problem statement. For radio control problem decision it is necessary describe the dynamics of process in generalize form. It is possible in conditions when macroscopic analysis is principal method. In this method it is actual the discount of probability of task fulfillment and information quantity. It is necessary find out the dependence between information quantity, relative error and dynamic characters of systems. Theoretical results. The regularities of task probability fulfillment in radio – control problem were consideration in dependence from control information quantity, information ability and relative error of radio – control system. Time of task fulfillment was determined for radio – control. The influence of speed increase coefficient of task fulfillment was determined. Typical substitution models for radio- control systems and relative errors were considerate. The information abilities of substitution models with discount of time constants and belated time were determined. For task fulfillment probability of radio – control were determine the dependences from time constants, belated time and speed increase coefficient of task fulfillment probability. Conclusion. Achieve results permit transfer the analysis of radio – control process on new quality level. Information, probability and characters of radio – control systems were taken into consideration. The ability for determination of task fulfillment time was open.

  7. Stray light analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fest, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Stray light is defined as unwanted light in an optical system, a familiar concept for anyone who has taken a photograph with the sun in or near their camera's field of view. This book addresses stray light terminology, radiometry, and the physics of stray light mechanisms, such as surface roughness scatter and ghost reflections. The most-efficient ways of using stray light analysis software packages are included. The book also demonstrates how the basic principles are applied in the design, fabrication, and testing phases of optical system development.

  8. Robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Uncertainties with chiller sequencing control were systematically quantified. • Robustness of chiller sequencing control was systematically analyzed. • Different sequencing control strategies were sensitive to different uncertainties. • A numerical method was developed for easy selection of chiller sequencing control. - Abstract: Multiple-chiller plant is commonly employed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system to increase operational feasibility and energy-efficiency under part load condition. In a multiple-chiller plant, chiller sequencing control plays a key role in achieving overall energy efficiency while not sacrifices the cooling sufficiency for indoor thermal comfort. Various sequencing control strategies have been developed and implemented in practice. Based on the observation that (i) uncertainty, which cannot be avoided in chiller sequencing control, has a significant impact on the control performance and may cause the control fail to achieve the expected control and/or energy performance; and (ii) in current literature few studies have systematically addressed this issue, this paper therefore presents a study on robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control in order to understand the robustness of various chiller sequencing control strategies under different types of uncertainty. Based on the robustness analysis, a simple and applicable method is developed to select the most robust control strategy for a given chiller plant in the presence of uncertainties, which will be verified using case studies

  9. Thermochemistry of uranium-containing compounds of the series M2+(PUO6)2 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction enthalpies of uranium-containing compounds M2+(PUO6)2, where M=Ca, Sr, Ba compounds 1,2,3 with aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid have been defined by the calorimetry method. On the basis of the experimental data obtained the standard formation enthalpies of crystalline compounds 1,2,3 at 298.15 K were calculated being -5055+-14, -5081+-17 and -5076+-16 kJ/mol respectively. Refs. 13

  10. In-house development of an FPGA-based MCA8K for gamma-ray spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Lanh, Dang; Son, Pham Ngoc; Son, Nguyen An

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is domestic development of electronics instruments. It used for measuring ionization radiation and practical training at Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The aim of this work is to study and develop a novel MCA8k for Gamma-ray spectrometer concerning experimental nuclear physics. An approach for design and construction of the aforementioned instrument is to apply logic integrating techniques via Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) under Max?+?Plus...

  11. A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Lolla

    2012-01-01

    A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the cou...

  12. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  13. Development of a robotized sample changing system for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic sample changing system with a small robot has been developed and constructed for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The developed system composed of a model A151 small robot (CRS Plus Inc., Canada), a NEC PC-980m2 personal computer having two of 1 Mbyte floppy-disk drivers, a NAIG NLAB-MCA multichannel analyzer (Toshiba), Ge detector settled in a low background shield and a tray stored 20 dishes containing a sample. The robot has a five-axis articulated arm (reach: 560 mm, payload: 2 kg, speed: 17 m/s, repeatability: 0.13 mm, weight: 17 kg). The robot and the multichannel analyzer (MCA) are controlled by the personal computer via RS-232C or GP-IB interface. (author)

  14. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations...outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully...

  15. Analysis and control of underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choukchou-Braham, Amal; Djemaï, Mohamed; Busawon, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides readers with tools for the analysis, and control of systems with fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom to be controlled, i.e., underactuated systems. The text deals with the consequences of a lack of a general theory that would allow methodical treatment of such systems and the ad hoc approach to control design that often results, imposing a level of organization whenever the latter is lacking. The authors take as their starting point the construction of a graphical characterization or control flow diagram reflecting the transmission of generalized forces through the degrees of freedom. Underactuated systems are classified according to the three main structures by which this is found to happen—chain, tree, and isolated vertex—and control design procedures proposed. The procedure is applied to several well-known examples of underactuated systems: acrobot; pendubot; Tora system; ball and beam; inertia wheel; and robotic arm with elastic joint. The text is illustrated with MATL...

  16. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Optimal control concepts in design sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belegundu, Ashok D.

    1987-01-01

    A close link is established between open loop optimal control theory and optimal design by noting certain similarities in the gradient calculations. The resulting benefits include a unified approach, together with physical insights in design sensitivity analysis, and an efficient approach for simultaneous optimal control and design. Both matrix displacement and matrix force methods are considered, and results are presented for dynamic systems, structures, and elasticity problems.

  18. TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT tandem mirror (TARA) control, data acquisition and analysis system consists of two major parts: (1) a Gould 584 industrial programmable controller (PC) to control engineering functions; and (2) a VAX 11/750 based data acquisition and analysis system for physics analysis. The PC is designed for use in harsh industrial environments and has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective means for automated control. The PC configuration is dedicated to control tasks on the TARA magnet, vacuum, RF, neutral beam, diagnostics, and utility systems. The data transfer functions are used to download system operating parameters from menu selectable tables. Real time status reports are provided to video terminals and as blocks of data to the host computer for storage. The data acquisition and analysis system for TARA was designed to provide high throughput and ready access to data from earlier runs. The adopted design uses pre-existing software packages in a system which is simple, coherent, fast, and which requires a minimum of new software development. The computer configuration is a VAX 11/750 running VMS with 124 M byte massbus disk and 1.4 G byte unibus disk subsystem

  19. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    2003-01-01

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.

  20. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, B L

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Ex...

  1. Residence Hall Damage: Analysis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Thomas A.

    The problems of residence hall damage and vandalism are examined in this booklet. An analysis and control program is proposed to provide a systematic method of dealing with the problem. A list of basic assumptions held by students and staff on residence hall damage is presented for discussion. Problems created by damage to residence halls are also…

  2. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  3. Safety analysis of control rod drive computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the most significant user programmes revealed no errors in these programmes. The evaluation of approximately 82 cumulated years of operation demonstrated that the operating system of the control rod positioning processor has a reliability that is sufficiently good for the tasks this computer has to fulfil. Computers can be used for safety relevant tasks. The experience gained with the control rod positioning processor confirms that computers are not less reliable than conventional instrumentation and control system for comparable tasks. The examination and evaluation of computers for safety relevant tasks can be done with programme analysis or statistical evaluation of the operating experience. Programme analysis is recommended for seldom used and well structured programmes. For programmes with a long, cumulated operating time a statistical evaluation is more advisable. The effort for examination and evaluation is not greater than the corresponding effort for conventional instrumentation and control systems. This project has also revealed that, where it is technologically sensible, process controlling computers or microprocessors can be qualified for safety relevant tasks without undue effort. (orig./HP)

  4. Adult Moyamoya disease: 320-Multidetector row CT for evaluation of revascularization in STA–MCA bypasses surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 320-multidetector row whole-brain computed tomography perfusion (WBCTP) and whole-head subtracted dynamic angiography (WHSDCTA) for assessing the revascularization of blood flow after superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass surgery in adults with Moyamoya disease (MD) in the short and long term. Patients and methods: 320-multidetector row WBCTP and WHSDCTA were applied in 20 patients with MD before and after surgery (for an average of 3 days and 3 months). The bypass arteries were investigated using WHSDCTA and compared with DSA. The regions of interests (ROIs) in the surgical and mirror sides of the cerebral cortex were drawn on a Vitrea Workstation. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and delay time were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative perfusion parameters in the MCA distribution were compared using the paired t-test. Results: WHSDCTA could clearly demonstrate 24 bypass arteries in 26 arteries for 20 patients, results which were in accordance with the results of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). When comparing preoperative values to those within 3 days after surgery, only TTP and delay time were significantly different (P < 0.05). Values of CBV, TTP, CBF, delay time, and MTT 3 months after surgery were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of preoperative perfusion. Conclusion: These data suggest that 320-multidetector row WBCTP and WHSDCTA can be used to evaluate the revascularization of blood flow after STA–MCA bypass surgery in patients with MD in the short and long term

  5. Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

  6. Analysis and control of distributed cooperative systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, John Todd; Parker, Eric Paul; Wagner, John S.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2004-09-01

    As part of DARPA Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) Software for Distributed Robotics (SDR) Program, Sandia National Laboratories has developed analysis and control software for coordinating tens to thousands of autonomous cooperative robotic agents (primarily unmanned ground vehicles) performing military operations such as reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition; countermine and explosive ordnance disposal; force protection and physical security; and logistics support. Due to the nature of these applications, the control techniques must be distributed, and they must not rely on high bandwidth communication between agents. At the same time, a single soldier must easily direct these large-scale systems. Finally, the control techniques must be provably convergent so as not to cause undo harm to civilians. In this project, provably convergent, moderate communication bandwidth, distributed control algorithms have been developed that can be regulated by a single soldier. We have simulated in great detail the control of low numbers of vehicles (up to 20) navigating throughout a building, and we have simulated in lesser detail the control of larger numbers of vehicles (up to 1000) trying to locate several targets in a large outdoor facility. Finally, we have experimentally validated the resulting control algorithms on smaller numbers of autonomous vehicles.

  7. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  8. Ivy signs on FLAIR images before and after STA-MCA anastomosis in patients with Moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging is one of the features of Moyamoya disease. However, the correlation between ivy sign and cerebral perfusion status has not been fully evaluated. Purpose: To characterize ivy sign on FLAIR images in Moyamoya disease and compare this finding with hemodynamic alterations on perfusion single-photon emission CT (SPECT) obtained before and after bypass surgery. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients with angiographically confirmed Moyamoya disease who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis were included in the study. The presence of ivy sign on FLAIR images was classified as 'negative', 'minimal' and 'positive'. We evaluated the relationship between ivy sign and findings of SPECT, including cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) before and after surgery. Results: Minimal or positive ivy sign was seen in 13 (81%) of 16 patients, and 21 (66%) of 32 hemispheres. CVR in the areas with positive or minimal ivy sign was lower than that in the areas with negative ivy sign. After STA-MCA anastomosis, ivy sign disappeared or decreased in all 21 hemispheres demonstrating ivy sign. SPECT demonstrated apparent hemodynamic improvement in areas demonstrating disappearance or decrease of ivy sign. Conclusion: Ivy sign on FLAIR image is seen in areas with decreased cerebral perfusion. The sign is useful for non-invasive assessment of cerebral hemodynamic status before and after surgery

  9. Airphoto analysis of erosion control practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. In this study, airphoto analysis of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at a scale of 1:60,000 was used to determine the erosion control practice factor in the USLE. Information about contour tillage, contour strip cropping, and grass waterways was obtained from aerial photography for Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  10. Control Analysis of flexible Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephanie J.; Paluszek, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Future solar sail missions will require sails with dimensions on the order of 100 m to l km. At these sizes, given the gossamer nature of the sail supporting structures, flexible modes may be low enough to interact with the control system. This paper develops a practical analysis of the flexible interactions using state-space systems and modal data from standard finite element models of the sail sub- system. The modal data is combined with a rigid core bus to create a modal coordinate state-space plant, which can be analyzed for stability with a state-space controller. Results are presented for an 80 m sail for both collocated actuation and control by actuators mounted at the sail tips.

  11. Radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radiation control and protection in a particle beam therapy facility, the use of radiation is regulated by Medical Care Act (MCA) in addition to Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes etc., because it is not only a radiation but also a medical facility. X-ray radiographic equipments are regulated only by the MCA. On the other hand, the regulations for the facility having accelerators are essentially similar to those for general radiation facilities. In this article, designing and operation of a particle beam therapy facility are summarized from the aspect of radiation control and protection. (author)

  12. PROMETHEE Method and Sensitivity Analysis in the Software Application for the Support of Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Moldrik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PROMETHEE is one of methods, which fall into multi-criteria analysis (MCA. The MCA, as the name itself indicates, deals with the evaluation of particular variants according to several criteria. Developed software application (MCA8 for the support of multi-criteria decision-making was upgraded about PROMETHEE method and a graphic tool, which enables the execution of the sensitivity analysis. This analysis is used to ascertain how a given model output depends upon the input parameters. The MCA8 software application with mentioned graphic upgrade was developed for purposes of solving multi-criteria decision tasks. In the MCA8 is possible to perform sensitivity analysis by a simple form – through column graphs. We can change criteria significances (weights in these column graphs directly and watch the changes of the order of variants immediately.

  13. Application of dimensional analysis in systems modeling and control design

    CERN Document Server

    Balaguer, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Dimensional analysis is an engineering tool that is widely applied to numerous engineering problems, but has only recently been applied to control theory and problems such as identification and model reduction, robust control, adaptive control, and PID control. Application of Dimensional Analysis in Systems Modeling and Control Design provides an introduction to the fundamentals of dimensional analysis for control engineers, and shows how they can exploit the benefits of the technique to theoretical and practical control problems.

  14. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  15. Multi-channel analyzer controlled by applet and flash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both java applet and flash were applied to emulate virtual panel of multi-channel pulse height analyzer (MCA), and Microsoft IE browser was used to control MCA through internet to measure the ?-ray energy spectrum of 137Cs. It was shown that most of the work completed by applet can be done by flash too, and with flash, more beautiful panel of the remote controlled instruments can be easily designed

  16. Analysis of Morgantown vehicle steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. S.; Marsh, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed Morgantown public transportation system will use a fleet of computer-controlled vehicles operating on a separate dedicated network of roadways called a guideway. An automatic steering system on each vehicle will permit the traversal of the proposed route of various guideway sections. A preliminary study was made to analyze the steering control for the Morgantown vehicles. The primary requirement was to design an automatic steering system that would achieve a smooth ride and eliminate the need for excess margin in the guideway width. Front and rear wheel steering and front and rear sensing capabilities were assumed in the analysis. The system finally adopted front and rear wheel steering and front sensing was shown by computer simulation and vehicle steering experiments to be adequate.

  17. Large scale systems approximation: Analysis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns the study of the approximation of high dimensional systems by low order models. This approximation is defined by aggregation methods, the method based on singular perturbations and a relatively recent method. This later one is formulated in a particular representation of the system and is called balanced realisation method. The application of the approximation is then studied in the case of suboptimal control theory for the several defined models. The results of numerical simulation for the analysis and control are carried on two examples defined by a model of a nuclear reactor core of order nine and a steam generator of a fuel station of order twenty and permitted to develop a comparative study of the performances of the different methods analysed in the case of open loop and closed loop models

  18. Studying On Digital Signal Processing Method For Tested Design And The Construction Of DSP-Based MCA 1K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments for Physics research. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing for tested design and construction of DSP-based MCA 1K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, memory and Central processing unit are created. An application software for receiving data is written in LabVIEW 8.5. Spartan 3E starter kit is used for design of the project, combining with ISE software, XilinX 9.2i. (author)

  19. Coupling between the blood lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and MCA Vmean at the onset of exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Madsen, Camilla A; Nielsen, Henning B; Zaar, Morten; Gjedde, Albert; Secher, Niels H; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Activation-induced increase in cerebral blood flow is coupled to enhanced metabolic activity, maybe with brain tissue redox state and oxygen tension as key modulators. To evaluate this hypothesis at the onset of exercise in humans, blood was sampled at 0.1 to 0.2 Hz from the radial artery and right...... oxygen tension decreased by 2.7 mmHg after 5 s (P < 0.05), while MCA V(mean) increased only after 30 s. Furthermore, there was an unaccounted cerebral carbohydrate uptake relative to the uptake of oxygen that became significant 50 s after the onset of exercise. These findings support brain tissue redox...... state and oxygenation as potential modulators of an increase in cerebral blood flow at the onset of exercise....

  20. Intensive post-operative follow-up of breast cancer patients with tumour markers: CEA, TPA or CA15.3 vs MCA and MCA-CA15.3 vs CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel in the early detection of distant metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Andrea; Tartarelli, Gianna; Carpi, Angelo; Metelli, Maria Rita; Ferrari, Paola; Anselmi, Loretta; Conte, Massimo; Berti, Piero; Miccoli, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Background In breast cancer current guidelines do not recommend the routine use of serum tumour markers. Differently, we observed that CEA-TPA-CA15.3 (carcinoembryonic (CEA) tissue polypeptide (TPA) and cancer associated 115D8/DF3 (CA15.3) antigens) panel permits early detection and treatment for most relapsing patients. As high sensitivity and specificity and different cut-off values have been reported for mucin-like carcinoma associated antigen (MCA), we compared MCA with the above mentioned tumour markers and MCA-CA15.3 with the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Methods In 289 breast cancer patients submitted to an intensive post-operative follow-up with tumour markers, we compared MCA (cut-off values, ? 11 and ? 15 U/mL) with CEA or CA15.3 or TPA for detection of relapse. In addition, we compared the MCA-CA15.3 and CEA-TPA-CA15.3 tumour marker panels. Results Distant metastases occurred 19 times in 18 (6.7%) of the 268 patients who were disease-free at the beginning of the study. MCA sensitivity with both cut-off values was higher than that of CEA or TPA or CA15.3 (68% vs 10%, 26%, 32% and 53% vs 16%, 42%, 32% respectively). With cut-off ? 11 U/mL, MCA showed the lowest specificity (42%); with cut-off ? 15 U/mL, MCA specificity was similar to TPA (73% vs 72%) and lower than that of CEA and CA15.3 (96% and 97% respectively). With ? 15 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA sensitivity increased from 53% to 58% after its association with CA15.3. Sensitivity of CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel was 74% (14 of 19 recurrences). Eight of the 14 recurrences early detected with CEA-TPA-CA15.3 presented as a single lesion (oligometastatic disease) (5) or were confined to bony skeleton (3) (26% and 16% respectively of the 19 relapses). With ? 11 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA-CA15.3 association showed higher sensitivity but lower specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value than the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Conclusion At both the evaluated cut-off values serum MCA sensitivity is higher than that of CEA, TPA or CA15.3 but its specificity is similar to or lower than that of TPA. Overall, CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel is more accurate than MCA-CA15.3 association and can "early" detect a few relapsed patients with limited metastatic disease and more favourable prognosis. These findings further support the need for prospective randomised clinical trial to assess whether an intensive post-operative follow-up with an appropriate use of serum tumour markers can significantly improve clinical outcome of early detected relapsing patients. PMID:17116247

  1. Radioactivity analysis of food and accuracy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the fact that radioactive substances have been detected from the foods such as agricultural and livestock products and marine products due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stipulated new standards geared to general foods on radioactive cesium by replacing the interim standards up to now. Various institutions began to measure radioactivity on the basis of this instruction, but as a new challenge, a problem of the reliability of the data occurred. Therefore, accuracy control to indicate the proof that the quality of the data can be retained at an appropriate level judging from an objective manner is important. In order to consecutively implement quality management activities, it is necessary for each inspection agency to build an accuracy control system. This paper introduces support service, as a new attempt, for establishing the accuracy control system. This service is offered jointly by three organizations, such as TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd., Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, and Japan Chemical Analysis Center. This service consists of the training of radioactivity measurement practitioners, proficiency test for radioactive substance measurement, and personal authentication. (O.A.)

  2. MAP Attitude Control System Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. F.; Campbell, C. E.; Ericsson-Jackson, A. J.; Markley, F. L.; ODonnell, J. R., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The MAP spacecraft will perform its mission in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L(sub 2) Lagrange point to suppress potential instrument disturbances. To make a full-sky map of cosmic microwave background fluctuations, a combination fast spin and slow precession motion will be used. MAP requires a propulsion system to reach L(sub 2), to unload system momentum, and to perform stationkeeping maneuvers once at L(sub 2). A minimum hardware, power and thermal safe control mode must also be provided. Sufficient attitude knowledge must be provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation of 1.8 arc-minutes. The short development time and tight budgets require a new way of designing, simulating, and analyzing the Attitude Control System (ACS). This paper presents the design and analysis of the control system to meet these requirements.

  3. Improving Software Systems By Flow Control Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Poznanski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using agile methods during the implementation of the system that meets mission critical requirements can be a real challenge. The change in the system built of dozens or even hundreds of specialized devices with embedded software requires the cooperation of a large group of engineers. This article presents a solution that supports parallel work of groups of system analysts and software developers. Deployment of formal rules to the requirements written in natural language enables using formal analysis of artifacts being a bridge between software and system requirements. Formalism and textual form of requirements allowed the automatic generation of message ?ow graph for the (sub system, called the “big-picture-model”. Flow diagram analysis helped to avoid a large number of defects whose repair cost in extreme cases could undermine the legitimacy of agile methods in projects of this scale. Retrospectively, a reduction of technical debt was observed. Continuous analysis of the “big picture model” improves the control of the quality parameters of the software architecture. The article also tries to explain why the commercial platform based on UML modeling language may not be su?cient in projects of this complexity.

  4. Flexible space structure model reduction by modal cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, R. E.; Hughes, P. C.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that reduced models and reduced controllers for flexible space structures are obtained by retaining those modes which make the greatest contribution to quadratic control objectives. Attention is given to the relative importance of damping, frequency and mode shapes in the mode truncation decisions for the following control objectives: attitude control, vibration suppression and figure control. It is also shown that using Modal Cost Analysis (MCA) on the closed loop modes of the optimally controlled system allows the construction of reduced control policies which feedback only those closed loop coordinates which are most critical to the quadratic control performance criterion. In this manner, the modes which need to be controlled are deduced from truncations of the optimal controller.

  5. Structurally constrained controllers analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sojoudi, Somayeh; Aghdam, Amir G

    2011-01-01

    Explains and investigates recent cutting edge applications including such topics as formation flyingComplete coverage of robust control in structurally constrained controllersDiscusses the performance evaluation of decentralized controllersExplains how to use new LMI method to solve traditional constrained control problems

  6. Some chaotic behaviors in a MCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas's minor component analysis algorithm with a constant learning rate has both stability and chaotic dynamical behavior under some conditions. The paper explores such dynamical behavior of this algorithm. Certain stability and chaos of this algorithm are derived. Waveform plots, Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams are presented to illustrate the existence of chaotic behavior

  7. Integration of Design and Control Through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Gani, Rafiqul

    A systematic analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. It is shown that the same set of process (control) variables and design (manipulative) variables is employed with different objectives in design and control. Analysis of t...

  8. Adaptive control algorithms, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Ioan Doré; M'Saad, Mohammed; Karimi, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated, this second edition of Adaptive Control covers new developments in the field, including multi-model adaptive control with switching, direct and indirect adaptive regulation, and adaptive feedforward disturbance compensation.

  9. Analysis and process control of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometric gaging of K2O in crude salt and process control are described. Occurring errors and quality control of the gaging method are discussed and compared with conventional methods from the economic point of view

  10. Analysis and control of nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Jean

    2009-01-01

    A work on a hot topic in the field of control of nonlinear systems that ranges from mathematical system theory to practical industrial control applications. It addresses two fundamental questions in Systems and Control: how to plan the motion of a system and track the corresponding trajectory in presence of perturbations.

  11. MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd), Luminomagnetic Nanophosphors with Optical and Magnetic Features for Multimodal Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightsell, Chris; Mimun, Lawrence C.; Kumar, Ajith G.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Nanomaterials with multiple functionalities play a very important role in several high technology applications. A major area of such applications is the biomedical industry, where contrast agents with multiple imaging modalities can provide better results than conventional materials. Many of the contrast agents available now have drawbacks such as toxicity, photobleaching, low contrast, size restrictions, and overall cost of the imaging system. Rare-earth doped inorganic nanophosphors are alternatives to circumvent several of these issues, together with the added advantage of super high resolution imaging due to the excellent near infrared sensitivity of the phosphors. In addition to optical imaging features, by adding a magnetic ion such as Gd3+ at suitable lattice positions, the phosphor can be made magnetic, yielding dual imaging functionalities. In this research, we are presenting the optical and magnetic imaging features of sub-nanometer size MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd) phosphors for the potential application of these nanophosphors as multimodal contrast agents. Cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo imaging, penetration depth etc. are studied for various phosphor compositions, and optimized compositions are explored. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-PREM) Grant N0-DMR-0934218.

  12. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are required to effectively anticipate. Hence, typically a real-time optimal control strategy results. As weather forecasts are uncertain, predicted model outputs and related costs of the control strat...

  13. PID control system analysis and design

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Ang, K.H.; Chong, G.C.Y.

    2006-01-01

    With its three-term functionality offering treatment of both transient and steady-state responses, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control provides a generic and efficient solution to realworld control problems. The wide application of PID control has stimulated and sustained research and development to "get the best out of PID", and "the search is on to find the next key technology or methodology for PID tuning". This article presents remedies for problems involving the...

  14. Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eu2+ doped silicate glasses were prepared of the system 52SiO2-48MO: xEu2+(in molar ratio, M=Ca, Sr, Ba; x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9) by a high temperature melt-quenching method in a reducing atmosphere. Glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-phosphors were obtained after the heat treatment of the glass samples. The excitation, emission spectra and lifetime decay curves of 4f65d1?4f7 of Eu2+ were measured and interpreted with respect to their crystal structures and multi-site occupations of divalent europium in the hosts. Their excitation bands mainly extend from 450 to 250 nm, which is adaptable to the main emission region of the UV LED chip. With UV light excitation, the Eu2+ emission in CaSiO3, SrSiO3 and BaSiO3 shows blue, green and yellow colors centered at 440, 505 and 555 nm, respectively. The critical Eu2+concentration was studied and determined to be x=5 for both CaSiO3 and SrSiO3 and x=7 for BaSiO3 phosphors. The results show that the Eu2+ doped glass ceramic phosphors containing MSiO3 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-crystals can be used as potential matrix materials for a high power white LED pumped by the UV LED chip. - Highlights: ? Glass ceramic containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors prepared. ? Derived phosphors emit intensively blue, green and yellow colors. ? Their luminescence properties and crystal structures have been investigated. ? Concentration quenching effects observed and analyzed. ? Potential application for UV chip exciting white LED evaluated.

  15. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secon...

  16. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secondar...

  17. Control design and analysis for underactuated robotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed considerable progress in the study of underactuated robotic systems (URSs). Control Design and Analysis for Underactuated Robotic Systems presents a unified treatment of control design and analysis for a class of URSs, which include systems with multiple-degree-of-freedom and/or with underactuation degree two. It presents novel notions, features, design techniques, and strictly global motion analysis results for these systems. These new materials are shown to be vital in studying the control design and stability analysis of URSs. Control Design and Analysis for Underactuated Robotic Systems includes the modelling, control design, and analysis presented in a systematic way particularly for the following examples: l  directly and remotely driven  Acrobots l  Pendubot l  rotational pendulum l  counter-weighted Acrobot 2-link underactuated robot with flexible elbow joint l  variable-length pendulum l  3-link gymnastic robot with passive first joint l  n-link planar robo...

  18. Control and Analysis of Droop and Reverse Droop Controllers for Distributed Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses control and analysis of droop and reverse droop control for distributed generations (DG). The droop control is well known applied to the voltage control mode (VCM) DG units, but has limitation when implemented on the current control mode (CCM) units. Therefore, this paper gives a more complete primary control for DG systems that integrates with both VCM and CCM units. The power management can be uniformly achieved by designing proportional droop and reverse droop parameters. And the power sharing effect among CCM and VCM DG units is discussed. Finally, hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out to validate the proposed control and analysis.

  19. Control Engineering Analysis of Mechanical Pitch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the help of a local stability analysis the coefficient range of a discrete damper, used for centrifugal forced, mechanical pitch system of small wind turbines (SWT), is gained for equilibrium points. – By a global stability analysis the gained coefficient range can be validated. An appropriate approach by Takagi-Sugeno is presented in the paper

  20. Set-Up of Digital MCA with HPGE Detector in High Gamma Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processing time adjustability of a commercial portable spectroscopy workstation based on Digital Signal Processing technology was investigated in areas from highly contaminated (mSv/h dose rate) to high energies (up to 8 MeV) to throughput and resolution performance coaxial Germanium detector. Altering the rise/fall and flat top times of the trapezoidal filter, it was estimated the full width at half maximum at the following peaks: 54Mn 834.8 keV, 60Co 1332.5 keV, 16O(n, p)16N 6129.9 keV, 56Fe(n, ?) 7631.1 keV and 56Fe(n, ?) 7645.5 keV. First type measurement for ultra-high counting and throughput rates was performed at ionex filter which capture activation products (54Mn, 60Co) from primary cooling medium and second type measurement for highest resolution was carried out at pressure water reactor platform during nominal power level giving high energy gamma 6129.9 keV from interaction fast neutrons 16O(n, p)16N and 7631.1 keV, 7645.5 keV from radiation capturing thermal neutrons by 56Fe(n, ?). To measure through energy range up to 8 MeV was reached setting coarse and fine gain to lower range and measuring at contaminated ionex filter by GBq activity was allowed using 50 mm cylindrical collimator by 30 mm diameter, without using this collimator was destroyed whole gamma spectrum despite altering rise/flat times. The results, which are presented, provide optimum performance for high throughput: FWHM 1.71 keV/834.8 keV (54Mn) and 2.00 keV/1332.5 keV (60Co) and best resolution: FWHM 4.49 keV/6129.9 keV (16N), 4.97 keV/7631.1 keV/7645.5 keV (prompt gamma iron) setting 2.8 ?s rise time and 0.6 ?s flat top time. For 0.8/1.2 ?s rise time and 0.2 ?s flat top time occurred results with destroyed resolution broadening and peak shift at 6129.9 keV and 7631.1/7645.5 keV. For rise time above 8.8 ?s and flat time above 0.8 ?s were peaks at 834.8 keV and 1332.5 keV unusable for purpose peak analysis process. (author)

  1. Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.

    1994-08-01

    The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented.

  2. Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented

  3. INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU; N?T?LI?A-MIHAELA LESCONI-FRUMU?ANU

    2010-01-01

    Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by ...

  4. Systems with delays analysis, control, and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, A V

    2015-01-01

    The edition introduces a new class of invariant derivatives  and shows their relationships with other derivatives, such as the Sobolev generalized derivative and the generalized derivative of the distribution theory. This is a new direction in mathematics.   i-Smooth analysis is the branch of functional analysis that considers the theory and applications of the invariant derivatives of functions and functionals. The important direction of i-smooth analysis is the investigation of the relation of invariant derivatives with the Sobolev generalized derivative and the generalized derivative o

  5. Dissipative systems analysis and control theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brogliato, Bernard; Maschke, Bernhard; Egeland, Olav

    2006-01-01

    Many important physical systems have input-output properties related to the conservation, dissipation and transport of energy. The theory surrounding such ""dissipative properties"" may be used as a framework for the design and analysis of control systems. The consideration of dissipativity is useful - and may be indispensable - for control applications like robotics, active vibration damping and circuit theory and for some control techniques themselves: adaptive, nonlinear-H-infinity , and inverse-optimal control among them.Dissipative Systems Analysis and Control (second edition) presents a

  6. Solar Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, control design, and control performance test of solar power system. Solar power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter control, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter control is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for control design. The dynamic analysis results show that these controls affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of controllers are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of control parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter control stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.

  7. Time Series Analysis Forecasting and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Box, George E P; Reinsel, Gregory C

    2011-01-01

    A modernized new edition of one of the most trusted books on time series analysis. Since publication of the first edition in 1970, Time Series Analysis has served as one of the most influential and prominent works on the subject. This new edition maintains its balanced presentation of the tools for modeling and analyzing time series and also introduces the latest developments that have occurred n the field over the past decade through applications from areas such as business, finance, and engineering. The Fourth Edition provides a clearly written exploration of the key methods for building, cl

  8. Chernobyl: The super MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication abstracted informs on the following most topical questions: What are the short-term and long-term effects of radioactive radiation on man. What is the genetic damage to be expected. Radiation doses and how to calculate them. Immediate and present radiation effects of Chernobyl. What can the consumer do to protect himself and his environment. Nuclear power phase out: is it really as difficult as is often maintained. Does it involve insurmountable legal problems. What are the rights of the individual in case of a reactor catastrophe. The publication abstracted reflects the work of members of the environmental organization ''Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland'' (BUND) of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is not the result of hasty, precipitate contributions but is based on facts and on profound analyses. The reader may resort to references along with comprehensive commentaries. (orig./HP)

  9. Analysis and Control of the Pan System via Sliding Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain new results for the analysis and control of the Pan system (2010) using sliding mode control (SMC). The stability results derived in this paper for the control of the Pan system to stabilize about its unstable equilibrium at the origin have been derived using sliding mode control and Lyapunovstability theory. Numerical simulations are depicted to demonstrate the control results derived in this paper.

  10. Analysis of Reconfigured Control Loop with a Virtual Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filasova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Control reconfiguration changes the control structure in response to a fault detected in the plant. This becomes necessary, because a major fault like loss of an actuator breaks the corresponding control loop and therefore renders the whole system inoperable.  An important aim of control reconfiguration is to change the control structure as little as possible, since every change bears the potential of practical problems. The proposed solution is to keep the original controller in the loop and to add an extension called virtual actuator that implements the necessary changes of the control structure. The virtual actuator translates between the signals of the nominal controller and the signal of the faulty plants. This paper is concerned with the analysis of reconfigured loop with a virtual actuator for the system with the faulty actuator. The proposed analysis is illustrated on numerical example.

  11. Information Control Analysis of Business Group

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Wen-Sheng; Dong Meng

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of modern enterprise strategy needs the support of information system and networked information technology. This study confirms the importance of business group information construction by the analysis of information technology dynamics and the result of information technology development effected industry. Besides, it discussed the common features of Executive Information Systems (EIS) and the balanced scorecard application in the exploi...

  12. Stability Analysis for Car Following Model Based on Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Pei; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ge, Hong-Xia

    2014-05-01

    Stability analysis is one of the key issues in car-following theory. The stability analysis with Lyapunov function for the two velocity difference car-following model (for short, TVDM) is conducted and the control method to suppress traffic congestion is introduced. Numerical simulations are given and results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  13. Magnetic field regulation control system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badelt, S.W. [Lawrence Livremore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This study comprises (1) an analytical characterization of the Cameca ion microscope`s magnetic field regulation circuitry and (2) comparisons between the analytical predictions and the measured performance of the control system. It is the first step in a project to achieve routine field regulation better than 10ppm. The control loop was decomposed into functional subcircuits and simulated in SPICE to determine DC, AC, and transient response. Transfer functions were extracted from SPICE, simplified, and analyzed in MATLAB. Both SPICE and MATLAB simulations were calculated for step inputs, and these results were compared to actual measurements. Magnetic field fluctuations were measured at high mass resolving power. The frequency spectrum of the fluctuations was analyzed by FFT. Difficulties encountered and implications for future work are discussed.

  14. Robot Manipulators: Modeling, Performance Analysis and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dombre, Etienne; Khalil, Wisama

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the most recent research results about the modeling and control of robot manipulators. - Chapter 1 gives unified tools to derive direct and inverse geometric, kinematic and dynamic models of serial robots and addresses the issue of identification of the geometric and dynamic parameters of these models. - Chapter 2 describes the main features of parallel robots, the different architectures and the methods used to obtain direct and inverse geometric, kinematic and dynamic mod...

  15. PID control system analysis, design, and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, K.H.; Chong, G.C.Y.; Li, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Designing and tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller appears to be conceptually intuitive, but can be hard in practice, if multiple (and often conflicting) objectives such as short transient and high stability are to be achieved. Usually, initial designs obtained by all means need to be adjusted repeatedly through computer simulations until the closed-loop system performs or compromises as desired. This stimulates the development of "intelligent" tools...

  16. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ashis Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the design and analysis of a chemical process control system. The design is accomplished to attain the optimality of control operation. The total system is supposed to consist of the suitable controller operated in the closed loop manner with negative feedback path, affording the suitable output to the input. The optimality of the performance for the system is considered to be attained with gain of the (PD) controller [1], so chosen that the integral square error be...

  17. Analysis and Design of PLL Motor Speed Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Chao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Phase-locked technology in motor speed control system has a wide range of applications, Especially for high accuracy in the motor steady speed operation situation, more and more use of phase-locked servo control system. This paper describes the block diagram and mathematical model of phase-locked control system, Shows the circuit parameter calculation method This and combined with design example analysis of phase-locked control system, Indicated through the theory and practice, using PLL can ...

  18. Dynamic analysis of hydraulic control unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hydraulic Control Units (HCU) are required to operate when the required response spectra (RRS) corresponding to dynamic loads of upset and faulted conditions are applied to the HCU's. To demonstrate operability, they are qualified to testing response spectra (TRS). This paper presents a procedure by which the RRS and TRS were generated at the upper HCU connecting locations and also the selected locations. A comparison of the RRS and TRS shows that the RRS are indeed enveloped by the TRS at the mounting locations as well as at the floor. Thus, the use of the HCU test results to qualify the HCU in the actual installation is justified. (orig.)

  19. Controllability analysis of modified Petlyuk structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo-Galvan, V.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.; Hernandez, S.; Hernandez, H. [Guanajuato Univ. (Mexico). Faculty of Chemistry

    2008-02-15

    Distillation columns can consume a large portion of energy in chemical industry processes. Integrated Petlyuk columns have been shown to improve energy efficiencies by between 20 and 40 per cent, and thermally coupled distillation columns can serve as an alternative to conventional distillation sequences in multicomponent mixture separation processes. Until recently, operational difficulties have limited the wider introduction of Petlyuk columns in industrial applications. Alternative Petlyuk-type schemes have now been developed to provide improved operation properties. This paper discussed, evaluated, and compared the theoretical control properties of 6 different Petlyuk schemes. Computations were performed using a singular value decomposition (SVD) technique in the frequency domain. Dynamic closed-loop responses for set point tracking, and disturbance rejections were derived in order to support each scheme's theoretical control properties. Results of the comparative evaluation demonstrated that reductions in the number of interconnections and the use of unidirectional flows impacted the dynamic properties of the schemes, and led to operational improvements in thermally coupled distillation sequences. It was concluded that Petyluk properties can be improved through the correction of the bidirectionality of interconnecting streams. 30 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Analysis and design of networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    You, Keyou; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    This monograph focuses on characterizing the stability and performance consequences of inserting limited-capacity communication networks within a control loop. The text shows how integration of the ideas of control and estimation with those of communication and information theory can be used to provide important insights concerning several fundamental problems such as: ·         minimum data rate for stabilization of linear systems over noisy channels; ·         minimum network requirement for stabilization of linear systems over fading channels; and ·         stability of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations. A fundamental link is revealed between the topological entropy of linear dynamical systems and the capacities of communication channels. The design of a logarithmic quantizer for the stabilization of linear systems under various network environments is also extensively discussed and solutions to many problems of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations are de...

  1. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard... fish or fishery product being processed in the absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan....

  2. A Case Study in Forensic Analysis of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case study in which a method for forensic analysis of control was applied to resolve probative technical issues in a legal action. It describes one instance in which the analysis was successfully applied without challenge, addresses the details of most of the different facets of the analysis method, and demonstrates how such analysis provides a systematic approach to using technical methods to address legal issues as a case study. 

  3. The Importance of Variance Analysis for Costs Control in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, L. O.; Uzoka, P.

    2012-01-01

    This review aimed at examining the importance of variance analysis for cost control in organizations. The study x-rayed the concept of variance analysis, types, sources, objectives and its significance. The study reported that variance analysis has significant influence in evaluating individual performance in organizations, assignment of responsibilities to individuals and assisting management to rely on the principle of management by exception and recommended among others, variances analysis...

  4. The Importance of Variance Analysis for Costs Control in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh, L. O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aimed at examining the importance of variance analysis for cost control in organizations. The study x-rayed the concept of variance analysis, types, sources, objectives and its significance. The study reported that variance analysis has significant influence in evaluating individual performance in organizations, assignment of responsibilities to individuals and assisting management to rely on the principle of management by exception and recommended among others, variances analysis should be based upon scientifically established standards.

  5. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  6. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis Using Control-Based Continuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Starke, Jens

    The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable and...

  7. Applications of functional analysis to optimal control problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic concepts in functional analysis, a general norm, the Hoelder inequality, functionals and the Hahn-Banach theorem are described; a mathematical formulation of two optimal control problems is introduced by the method of functional analysis. The problem of time-optimal control systems with both norm constraints on control inputs and on state variables at discrete intermediate times is formulated as an L-problem in the theory of moments. The simplex method is used for solving a non-linear minimizing problem inherent in the functional analysis solution to this problem. Numerical results are presented for a train operation. The second problem is that of optimal control of discrete linear systems with quadratic cost functionals. The problem is concerned with the case of unconstrained control and fixed endpoints. This problem is formulated in terms of norms of functionals on suitable Banach spaces. (author)

  8. Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brushless DC motors (BLDC find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease of implementation, these controllers pose difficulties where there are some control complexity such as nonlinearity, load disturbances and parametric variations. Moreover PI controllers require precise linear mathematical models. In this paper, the analysis and mathematical modeling of BLDC motor is implemented. Also, speed control of three phase BLDC motor drive using power electronic device is projected by using matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows the improved performance of developed Brushless DC motor drive.

  9. Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Ahmed Khan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategies for an Inverted pendulum system model are presented for stabilized controlling such as Proportional-Integral-Derivatives (PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC Controllers. Matlab Simulation has been performed on Simulink platform shows that both controllers successfully controls Multi-output Inverted pendulum system. However PID is more efficient and has a better time response characteristics than FLC control strategy.

  10. Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System

    OpenAIRE

    Aleem Ahmed Khan; Kashan Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategies fo...

  11. Proposed design for a high quality PC-MCA add on card with reduced electronic hardware [Paper No.: I4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and construction of an 8 k personal computer analyser (PCA), used for nuclear pulse height analysis. The complete PCA uses a single card that can be mounted in a slot of personal computer. The PCA circuit consists of an interface memory circuit and an 8-K nuclear ADC along with its associated controls giving differential non-linearity (DNL) of ≤ ± 1% with conversion time of nearly 15 micro sec. All standard facilities like selection of conversion gain, digital offset etc. are provided. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  12. Effect of the A-site cation on methane oxidation of perovskite-type (La1?xMx)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite-type (La1?xMx)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) synthesized at 700 °C in air using the polymerizable complex method had a rhombohedral perovskite-type structure in the range of x?0.06. The oxygen content of the samples was 2.98–2.99, and the specific surface area was 3.5–8.3 m2/g regardless of the M ion or x. The Rietveld method indicated that the Co–O distance was also constant regardless of the M ion or x, and that the Co–O–Co angle between two CoO6 octahedra increased with an increase in the ionic radius of the M ion. The temperature corresponding to the 50% conversion (T1/2) of CH4 oxidation was almost constant for the samples with x=0.04, while the T1/2 of the samples with x=0.06 was linearly lowered with increases in the ionic radius of the M ion. - Graphical abstract: The conversion from CH4 to CO2 and H2O on (La0.94M0.06)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba). Highlights: ? (La1?xMx)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) was synthesized using the polymerizable complex method. ? The Co–O distance was constant regardless of the M ion or x. ? The Co–O–Co angle increased with an increase in the ionic radius of the M ion. ? CH4 oxidation started above 300 °C and finished at 700 °C. ? The catalytic activity increased with increases in the ionic radius of the M ion.

  13. [Import risk analysis in animal disease control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ruth; Breidenbach, Eric; Thür, Barbara; Griot, Christian; Engels, Monika; Stärk, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    At the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office risk analyses are conducted according to international standards. A risk analysis contains the elements risk management, risk assessment and risk communication. A risk assessment is based on risk profile, hazard identification and a pathway model. All available information is gathered, documented and assessed and the risk estimated. The question. "What is the probability that unprocessed wild boar meat imported to Switzerland from the federal state Mecklenburg Western Pommerania is contaminated with classical swine fever virus?" was answered by a release assessment. The hazard identification recognized classical swine fever virus and attenuated live virus vaccine used for oral immunization as hazards. The probability of contamination was estimated to be small. The question: "What is the likelihood to introduce Aujeszky's disease to Switzerland and infect the indigenous pig population with the disease, by means of importing pork and meat products?" was answered by assessing the release, exposure and resulting consequences. The risk of an infection of the indigenous pig population was estimated to be very small, as 80% of the imported products derive from countries or zones free from Aujeszky's disease. Furthermore the majority of the imported products are processed. The strict implementation of the regulations governing feeding of food wastes to pigs reduces the probability of exposure. In all assessments the risk management decides on a strategy to deal with the risk, taking into consideration the results and recommendations derived from the risk assessment as well as other relevant factors. PMID:15188677

  14. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  15. Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO2 cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO2 Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO2 pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO2 Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO2 heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO2 cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO2 loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO2 cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO2 Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO2 cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow the dynamic simulation of the ABTR. The code modifications have r

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-11

    This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

  17. Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Zhiguang; Jia Guohua; Deng Degang; Hua Youjie; Zhao Shilong; Huang Lihui; Wang Huanping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ma Hongping [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Xu Shiqing, E-mail: sxucjlu@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Eu{sup 2+} doped silicate glasses were prepared of the system 52SiO{sub 2}-48MO: xEu{sup 2+}(in molar ratio, M=Ca, Sr, Ba; x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9) by a high temperature melt-quenching method in a reducing atmosphere. Glass ceramics containing MSiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 2+}(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-phosphors were obtained after the heat treatment of the glass samples. The excitation, emission spectra and lifetime decay curves of 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1}{yields}4f{sup 7} of Eu{sup 2+} were measured and interpreted with respect to their crystal structures and multi-site occupations of divalent europium in the hosts. Their excitation bands mainly extend from 450 to 250 nm, which is adaptable to the main emission region of the UV LED chip. With UV light excitation, the Eu{sup 2+} emission in CaSiO{sub 3}, SrSiO{sub 3} and BaSiO{sub 3} shows blue, green and yellow colors centered at 440, 505 and 555 nm, respectively. The critical Eu{sup 2+}concentration was studied and determined to be x=5 for both CaSiO{sub 3} and SrSiO{sub 3} and x=7 for BaSiO{sub 3} phosphors. The results show that the Eu{sup 2+} doped glass ceramic phosphors containing MSiO{sub 3} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-crystals can be used as potential matrix materials for a high power white LED pumped by the UV LED chip. - Highlights: > Glass ceramic containing MSiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors prepared. > Derived phosphors emit intensively blue, green and yellow colors. > Their luminescence properties and crystal structures have been investigated. > Concentration quenching effects observed and analyzed. > Potential application for UV chip exciting white LED evaluated.

  18. Updated Meta-Analysis of Learner Control within Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karich, Abbey C.; Burns, Matthew K.; Maki, Kathrin E.

    2014-01-01

    Giving a student control over their learning has theoretical and intuitive appeal, but its effects are neither powerful nor consistent in the empirical literature base. This meta-analysis updated previous meta-analytic research by Niemiec, Sikorski, and Walberg by studying the overall effectiveness of providing learner control within educational…

  19. A performance requirements analysis of the SSC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of analysis of the performance requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider Control System. We quantify the performance requirements of the system in terms of response time, throughput and reliability. We then examine the effect of distance and traffic patterns on control system performance and examine how these factors influence the implementation of the control network architecture and compare the proposed system against those criteria. (author)

  20. Using the Prony Analysis for Assessing Servo Drive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Reimund Neugebauer; Ruben Schönherr; Holger Schlegel

    2011-01-01

    The Prony Analysis is already used in different fields of science and industries. The described new approach intends assessing the performance of Servo Drive Control. The basic approach is, that two important dynamic parameters of closed loop behavior, damping and frequency, are estimated by the Prony method. Hence analyzing a control loop in this way leads to a statement concerning the quality of control and allows comparing different parameter sets. The paper presents results achieved by us...

  1. Integration of Design and Control through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Gani, Rafiqul

    2002-01-01

    A systematic computer aided analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. The process model equations are classified in terms of balance equations, constitutive equations and conditional equations. Analysis of the phenomena models...

  2. Contamination control - the analysis of things as they should be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination can be controlled in chemical analyses by the use of suitable containers, cleanliness, appropriate apparatus design, isolation of the analysis process from air, and in-situ analysis. Examples based on analyses of organic reactor coolant, metals, and underground natural waters are given. (LL)

  3. Discontinuous control systems frequency-domain analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Boiko, Igor

    2008-01-01

    This book provides new insight on the problem of closed-loop performance and oscillations in discontinuous control systems, covering the class of systems that do not necessarily have low-pass filtering properties. The author provides a practical, yet rigorous and exact approach to analysis and design of discontinuous control systems via application of a novel frequency-domain tool: the locus of a perturbed relay system. Presented are a number of practical examples applying the theory to analysis and design of discontinuous control systems from various branches of engineering, including electro

  4. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  5. A Calculus for Control Flow Analysis of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    The design of a process calculus for anaysing security protocols is governed by three factors: how to express the security protocol in a precise and faithful manner, how to accommodate the variety of attack scenarios, and how to utilise the strengths (and limit the weaknesses) of the underlying analysis methodology. We pursue an analysis methodology based on control flow analysis in flow logic style and we have previously shown its ability to analyse a variety of security protocols. This paper d...

  6. Stability Analysis for Car Following Model Based on Control Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability analysis is one of the key issues in car-following theory. The stability analysis with Lyapunov function for the two velocity difference car-following model (for short, TVDM) is conducted and the control method to suppress traffic congestion is introduced. Numerical simulations are given and results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation. To this end, four distinct modes of operation are identified (dry weather, filling, saturation and emptying) and for each of these the process gain matrix is found. Based on the gain matrices a controllability analysis is performed, to screen for suitable pairings between measurements and actuators in the case study area of Copenhagen. The analysis effectively reduces the number of potential controlled variables, by considering the sensitivity of the measurements towards changes in the manipulated variables. Several potential pairings are generated and the best alternative is chosen for closed-loop testing. The methodology is a promising tool for systematic generation of solutions for sewer system control.

  8. Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jian; Feng, Quanke; Zhu, Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-05-15

    For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating. (author)

  9. Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating

  10. Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)], E-mail: tjian@mailst.xjtu.edu.cn; Feng Quanke; Zhu Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-05-15

    For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating.

  11. Analysis and Comparison of Access Control Policies Validation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aqib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Validation and verification of security policies is a critical and important task to ensure that access control policies are error free. The two most common problems present in access control policies are: inconsistencies and incompleteness. In order to detect such problems, various access control policy validation mechanisms are proposed by the researchers. However, comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the existing access control policy validation techniques is missing in the literature. In this paper, we have provided a first detailed survey of this domain and presented the taxonomy of the access control policy validation mechanisms. Furthermore, we have provided a qualitative comparison and trend analysis of the existing schemes. From this survey, we found that only few validation mechanisms exist that can handle both inconsistency and incompleteness problem. Also, most of the policy validation techniques are inefficient in handling continuous values and Boolean expressions.

  12. Analysis of admission control mechanisms using non-linear control theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kihl, Maria; Robertsson, Anders; Wittenmark, Björn

    2003-01-01

    All service control nodes can be modelled as a server system with one or more servers processing incoming requests. In this paper we show how non-linear control theory may be used when analyzing admission control mechanisms for server systems. Two models are developed, one linear and one non-linear. We show that, due to the non-linearities appearing in a real server system, linear control theory is sufficient when designing controllers for these systems. With non-linear analysis, however, the...

  13. Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

  14. Analysis and control design of two cascaded boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutabir A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study a cascade of two BOOST converters. First, a non- linear model of the whole controlled system is developed. Then, a robust non-linear controller of currents is synthesized using a backstepping design technique. A formal analysis based on Lyapunov stability and average theory is developed to describe the control currents loops performances. A classical PI controller is used for the voltages loops. The study of the stability of the system will also be discussed. Simulated results are displayed to validate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  15. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material...specify requirements for control and accounting of SNM that is held by a...

  16. Performance Analysis and FPGA Implementation of Digital PID Controller for Speed Control of DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charul Agarwal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance analysis and implementation of PID(Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller on FPGA platform.The hardware implementation has been done on Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA board.The software implementation has been done using Xilinx ISE 8.1i as a tool and simulation is performed using ModelSim 5.4a as a simulator.The PWM signal is generated by FPGA board,which further given to dc motor for its speed control. A new technique has been introduced for the generation of the control input as a PWM signal for controlling the motor driver circuit and decoding the optical encoder data for using it for the speed feedback in the PID control loop. The VHDL algorithm for the proposed implementation has been presented in this paper. Performance analysis of PID controller using MATLAB software shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. The pharmacologic inhibition of the xc- antioxidant system improves the antitumor efficacy of COX inhibitors in the in vivo model of 3-MCA tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balza, Enrica; Castellani, Patrizia; Delfino, Laura; Truini, Mauro; Rubartelli, Anna

    2013-03-01

    The chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor ibuprofen (IB) and of sulfasalazine (SASP), a drug that targets the antioxidant xc- system, were exploited in the experimental model of 3-methylcholantrene (3-MCA)-induced mouse sarcoma. The chemopreventive treatments gave unsatisfactory results because administration of IB one day after the 3-MCA injection only slightly delayed the tumor development, whereas SASP dispensed under the same conditions resulted in accelerated tumorigenesis. Similarly, the therapeutic treatment with either drug, administrated daily from the tumor detection, decreased the proliferation rate of tumor cells and increased the survival of treated mice only at a low extent. Remarkably, the combined chemopreventive treatment with IB and therapeutic treatment with SASP displayed a better efficacy, with strong delay of sarcoma growth, reduced tumor size and increased survival of treated mice. The two drugs target not only tumor cells but also tumor-associated macrophages that were dramatically decreased in the tumor infiltrate of mice subjected to the combined treatment. The synergistic effects of the association between a broad anti-inflammatory compound, such as IB, and a redox-directed drug, such as SASP, shed new light in the role of inflammation and of the redox response in chemical tumorigenesis and point to the combined chemopreventive plus therapeutic treatment with IB and SASP as a promising novel approach for antitumor therapy. PMID:23161574

  18. Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

  19. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Markman

    1999-09-17

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems.

  20. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems

  1. Shock analysis on hydraulic drive control rod during scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control rod hydraulic drive mechanism (CRHDM) is a new invention of Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University. The hydraulic absorber buffers the control rod when it scrams. The control rod fast drop impact experiment was conducted and the key parameters of control rod hydraulic buffering performance were obtained. Based on the test results and according to D'Alembert principle, the maximum inertial impact force on the control rod during the fast drop period was applied as equivalent static load force on the control rod. The deformations and stress distributions on the control rod in this worst case were calculated by using finite element software ABAQUS. Calculation results were compared with the experiment results, and it was verified that nonlinear transient dynamics analysis in this problem can be simplified as static analysis. Damage criterion of the control rod fast drop impact process was also given. And it lays foundation for optimal design of the control rod and hydraulic absorber. (authors)

  2. Influence of Vitamin E Supplementation on Glycaemic Control: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Renfan; Zhang, Shasha; Tao, Anyu; Chen, Guangzhi; Zhang, Muxun

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have revealed that higher serum vitamin E concentrations and increased vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplementation are associated with beneficial effects on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, whether vitamin E supplementation exerts a definitive effect on glycaemic control remains unclear. This article involves a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vitamin E to better characterise its impact on HbA1c, fasting glucose and fastin...

  3. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

  4. Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

  5. Control Flow Analysis for the Pi-calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, C.; Degano, P.; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    Control Flow Analysis is a static technique for predicting safe and computable approximations to the set of values that the objects of a program may assume during its execution. We present an analysis for the pi-calculus that shows how names will be bound to actual channels at run time. The...... formulation of the analysis requires no extensions to the pi-calculus, except for assigning ``channels'' to the occurrences of names within restrictions, and assigning ``binders'' to the occurrences of names within input prefixes. The result of our analysis establishes a super-set of the set of names to which...

  6. Morphological Component Analysis and Inpainting on the sphere : Application in Physics and Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Abrial, P.; Moudden, Y.(CEA, Irfu/Sedi, Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France); Starck, J.-L.; Afeyan, B.; Bobin, J.; Nguyen, Maï K.; Fadili, Jalal

    2007-01-01

    Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) is a new method which takes advantage of the sparse representation of structured data in large overcomplete dictionaries to separate features in the data based on the diversity of their morphology. It is an efficient technique in such problems as separating an image into texture and piecewise smooth parts or for inpainting applications. The MCA algorithm consists of an iterative alternating projection and thresholding scheme, using a successively decreas...

  7. Control of Spatially Heterogeneous and Time-Varying Cellular Reaction Networks A New Summation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, M A; Kholodenko, B N; Peletier, Mark A.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2002-01-01

    A hallmark of a plethora of intracellular signaling pathways is the spatial separation of activation and deactivation processes that potentially results in precipitous gradients of activated proteins. The classical Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA), which quantifies the influence of an individual process on a system variable as the control coefficient, cannot be applied to spatially separated protein networks. The present paper unravels the principles that govern the control over the fluxes and intermediate concentrations in spatially heterogeneous reaction networks. Our main results are two types of the control summation theorems. The first type is a non-trivial generalization of the classical theorems to systems with spatially and temporally varying concentrations. In this generalization, the process of diffusion, which enters as the result of spatial concentration gradients, plays a role similar to other processes such as chemical reactions and membrane transport. The second summation theorem is completely ...

  8. Thermal-structural analysis of electron gun with control grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lieming; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Hailong; Huang, Tao; Li, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Steady state thermal-structural analysis of electron guns is essential due to the requirement of high reliability in beam performance. Temperatures and displacements for all the components of an electron gun with a control grid are computed. Steady-state thermal analysis has been carried out for various cathode temperatures and various intercepted powers on the control grid to determine the temperature of the control grid. These results are verified experimentally based on measured results from an assembled electron gun. Structural analysis of the electron gun is used to evaluate the deformation of the inner electrodes under the hot condition. The results show that the thermal stress slightly changes the characteristics of the gun. The obtained thermal deformation data can be helpful to modify the design dimensions and assembly of an electron gun. PMID:22380107

  9. Moving shape analysis and control applications to fluid structure interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Moubachir, Marwan

    2006-01-01

    Problems involving the evolution of two- and three-dimensional domains arise in many areas of science and engineering. Emphasizing an Eulerian approach, Moving Shape Analysis and Control: Applications to Fluid Structure Interactions presents valuable tools for the mathematical analysis of evolving domains. The book illustrates the efficiency of the tools presented through different examples connected to the analysis of noncylindrical partial differential equations (PDEs), such as Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids in moving domains. The authors first provide all of the details of existence and uniqueness of the flow in both strong and weak cases. After establishing several important principles and methods, they devote several chapters to demonstrating Eulerian evolution and derivation tools for the control of systems involving fluids and solids. The book concludes with the boundary control of fluid-structure interaction systems, followed by helpful appendices that review some of the advanced m...

  10. REACTOR ANALYSIS AND VIRTUAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT (RAVEN) FY12 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Joshua Cogliati; Diego Mandelli; Robert Kinoshita

    2012-09-01

    RAVEN is a complex software tool that will have tasks spanning from being the RELAP-7 user interface, to using RELAP-7 to perform Risk Informed Safety Characterization (RISMC), and to controlling RELAP-7 calculation execution. The goal of this document is to: 1. Highlight the functional requirements of the different tasks of RAVEN 2. Identify shared functions that could be aggregate in modules so to obtain a minimal software redundancy and maximize software utilization. RAVEN is in fact a software framework that will allow exploiting the following functionalities: • Derive and actuate the control logic required to: o Simulate the plant control system o Simulate the operator (procedure guided) actions o Perform Monte Carlo sampling of random distributed events o Perform event three based analysis • Provide a GUI to: o Input a plant description to RELAP-7 (component, control variable, control parameters) o Concurrent monitoring of Control Parameters o Concurrent alteration of control parameters • Provide Post Processing data mining capability based on o Dimensionality reduction o Cardinality reduction In this document it will be shown how an appropriate mathematical formulation of the control logic and probabilistic analysis leads to have most of the software infrastructure leveraged between the two main tasks. Further, this document will go through the development accomplished this year, including simulation results, and priorities for the next years development

  11. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

  12. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, Dines; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation. To this end, four distinct modes of operation are identified (dry weather, filling, saturation and emptying) and for each of these the process gain matrix is found. Based on the gain matrices a controllability...

  13. Analysis of Droop Controlled Parallel Inverters in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Valerio; Vasca, Francesco; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Three-phase droop controlled inverters are widely used in islanded microgrids to interface distributed energy resources and to provide for the loads active and reactive powers demand. The assessment of microgrids stability, affected by the control and line parameters, is a stringent issue. This paper shows a systematic approach to derive a closed loop model of the microgrid and then to perform an eigenvalues analysis that highlights how the system’s parameters affect the stability of the network...

  14. Adaptive Backstepping Control and Safety Analysis for Modern Fighter Aircraft:

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    There exist many examples of aircraft incidents in which the pilots have successfully used the remaining control authority over an aircraft to save the airframe and its passengers and cargo from apparently hopeless failure conditions. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. Several accidents happened in which the crew was not able to save the aircraft, although post-flight analysis showed that it was possible with alternative, perhaps unconventional, control strategies. These aircraft accid...

  15. Reliability analysis of the ventilation control system in CEFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the function and structure of airiness control system in CEFR. In this paper, based on FMEA and FTA, the reliability of the ventilation control system of CEFR was analyzed. The quantitative analysis and calculation about the fault tree, with the failure rate of fault tree and minimal cut sets are obtained. The data obtained are useful to support the management of the ventilation system of CEFR. (author)

  16. Multi-intersection Traffic Light Control Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yanfeng; Cassandras, Christos G.

    2012-01-01

    We address the traffic light control problem for multiple intersections in tandem by viewing it as a stochastic hybrid system and developing a Stochastic Flow Model (SFM) for it. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive on-line gradient estimates of a cost metric with respect to the controllable green and red cycle lengths. The IPA estimators obtained require counting traffic light switchings and estimating car flow rates only when specific events occur. Th...

  17. THE IMPLICATIONS OF BUDGETARY CONTROL IN BUSINESS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEFINESCU CARMEN-VERONICA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the role of budgetary control in the detection and analysis of deviations from the budget, by comparing the results with the expected situation. The specialized literature presents several models for the analysis of deviations from budgeted values. Budgetary management of the company includes all the levels of management, the company’s goals and also goals achievement. Budgeting involves management responsibilities, and approval of the budget allows to accomplish all the activities included. The company's budget system and budget execution control should lead to increased business performance and saving available resources.

  18. Motion analysis and remote control system using pyroelectric infrared sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuksis, R.; Greitans, M.; Hermanis, E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibilities of exploiting infrared radiation for motion analysis and remote control. The human body is considered as the information source and dual-element pyroelectric infrared (PIR) detectors as the sensor system. A dual-element sensor allows the analysis of the motion of objects in one-dimension, therefore it is proposed to place two sensors perpendicularly. Such a method provides the capability of distinguishing eight different commands. An experimental set-up h...

  19. Parametric model order reduction for structural analysis and control

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Eun Jung

    2011-01-01

    The parametric model order reduction (PMOR) method applicable to structural matrices from finite element model is developed for both static and dynamic analysis, so that parameter changes can be directly applied to the reduced model. For the further application, it is used when a large number of analyses subject to parameter changes are required: for instance a design optimization problem. A large reflector model and its shape control are examined as an example of static analysis. An active t...

  20. Resonance analysis in parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Weimin

    Thanks to the fast responses of the inner voltage and current control loops, the dynamic behaviors of parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverters not only relies on the stability of load sharing among them, but subjects to the interactions between the voltage control loops of...... the inverters and the remaining system dynamics. This paper addresses the later interactions and the consequent resonances through the frequency-domain analysis of the inverters output impedances and the remaining equivalent network impedance. Furthermore, impacts of the virtual output impedance loop...

  1. Security Analysis of a Wireless Quadruple Tank Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Forment Navarro, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The main emphasis of this Master Thesis is the analysis of the effect of malicious deception attacks applied to a real process, in this case a scale model of a water distribution system made up of four interconnected water tanks and two pumps to control the water levels. The process model is derived, followed by the design and  est of three kinds of controllers: LQG, PI and PI robustified with the Glover-McFarlane method. Later, the performance of the closed loop system with these controllers...

  2. Force analysis of magnetic bearings with power-saving controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.; Inman, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    Most magnetic bearing control schemes use a bias current with a superimposed control current to linearize the relationship between the control current and the force it delivers. For most operating conditions, the existence of the bias current requires more power than alternative methods that do not use conventional bias. Two such methods are examined which diminish or eliminate bias current. In the typical bias control scheme it is found that for a harmonic control force command into a voltage limited transconductance amplifier, the desired force output is obtained only up to certain combinations of force amplitude and frequency. Above these values, the force amplitude is reduced and a phase lag occurs. The power saving alternative control schemes typically exhibit such deficiencies at even lower command frequencies and amplitudes. To assess the severity of these effects, a time history analysis of the force output is performed for the bias method and the alternative methods. Results of the analysis show that the alternative approaches may be viable. The various control methods examined were mathematically modeled using nondimensionalized variables to facilitate comparison of the various methods.

  3. Risk analysis in the critical pigmeat control points

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Ancuta

    2014-01-01

    The pig meat is of particular importance in human food due to the high content of vitamins and minerals. To prevent the hazard of microbial contamination, physical contamination, chemical contamination, etc., before slaughtering and during slaughter of animals has been developed and implemented the system Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP).

  4. Screening of conditions controlling spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Idris Abubakr M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite its potential benefits over univariate, chemometrics is rarely utilized for optimizing sequential injection analysis (SIA) methods. Specifically, in previous vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods, chemometrically optimized conditions were confined within flow rate and reagent concentrations while other conditions were ignored. Results The current manuscript reports, for the first time, a comprehensive screening of conditions controlling vis-spectrophotometric SIA. A n...

  5. INSIGHT: an integrated scoping analysis tool for in-core fuel management of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated software tool for scoping analysis of in-core fuel management, INSIGHT, has been developed to automate the scoping analysis and to improve the fuel cycle cost using advanced optimization techniques. INSIGHT is an interactive software tool executed on UNIX based workstations that is equipped with an X-window system. INSIGHT incorporates the GALLOP loading pattern (LP) optimization module that utilizes hybrid genetic algorithms, the PATMAKER interactive LP design module, the MCA multicycle analysis module, an integrated database, and other utilities. Two benchmark problems were analyzed to confirm the key capabilities of INSIGHT: LP optimization and multicycle analysis. The first was the single cycle LP optimization problem that included various constraints. The second one was the multicycle LP optimization problem that includes the assembly burnup limitation at rod cluster control (RCC) positions. The results for these problems showed the feasibility of INSIGHT for the practical scoping analysis, whose work almost consists of LP generation and multicycle analysis. (author)

  6. Control Flow Analysis for the Pi-calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, C.; Degano, P.

    1998-01-01

    Control Flow Analysis is a static technique for predicting safe and computable approximations to the set of values that the objects of a program may assume during its execution. We present an analysis for the pi-calculus that shows how names will be bound to actual channels at run time. The formulation of the analysis requires no extensions to the pi-calculus, except for assigning ``channels'' to the occurrences of names within restrictions, and assigning ``binders'' to the occurrences of names within input prefixes. The result of our analysis establishes a super-set of the set of names to which a given name may be bound and of the set of names that may be sent along a given channel. Applications of our analysis include establishing simple security properties of processes. One example is that P has no leaks, i.e. P offers communication through public channels only, and confines its secret names within itself.

  7. Chaos in electric drive systems analysis control and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T

    2011-01-01

    In Chaos in Electric Drive Systems: Analysis, Control and Application authors Chau and Wang systematically introduce an emerging technology of electrical engineering that bridges abstract chaos theory and practical electric drives. The authors consolidate all important information in this interdisciplinary technology, including the fundamental concepts, mathematical modeling, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and hardware implementation. The book provides comprehensive coverage of chaos in electric drive systems with three main parts: analysis, control and application. Corresponding drive systems range from the simplest to the latest types: DC, induction, synchronous reluctance, switched reluctance, and permanent magnet brushless drives.The first book to comprehensively treat chaos in electric drive systemsReviews chaos in various electrical engineering technologies and drive systemsPresents innovative approaches to stabilize and stimulate chaos in typical drivesDiscusses practical application of cha...

  8. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40, 70, 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special... INFORMATION CONTACT: Thomas Young, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management...

  9. 10 CFR 74.43 - Internal controls, inventory, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 74.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL...: (i) Clear overall responsibility for material control and accounting (MC&A) functions; (ii... assessments must include a review and evaluation of any contractor who performs SNM...

  10. Analysis of Dynamic Road Traffic Congestion Control (DRTCC Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Dynamic traffic light control at intersection has become one of the most active research areas to develop the Dynamic transportation systems (ITS. Due to the consistent growth in urbanization and traffic congestion, such a system was required which can control the timings of traffic lights dynamically with accurate measurement of traffic on the road. In this paper, analysis of all the techniques that has been developed to automate the traffic lights has been done.. The efficacy of all the techniques has been evaluated, using MATLAB software. After comparison of artificial intelligent techniques , it is found that image mosaicking technique is quite effective (in terms of improving moving time and reducing waiting time for the control of the traffic signals to control congestion on the road.

  11. Analysis on step action of hydraulic control rod driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The step action of the hydraulic control rod driving (HCRD) has been achieved by experiments. The author reveals the action mechanism of the HCRD, gives detail analysis of the relationship among its dynamic feature, the control rod and combined valve performance parameters, and the combined valve operation. The results indicate that the step process of the control rod is affected by output flow pulsation of the combined valve, pressure wave, and heavily damped pressure oscillation that is produced by the step cylinder movement. The performance parameters of the step cylinder limit the flow range in its stationary balanced state and also limit the capability of absorbing flow pulsation and pressure wave in its step process. The performance parameters of the combined valve decide the quantity values of stationary balance, delay balance, flowing pulsation and pressure wave. The relation of both parameters determines the step states of the control rod

  12. Ordinary differential equations analysis, qualitative theory and control

    CERN Document Server

    Logemann, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    The book comprises a rigorous and self-contained treatment of initial-value problems for ordinary differential equations. It additionally develops the basics of control theory, which is a unique feature in the current textbook literature. The following topics are particularly emphasised: • existence, uniqueness and continuation of solutions, • continuous dependence on initial data, • flows, • qualitative behaviour of solutions, • limit sets, • stability theory, • invariance principles, • introductory control theory, • feedback and stabilization. The last two items cover classical control theoretic material such as linear control theory and absolute stability of nonlinear feedback systems. It also includes an introduction to the more recent concept of input-to-state stability. Only a basic grounding in linear algebra and analysis is assumed. Ordinary Differential Equations will be suitable for final year undergraduate students of mathematics and appropriate for beginning postgraduates in math...

  13. Rapid and accurate control rod calibration measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the time needed to perform control rod calibrations and improve the accuracy of the results, a technique for a measurement, analysis, and tabulation of integral rod worths has been developed. A single series of critical rod positions are determined at constant low power to reduce the waiting time between positive period measurements and still assure true stable reactor period data. Reactivity values from positive period measurements and control rod drop measurements are used as input data for a non-linear fit to the expected control rod integral worth shape. With this method, two control rods can be calibrated in about two hours, and integral and differential calibration tables for operator use are printed almost immediately. Listings of the BASIC computer programs for the non-linear fitting and calibration table preparation are provided. (author)

  14. A new TXRF vacuum chamber with sample changer for chemical analysis using silicon drift chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several TXRF spectrometers for chemical analysis as well as for wafer surface analysis are commercially available. But there is no one available for chemical analysis offering the possibility to measure the samples in vacuum conditions. Vacuum of 10-2 mbar in the sample environment helps to reduce the background due to scattering from air, thus to improve the detection limits as well as to reduce the absorption of low energy fluorescence radiation from low Z elements and extend the elemental range to be measured and removes the Ar lines from the spectrum. The x-ray group of the Atominstitut designed and fabricated a new vacuum chamber for TXRF equipped with a 12 position sample changer from Italstructures, Riva, Italy. The detector used was a 10 mm2 silicon drift detector (KETEK, Munich, Germany), offering the advantage of electrically cooling, so no LN2 is required. The chamber was designed to be attached to a diffraction tube housing, e.g. with a fine focus Mo-x-ray tube and uses a multilayer monochromator. Spectra are stored by a small AMTEK MCA and control between sample changer and MCA communication is done by a modified AMPTEK software. The performance is expressed in detection limits of 1 pg Rb for Mo Ka excitation with 50 kV, 40 mA excitation conditions, 1000 s lifetime, obtained from a sample containing 600 pg Rb as single element standard. Details on performance, reproducibility and light element excitation and detection are presented. (author)

  15. Rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis for hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke patients after early non-responsive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seo Hyun [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Wonju (Korea); Lee, Kyung Yeol [Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea); Heo, Ji Hoe; Han, Sang Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-08-01

    The outcome of patients who show no early response to intravenous (i.v.) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy is poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) therapy for acute ischemic stroke patients after an early non-responsive i.v. tPA therapy. Patients with proximal MCA occlusions who were treated by LIT (n=10) after failure of early response [no improvement or improvement of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of {<=}3] to i.v. tPA therapy (0.9 mg/kg - 10% bolus and 90% i.v. infusion over 60 min) were selected. The recanalization rates, incidence of post-thrombolysis hemorrhage and clinical outcomes [baseline and discharge NIHSS scores, mortality, 3 months Barthel index (BI) and modified Rankin score (mRS)] were evaluated. Rescue LIT therapy was performed on ten MCA occlusion patients (male:female=3:7, mean age 71 years). The mean time between the initiation of i.v. tPA therapy and the initiation of intra-arterial urokinase (i.a. UK) was 117{+-}25.0 min [time to i.v. tPA 137{+-}32 min; time to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) 221{+-}42 min; time to i.a. UK 260{+-}46 min]. The baseline NIHSS scores showed significant improvement at discharge (median from 18 to 6). Symptomatic hemorrhage and, consequent, mortality were noted in 2/10 (20%) patients. Three months good outcome was noted in 4/10 (40%, mRS 0-2) and 3/10 (30%, BI {>=}95). In conclusion, rescue LIT therapy can be considered as a treatment option for patients not showing early response to full dose i.v. tPA therapy. Larger scale studies for further validation of this protocol may be necessary. (orig.)

  16. Rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis for hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke patients after early non-responsive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of patients who show no early response to intravenous (i.v.) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy is poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) therapy for acute ischemic stroke patients after an early non-responsive i.v. tPA therapy. Patients with proximal MCA occlusions who were treated by LIT (n=10) after failure of early response [no improvement or improvement of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of ?3] to i.v. tPA therapy (0.9 mg/kg - 10% bolus and 90% i.v. infusion over 60 min) were selected. The recanalization rates, incidence of post-thrombolysis hemorrhage and clinical outcomes [baseline and discharge NIHSS scores, mortality, 3 months Barthel index (BI) and modified Rankin score (mRS)] were evaluated. Rescue LIT therapy was performed on ten MCA occlusion patients (male:female=3:7, mean age 71 years). The mean time between the initiation of i.v. tPA therapy and the initiation of intra-arterial urokinase (i.a. UK) was 117±25.0 min [time to i.v. tPA 137±32 min; time to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) 221±42 min; time to i.a. UK 260±46 min]. The baseline NIHSS scores showed significant improvement at discharge (median from 18 to 6). Symptomatic hemorrhage and, consequent, mortality were noted in 2/10 (20%) patients. Three months good outcome was noted in 4/10 (40%, mRS 0-2) and 3/10 (30%, BI ?95). In conclusion, rescue LIT therapy can be considered as a treatment option for patients not showing early response to full dose i.v. tPA therapy. Larger scale studies for further validation of this protocol may be necessary. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of cerebral blood flow reserve using blood oxygen level-dependent echo planar imaging after acetazolamide administration in patients post-STA-MCA anastomosis surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) echo planar imaging (EPI) has been used to estimate blood flow changes. Theoretically, a relative decrement of deoxyhemoglobin in cerebral blood supply induces a MR signal change after neuronal stimulation. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate CBF reserve capacity by the BOLD EPI in patients who had undergone STA-MCA anastomosis surgery. Then, we compared with the signal intensity changes obtained by this procedure with the CBF changes by Xe-SPECT after acetazolamide administration. Six patients, post-STA-MCA anastomosis surgery, were studied. Pre-operatively, MR signal intensity and CBF, by Xe-SPECT, were increased in the intact side after acetazolamide administration in all patients, and MR signal intensities were decreased in low flow regions after acetazolamide administration in all four patients in whom so-called steal phenomenon was demonstrated by Xe-SPECT study. Post-operatively, poor response was shown after acetazolamide administration with both Xe-SPECT and BOLD EPI in the two patients who had unsuccessful anastomoses. In the successfully anastomosed patients, improved vascular reactivity was demonstrated on BOLD EPI after acetazolamide administration in 3 of 4 patients in whom an improvement of vascular reactivity was demonstrated on Xe-SPECT. In one patient, MRI studies were considered to have technical artifacts, because the MR signal intensity did not increase, even in the intact side after acetazolamide administration. In conclusion, BOLD EPI after acetazolamide administration is an useful procedure for the pre- and post-operative of vascular reserve in patients with ischemic stroke. (author)

  18. Quantitative cerebral perfusion assessment using microscope-integrated analysis of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography versus positron emission tomography in superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraoperative qualitative indocyanine green (ICG angiography has been used in cerebrovascular surgery. Hyperperfusion may lead to neurological complications after superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate intraoperative cerebral perfusion using microscope-integrated dynamic ICG fluorescence analysis, and to assess whether this value predicts hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS after STA-MCA anastomosis. Methods: Ten patients undergoing STA-MCA anastomosis due to unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease were included. Ten patients with normal cerebral perfusion served as controls. The ICG transit curve from six regions of interest (ROIs on the cortex, corresponding to ROIs on positron emission tomography (PET study, was recorded. Maximum intensity (I MAX , cerebral blood flow index (CBFi, rise time (RT, and time to peak (TTP were evaluated. Results: RT/TTP, but not I MAX or CBFi, could differentiate between control and study subjects. RT/TTP correlated (|r| = 0.534-0.807; P < 0.01 with mean transit time (MTT/MTT ratio in the ipsilateral to contralateral hemisphere by PET study. Bland-Altman analysis showed a wide limit of agreement between RT and MTT and between TTP and MTT. The ratio of RT before and after bypass procedures was significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.60 ± 0.032 and 0.80 ± 0.056, respectively; P = 0.017. The ratio of TTP was also significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.64 ± 0.081 and 0.85 ± 0.095, respectively; P = 0.017. Conclusions: Time-dependent intraoperative parameters from the ICG transit curve provide quantitative information regarding cerebral circulation time with quality and utility comparable to information obtained by PET. These parameters may help predict the occurrence of postoperative HPS.

  19. Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in pressure and flow. This report formulates the system equations and develops the controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to satisfy flow rate tracking requirements. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking performance.

  20. Parameter Estimation Analysis for Hybrid Adaptive Fault Tolerant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, Peter B.

    Research efforts have increased in recent years toward the development of intelligent fault tolerant control laws, which are capable of helping the pilot to safely maintain aircraft control at post failure conditions. Researchers at West Virginia University (WVU) have been actively involved in the development of fault tolerant adaptive control laws in all three major categories: direct, indirect, and hybrid. The first implemented design to provide adaptation was a direct adaptive controller, which used artificial neural networks to generate augmentation commands in order to reduce the modeling error. Indirect adaptive laws were implemented in another controller, which utilized online PID to estimate and update the controller parameter. Finally, a new controller design was introduced, which integrated both direct and indirect control laws. This controller is known as hybrid adaptive controller. This last control design outperformed the two earlier designs in terms of less NNs effort and better tracking quality. The performance of online PID has an important role in the quality of the hybrid controller; therefore, the quality of the estimation will be of a great importance. Unfortunately, PID is not perfect and the online estimation process has some inherited issues; the online PID estimates are primarily affected by delays and biases. In order to ensure updating reliable estimates to the controller, the estimator consumes some time to converge. Moreover, the estimator will often converge to a biased value. This thesis conducts a sensitivity analysis for the estimation issues, delay and bias, and their effect on the tracking quality. In addition, the performance of the hybrid controller as compared to direct adaptive controller is explored. In order to serve this purpose, a simulation environment in MATLAB/SIMULINK has been created. The simulation environment is customized to provide the user with the flexibility to add different combinations of biases and delays to the explored derivatives. Biases were considered in the range -500% to 500% and delays in the range 0.5 to 40 seconds. The stability and control derivatives considered in this research effort are a combination of decoupled derivatives in the three channels, longitudinal, lateral, and directional. Numerous simulation scenarios and flight conditions are considered to provide more credibility to the obtained results. In addition, a statistical analysis has been conducted to assess the results. The performance of the control laws has been evaluated in terms of the integral of the error in tracking the three desired angular rates, pitch, roll, and yaw. In addition, the effort of the neural networks exerted to compensate for tracking errors is considered in the analysis as well. The results show that in order to obtain reliable estimates for the investigated derivatives, the estimator needs to generate values with less than five seconds delay. In addition, derivatives estimates are within 50% or -15% off the exact values. Moreover, the importance of updating derivatives depends on the maneuver scenario and the flight condition. The estimation process at quasi-steady state conditions provides reliable estimates as opposed to estimation during fast dynamic changes; also, the estimation process has better performance at large rate of change of derivatives values.

  1. Design analysis and microprocessor based control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this thesis is to design and test a microprocessor based controller, to a simulated nuclear reactor system. The mathematical model that describes the dynamics of a typical nuclear reactor of one group of delayed neutrons approximations with temperature feedback was chosen. A digital computer program has been developed for the design and analysis of a simulated model based on the concept of state-variable feedback in order to meet a desired system response with maximum overshoot of 3.4% and setting time of 4 sec. The state variable feedback coefficients are designed for the continuous system, then an approximation is used to obtain in the state variable feedback vector for the discrete system. System control was implemented utilizing Direct Digital Control (DDC) of a nuclear reactor simulated model through a control algorithm that was performed by means of a microprocessor based system. The controller performance was satisfactorily tested by exciting the reactor system with a transient reactivity disturbance and by a step change in power demand. Direct digital control, when implemented on a microprocessor adds versatility, flexibility in system design with the added advantage of possible use of optimal control algorithms. 6 tabs.; 30 figs.; 46 refs.; 6 apps

  2. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  3. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective test and maintenance practices that control risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety

  4. Analysis of locally controlled esophageal carcinomas treated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotoh, Yasuo; Yamada, Shogo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hoshi, Akihiko; Ariga, Hisanori; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-05-01

    Of 227 esophageal carcinomas treated with a radiation dose of 60 Gy or more, 100 patients had no tumor or ulceration (with or without stenosis) of the esophagus after irradiation. We analyzed local control factors of these 100 patients to determine the need for further treatment. The cumulative local control rate at five years was 40% in all cases, 37% in 21 cases without any stenosis of the esophagus and 40% in 79 cases with stenosis. The presence of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was not a critical factor in predicting final local control. Local recurrence of tumors with findings of Borrmann III or Borrmann IV by the pretreatment esophageal barium study, tumors controlled after a total dose of more than 80 Gy, tumors without low dose rate telecobalt therapy (LDRT: 1 Gy/hour, 5 to 7 Gy/day, a total dose of 12 to 15 Gy) as boost therapy, and apparently controlled tumors with a stenotic ratio of 60% or more or with 5 cm or more length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was significantly higher than that of the others (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that findings of pretreatment barium study, total dose, with or without LDRT, and length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation were significantly important factors in local control. Members of the high risk group of apparently controlled tumors should undertake surgical treatment or further intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  5. Analysis of locally controlled esophageal carcinomas treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 227 esophageal carcinomas treated with a radiation dose of 60 Gy or more, 100 patients had no tumor or ulceration (with or without stenosis) of the esophagus after irradiation. We analyzed local control factors of these 100 patients to determine the need for further treatment. The cumulative local control rate at five years was 40% in all cases, 37% in 21 cases without any stenosis of the esophagus and 40% in 79 cases with stenosis. The presence of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was not a critical factor in predicting final local control. Local recurrence of tumors with findings of Borrmann III or Borrmann IV by the pretreatment esophageal barium study, tumors controlled after a total dose of more than 80 Gy, tumors without low dose rate telecobalt therapy (LDRT: 1 Gy/hour, 5 to 7 Gy/day, a total dose of 12 to 15 Gy) as boost therapy, and apparently controlled tumors with a stenotic ratio of 60% or more or with 5 cm or more length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was significantly higher than that of the others (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that findings of pretreatment barium study, total dose, with or without LDRT, and length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation were significantly important factors in local control. Members of the high risk group of apparently controlled tumors should undertake surgical treatment or further intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  6. Page: a program for gamma spectra analysis in PC microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAGE is a software package, written in BASIC language, to perform gamma spectra analysis. It was developed to be used in a high-purity intrinsic germanium detector-multichannel analyser-PC microcomputer system. The analysis program of PAGE package accomplishes functions as follows: peak location; gamma nuclides identification; activity determination. Standard nuclides sources were used to calibrate the system. To perform the efficiency x energy calibration a logarithmic fit was applied. Analysis of nuclides with overlapping peaks is allowed by PAGE program. PAGE has additional auxiliary programs for: building and list of isotopic nuclear data libraries; data acquisition from multichannel analyser; spectrum display with automatic area and FWHM determinations. This software is to be applied in analytical process control where time response is a very important parameter. PAGE takes ca. 1.5 minutes to analyse a complex spectrum from a 4096 channels MCA. (author)

  7. Concurrent analysis of choice and control in childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Caroline

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports original research on choice and control in childbirth. Eight women were interviewed as part of a wider investigation into locus of control in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term (PROM 1. Methods The following study uses concurrent analysis to sample and analyse narrative aspects of relevant literature along with these interviews in order to synthesise a generalisable analysis of the pertinent issues. The original PROM study had found that women experienced a higher degree of control in hospital, a finding that appeared at odds with contemporary notions of choice. However, this paper contextualises this finding by presenting narratives that lucidly subscribe to the dominant discourse of hospital as the safest place to give birth, under the premise of assuring a live healthy baby irrespective of their management type. Results This complex narrative is composed of the following themes: 'perceiving risk', 'being prepared', 'reflecting on experience', maintaining control' and relinquishing control'. These themes are constructed within and around the medical, foetocentric, risk averse cultural context. Primary data are presented throughout to show the origins and interconnected nature of these themes. Conclusions Within this context it is clear that there is a highly valued role for competent health professionals that respect, understand and are capable of facilitating genuine choice for women.

  8. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bushlya, Anatoly V [ROSATOM, RUSSIA; Efimenko, Vladimir F [IPPE, RUSSIA; Ilyanstev, Anatoly [IPPE, RUSSIA; Regoushevsky, Victor I [IPPE, RUSSIA

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  9. Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable

  10. Nonsmooth optimization analysis and algorithms with applications to optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Makela, M M

    1992-01-01

    This book is a self-contained elementary study for nonsmooth analysis and optimization, and their use in solution of nonsmooth optimal control problems. The first part of the book is concerned with nonsmooth differential calculus containing necessary tools for nonsmooth optimization. The second part is devoted to the methods of nonsmooth optimization and their development. A proximal bundle method for nonsmooth nonconvex optimization subject to nonsmooth constraints is constructed. In the last part nonsmooth optimization is applied to problems arising from optimal control of systems covered by

  11. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  12. Impact of JIT on Quality Control Cost: A Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Kumar,

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have been developed the models to study the influence of JIT on inventory. On other hand, strategic impact of JIT on quality control cost has not been clear-cut. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of JIT on quality control by developing a model. The developed model is illustrated though a sensitivity analysis and a numeric example so that more attention could be provided on the most critical input parameters of model. The framework developed in this ...

  13. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  14. The Tara control, monitoring, data acquisition and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments at the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror utilize an integrated system for control, monitoring, data acquisition, physics analysis, and archiving. This system consists of two distinct parts with narrowly defined information interchange; one to provide automated control and real time monitoring of engineering functions and one to acquire, analyze, and display data for physics in near real time. Typical machine operation achieves a total cycle time of 3 to 8 minutes with 5 to 7 Mbytes of data stored and with ∼160 individual signals displayed in hardcopy on ∼10 pages

  15. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis By Control-based Continuation - Determining Stability’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Schilder, Frank; Starke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The newly developed control-based continuation technique has made it possible to perform experimental bifurcation analysis, e.g. to track stable as well as unstable branches of frequency responses directly in experiments. The method bypasses mathematical models, and systematically explores how...... vibration characteristics of dynamical systems change under variation of parameters. The method employs a control scheme to modify the response stability. While this facilitates exploration of the unstable branches of a bifurcation diagram, it unfortunately makes it impossible to distinguish previously...

  16. Analysis of GPS Abnormal Conditions within Fault Tolerant Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sinbol, Gahssan

    The Global Position System (GPS) is a critical element for the functionality of autonomous flying vehicles. The GPS operation at normal and abnormal conditions directly impacts the trajectory tracking performance of the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) controllers. The effects of GPS parameter variation must be well understood and user-friendly computational tools must be developed to facilitate the design and evaluation of fault tolerant control laws. This thesis presents the development of a simplified GPS error model in Matlab/Simulink and its use performing a sensitivity analysis of GPS parameters effect under system normal and abnormal operation on different UAV trajectory tracking controllers. The model statistically generates position and velocity errors, simulates the effect of GPS satellite configuration on the position and velocity measurement accuracy, and implements a set of failures to the GPS readings. The model and its graphical user interface was integrated within the WVU UAV simulation environment as a masked Simulink block. The effects on the controllers' trajectory tracking performance of the following GPS parameters were investigated within normal operation ranges and outside: time delay, update rate, error standard deviation, bias, and major position and velocity failures. Several sets of control laws with fixed and adaptive parameters and of different levels of complexity have been used in this investigation. A complex performance index formulated in terms of tracking errors and control activity was used for control laws performance evaluation. The composition of various metrics within the performance index was performed using fixed and variable weights depending on the local characteristics of the commanded trajectory. This study has revealed that GPS error parameters have a significant impact on control laws performance. The proposed GPS model has proved to be a valuable, flexible tool for testing and evaluation of the fault tolerant capabilities of autonomous flight control laws.

  17. Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis

  18. Control System Dynamics Analysis Of TRIGA Mark II Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The root locus analysis of TRIGA MARK II reactor was performed. The parameters were calculated based from the experimental data. The experiment was performed between 100 kW to 1 MW of power, average fuel temperature was 189oC and water average temperature was 37.3oC to measure temperature and xenon poisoning feedback. On the design analysis of PID system the characteristic of the controller are gain K=2.72, tp=13.65 seconds, Mp=0.0075%, Ti=4.1 seconds and Td=0.24 seconds. The controller transient time is less than 30 seconds and the settling time is less than 2% as well

  19. Control and analysis software for a laser scanning microdensitometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H R Bundel; C P Navathe; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2006-02-01

    A PC-based control software and data acquisition system is developed for an existing commercial microdensitometer (Biomed make model No. SL-2D/1D UV/VIS) to facilitate scanning and analysis of X-ray films. The software is developed in Labview, which includes operation of the microdensitometer in 1D and 2D scans and analysis of spatial or spectral data on X-ray films, such as optical density, intensity and wavelength. It provides a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) to analyse the scanned data and also store the analysed data/image in popular formats like data in Excel and images in jpeg. It has also on-line calibration facility with standard optical density tablets. The control software and data acquisition system is simple, inexpensive and versatile.

  20. Analysis and test verification of control rod buffer in HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thin-walled shell buffer in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) was designed for absorbing the kinetic energy of the control rod drop in the drive line fracture accident. The thin-walled cylinder structure satisfying the requirements of actual working condition was design by using the energy absorption model of the classical cylinder shell under axial pressure. By using ABAQUS/explicit with J-C constitutive model, the finite element models of both the real reactor condition and the test condition were built to simulate the collision. Based on the analysis results, the control rod fall- down test was designed and implemented. The test results demonstrate that stable pro gressive buckling occurs when the full size buffer is impacted by equiponderance test bar, and the buffer can reduce the crush force effectively and protect the graphite from being destroyed. The analysis results show that the test model can represent and envelope the real condition in reactor. (authors)

  1. Quality control of instrumentation in videomicroscopy: incidence on DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech-Caudron, Magali; Giroud, Francoise

    1995-02-01

    Recent advances in video microscopy in the field of cytopathology need to define in detail requirements for rigorous technical quality control of DNA analysis. This study deals with the influence of both quality and calibration of instrumentation on DNA content measurements. Quality control of instrumentation in stability, linearity, and shading estimations has been achieved for two SAMBATM2005 (ALCATEL-TITN-Answare/France) image analysis systems by using prototype reference standard slide and Feulgen-stained rat liver imprints. The accuracy of the various conditions of work has been expressed as the CV of integrated optical density (IOD) and varied from 1.5% to 5.4%. These results demonstrate the dependence of the accuracy of measurements on the conditions for calibration of the instrument. Moreover, this work shows that each system can be characterized by its specific answer and all the systems don't really offer acceptable conditions for nuclear DNA content determination.

  2. Pressure Control in Distillation Columns: A Model-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of pressure control in distillation columns is presented, including the consequences for composition control and energy consumption. Two types of representative control structures are modeled, analyzed, and benchmarked. A detailed simulation test, based on a real industrial distillation column, is used to assess the differences between the two control structures and to demonstrate the benefits of pressure control in the operation. In the second part of the article, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to establish the influence of pressure on relative volatility for (pseudo)binary mixtures. A simple criterion is found, based on the difference in the scaled heats of vaporization of the light and heavy compounds: A large difference indicates that relative volatility is sensitive to pressure changes, whereas no a priori conclusion can be made for small differences. Depending on the sensitivity of relative volatility to pressure, it is shown that controlling the bottom-tray pressure instead of the top-tray pressure leads to operation at the minimum possible average column pressure, so that significant energy savings can be achieved.

  3. Analysis of limit cycling on a boiler feedwater control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation of the UKAEA Prototype Fast Reactor, it was found that oscillations sometimes occurred in the boiler feedwater systems. These were normally of relatively low amplitude, but led to the adoption of low controller gains so that control was rather slack. While control performance proved generally adequate for steady running, the lack of tight control of steam drum levels sometimes led to difficulties during periods when plant conditions were undergoing major change. The paper discusses the methods used to gain a full understanding of the phenomena occurring, and describes how that knowledge is being used to improve the control system so as to eliminate the limit cycling modes and ensure good control of steam drum levels. A noteworthy feature of the study was the use of two independent representations of plant behaviour: (i) a frequency response model, FWRFREQ, and (ii) a time-domain simulation model, PFRTDM. The simplified analysis of FWRFREQ proved to be of enormous value in identifying modes of system behaviour; PFRTDM was used as a detailed check on the accuracy and validity of the results obtained. (author)

  4. Ringhals 2 steam control system reliability/thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the reliability of the proposed Westinghouse Distributed Processing Family (WDPF) control system and compares it to the reliability of the existing mechanical/ hydraulic control system at the Ringhals 2 nuclear power plant. The probabilities of the postulated failures in the existing control system are contrasted to those that would exist for the WDPF enhanced control and protection system. This paper is limited to a discussion about the reliability that relates to failures that have the potential to cause an overpressure in the moisture separator/reheaters (MSRs) of the Ringhals 2 plant. This power plant was built at a time when the requirements (in Sweden) did not include overpressure relief valves in the MSR. When the plant was originally constructed, the mechanical/ hydraulic control system was designed to be, and was used as, a method to prevent an overpressure condition in the MSR. The control system response time was fast enough to close the MSR inlet lines in the event that one or more discharge line valves was closed or failed closed. The authors also include a thermal-hydraulic analysis of some of the postulated (very low probability) secondary-side transients

  5. Model analysis and nonlinear control of air compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Gholam-Reza

    For decades, gas turbines have been important, widespread, and reliable devices in the field of power generation, petrochemical industry, and aeronautics. They employ centrifugal and axial compressors which suffer from aerodynamic instabilities, namely, surge and rotating stall. These performance limiting instabilities can cause component stress, lifespan reduction, noise, and vibration. Furthermore, in variable speed axial compressors (VSACs), speed variations affect the system stability and can lead to surge and rotating stall. This limits the rate of speed variations and results in important performance penalties. The present work firstly addresses the bifurcation analysis of VSACs' model to investigate the impact of speed dynamics on the stability of efficient operating points. Here, the rate of speed variations (acceleration rate) is defined as a new parameter of the model and a detailed numerical bifurcation analysis is provided. The results of time-domain simulations not only validate the results of bifurcation analysis, but also broaden our knowledge about the transient response of the model, which is a matter of importance as well. The analysis reveals that speed variations can lead to a fully developed rotating stall as well as the previously reported temporary stall developments. The results show that the developed instabilities depend to a great extent on the acceleration rate. The impact of other key issues such as throttle gain, viscosity factor, initial speed, final speed, and the contribution of stall modes are also explored. From the control point of view, despite reported achievements, robust control design for compression systems remains a challenging problem. In this work, at first, two nonlinear approaches are proposed to tackle the stability problem of constant-speed axial compressors (CSACs). The first approach is a robust passivity-based control and the second one is a second order sliding mode control. The approaches tackle the challenging problems being addressed in the literature such as: the impact of external perturbations, the lack of detailed parameters knowledge, and the absence of full-state feedback. They drive the control from pressure and mass flow measurements and use throttle and close-coupled valve actuations. Finally, this study reports that these methods can be used in the case of VSACs by applying the required modifications to simultaneously control speed and instabilities. This simultaneous control design has been an open problem and the proposed method can improve the performance of VSACs.

  6. Electrical Power Distribution and Control Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Johnny S.; Liffring, Mark; Mehdi, Ishaque S.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD&C) Modeling and how modeling can support analysis. The presentation discusses using the EASY5 model to simulate and analyze the Space Shuttle Electric Auxiliary Power Unit. Diagrams of the model schematics are included, as well as graphs of the battery cell impedance, hydraulic load dynamics, and EPD&C response to hydraulic load variations.

  7. Interference control in low-level analysis of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyses the integration of several steps applied to control potentials sources of error in the determination of 129I and prevent spurious results in order to achieve the minimum detection limit. The procedure of pre and post-irradiation purification, neutron irradiation, radioactive counting and data analysis are needed. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used for detection and measurement of low level interferences. (author)

  8. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

  9. Control Flow Analysis Can Find New Flaws Too

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpaolo; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2004-01-01

    A previous study showed how control flow analysis can be applied to analyse key distribution protocols based on symmetric key cryptography. We have extended both the theoretical treatment and our fully automatic verifier to deal with protocols based on asymmetric cryptography. This paper reports ...... the application of our technique - exemplified on the Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR protocol, which uses both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography - and show how we discover an undocumented flaw....

  10. Analysis of factors influencing local control of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the influence of various prognostic factors on local control of medulloblastoma. Sixty-five patients who had been treated between 1980 and 1990 at our six hospitals were retrospectively studied. Factors included in the Cox's multivariate analysis were sex, age (log(y.o.+1)), performance status, pretreatment T-stage (judged from the findings of CT and/or MRI; T1: 3 patients, T2: 17, T3 (with hydrocephalus): 44, T4: 1), extent of surgical resection (total: 30 patients, less than total: 35), total dose (21-87 Gy, median: 55) and overall treatment time (19-163 days, median: 54) of local irradiation, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Recurrence occurred in one T2 patient and in 17 T3 patients. The multivariate analysis showed that local tumor control decreased with advance in T-stage (p=0.04) and with prolonged overall treatment times (p=0.003), and that it increased with higher total doses (p=0.01). When analysis was limited to T3 patients, usefulness of the chemotherapy was also suggested (p=0.03). However, the influence of the extent of resection on local tumor control was not statistically significant because resectability depended on T-stage. This analysis showed that local control of medulloblastoma was influenced by pretreatment T-stage, total dose and overall irradiation treatment time, and probably by the adjuvant chemotherapy used. Some of the observed losses by prolongations in radiotherapy may reflect proliferation of tumor cells during radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

  12. An Unified Approach for Process Quality Analysis and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Chandrakanth Biradar,Aruna Kawdi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The process in a company finally results in product of the company, which represents the company standard. Hence, during the process execution time quality of the process needs to be taken care before and after the work done. In this paper, an unified approach to quality analysis and control of a process development is presented. This approach gives an overview of what the task the company assigned to the employers. The process is defined as the set of action items to achieve the work completion. Quality means grade of excellence. Quality analysis of a process is an improvement of the process and making sure that all the standard procedures are followed. An unified approach designed in this paper is a combination of software cost estimation and a financial market forecasting with the support of historical data, statistical data mining technique and artificial neural networks, which helps the developers as well as investors in strategic planning and investment decision making. Therefore, the paper describes a recommended process to develop software (SW cost estimates for software managers, perform financial market forecasting to control quality of process development. As a result, the improvement and analysis of the process quality can be performed from basic level to the corporate level. By this work, we conclude that the process quality control can be made easier and efficient compared to the old graphical analytics technique.

  13. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  14. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  15. Decentralized Control of Cooperative Systems: Categorization and Complexity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, C V; 10.1613/jair.1427

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized control of cooperative systems captures the operation of a group of decision makers that share a single global objective. The difficulty in solving optimally such problems arises when the agents lack full observability of the global state of the system when they operate. The general problem has been shown to be NEXP-complete. In this paper, we identify classes of decentralized control problems whose complexity ranges between NEXP and P. In particular, we study problems characterized by independent transitions, independent observations, and goal-oriented objective functions. Two algorithms are shown to solve optimally useful classes of goal-oriented decentralized processes in polynomial time. This paper also studies information sharing among the decision-makers, which can improve their performance. We distinguish between three ways in which agents can exchange information: indirect communication, direct communication and sharing state features that are not controlled by the agents. Our analysis s...

  16. An analysis method for control reconfigurability of linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayi; Duan, Wenjie; Liu, Chengrui

    2016-01-01

    The reconfigurability of control systems is further researched based on the function-objective model (FOM). The establishment of the FOM has been published in the authors' former paper, solving the problem whether the system is reconfigurable without losing the desired control objective. Based on the FOM, the importance factor, the risk factor and the k th reconfigurability factor are proposed to evaluate the fault risks of all components and the system reconfigurability with k faults. These factors show which components should be improved and which faults cannot be tolerated. The analysis results are very useful for enhancing the fault-tolerance performances of the control systems by improving system designs. A satellite model is utilized to illustrate the proposed method.

  17. Robust Stability Analysis with Time Delay Using PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursewak Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, real time implementation of PI and PID controllers is Investigated for stabilizing an arbitrary-order plant or system. Simple closed loop feedback ,PI controller can overcome all the problems of uncertainties like time delay in LTI (Linear Time Invariant system.This paper will give us an implortant alogorithm to be imlemented in MATLAB for achieving the robust stability in LTI plant in presence of any type of perturbations or external disturbances. In this paper, a single input and single output (LTI linear time invariant plant under perturbed conditions with additive uncertainity weight senstivity is considered. In this paper especially, I have found all set of PI gains Kp,Ki which will promise us for the stability in a given disturbed (SISO (LTI system by achieving the robust stability constraint ? <=1 can be found by obtaining the PI controller gains Kp,Ki using frequency domain analysis .

  18. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  19. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  20. System integration and control strategy analysis of PEMFC car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new fuel car was designed according to the prototype LN2000 hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car. The new prototype consists of a compact fuel cell engine with separated fuel cell stack, nickel metal hydride battery, a motor with power of 30Kw/100Kw and an inverter with high efficiency. With in the powertrain, a two-shift Planet gear transmission was employed. The power performance was greatly improved. New battery with EMS, new self-developed fuel cell engine, the motor propulsion system and electronic controlled transmission make it feasible to control the whole fuel car automatically and efficiently with optimization. The presents the system integration and the control strategy analysis of the fuel cell car prototype. The paper can be used for reference for engineers in the field of fuel cell vehicle. (author)

  1. Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting

    OpenAIRE

    Noskievi?ová, D.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC) method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was applied to ...

  2. Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting

    OpenAIRE

    Noskievi?ová, Darja

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC) method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was...

  3. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future

  4. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis Using Control-Based Continuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable and unstable equilibria under variation of parameters. As a test case we demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity, controlled by electromagnetic actuators. The method requires the constitution of a non-invasive and locally stabilizing control scheme, which must be tuned without a-priori study of a model. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method. This experimental tuning procedure is applied to our test rig, resulting in a reliable non-invasive, locally stabilizing control. The use of stabilizing control makes it difficult to determine the stability of the underlying uncontrolled equilibrium. Based on the idea of momentarily modifying or disabling the control and study the resulting behavior, we propose and test three different methods for assessing stability of equilibrium states during experimental continuation. We show that it is possible to determine the stability without allowing unbounded divergence, and that it is under certain circumstances possible to quantify instability in terms of finite-time Lyapunov exponents. A software toolbox for the Matlab continuation platform COCO has been developed and will be made freely available. This toolbox implements functions necessary for interfacing a numerical continuation code with a real experiment, as well as provide means for simulating control-based continuation experiments. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the method for rotating machinery is discussed.

  5. Analysis of TMT primary mirror control-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Sirota, Mark J.

    2008-07-01

    The primary mirror control system (M1CS) keeps the 492 segments of the Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror aligned in the presence of disturbances. A global position control loop uses feedback from inter-segment edge sensors to three actuators behind each segment that control segment piston, tip and tilt. If soft force actuators are used (e.g. voice-coil), then in addition to the global position loop there will be a local servo loop to provide stiffness. While the M1 control system at Keck compensates only for slow disturbances such as gravity and thermal variations, the M1CS for TMT will need to provide some compensation for higher frequency wind disturbances in order to meet stringent error budget targets. An analysis of expected high-wavenumber wind forces on M1 suggests that a 1Hz control bandwidth is required for the global feedback of segment edge-sensorbased position information in order to minimize high spatial frequency segment response for both seeing-limited and adaptive optics performance. A much higher bandwidth is required from the local servo loop to provide adequate stiffness to wind or acoustic disturbances. A related paper presents the control designs for the local actuator servo loops. The disturbance rejection requirements would not be difficult to achieve for a single segment, but the structural coupling between segments mounted on a flexible mirror cell results in controlstructure interaction (CSI) that limits the achievable bandwidth. Using a combination of simplified modeling to build intuition and the full telescope finite element model for verification, we present designs and analysis for both the local servo loop and global loop demonstrating sufficient bandwidth and resulting wind-disturbance rejection despite the presence of CSI.

  6. Autonomous miniaturised device with USB interface for pulse height analysis and multi-channel scaling (TUKAN-8K-USB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present autonomous a 8K-channel miniature device designed for spectroscopy or intensity vs. time measurements. The device (TUKAN-8K-USB) is based on the USB interface, and is contained in a screened separate box - it can be proved either directly from the USB port or from an external DC source (wall adapter of battery). The device may work in two independent operational modes: Multi-Channel Analysis (MCA) and Multi-Channel Scaling (MCS). The crucial MCA component - Peak detect and Hold circuitry - is featuring a novel architecture based on a diamond transistor. Its analog stage can accept analog pulses with front edges down to 100 ns and has a differential linearity below 0.5% (full scale sliding scale averaging). Automatic stops on count in Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and on preset live or real time are implemented. The MCS works at medium speed counting rates (up to 8 MHz), with preset dwell time, number of channels and multi-sweep mode. Each these parameters can also be controlled externally. Digital interfacing is based on four used configurable logical I/O lines. A single CYCLONE EP1C3 Altera FPGA provides all control functions. The USB communication is based on FYDI FIFO controller. The analyzer is equipped with advanced, user-friendly software, which is subjected of another publication. )author)

  7. Contribution to stability analysis of nonlinear control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?varc Ivan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Popov criterion for the stability of nonlinear control systems is considered. The Popov criterion gives sufficient conditions for stability of nonlinear systems in the frequency domain. It has a direct graphical interpretation and is convenient for both design and analysis. In the article presented, a table of transfer functions of linear parts of nonlinear systems is constructed. The table includes frequency response functions and offers solutions to the stability of the given systems. The table makes a direct stability analysis of selected nonlinear systems possible. The stability analysis is solved analytically and graphically.Then it is easy to find out if the nonlinear system is or is not stable; the task that usually ranks among the difficult task in engineering practice.

  8. Advanced sliding mode control for mechanical systems design, analysis and Matlab simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinkun

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Sliding Mode Control for Mechanical Systems: Design, Analysis and MATLAB Simulation"" takes readers through the basic concepts, covering the most recent research in sliding mode control. The book is written from the perspective of practical engineering and examines numerous classical sliding mode controllers, including continuous time sliding mode control, discrete time sliding mode control, fuzzy sliding mode control, neural sliding mode control, backstepping sliding mode control, dynamic sliding mode control, sliding mode control based on observer, terminal sliding mode control,

  9. Component-based analysis of embedded control applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelov, Christo K.; Guan, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of embedded systems requires the creation of industrial software technology that will make it possible to engineer systems being correct by construction. That can be achieved through the use of validated (trusted) components, verification of design models, and automatic configuration of applications from validated design models and trusted components. This design philosophy has been instrumental for developing COMDES—a component-based framework for distributed embedded control systems. A COMDES application is conceived as a network of embedded actors that are configured from instances of reusable, executable components—function blocks (FBs). System actors operate in accordance with a timed multitasking model of computation, whereby I/O signals are exchanged with the controlled plant at precisely specified time instants, resulting in the elimination of I/O jitter. The paper presents an analysis technique that can be used to validate COMDES design models in SIMULINK. It is based on a transformation of the COMDES design model into a SIMULINK analysis model, which preserves the functional and timing behaviour of the application. This technique has been employed to develop a feasible (light-weight) analysis method based on runtime observers. The latter are conceived as special-purpose actors running in parallel with the application actors, while checking system properties specified in Linear Temporal Logic. Observers are configured from reusable FBs that can be exported to SIMULINK in the same way as application components, making it possible to analyze system properties via simulation. The discussion is illustrated with an industrial case study—a Medical Ventilator Control System, which has been used to validate the developed design and analysis methods.

  10. Multilayer FeRh/MgO: controllable magnetocrystalline anisotropy for an antiferromagnetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohui; Dorj, Odkhuu; Ke, Sanhuang; Ramesh, Rammoorthy; Miao, Maosheng; Kioussis, Nickolas

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of ferromagnetic (FM) thin films by tunable strain and electric field has been pursued as an effective method of achieving low-power and highly scalable memory. Comparing with FM materials, AFM are much less sensitive to external magnetic field, a substantial advantage for memory devices. Inspired by recent work on AFM memory resistors based on FeRh, we carried out a systematic first principles study of the MCA of multi-layer FeRh, either stand alone, or combined with MgO layers. FeRh is a unique material that undergoes a transition from AFM (type-II) to FM at elevated temperature of 370 K. Our calculations for thin films of FeRh from 5-15 atomic layers reveal that AFM is always the most stable configuration for Fe terminated films; while for Rh terminated films, there is a transition from FM to a configuration featured AFM at the center layers and FM at the surface layers (reconstructed). While applying the spin-orbit interactions (SOI) for the valence electrons, we found Fe-terminated films exhibit a relatively small MCA that varies and may change sign with film thickness, substrate and strain, providing a possibility of spin reorientation via the control of strain and electric field. The k-resolved MCA values reveals that the region around Gamma point adds the major contribution to the MCA.

  11. Control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation facilities of the Large Helical Device (LHD), which is designed to confine the plasma in steady state. In LHD the plasma duration exceeds 3000 s by controlling the plasma position, the density and the ICRF heating. The 'LABCOM' data acquisition system takes both the short-pulse and the steady-state data. A two-layer Mass Storage System with RAIDs and Blu-ray Disk jukeboxes in a storage area network has been developed to increase capacity of storage. The steady-state data can be monitored with a Web browser in real time. A high-level data analysis system with Web interfaces is being developed in order to provide easier usage of LHD data and large FORTRAN codes in a supercomputer. A virtual laboratory system for the Japanese fusion community has been developed with Multi-protocol Label Switching Virtual Private Network Technology. Collaborators at remote sites can join the LHD experiment or use the NIFS supercomputer system as if they were working in the LHD control room

  12. Assessment of quality control approaches for metagenomic data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Ning, Kang

    2014-11-01

    Currently there is an explosive increase of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects and related datasets, which have to be processed by Quality Control (QC) procedures before they could be utilized for omics analysis. QC procedure usually includes identification and filtration of sequencing artifacts such as low-quality reads and contaminating reads, which would significantly affect and sometimes mislead downstream analysis. Quality control of NGS data for microbial communities is especially challenging. In this work, we have evaluated and compared the performance and effects of various QC pipelines on different types of metagenomic NGS data and from different angles, based on which general principles of using QC pipelines were proposed. Results based on both simulated and real metagenomic datasets have shown that: firstly, QC-Chain is superior in its ability for contamination identification for metagenomic NGS datasets with different complexities with high sensitivity and specificity. Secondly, the high performance computing engine enabled QC-Chain to achieve a significant reduction in processing time compared to other pipelines based on serial computing. Thirdly, QC-Chain could outperform other tools in benefiting downstream metagenomic data analysis.

  13. Mission Analysis and Orbit Control of Interferometric Wheel Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, J.

    Flying satellite in formation requires maintaining the specific relative geometry of the spacecraft with high precision. This requirement raises new problem of orbit control. This paper presents the results of the mission analysis of a low Earth observation system, the interferometric wheel, patented by CNES. This wheel is made up of three receiving spacecraft, which follow an emitting Earth observation radar satellite. The first part of this paper presents trades off which were performed to choose orbital elements of the formation flying which fulfils all constraints. The second part presents orbit positioning strategies including reconfiguration of the wheel to change its size. The last part describes the station keeping of the formation. Two kinds of constraints are imposed by the interferometric system : a constraint on the distance between the wheel and the radar satellite, and constraints on the distance between the wheel satellites. The first constraint is fulfilled with a classical chemical station keeping strategy. The second one is fulfilled using pure passive actuators. Due to the high stability of the relative eccentricity of the formation, only the relative semi major axis had to be controlled. Differential drag due to differential attitude motion was used to control relative altitude. An autonomous orbit controller was developed and tested. The final accuracy is a relative station keeping better than few meters for a wheel size of one kilometer.

  14. Application of Control Volume Analysis to Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Timothy; Cohen, Benjamin; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is among the most common birth defects and may not be prevented nor cured. Afflicted individuals face serious issues, which at present are too complicated and not well enough understood to treat via systematic therapies. This talk outlines the framework and application of a control volume methodology to clinical Phase Contrast MRI data. Specifically, integral control volume analysis utilizes a fundamental, fluid dynamics methodology to quantify intracranial dynamics within a precise, direct, and physically meaningful framework. A chronically shunted, hydrocephalic patient in need of a revision procedure was used as an in vivo case study. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements within the patient's aqueduct were obtained in four biomedical state and were analyzed using the methods presented in this dissertation. Pressure force estimates were obtained, showing distinct differences in amplitude, phase, and waveform shape for different intracranial states within the same individual. Thoughts on the physiological and diagnostic research and development implications/opportunities will be presented.

  15. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  16. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) design analysis status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The propulsion flight control integration technology (PROFIT) program was designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The preliminary design, analysis, and feasibility studies conducted in support of the PROFIT program are reported. The PROFIT system was built around existing IPCS hardware. In order to achieve the desired system flexibility and capability, additional interfaces between the IPCS hardware and F-15 systems were required. The requirements for additions and modifications to the existing hardware were defined. Those interfaces involving the more significant changes were studied. The DCU memory expansion to 32K with flight qualified hardware was completed on a brassboard basis. The uplink interface breadboard and a brassboard of the central computer interface were also tested. Two preliminary designs and corresponding program plans are presented.

  17. Cost and schedule control systems for safety analysis report projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of its waste management program at Savannah River site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is performing safety analyses and providing safety documentation in support of construction in support of construction and operation of nuclear process facilities. The safety documentation includes a major document, the safety analyses report (SAR), which requires a detailed safety analysis of the facility. It is with the control of cost and schedule of SAR projects that this paper is concerned. The cost and schedule control system (CSCS) models developed for SAR projects comply with the principles and requirements of the US Department of Energy's project management system and criteria. The models apply to the SAR structure and allow calculation of key project performance parameters for the SAR as a whole and for individual chapters and sections. The models are based on the concept of earned value, which represents the periodic, consistent measurement of work performed in terms of the budget assigned to that work

  18. Muscle networks: Connectivity analysis of EMG activity during postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Xie, Hong-Bo; Roerdink, Melvyn; Stins, John F.; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that reduce the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal system remains an outstanding challenge. Muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality and hence simplify the control problem. How this is achieved is not yet known. Here we use network theory to assess the coordination between multiple muscles and to elucidate the neural implementation of muscle synergies. We performed connectivity analysis of surface EMG from ten leg muscles to extract the muscle networks while human participants were standing upright in four different conditions. We observed widespread connectivity between muscles at multiple distinct frequency bands. The network topology differed significantly between frequencies and between conditions. These findings demonstrate how muscle networks can be used to investigate the neural circuitry of motor coordination. The presence of disparate muscle networks across frequencies suggests that the neuromuscular system is organized into a multiplex network allowing for parallel and hierarchical control structures.

  19. Multi-intersection Traffic Light Control Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    We address the traffic light control problem for multiple intersections in tandem by viewing it as a stochastic hybrid system and developing a Stochastic Flow Model (SFM) for it. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive on-line gradient estimates of a cost metric with respect to the controllable green and red cycle lengths. The IPA estimators obtained require counting traffic light switchings and estimating car flow rates only when specific events occur. The estimators are used to iteratively adjust light cycle lengths to improve performance and, in conjunction with a standard gradient-based algorithm, to obtain optimal values which adapt to changing traffic conditions. Simulation results are included to illustrate the approach.

  20. An Analysis of the PLLs With Secondary Control Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    The phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used in different areas of applications particularly for synchronization and control purposes in grid connected applications. A major challenge associated with the PLLs is how to improve their dynamic performance without jeopardizing their stability and...... filtering capability. Recently, some approaches based on adding a secondary control path (SCP) to the PLL structure have been proposed to deal with this challenge. The objective of this letter is to briefly analyze these approaches. The study starts with an overview of the PLLs with SCP. The letter proceeds...... with the small-signal modeling of some of these PLLs, which significantly simplifies the analysis. Using these models, the effects of adding the SCP on the PLL structure are studied. The obtained results show that the SCP may not be a practical approach to improve the PLL dynamic performance as it...

  1. Muscle networks: Connectivity analysis of EMG activity during postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Xie, Hong-Bo; Roerdink, Melvyn; Stins, John F.; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that reduce the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal system remains an outstanding challenge. Muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality and hence simplify the control problem. How this is achieved is not yet known. Here we use network theory to assess the coordination between multiple muscles and to elucidate the neural implementation of muscle synergies. We performed connectivity analysis of surface EMG from ten leg muscles to extract the muscle networks while human participants were standing upright in four different conditions. We observed widespread connectivity between muscles at multiple distinct frequency bands. The network topology differed significantly between frequencies and between conditions. These findings demonstrate how muscle networks can be used to investigate the neural circuitry of motor coordination. The presence of disparate muscle networks across frequencies suggests that the neuromuscular system is organized into a multiplex network allowing for parallel and hierarchical control structures. PMID:26634293

  2. Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper proposes a methodology that integrates quantitative and qualitative assessment. The methodology proposed combines conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) with multi-criteria analysis (MCA). The CBA methodology, based on welfare theory, assures that the project with the highest welfare for society is ranked uppermost. To compare the different impacts, it is necessary to have a common monetary unit. Theoretically, all benefits and all costs should be accounted for in socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. However, this is far from in practical the general case due to difficulties in a valuating all the criteria in monetary terms. Thus CBA does not meet the need for a comprehensive evaluation, for which reason MCA is introduced to overcome this problem. Not only does MCA provides an opportunity to include non-market impacts in the analysis, but MCA also provides a framework for breaking down a problem into its constituent parts in order to better understand the problem and consequently arrive at a decision. However, while MCA opens up for the possibility to include non-market impacts, it does not provide the decision makers with guidance combining the CBA with MCA. In the paper different methods for combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis are examined and compared and a software system is presented. The software system gives the decision makers some possibilities regarding preference analysis, sensitivity and risk analysis. The aim of the software is to facilitate a straightforward method to support decision making involving both quantitative and qualitative impacts. An outcome of this is that the methodology and the results on this basis are easily understood by the different stakeholders, which is seen as important. The methodology and software system are demonstrated by examining the decision problem of choosing between alternatives for a new airport to service the capital of Greenland, Nuuk. Three different alternatives are examined ranging in costs from 90m USD to 400m USD. Furthermore, three sets of different stakeholders’ preferences (decision makers, citizens in Nuuk and other citizens in Greenland) are examined and compared. The cost-benefit analysis of the three airport alternatives includes impacts like travel time (for business and local travellers), waiting time, drawback of shifts, regularity, out of pocket costs, operating costs and not the least construction and maintenance costs. The MCA is made use of to assess noise, land use planning, business potential and tourism impacts for the three alternatives. More technically the software system offers a set of different features to undertake the MCA. Thus the users have two different methods to assess weights for the criteria, either by using the Swing Weight method or the more simple Rank Order Distribution (ROD) method. For evaluating the different alternatives with respect to each criterion the user has the possibility of making use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), REMBRANDT or Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranks (SMARTER) methods. Finally, a feature combining the CBA and MCA results can be provided by applying a trade off between the two methods or by means of the so called efficiency frontier is demonstrated. The presented multi-dimensional methodology and software system for CBA and MCA decision making is finally compared with other methods for combining the CBA and MCA. Ultimately, some conclusions are made and perspectives are drawn. Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Multi-criteria analysis, Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding, Transport infrastructure, Analytical Hierarchy Process, REMBRANDT, SMARTER, stakeholders’ preferences and CBA&MCA Software system.

  3. Evaluation of new control rooms by operator performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced supervisory and control system called PODIATM (Plant Operation by Displayed Information and Automation) was developed by Toshiba. Since this system utilizes computer driven CRTs as a main device for information transfer to operators, thorough system integration tests were performed at the factory and evaluations were made of operators' assessment from the initial experience of the system. The PODIA system is currently installed at two BWR power plants. Based on the experiences from the development of PODIA, a more advanced man-machine interface, Advanced-PODIA (A-PODIA), is developed. A-PODIA enhances the capabilities of PODIA in automation, diagnosis, operational guidance and information display. A-PODIA has been validated by carrying out systematic experiments with a full-scope simulator developed for the validation. The results of the experiments have been analyzed by the method of operator performance analysis and applied to further improvement of the A-PODIA system. As a feedback from actual operational experience, operator performance data in simulator training is an important source of information to evaluate human factors of a control room. To facilitate analysis of operator performance, a performance evaluation system has been developed by applying AI techniques. The knowledge contained in the performance evaluation system was elicited from operator training experts and represented as rules. The rules were implemented by employing an object-oriented paradigm to facilitate knowledge management. In conclusion, it is stated that the feedback from new control room operation can be obtained at an early stage by validation tests and also continuously by comprehensive evaluation (with the help of automated tools) of operator performance in simulator training. The results of operator performance analysis can be utilized for improvement of system design as well as operator training. (author)

  4. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

  5. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  6. Design and Performance Analysis of ZBT SRAM Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory is an essential part of electronic industry. Since, the processors used in various high performancePCs, network applications and communication equipment require high speed memories. The type ofmemory used depends on system architecture, and its applications. This paper presents an SRAMarchitecture known as Zero Bus Turnaround (ZBT. This ZBT SRAM is mainly developed for networkingapplications where frequent READ/WRITE transitions are required. The other single data rate SRAMs areinefficient as they require idle cycles when they frequently switch between reading and writing to thememory. This controller is simulated on the Spartan 3 device. And the performance analysis is done on thebasis of area, speed and power.

  7. Analysis of rotor slotting saliency in induction motor sensorless control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucci, Marcello; Serporta, Calogero [I.S.S.I.A.-C.N.R. (Institute on Intelligent Systems for the Automation), Via Dante, 12, 90100 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    This paper deals with induction machines study by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for position sensorless control drives based on rotating voltage carrier injection. It focuses the analysis of the rotor slotting saliency, under the variations of: (1) supply of the machine (both the high frequency rotating voltage carrier and the fundamental frequency supply), (2) reference flux of the drive, (3) load torque, and (4) rotor geometry design. The relative spatial harmonic of the stator inductance space-vector responsible for the rotor slotting effect has been chosen as an index for evaluating the response to the high frequency carrier. A methodology for retrieving the stator inductance space-vector from a FEA is proposed as well. Results of the variation of the rotor slotting spatial harmonic of the stator inductance with the carrier frequency, the rotor flux linkage, the load torque and the rotor geometry are presented. (author)

  8. Process control analysis of IMRT QA: implications for clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: first is to investigate the process of IMRT QA using control charts and second is to compare control chart limits to limits calculated using the standard deviation (?). Head and neck and prostate IMRT QA cases from seven institutions in both academic and community settings are considered. The percent difference between the point dose measurement in phantom and the corresponding result from the treatment planning system (TPS) is used for analysis. The average of the percent difference calculations defines the accuracy of the process and is called the process target. This represents the degree to which the process meets the clinical goal of 0% difference between the measurements and TPS. IMRT QA process ability defines the ability of the process to meet clinical specifications (e.g. 5% difference between the measurement and TPS). The process ability is defined in two ways: (1) the half-width of the control chart limits, and (2) the half-width of ±3? limits. Process performance is characterized as being in one of four possible states that describes the stability of the process and its ability to meet clinical specifications. For the head and neck cases, the average process target across institutions was 0.3% (range: -1.5% to 2.9%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 7.2% (range: 5.3% to 9.8%) compared to 6.7% (range: 5.3% to 8.2%) using standard deviation limits. For the prostate cases, the average process target across the institutions was 0.2% (range: -1.8% to 1.4%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 4.4% (range: 1.3% to 9.4%) compared to 5.3% (range: 2.3% to 9.8%) using standard deviation limits. Using the standard deviation to characterize IMRT QA process performance resulted in processes being preferentially placed in one of the four states. This is in contrast to using control charts for process characterization where the IMRT QA processes were spread over three of the four states with none of the processes in the ideal state. Control charts may be used for IMRT QA in clinical trials to categorize process performance, minimize protocol variation and guide process improvements. For the duration of an institution's participation in a protocol, updated control charts can be periodically sent to the protocol QA center to document continued process performance to protocol specifications

  9. Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noskievi?ová

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was applied to the statistical analysis of the selected blast furnace process output parameter with the aim to compare two production methods.

  10. UHB demonstrator interior noise control flight tests and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M. A.; Druez, P. M.; Kimbrough, A. J.; Brock, M. P.; Burge, P. L.; Mathur, G. P.; Cannon, M. R.; Tran, B. N.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement and analysis of MD-UHB (McDonnell Douglas Ultra High Bypass) Demonstrator noise and vibration flight test data are described as they relate to passenger cabin noise. The analyses were done to investigate the interior noise characteristics of advanced turboprop aircraft with aft-mounted engines, and to study the effectiveness of selected noise control treatments in reducing passenger cabin noise. The UHB Demonstrator is an MD-80 test aircraft with the left JT8D engine replaced with a prototype UHB engine. For these tests, the UHB engine was a General Electric Unducted Fan, with either 8x8 or 10x8 counter-rotating propeller configurations. Interior noise level characteristics were studied for several altitudes and speeds, with emphasis on high altitude (35,000 ft), high speed (0.75 Mach) cruise conditions. The effectiveness of several noise control treatments was evaluated based on cabin noise measurements. The important airborne and structureborne transmission paths were identified for both tonal and broadband sources using the results of a sound intensity survey, exterior and interior noise and vibration data, and partial coherence analysis techniques. Estimates of the turbulent boundary layer pressure wavenumber-frequency spectrum were made, based on measured fuselage noise levels.

  11. UHB demonstrator interior noise control flight tests and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M. A.; Druez, P. M.; Kimbrough, A. J.; Brock, M. P.; Burge, P. L.; Mathur, G. P.; Cannon, M. R.; Tran, B. N.

    1989-10-01

    The measurement and analysis of MD-UHB (McDonnell Douglas Ultra High Bypass) Demonstrator noise and vibration flight test data are described as they relate to passenger cabin noise. The analyses were done to investigate the interior noise characteristics of advanced turboprop aircraft with aft-mounted engines, and to study the effectiveness of selected noise control treatments in reducing passenger cabin noise. The UHB Demonstrator is an MD-80 test aircraft with the left JT8D engine replaced with a prototype UHB engine. For these tests, the UHB engine was a General Electric Unducted Fan, with either 8x8 or 10x8 counter-rotating propeller configurations. Interior noise level characteristics were studied for several altitudes and speeds, with emphasis on high altitude (35,000 ft), high speed (0.75 Mach) cruise conditions. The effectiveness of several noise control treatments was evaluated based on cabin noise measurements. The important airborne and structureborne transmission paths were identified for both tonal and broadband sources using the results of a sound intensity survey, exterior and interior noise and vibration data, and partial coherence analysis techniques. Estimates of the turbulent boundary layer pressure wavenumber-frequency spectrum were made, based on measured fuselage noise levels.

  12. Performance Analysis: Work Control Events Identified January - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R

    2011-01-14

    This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded elements of an institutional work planning and control system. By the end of that year this system was documented and implementation had begun. In 2009, training of the workforce began and as of the time of this report more than 50% of authorized Integration Work Sheets (IWS) use the activity-based planning process. In 2010, LSO independently reviewed the work planning and control process and confirmed to the Laboratory that the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System was implemented. LLNL conducted a cross-directorate management self-assessment of work planning and control and is developing actions to respond to the issues identified. Ongoing efforts to strengthen the work planning and control process and to improve the quality of LLNL work packages are in progress: completion of remaining actions in response to the 2009 DOE Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) evaluation of LLNL's ISM System; scheduling more than 14 work planning and control self-assessments in FY11; continuing to align subcontractor work control with the Institutional work planning and control system; and continuing to maintain the electronic IWS application. The 24 events included in this analysis were caused by errors in the first four of the five ISMS functions. The most frequent cause was errors in analyzing the hazards (Function 2). The second most frequent cause was errors occurring when defining the work (Function 1), followed by errors during the performance of work (Function 4). Interestingly, very few errors in developing controls (Function 3) resulted in events. This leads one to conclude that if improvements are made to defining the scope of work and analyzing the potential hazards, LLNL may reduce the frequency or severity of events. Analysis of the 24 events resulted in the identification of ten common causes. Some events had multiple causes, resulting in the mention of 39 causes being identified for the 24 events. The most frequent cause was workers, supervisors, or experts believing they understood the work and the hazards but their understanding was incomplete. The s

  13. Thermal modeling, analysis and control of a space suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anthony Bruce

    The thermal dynamics of two space suits, the Space Shuttle EMU and the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit, are considered as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. The activities documented in this dissertation cover three related areas, modeling, analysis, and control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the operational Space Shuttle EMU is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the system with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are next considered. A transient model of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit design is developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink, to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space Suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed. The observations and insights about the thermal dynamics of a space suit are then applied to the automatic thermal comfort control of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit. Automatic thermal comfort control for the Advanced Space Suit is investigated using three proposed strategies. These strategies use a transient thermal comfort definition based on body heat storage. The first strategy is measurement based using a proposed body heat storage estimation method to determine the astronaut's thermal state. The second strategy is model based using a model to determine the desired liquid cooling garment inlet temperature to provide thermal comfort. The third strategy is a hybrid strategy combining the measurement based and model based approach using the Generalized Predictive Control framework. Each strategy then uses a resource allocation decision logic to determine which of three control mechanisms to use so that thermal comfort can be provided while minimizing the use of consumables. Accuracy and performance of the strategies are evaluated using simulations, highlighting their advantages and limitations.

  14. Economic Analysis of Vaccination Strategies for PRRS Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure) and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI) is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 2.1 years. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv. PMID:26673898

  15. The use of lac-type promoters in control analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Westerhoff, H. v.; Michelsen, Ole

    enzyme of interest, is put under the control of a lacUV5 or a tacI promoter. The alternative use of the two promoters leads to an expression range which should make it suitable for the use in control analysis of many enzymes. The lacUV5 promoter should be used when the wild-type expression level is low......, the tacI promoter when the latter is high. The endogenous lac operon is placed under the control of a second copy of the lacUV5 promoter and a lacYam mutation (eliminating lactose permease, the transport system for the inducer isopropyl-thio-beta-D-galactoside) is introduced. The method was...... demonstrated experimentally by constructing E. coli strains, in which the chromosomal atp operon is transcribed from the lacUV5 and the tacI promoter. We measured the concentration of the c subunit of H+-ATPase, and found that the expression of this enzyme could be modulated between non-detectable levels and...

  16. Validation of the REBUS-3/RTC methodologies for EBR-II core-follow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operations and material control and accountancy (MCA) requirements for the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) will demand accurate prediction of the mass flow from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) into the facility. This will require validated calculational tools that can predict the burnup and isotopic distribution in irradiated binary- and ternary-fueled Mark III, Mark IV, and Mark V assemblies. The present study demonstrates that the REBUS-3/RCT methodologies can meet these requirements. Validation is achieved via a two-step procedure. First, a set of detailed core-follow depletion calculations using the REBUS-3/RCT codes is performed for an extensive series of EBR-II runs. Second, the results of this analysis are compared with experimental determinations of burnup and U and Pu isotopic weight fractions that have been measured in IFR fueled test assemblies irradiated in EBR-II. The results of these comparisons are very good and indicate that mass flow predictions based on the methods used in this study are adequate for operational and MCA requirements in FCF

  17. The Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: Multivariate Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Rutherford, Crystal E.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-10-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). The time delay between sampling and subsequent DA provides a potential opportunity to divert the material out of the appropriate chemical stream. Leveraging new on-line nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for MC&A verification at such facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. Recent efforts have been made to explore the basic limits of using multivariate analysis techniques on gamma-ray spectra. This paper will provide an overview of the methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technology.

  18. Analysis and control of issues that delay pharmaceutical projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallam Sai Nandeswara Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Every project will have certain objectives and service levels to be achieved. The success of a project depends on several dimensions like time, cost/budget, quality, etc. and managing a project involves completing the project within time, within budget and with quality to satisfy the users. Because of the significance of health, pharmaceutical companies realized the importance of project management methods and techniques to make available the life saving drugs in time to the needy patients and hospitals. In literature, there is meager information about pharmaceutical project management oriented towards analysis of issues and factors that contribute to the failure or success of projects. This study attempts to analyse different issues that contribute to time delays in pharmaceutical product-based projects, group them under a finite set of prominent factors and identify remedial measures to control those delays. The feedback of project people of some big pharmaceutical firms of Indian sub-continent was collected for this purpose. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA has been used to reduce the reasons for time delays to a limited number of prominent factors and the EFA model has been further examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA for its validation. Remedial measures under each factor of time delays have been gathered and a framework designed to mitigate the time delays in pharmaceutical projects. The derived factors that delay the pharmaceutical projects include resource, monitoring & control, scheduling and planning problems. Important remedial measures like blended resource approach, estimation and forecast of shortage of labour and skills, regular quality training, etc. have been recommended.

  19. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONTROLLED RELEASE OFLOXACIN / HPMC MUCOADHESIVE SUSPENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Subhashree

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive polymeric (HPMC suspension of Ofloxacin was prepared and optimised with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by FTIR, Raman Spectroscopy, XRD and SEM analyses. Ultrasonication method was used for preparation of mucoadhesive Ofloxacin suspension. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region Spectroscopic studies were carried out and spectra were used for interpretation. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer, scanned from a Bragg’s angle (2? of 10? to 70?. The dispersion of particle was observed using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The particle size distribution (PSD and aspect ratio (AR of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman Spectroscopic analyses suggested that in formulation, the carboxylic groups of Ofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of HPMC undergo chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding (both intermolecular and polymeric. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of Ofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility and delayed release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less, which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release Ofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.

  20. Heat-treatment control by means of acoustic emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In acoustic emission, sound waves are emitted by fast release of elastically accumulated energy, the frequency of which extends from audible sound up to supersonic frequencies. The causes for the production of sound are chiefly plastic deformation, phase transformations, crack formation, rupture and friction phenomena. By analyzing the acoustic signals according to origin, amplitudes, frequency, pulse rate, and pulse sum, detailed statements can be made on the behavior of materials under stress. In this summarizing paper, all basic problems of acoustic emission analysis are presented in detail by the example of heat-treatment control (welding, hardening, tempering, annealing) including disturbing effect (formation of steam bubbles, scaling etc.). Quantification of the evidence from acoustic emission analysis in the sense of assigning the signals to type and size of faults is still being worked upon. Acoustic emission analysis until now could be applied successfully mainly to large components such like, e.g., reactor pressure vessels and pipes. Detailed results are given for the individual heat-treatment process. (orig.)

  1. Risk Analysis in Robust Control -- Making the Case for Probabilistic Robust Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xinjia; Zhou, Kemin

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a critical view of the "worst-case" approach that is the cornerstone of robust control design. It is our contention that a blind acceptance of worst-case scenarios may lead to designs that are actually more dangerous than designs based on probabilistic techniques with a built-in risk factor. The real issue is one of modeling. If one accepts that no mathematical model of uncertainties is perfect then a probabilistic approach can lead to more reliable control even if it cannot guarantee stability for all possible cases. Our presentation is based on case analysis. We first establish that worst-case is not necessarily "all-encompassing." In fact, we show that for some uncertain control problems to have a conventional robust control solution it is necessary to make assumptions that leave out some feasible cases. Once we establish that point, we argue that it is not uncommon for the risk of unaccounted cases in worst-case design to be greater than that of the accepted risk in a probabilistic appro...

  2. Austrian meat: Authenticity control by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The EU has declared that all foodstuff must be able to be traced back from 'fork to farm' to increase the safety of food and the confidence of the consumers in food quality and safety. Additionally, several incidents of 'food diseases and scandals' related with meat (e.g.: BSE, foot and mouth disease, antibiotics abuse, avian flu, etc.) have demonstrated the necessity to trace back the origin of meat, to be able to locate sources of infection/mismanagement. Besides the conventional method of the control of documentation there is the possibility of control of origin by analysing the isotopic composition of meat and herewith controlling the questioned good itself. Stable isotope ratios of the elements HCNOS are varying geographically due to different environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, geology, soil, altitude, geography, etc.) thus every region possesses an individual pattern. The isotopic pattern is imprinted on plants and animals growing in a certain region, and therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can allow the identification of agricultural goods from different regions. For the control of origin of Austrian meat about 500 beef and 500 pork samples have been collected from slaughterhouses and were analysed for the isotopic composition of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur and compared with the isotopic composition of meat samples from neighbouring countries. As Austria, despite being a small country, is very heterogeneous in its environmental conditions, thus there are significant differences in the isotopic patterns of individual Austrian provinces. The isotopic signature of meat samples from neighbouring countries can overlap with the 'Austrian isotope pattern' due to similar environmental conditions. However, a correct statistical classification has been achieved for 80% and 84% of the analysed beef and pork samples, respectively. If the declared origin of meat can be pinned down to an Austrian province, the discrimination power of the database is even significantly better. (author)

  3. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Subba Rao

    2014-06-01

    A study on the geochemistry of groundwater was carried out in a river basin of Andhra Pradesh to probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO$^{?}_{3}$, Cl?, SO$^{2?}_{4}$, NO$^{?}_{3}$ and F?, into two orthogonal principal components (PC1 and PC2), accounting for 75% of the total variance of the data matrix. PC1 has high positive loadings of EC, Na+, Cl?, SO$^{2?}_{4}$, Mg2+ and Ca2+, representing a salinity controlled process of geogenic (mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation), anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine (marine clay) origin. The PC2 loadings are highly positive for HCO$^{?}_{3}$, F?, pH and NO$^{?}_{3}$, attributing to the alkalinity and pollution controlled processes of geogenic and anthropogenic origins. The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin from upstream to downstream area with an increase in concentration of chemical variables, which is due to anthropogenic and marine origins with varying topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the groundwater quality shows a variation of chemical facies from Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+: HCO$^{?}_{3}$ > Cl? > SO$^{2?}_{4}$ > NO$^{?}_{3}$ > F? at high topography to Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+: Cl? > HCO$^{?}_{3}$ > SO$^{2?}_{4}$ > NO$^{?}_{3}$ > F? at low topography. With PCA, an effective tool for the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, a subset of explored wells is indexed for continuous monitoring to optimize the expensive effort.

  4. Control-structure-thermal interactions in analysis of lunar telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger C.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar telescope project was an excellent model for the CSTI study because a telescope is a very sensitive instrument, and thermal expansion or mechanical vibration of the mirror assemblies will rapidly degrade the resolution of the device. Consequently, the interactions are strongly coupled. The lunar surface experiences very large temperature variations that range from approximately -180 C to over 100 C. Although the optical assemblies of the telescopes will be well insulated, the temperature of the mirrors will inevitably fluctuate in a similar cycle, but of much smaller magnitude. In order to obtain images of high quality and clarity, allowable thermal deformations of any point on a mirror must be less than 1 micron. Initial estimates indicate that this corresponds to a temperature variation of much less than 1 deg through the thickness of the mirror. Therefore, a lunar telescope design will most probably include active thermal control, a means of controlling the shape of the mirrors, or a combination of both systems. Historically, the design of a complex vehicle was primarily a sequential process in which the basic structure was defined without concurrent detailed analyses or other subsystems. The basic configuration was then passed to the different teams responsible for each subsystem, and their task was to produce a workable solution without requiring major alterations to any principal components or subsystems. Consequently, the final design of the vehicle was not always the most efficient, owing to the fact that each subsystem design was partially constrained by the previous work. This procedure was necessary at the time because the analysis process was extremely time-consuming and had to be started over with each significant alteration of the vehicle. With recent advances in the power and capacity of small computers, and the parallel development of powerful software in structural, thermal, and control system analysis, it is now possible to produce very detailed analyses of intermediate designs in a much shorter period of time. The subsystems can thus be designed concurrently, and alterations in the overall design can be quickly adopted into each analysis; the design becomes an iterative process in which it is much easier to experiment with new ideas, configurations, and components. Concurrent engineering has the potential to produce efficient, highly capable designs because the effect of one subystem on another can be assessed in much more detail at a very early point in the program. The research program consisted of several tasks: scale a prototype telescope assembly to a 1 m aperture, develop a model of the telescope assembly by using finite element (FEM) codes that are available on site, determine structural deflections of the mirror surfaces due to the temperature variations, develop a prototype control system to maintain the proper shape of the optical elements, and most important of all, demonstrate the concurrent engineering approach with this example. In addition, the software used for the finite element models and thermal analysis was relatively new within the Program Development Office and had yet to be applied to systems this large or complex; understanding the software and modifying it for use with this project was also required. The I-DEAS software by Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC) was used to build the finite element models, and TMG developed by Maya Heat Transfer Technologies, Ltd. (which runs as an I-DEAS module) was used for the thermal model calculations. All control system development was accomplished with MATRIX(sub X) by Integrated Systems, Inc.

  5. Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design--such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I and C system designs--makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I and C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development

  6. Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani

    2007-01-31

    This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design – such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I&C system designs – makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I&C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development.

  7. LSAP-DIGLIB, Linear Control System Design, Analysis, Plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: LSAP (Linear Systems Analysis Program) is an interactive program with graphics capability provided through DIGLIB (Device Independent Graphics Library) that can be used for the analysis and design of linear control systems. Nearly all the classical design tools are available, including manipulation of transfer functions and generation of root locus, time response, and frequency response plots. The program is capable of working with continuous time systems and sampled data systems. For continuous time systems, the Laplace transform is used and for sampled data systems, the Z-transform is used. The capability to convert from a Laplace to a Z-transform is provided. The program is intended primarily for the analysis of feedback control systems. The system configuration or parameters can be changed easily, allowing the user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in a very convenient manner. DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with RT-11, RSX-11M, and VMS and readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting. DIGLIB has device drivers for Tektronix 4010, 4012, 4014, 4025, and 4027 terminals; VT100 terminals with the retro-graphics option; GIGI terminals, CalComp 1012 plotters, and Lexidata 3400 color graphics systems. 2 - Method of solution: LSAP performs its modeling by defining and operating upon polynomial fraction representations of transfer functions. It is a command oriented program. A command is entered, together with any necessary data, and then executed. The program is then ready for the next command. The MAIN procedure accepts a command and calls the appropriate command procedure, until the program is halted. Each command procedure uses any utilities required for the execution of the command. The commands interact with global data in two basic ways. All defined transfer functions are global records, which exist in a linked list. All commands except HALT and HELP operate upon these records. Also included in global data are switches, flags, pointers, and scalars which describe the state of the program and control the operations performed by the commands. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program can only be applied to systems which can be described by a collection of rational transfer functions that are either Laplace or Z-transforms. The order of the numerator or denominator polynomials cannot exceed 20

  8. Quality control for Analysis of anthropogenic radioactivity at MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the atmospheric deposition samples has been continued for longer than 40 years at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan (MRI). Our company (KANSO) has been in charge of the analyses of these radionuclides as a contractor for the recent several years. It is basic requirements to produce good quality data for the contractor in the long-term monitoring; each technician engaged in the analyses should not have the skill difference. Furthermore, the data produced should not involve any bias and whatever problems. We have, therefore, carried out the analytical quality control and assurance QC/QA) by using the MRI reference fallout material for radioactivity along with analysis of the real samples. In the present work, those results of the QC/QA at the MRI by the KANSO are presented. For the analyses of 90Sr (n=65) and 137Cs (n=158), good quality control has been achieved; the coefficient of variations were fairly small, less than 5%. Also, the deviation from the reference values for these two nuclides were within 2%. While for the analysis of 239,240Pu (n=40), the coefficient of variation was worse, almost 10%. The deviation from the reference values for Pu isotopes were worse, about 10%, as well. From the normalized frequency distribution for the data, it was shown that 90Sr and 137Cs have good normal distributions. While the 239,240Pu data showed slightly disturbed frequency distribution. This difference does not seem attributable to the skill level of the technicians engaged but the inhomogeneity of the 239,240Pu in the reference fallout material itself. The control plots were depicted to see if any low quality data. From this time series data analysis, few deviated data were found. The deviated data were not attributable for the replace of the technicians and equipments but probability reason. As a whole, good QC/QA was practically achieved in the analyses of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the atmospheric deposition samples by the contractor, KANSO, at the MRI, Japan. (author)

  9. Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion coefficient. The inherent instability of high density suspensions instigated high speed analysis techniques capable of monitoring suspensions that were undergoing rapid change as well as suggesting novel methods for the evaluation of the state of sample dispersion. (author)

  10. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.; Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M.

    2010-06-01

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  11. Root cause analysis to support infection control in healthcare premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A-G

    2015-04-01

    Infection control teams (ICTs) seek to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). They undertake surveillance and prevention, promote safety and quality of care, and evaluate and manage risk. Root cause analysis (RCA) can support this work but is not widely used by ICTs. This paper describes how ICTs can use RCA to enhance their day-to-day work. Many different tools and methods exist for RCA. Its primary aim is to identify the factors that have led to HCAI, but RCA can also be used for near-misses. A team effort and multidisciplinary work are usually required. Published accounts and personal experience in the field indicate that an ICT that correctly uses RCA implements more effective prevention measures, improves practice and collaborative working, enhances teamwork, and reduces the risk of HCAI. RCA should be promoted among ICTs because it adds value to their work and helps to develop a hospital culture that anticipates and pre-empts problems. PMID:25634490

  12. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

    2012-01-01

    In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Oliveira Filho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. M., Oliveira Filho.

    Full Text Available After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the [...] prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes) free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES) based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

  16. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified the physical processes controlling the functioning of the method. A sensitivity analysis for selected boundary conditions, initial conditions and parameters was carried out to examine how the method behaves under conditions different from the experimental set-up. The simulations show that at the laboratory level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface.

  17. The value of 18F-FDG MCD-SPECT and 99Tcm-ECD SPECT imaging in patients of ischemic cerebrovascular disease with STA-MCA bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of brain glucose metabolism and perfusion imaging in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease before and after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery. Methods: A comparative study of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain metabolism and 99Tcm-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion imaging was performed in 5 normal persons and 15 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease before and after STA-MCA bypass surgery. Results: The glucose metabolism of ischemic cerebral tissues in 15 patients had three (increased, unchanged or decreasing) forms different with the course of disease before surgery. The ratio of the impaired area to the opposite normal area showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in glucose metabolism before and after STA-MCA bypass surgery. But the patients with high glucose metabolism before surgery improved significantly after surgery. In 99Tcm-ECD imaging, there was decreased perfusion of the affected vessels territory in 15 patients before surgery and it increased after surgery except one unsuccessful case. Except the frontal area, the ratio of the impaired area to the opposite normal area in brain perfusion imaging was significantly different (P<0.01) before and after STA-MCA bypass surgery. Conclusions: The hemodynamic change of the ischemic brain tissue can be better reflected by cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging before and after surgery. Although the change of brain glucose metabolism in ischemic brain tissue is not significant, it plays an important role in observing cerebral function and predicting the effect of surgery. (authors)

  18. An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modeling of the CMS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Hwong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviors and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and c...

  19. Analysis of Control Strategies for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Balamurugan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of various Pulse Width Modulation (PWM strategies for the three phase Diode Clamped Multi Level Inverter (DCMLI. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of new modulation schemes with Variable Amplitude (VA and various new schemes adopting the constant switching frequency and also variable switching frequency multicarrier control freedom degree combination concepts are developed and simulated for the chosen three phase DCMLI. The three phase DCMLI, is controlled in this paper with Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM reference along with triangular carriers and analysis is made among both without carrier overlapping and with Carrier Overlapping (CO techniques to choose the better strategy by performing simulation using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The variation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD and fundamental RMS output voltage is observed for various modulation indices. It is observed that among the various equal amplitude PWM strategies, COPWM-C provides less THD and higher RMS voltage. It is recognized that among the various variable amplitude PWM strategies, VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. By comparing the equal amplitude PWM strategies with the variable amplitude PWM strategies it is inferred that VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. It is also inferred that carrier overlapping techniques provides better results compared to the without carrier overlapping techniques.

  20. Introduction to time-delay systems analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century can be characterized as the ”time-delay boom” leading to numerous important results. The purpose of this book is two-fold, to familiarize the non-expert reader with time-delay systems and to provide a systematic treatment of modern ideas and techniques for experts. This book is based on the course ”Introduction to time-delay systems” for graduate students in Engineering and Applied Mathematics that the author taught in Tel Aviv University in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. The sufficient background to follow most of the material are the undergraduate courses in mathematics and an introduction to control. The book leads the reader from some basic classical results on time-delay systems to recent developments on Lyapunov-based analysis and design with applications to the hot topics of sampled-data and network-based control. The objective is to provide useful tools that will allow the reader not only to apply the existing methods, but also to develop new ones. It...

  1. Analysis of Fuzzy PID and Immune PID Controller for Three Tank Liquid Level Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Kumar Tiwari; Gagandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    In industrial control systems the liquid level iscarrying its significance as the control action for level control intanks containing different chemicals or mixtures is essential forfurther control linking set points. The three level control modelsare considered in our work. The conventional control algorithm isdifficult to reach required control quality with more strictrestriction on overshoot. Design a parameter self-tuningPID-controller based on fuzzy control, which can adjustPID-parameter...

  2. HPLC-MS technique for radiopharmaceuticals analysis and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentialities of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector (MSD) were investigated with the objective of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals; 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) being an example. Screening of suitable MSD analytical lines is presented. Mass-spectrometric monitoring of acetonitrile-aqueous ammonium formate eluant by negatively charged FDG.HCO2- ions enables isotope analysis (specific activity) of the radiopharmaceutical at m/z 227 and 226. Kryptofix 222 provides an intense MSD signal of the positive ion associated with NH4+ at m/z 394. Expired FDG injection samples contain decomposition products from which at least one labelled by 18F and characterised by signal of negative ions at m/z 207 does not correspond to FDG fragments but to C5 decomposition products. A glucose chromatographic peak, characterised by m/z 225 negative ion is accompanied by a tail of a component giving a signal of m/z 227, which can belong to [18O]glucose; isobaric sorbitol signals were excluded but FDG-glucose association occurs in the co-elution of separation of model mixtures. The latter can actually lead to a convoluted chromatographic peak, but the absence of 18F makes this inconsistent. Quantification and validation of the FDG component analysis is under way. (author)

  3. Measurement precision and biological variation of cranial arteries using automated analysis of 3 T magnetic resonance angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Lundholm, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has facilitated repeated measurements of human cranial arteries in several headache and migraine studies. To ensure comparability across studies the same automated analysis software has been used, but the intra- and interobserver, day-to-day and side-to-side variations have not yet been published. We hypothesised that the observer related, side-to-side, and day-to-day variations would be less than 10%. METHODS: Ten female participants were studied using high-resolution MRA on two study days separated by at least one week. Using the automated LKEB-MRA vessel wall analysis software arterial circumferences were measured by blinded observers. Each artery was analysed twice by each of the two different observers. The primary endpoints were to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and intra- an inter-observer, the day-to-day, and side-to-side variations of the circumference of the middle meningeal (MMA) and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. RESULTS: We found an excellent intra- and interobserver agreement for the MMA (ICC: 0.909-0.987) and for the MCA (ICC: 0.876-0.949). The coefficient of variance within observers was ?1.8% for MMA and ?3.1% for MCA; between observers ?3.4% (MMA) and ?4.1% (MCA); between days ?6.0% (MMA) and ?8.0% (MCA); between sides ?9.4% (MMA) and ?6.5% (MCA). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates a low (<5%) inter- and intraobserver variation using the automated LKEB-MRA vessel wall analysis software. Furthermore, the study also suggests that the day-to-day and side-to-side variations of the MMA and MCA circumferences are less than 10%.

  4. Strain control magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Ta/FeCo/MgO heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ab initio electronic structure calculations, we have investigated the effect of epitaxial strain on magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Ta/FeCo/MgO heterostructure. At small expansive strains on the FeCo layer, the system exhibits perpendicular MCA (PMA). Strain not only has a profound effect on the value of MCA but also induces a switching of magnetic easy axis. Analysis of the energy- and k-resolved distribution of orbital characters of the minority-spin band reveals that a significant contribution to PMA at zero strain arises from the spin-orbit coupling between occupied dx2?y2 and unoccupied dxy states, derived from Fe at the FeCo/MgO interface. The strain effect is attributed to strain-induced shifts of spin-orbit coupled d-states. Our work demonstrates that strain engineering can open a viable pathway towards tailoring magnetic properties for spintronic applications

  5. Design and Analysis of LINAC Control System in FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Sangita Shit,; Anil Kumar Sahu

    2012-01-01

    Control system is the key part of Medical linear accelerator (LINAC), as the system deals with controlled radiation exposure to human body. As this sort of system pass through different regulatory body approvals, control system should be able to handle different stringent parameters very precisely. Some of the important tasks for control system are measurement of delivered dose; energy stabilization through controlling voltage level, automatic frequency control (AFC) of magnetron, trigger gen...

  6. Analysis of N-qubit perfectly controlled teleportation schemes from the controller's point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi-Han; Ghose, Shohini

    2014-01-01

    We quantitatively analyze and evaluate the controller's power in $N$-qubit controlled teleportation schemes. We calculate the minimum control power required to ensure the controller's authority such that the teleportation fidelity without the controller's permission is no more than the classical bound. We revisit several typical controlled teleportation schemes from the controller's point of view and evaluate the control power in these schemes. We find that for teleporting a...

  7. Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Marcia S., E-mail: msader@metalmat.ufrj.br [Prog. Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, COPPE/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Virginia C.A. [Depto. de Química e Física Molecular, IQSC/USP, SP (Brazil); Gomez, Santiago [Dept. Anatomía Patológica, Universidad de Cádiz, Cadiz (Spain); LeGeros, Racquel Z. [Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry, NY (United States); Soares, Gloria A. [Prog. Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, COPPE/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ? 10 nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. Highlights: • 3D scaffolds of Mg-carbonate–apatite and anionic-collagen were produced. • The biomimetic approach and the cross-linking with 0.25% GA solution were employed. • The scaffolds showed open-porous structure and apatite crystals on collagen fibrils. • The cross-linked scaffolds exhibited integrity when immersed in culture medium. • SaOs2 cells adhered and proliferated on the cross-linked scaffolds confirming no cytotoxicity.

  8. Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ? 10 nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. Highlights: • 3D scaffolds of Mg-carbonate–apatite and anionic-collagen were produced. • The biomimetic approach and the cross-linking with 0.25% GA solution were employed. • The scaffolds showed open-porous structure and apatite crystals on collagen fibrils. • The cross-linked scaffolds exhibited integrity when immersed in culture medium. • SaOs2 cells adhered and proliferated on the cross-linked scaffolds confirming no cytotoxicity

  9. Application of on-line laboratory computer analysis to fast neutron activation oxygen determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an on-line laboratory computer analysis system designed for routine high volume oxygen determinations is discussed. The system is based on the detection of 16N photopeaks from the 16O(n,p) 16N reaction occurring during fast neutron irradiation. A system interface has been designed and constructed which is capable of controlling the Kaman 710 neutron generator, the sample transfer system, switching the BF3 beam monitor detector or NaI(T1) detector outputs as required to a multichannel scaling MCA, and proper sequencing of the procedure. In addition, specific software has been developed for the control of the system during acquisition as well as evaluation of the MCS spectra generated

  10. Design and Analysis of LINAC Control System in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Shit,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Control system is the key part of Medical linear accelerator (LINAC, as the system deals with controlled radiation exposure to human body. As this sort of system pass through different regulatory body approvals, control system should be able to handle different stringent parameters very precisely. Some of the important tasks for control system are measurement of delivered dose; energy stabilization through controlling voltage level, automatic frequency control (AFC of magnetron, trigger generation, human safety and machine safety interlocks etc. Proposed approach to the above mentioned requirement is design of a control system based on FPGA.This project proposes a control and communication system for medical linear accelerator.

  11. A modified VIKOR method for multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling

    2010-09-01

    The VIKOR method was developed to solve multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problems with conflicting or non-commensurable criteria. This method assumes that compromising is acceptable for conflicting resolution. Although the VIKOR method is a popular method applied in multi-criteria analysis (MCA), it has some problems when solving MCDM problems. This study discussed existing problems in the traditional VIKOR method. The objective of this study was to develop a modified VIKOR method to avoid numerical difficulties in solving problems by the traditional VIKOR method. Several synthetic experiments were designed and assessed to verify the improvement of solution efficiency of the modified VIKOR method in MCA. PMID:19672684

  12. Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backeljau Thierry

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides is an integral component of planning and evaluation of insecticide use in malaria control programmes. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, better known as knockdown resistance (kdr. In An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, two different substitutions in the para-type sodium channel, a L1014F substitution common in West Africa and a L1014S replacement found in Kenya, are linked with kdr. Two different allele-specific polymerase chain reactions (AS-PCR are needed to detect these known kdr mutations. However, these AS-PCR assays rely on a single nucleotide polymorphism mismatch, which can result in unreliable results. Methods Here, a new assay for the detection of knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/Melt Curve analysis (FRET/MCA is presented and compared with the existing assays. Results The new FRET/MCA method has the important advantage of detecting both kdr alleles in one assay. Moreover, results show that the FRET/MCA is more reliable and more sensitive than the existing AS-PCR assays and is able to detect new genotypes. By using this technique, the presence of the East African kdr mutation (L1014S is shown for the first time in An. arabiensis specimens from Uganda. In addition, a new kdr genotype is reported in An. gambiae s.s. from Uganda, where four An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes possess both, the West (L1014F and East (L1014S African kdr allele, simultaneously. Conclusion The presence of both kdr mutations in the same geographical region shows the necessity of a reliable assay that enables to detect both mutations in one single assay. Hence, this new assay based on FRET/MCA will improve the screening of the kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis.

  13. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two methods. Closing remarks conclude the paper.

  14. Analysis for Secondary Task in Advanced Main Control Room Using Soft Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze operator tasks using soft controls from the simulation data of an advanced MCR. In this study, the primary and secondary tasks of eighteen simulation data were analyzed. The results showed that secondary tasks were required to perform scenarios more than primary task needs. Among these secondary tasks, the 'switch screen' made up the largest portion. This indicates that operator workload would increase with an increase of the 'switch screen' task. To reduce operator workload, Cps designers put the screen link buttons in the Cps. According to an analysis of secondary tasks using the screen link buttons, it is recognized that using the screen link buttons of the Cps helps reduce the number of secondary tasks and reduce errors of the 'switch screen'. Therefore, although increased secondary tasks can affect the increase of operator workload according to the adapting soft controls in advanced MCRs, using supporting designs such as the screen link buttons helps to reduce operator workload and errors

  15. Analysis of Boost Converter Using PI Control Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Mitulkumar R. Dave, K.C.Dave

    2012-01-01

    This paper explains about the boost converter and control algorithm to reduce harmonics. For the improvement of the functionality of the boost converter there are many methods available among which I consider PI controller in voltage mode control path. Initially I discussed the basic function of the boost converter. Then I derived the transfer function of the complete system. Then I considered model and simulate into matlab without PI controller. Finally I used PI controller in which the valu...

  16. Performance Analysis of PCFICH and PDCCH LTE Control Channels

    OpenAIRE

    J. Milos; HANUS, S.

    2014-01-01

    Control channels play a key role in the evaluation of mobile system performance. The purpose of our paper is to evaluate the performance of the control channels implementation in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) system. The paper deals with the simulation of the complete signal processing chain for Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) and Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) in the LTE system, Release 8. We implemented a complete signal processing chain for downlink control ch...

  17. MODELLING, SIMULATION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE PROCESS CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Dulau; Adrian Gligor; Horatiu-Stefan Grif

    2012-01-01

    Processes characterized by large time constant, such as those with temperature control systems, are found in a large number of industrial applications. To control such systems, the appropriate mathematical models identification is needed, considering the uncertainties modeling, handling in dynamic operating regime and proposing control solutions. The paper presents a control system used in a part of a complex plant where is needed to maintain temperature at a set point. The controlled install...

  18. Pressure Control in Distillation Columns: A Model-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Bisgaard, Thomas; Kristensen, Henrik; Gernaey, Krist; Abildskov, Jens; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of pressure control in distillation columns is presented, including the consequences for composition control and energy consumption. Two types of representative control structures are modeled, analyzed, and benchmarked. A detailed simulation test, based on a real industrial distillation column, is used to assess the differences between the two control structures and to demonstrate the benefits of pressure control in the operation. In the second part of the article, a t...

  19. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  20. Analysis of water level control methods for nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear steam generator (SG) is a highly complex nonlinear time-changed system. The inverse dynamics effects, which are caused by shrink and swell under transient, startup and lower power operation, make the water level difficult to control. Methods of SG water level control are analyzed. The shortcoming of conventional PI(D) control for SG level is pointed out. It emphatically expounds the fuzzy logic control and the neural network control to nuclear steam generator level. Finally, the author brings forward his opinion upon the advance tendency of SG water level control. (authors)

  1. Fuzzy Current-Mode Control and Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a current-mode control (CMC) methodology is developed for a buck converter by using a fuzzy logic controller. Conventional CMC methodologies are based on lead-lag compensation with voltage and inductor current feedback. In this paper the converter lead-lag compensation will be substituted with a fuzzy controller. A small-signal model of the fuzzy controller will also be developed in order to examine the stability properties of this buck converter control system. The paper develops an analytical approach, introducing fuzzy control into the area of CMC.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The Brushless DC motors (BLDC) find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI) controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease ...

  3. Novel analysis of Petri-net-based controllers by means of TCT implementation tool of supervisory control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Uzam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of discrete event systems (DES has been widely studied in the past two decades. Finite-state automata (FSA and Petri nets (PN are the two principal modelling formalisms for this study. Supervisory control theory (SCT, based on language and FSA concepts, is a well established framework for the study of discrete event control systems (DECS. PN-based approaches to the control design have been considered as an alternative framework. In the PN-based control of DES, given an uncontrolled PN model of a system and a set of specifications, a PN-based controller consisting of monitors (control places is synthesised to solve the problem. In general, forbidden-state specifications are considered. Another heavily studied specification is to obtain the live system behaviour (non-blockingness in SCT terminology for a given PN model by computing a PN-based controller. Unfortunately, PN-based analysis tools cannot deal with uncontrollable transitions. Therefore, to date there is no general technique for the correctness analysis of the computed PN-based controllers. This paper proposes a novel and general methodology to carry out the correctness analysis for the computed PN-based controllers by using the TCT implementation tool of SCT. Three examples are considered for illustration.

  4. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.; Jimémez, L.; Gernaey, Krist

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) are applied to the evaluation matrix data set obtained by simulation of several control strategies applied to the plant-wide IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2). These techniques al...

  5. Magnetically controlled accretion onto a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhsanov, N. R.; Pustil'nik, L. A.; Beskrovnaya, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    An accretion scenario in which the material captured by a black hole from its environment is assumed to be magnetized (\\beta ~ 1) is discussed. We show that the accretion picture in this case is strongly affected by the magnetic field of the flow itself. The accretion power within this Magnetically Controlled Accretion (MCA) scenario is converted predominantly into the magnetic energy of the accretion flow. The rapidly amplified field prevents the accretion flow from forming...

  6. Analysis and design of controllers for a double inverted pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, J K

    2003-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the ? methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the...

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  9. Analysis and design of controllers for a double inverted pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, J K

    2003-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the ? methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the chart. It is shown how these performance limitation will effect the design of a ? controller for the system.

  10. Mathemetical performance analysis of a temperature controlled bulk storage room

    OpenAIRE

    Mourik, S. van; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Zwart, H.; Keesman, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Usually, control design takes place after the plant has been designed. However, the performance of the plant connected to the controller might be improved by simultaneous design of the plant and the controller. In this paper, expressions are deduced that describe the dynamics of a controlled plant (a bulk storage room) and its design criteria. These expressions contain all the physical system parameters, and give insight on how the system performance (in terms of energy usage and temperature ...

  11. Automation of low energy gamma spectrometric analysis of mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interface device to perform the automatic operation of a multichannel analyser CANBERRA S30 from a COMODORE 64 microcomputer was developed. The interface also allows the manual control of the MCA and fulfills the requirements of low cost and simplicity

  12. Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

  13. Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author)

  14. Direct Torque Control in presence of Current sensor failure in Variable Speed Wind System: Effect analysis, detection and control reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Arbi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of current sensor failure in a Direct Torque Control applied to a Double Fed Induction Generator based Variable Speed Wind System. The effect of scaling and offset current sensor errors is discussed through sensibility analysis. A control reconfiguration is then proposed to remedy this sensor failure. Simulation results emphasize the good performances of the proposed current sensor fault tolerant control

  15. Design, analysis and presentation of factorial randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Paul

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of more than one intervention in the same randomised controlled trial can be achieved using a parallel group design. However this requires increased sample size and can be inefficient, especially if there is also interest in considering combinations of the interventions. An alternative may be a factorial trial, where for two interventions participants are allocated to receive neither intervention, one or the other, or both. Factorial trials require special considerations, however, particularly at the design and analysis stages. Discussion Using a 2 × 2 factorial trial as an example, we present a number of issues that should be considered when planning a factorial trial. The main design issue is that of sample size. Factorial trials are most often powered to detect the main effects of interventions, since adequate power to detect plausible interactions requires greatly increased sample sizes. The main analytical issues relate to the investigation of main effects and the interaction between the interventions in appropriate regression models. Presentation of results should reflect the analytical strategy with an emphasis on the principal research questions. We also give an example of how baseline and follow-up data should be presented. Lastly, we discuss the implications of the design, analytical and presentational issues covered. Summary Difficulties in interpreting the results of factorial trials if an influential interaction is observed is the cost of the potential for efficient, simultaneous consideration of two or more interventions. Factorial trials can in principle be designed to have adequate power to detect realistic interactions, and in any case they are the only design that allows such effects to be investigated.

  16. Analysis and Control of Flora in Cream Vegetarian Salad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey of microbial pollution and health quality change was conducted during the process of the production and refrigeration of Cream Vegetarian Salad food, to provide a basic reference for the catering industry to carry out HACCP management system for food like this and ensure the safety of food. Then a basic formula of Cream Vegetarian Salad was made according to the literature, further the total number of bacteria, pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacter, cocci and microzyme was tested in the main raw material and finished product detection according to the national standard method, Without changing the taste of the finished production, the raw materials were blanched, to measure the reduced bacteria rate, and determine the improved formula; the salad was stored at 4°C, then the number of bacteria was counted according to the time sequence and flora analysis was made to draw up the date of minimum durability. The total bacterial count of the Cream Vegetarian Salad by the basic formula is 2.3×104 CFU/g, among which coriander occupies 87%, sweetbell 7%, the rest is of small scale. Thus, the Cream Vegetarian Salad made in kitchen can be seriously polluted by microbial, mainly due to parsley, sweetbell red pepper and other raw materials, through the method of sterilization, storage in low temperature secondary pollution can be avoided, and the bacterial count can be controlled effectively, then the shelf life was extended and the risk of food poisoning was reduced, which did a lot of benefit to the food safety management of the catering industry.

  17. Screening of conditions controlling spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abubakr M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its potential benefits over univariate, chemometrics is rarely utilized for optimizing sequential injection analysis (SIA methods. Specifically, in previous vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods, chemometrically optimized conditions were confined within flow rate and reagent concentrations while other conditions were ignored. Results The current manuscript reports, for the first time, a comprehensive screening of conditions controlling vis-spectrophotometric SIA. A new diclofenac assay method was adopted. The method was based on oxidizing diclofenac by permanganate (a major reagent with sulfuric acid (a minor reagent. The reaction produced a spectrophotometrically detectable diclofenac form. The 26 full-factorial design was utilized to study the effect of volumes of reagents and sample, in addition to flow rate and concentrations of reagents. The main effects and all interaction order effects on method performance, i.e. namely sensitivity, rapidity and reagent consumption, were determined. The method was validated and applied to pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, injection and gel. Conclusions Despite 64 experiments those conducted in the current study were cumbersome, the results obtained would reduce effort and time when developing similar SIA methods in the future. It is recommended to critically optimize effective and interacting conditions using other such optimization tools as fractional-factorial design, response surface and simplex, rather than full-factorial design that used at an initial optimization stage. In vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods those involve developing reactions with two reagents (major and minor, conditions affecting method performance are in the following order: sample volume > flow rate ≈ major reagent concentration >> major reagent volume ≈ minor reagent concentration >> minor reagent volume.

  18. Analysis and Control of Bulgaria Onion Cold Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey of microbial pollution and health quality change was conducted during the process of the production and refrigeration of Onion Cold Soup to provide a basic reference for the catering industry for the implementation of HACCP management system for food and to ensure the safety of food. A basic formula of Onion Cold Soup was made according to the literature, then the total number of bacteria, pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacter, cocci and microzyme were tested in the main raw material and finished product detection according to the national standard method; hot boiling water to wash the main raw materials, statistical reduction in strain rate, in order to determine improvement formula. The finished cold soup at 4°C refrigerator made flora analysis, and drew up the date of minimum durability. The total bacterial count of the Onion Cold Soup by the basic formula is 2.4?104cfu/g, among which coriander occupied 53%, egg 24%, onion and lemonade 17% and 6%; respectively; and after blanching, the total number of colonies in the improved formulation is 1.1?103, the sterilization rate reaches 95.4%, and the effect is slightly obvious. The Onion Cold Soup made in kitchen can be seriously polluted by microbial, hot boiling water to wash the main raw materials and avoid secondary pollution, thus the bacterial count can be controlled effectively, then the shelf life was extended and the risk of food poisoning was reduced, which did a lot of benefit to the catering industry the food safety management.

  19. PI Controllers in Performance Analysis Computer Code for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many proportional integral (PI) controllers used in NSSS control systems for nuclear power plants (NPPs). In order to execute correct performance analysis and to support plant operation effectively for NPPs, computer codes used for performance analysis should have an ability to simulate PI controllers correctly. Therefore, it is important that PI control algorithm is correctly programmed in the computer code to describe PI controllers in hardware with high-fidelity. However, there exist some possibilities that mismatch can occurs for simulation of PI controller according to a method by which the PI controller is converted into numerical expression. In this work, some analyses on this problem are performed and reviewed

  20. 4f and 5d energy levels of the divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions in M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical data of Sm, Tb and Yb doped Ca2Si5N8 and Sr2Si5N8 phosphors that have been prepared by solid-state synthesis, are presented. Together with luminescence data from literature on Ce3+ and Eu2+ doping in the M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) hosts, energy level schemes were constructed showing the energy of the 4f and 5d levels of all divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions relative to the valence and conduction band. The schemes were of great help in interpreting the optical data of the lanthanide doped phosphors and allow commenting on the valence stability of the ions, as well as the stability against thermal quenching of the Eu2+d–f emission. Tb3+ substitutes on both a high energy and a low energy site in Ca2Si5N8, due to which excitation at 4.77 eV led to emission from both the 5D3 and 5D4 levels, while excitation at 4.34 eV gave rise to mainly 5D4 emission. Doping with Sm resulted in typical Sm3+f–f line absorption, as well as an absorption band around 4.1 eV in Ca2Si5N8 and 3.6 eV in Sr2Si5N8 that could be identified as the Sm3+ charge transfer band. Yb on the other hand was incorporated in both the divalent and the trivalent state in Ca2Si5N8. - Graphical abstract: Energy level schemes showing the 4f ground states of the trivalent (?) and divalent (?) lanthanide ions and lowest energy 5d states of the trivalent (?) and divalent (?) ions with respect to the valence and conduction bands of Ca2Si5N8 (left) and Sr2Si5N8 (right). Highlights: ? Construction of energy level schemes of all lanthanides within the M2Si5N8 hosts. ? Construction was done by analyzing existing as well as new spectroscopic data. ? Tb3+d–f emission from two different Ca sites in Ca2Si5N8 has been observed. ? Observation of the Sm3+ charge transfer band in Ca2Si5N8 and Sr2Si5N8. ? Ytterbium has been found in the divalent and trivalent state in Ca2Si5N8.

  1. How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Groeneveld, Philip; Molenaar, Douwe; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    1994-01-01

    how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth......The chemostat makes it possible to study microbial physiology at steady state. However, because growth rate in a chemostat is set by the experimenter, it seems impossible to employ the chemostat to study the control of microbial growth by processes within the microorganism. In this paper we show...

  2. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator - Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Starke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype for...

  3. USB apply to field X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes the feasibility of application USB and GPS to field X-ray fluorescence analysis, and focuses on the hardware and firmware design of USB and multi-channel analyzer (MCA), then simply discusses the device driver design and the PC application software design. (authors)

  4. MODELLING, SIMULATION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE PROCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dulau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Processes characterized by large time constant, such as those with temperature control systems, are found in a large number of industrial applications. To control such systems, the appropriate mathematical models identification is needed, considering the uncertainties modeling, handling in dynamic operating regime and proposing control solutions. The paper presents a control system used in a part of a complex plant where is needed to maintain temperature at a set point. The controlled installation consists from two connected tanks, for which a simplified mathematical model based on transfer functions are determined, considering additive uncertainties and classical cascade PI control structures are proposed. Developed models and solutions are analyzed by simulation in Matlab environment.

  5. Analysis of buffering process of control rod hydraulic absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Rod Hydraulic Drive Mechanism(CRHDM) is a newly invented build-in control rod drive mechanism. Hydraulic absorber is the key part of this mechanism, and is used to cushion the control rod when the rod scrams. Thus, it prevents the control rod from being deformed and damaged. In this paper dynamics program ANSYS CFX is used to calculate all kinds of flow conditions in hydraulic absorber to obtain its hydraulic characteristics. Based on the flow resistance coefficients obtained from the simulation results, fluid mass and momentum equations were developed to get the trend of pressure change in the hydraulic cylinder and the displacement of the piston rod during the buffering process of the control rod. The results obtained in this paper indicate that the hydraulic absorber meets the design requirement. The work in this paper will be helpful for the design and optimization of the control rod hydraulic absorber. (author)

  6. Analysis and design of a nuclear boiler control scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam raising plant of a British designed nuclear power station for which the installed control scheme has given rise to performance and stability problems is considered. The lecture is based on studies carried out for the plant which illustrate the way in which multivariable frequency response methods can be used to analyse and identify the source of control problems and further enable alternative control schemes, having improved performance, to be designed. (author)

  7. Probabilistic Analysis of Reactive Power Control Strategies for Wind Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hethey, János; Leweson, Sofie

    2009-01-01

    The increasing wind power penetration in electrical power systems across Europe has led to rising grid code requirements concerning reactive power control by wind farms in order to meet the upcoming challenges for system stability, control and operation. Some of the important factors for the reactive power control strategy are the stochastic variations of wind and grid voltage which affect both the reactive power capabilities of wind farms and the reactive power support demanded by the grid c...

  8. Design and Analysis of Controllers for an Double Inverted Pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Jesper Kildegaard

    2005-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the H_inf and the SSV methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the cart. It is shown how these performance limitations will effect the d...

  9. Analysis and design of controllers for a double inverted pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the ? methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the chart. It is shown how these performance limitation will effect the design of a ? ...

  10. Simulation Based Analysis of Two Different Control Strategies for PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindita Dhamo#1 , Aida Spahiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In low power application generally permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM are used. Because of their high performance/cost ratio, the attention toward PMSM in variable speed application, is greater. Control of torque, rotation speed and position for four quadrants and low speed operation, with high-performance dynamic behaviour, are often required in industrial applications but they are sensitive from the standpoint of the control strategies reliability. Vector control based on fieldoriented control (FOC is one of the methods most investigated and discussed by many researcher and now it is an industry standard. Traditional control methods based on FOC use position sensors result to be very expensive in electrical drive with low power. The aim of this paper is to show that sensorless control strategy based on MRAS approach can be applied successfully in PMSM drives with low cost. The results are obtained from comparison of two algorithms of vector control of PMSM: traditional FOC using position sensor and model reference adaptive system (MRAS approach based on sensorless vector control .Based on results obtained, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed control structures will be discussed.

  11. Design and Analysis of Controllers for an Double Inverted Pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Jesper Kildegaard

    2005-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the H_inf and the SSV methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the cart. It is shown how these performance limitations will effect the design of H_inf and SSV controllers for the system.

  12. Seismic analysis of hydraulic control rod driving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified mathematical model was developed for the Hydraulic Control Rod Driving System (HCRDS) of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor, which incorporated the design of its chamfer-hole step cylinder, to analyze its seismic response characteristics. The control rod motion was analyzed for different sine-wave vibration loadings on platform vibrator. The vibration frequency domain and the minimum acceleration amplitude of the control rod needed to cause the control rod to step to its next setting were compared with the design acceleration amplitude spectrum. The system design was found to be safety within the calculated limits. The safety margin increased with increasing frequency. (author)

  13. Reliability analysis of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NUREG-CR/6942 technical report proposed a Markov state transition model for the main feedwater valve (MFV) controller system as part of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Digital Feedwater Control System (DFWCS). The proposed model extends the Markov model to allow the use of non-exponential distribution in the time to next output of the controller system responsible for maintaining the water level. This case study demonstrates the general application of semi-Markov process model for digital instrumentation and control systems. System failure probability and mission reliability measures are determined. (author)

  14. Harmoniousness analysis of total amount control of water use

    OpenAIRE

    Qian-qi YIN; Guo-hua FANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the fundamental principles of total amount control of water use, the harmony theory was used in this study to develop a concept of the degree of harmony of total amount control of water use. Based on this concept, the harmoniousness of total amount control of water use was analyzed in terms of the supply and demand of water resources, water resources management, water use benefits, and water-saving level. An evaluation index system of the degree of harmony of total amount control of ...

  15. Zonal frequency analysis of the gyral and sulcal extent of cerebral infarcts. Part III: Middle cerebral artery and watershed infarcts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidich, T.P.; Firestone, M.I. [Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave Levy Place, Box 1234, 10029, New York, New York (United States); Blum, J.T. [Department of Radiology, Westside Regional Medical Center, 8201 West Broward Boulevard, 33324, Plantation, Florida (United States); Abrams, K.J. [Department of Radiology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, 8900 North Kendall Drive, 33176, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2003-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that frequency analysis of the anatomic zones affected by single anterior (A), posterior (P), and middle (M) cerebral artery (CA), multivessel, and watershed infarcts will disclose specific sites (peak zones) most frequently involved by each type, sites most frequently injured by multiple different types (vulnerable zones), and overlapping sites of equal relative frequency for two or more different types of infarct (equal frequency zones). We adopted precise definitions of each vascular territory. CT and MRI studies of 50 MCA, 20 ACA-MCA, three PCA-MCA, and 30 parasagittal watershed infarcts were mapped onto a standard template. Relative infarct frequencies in each zone were analyzed within and across infarct types to identify the centers and peripheries of each, vulnerable zones, and equal frequency zones. These data were then correlated with the prior analysis of 47 ACA, PCA, dual ACA-PCA, and ACA-PCA-MCA infarcts. Zonal frequency data for MCA and watershed infarcts, the sites of peak infarct frequency, the sites of vulnerability to diverse infarcts, and the overlapping sites of equal infarct frequency are tabulated and displayed in standardized format for direct comparison of different infarcts. This method successfully displays the nature, sites, and extent of individual infarct types, illustrates the shifts in zonal frequency and lesion center that attend dual and triple infarcts, and clarifies the relationships among the diverse types of infarct. (orig.)

  16. Simulation of the treat-upgrade automatic reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of the Automatic Reactor Control System (ARCS) for the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Upgrade. A simulation was used to facilitate the ARCS design, and to completely test and verify its operation before installation at the TREAT facility. The ARCS is a microprocessor network based closed loop control system that provides a position demand control signal to the transient rod hydraulic drive system. There are four identical servo-hydraulic rod drives and each operates as a position control system. The ARCS updates its position demand control signal every 1 msec and its function is to control the transient rods so that the reactor follows a prescribed power-time profile (planned transient). The Main Control Algorithm (MCA) for the ARCS is an optimal reactivity demand algorithm. At each time step, the MCA generates a set of reference reactor functions, e.g., power, period, energy, and delayed neutron power. These functions are compared to plant measurements and estimated values at each time step and are operated on by appropriate algorithms to generate the reactivity demand function. The data necessary to calculate the reference functions is supplied from a Transient Prescription Control Data Set (TPCDS). The TPCDS specifies the planned transient as a fixed number of simply connected independent power profile segments. The developed simulation code models the TREAT reactor kinetics, the hydraulic rod drive system, the plant measurement system, and the ARCS control processor MCA. All of the models operate as continuous systems with the exception of the MCA which operates as a discrete time system at fixed multiples of 1 msec. The study indicates that the ARCS will meet or exceed all of its design specifications

  17. Control of interferences in the analysis of low-concentration I 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traces of uranium, cesium and tellurium interfere in the determination of I 129 by neutron activation analysis. The paper describes the procedures used to control or eliminate the interferences in the different steps of the analysis

  18. Azimuthal neutron field variation analysis utilizing BN-600 control rod efficiency measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for analysis of neutron flux density azimuthal distribution heterogeneity in the BN-600 reactor core basing on the measured control rod worths is suggested. The method applicability for irregular situation analysis is proved. 7 refs., 1 tab

  19. Accident analysis and control options in support of the sludge water system safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hazards analysis was initiated for the SWS in July 2001 (SNF-8626, K Basin Sludge and Water System Preliminary Hazard Analysis) and updated in December 2001 (SNF-10020 Rev. 0, Hazard Evaluation for KE Sludge and Water System - Project A16) based on conceptual design information for the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS) and 60% design information for the cask and container. SNF-10020 was again revised in September 2002 to incorporate new hazards identified FR-om final design information and FR-om a What-if/Checklist evaluation of operational steps. The process hazards, controls, and qualitative consequence and FR-equency estimates taken FR-om these efforts have been incorporated into Revision 5 of HNF-3960, K Basins Hazards Analysis. The hazards identification process documented in the above referenced reports utilized standard industrial safety techniques (AIChE 1992, Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures) to systematically guide several interdisciplinary teams through the system using a pre-established set of process parameters (e.g., flow, temperature, pressure) and guide words (e.g., high, low, more, less). The teams generally included representation FR-om the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), K Basins Nuclear Safety, T Plant Nuclear Safety, K Basin Industrial Safety, fire protection, project engineering, operations, and facility engineering

  20. Adaptive control of a refrigeration system. Feasibility analysis and controller design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jian-jun

    1990-02-01

    The aim was to develope adaptive control of a refrigeration system for industrial purposes. The proposed control scheme and controller design methods are described. The STAC (Self-Tuning Adaptive Control) method is principally utilized. This is a design procedure where known system parameters are first chosen and then applied to the unknown system in which the unknown parameters are estimated by an online identification method. The refrigeration system and the control objective are described in addition to the basic principles of adaptive control. Commonly used online identification logarithms and the underlying controller design methods are presented. It is concluded that adaptive control techniques are suitable for the refrigeration system in which plant parameters change with time and are not well known. Some suggestions for improving the method are offered. (AB) (30 refs.).

  1. Analysis of Operational and Management Cybersecurity Controls for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Seok; Ryou, Jae Cheol [Chungnam National University, Dajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    U.S. NRC developed this RG 5.71 by tailoring the baseline security controls described in NIST Special Publication 800-53 'Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations' to provide an acceptable method to comply with the 10 CFR 73.54. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidelines for selecting and specifying security controls for information systems. In this paper, we are going to analyze and compare the NRC RG 5.71 and the NIST SP800-53, in particular, for operational security controls and management security controls. If RG 5.71 omits the specific security control that is included in SP800-53, we would review that omitting is adequate or not. If RG 5.71 includes the specific security control that is not included in SP800-53, we would also review the rationale. And we are going to consider some security controls to strengthen cybersecurity of nuclear facilities.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of air-pollution control measures

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Schmid, Günter

    1991-01-01

    We describe a strategy for dealing with the challenges of air pollution and climate change capable of adaptation to improved scientific knowledge in the future. The analytical framework for identifying efficient control strategies is described and selected results of cost-effective methods to control SO2, NOx and CO2 emissions are discussed.

  3. Analysis of Decentralized Control for Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    Email Print Request Permissions This paper investigates decentralized control structures for absorption cycle heat pumps and a dynamic nonlinear model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption system is used as case study. The model has four controllable inputs, which can be used to stabilize the...

  4. Analysis of Operational and Management Cybersecurity Controls for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. NRC developed this RG 5.71 by tailoring the baseline security controls described in NIST Special Publication 800-53 'Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations' to provide an acceptable method to comply with the 10 CFR 73.54. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidelines for selecting and specifying security controls for information systems. In this paper, we are going to analyze and compare the NRC RG 5.71 and the NIST SP800-53, in particular, for operational security controls and management security controls. If RG 5.71 omits the specific security control that is included in SP800-53, we would review that omitting is adequate or not. If RG 5.71 includes the specific security control that is not included in SP800-53, we would also review the rationale. And we are going to consider some security controls to strengthen cybersecurity of nuclear facilities

  5. Control of Community Information: An Analysis of Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Karen E.; Wilkinson, Margaret Ann

    1996-01-01

    Explores the differences between information and referral agencies and online community networks from an information policy perspective. Analyzes which has control within the following six facets: agency ownership and governance, funding, information flow, access, ownership of information, and quality control. Confirms distinctive roles, and…

  6. On the economics of controlling an invasive plant: a stochastic analysis of a biological control agent

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, S.M.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; van Ierland, E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive plants can cause significant problems in natural and agricultural ecosystems. It is recognised that biological agents may assist in controlling invasions, but due to stochastic effects of biological control, the biological agent may not be effective. In this article, we analyse to what extent the stochastic effects of a biological control agent affect the optimal choice of control strategies to deal with the invasion of the Californian thistle in New Zealand. A stochastic dynamic opt...

  7. Performance Analysis of Ship Tracking using PID/Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay.N1 , Adinath Jain2 , Dr.S.A.Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate ship Path following is an issue of the Marine Navigation Technology. In order to achieve accurate path following in ship navigation various controllers like PID(Proportional-Integral-Derivative, Adaptive and Predictive controllers are used. However, the main problem of ships is the PID controller is that they are set to work under specific conditions. Even though predictive controllers have predictive capability and are giving accurate results but they are computationally complex. In this work an attempt is made to evaluate the performance of Adaptive (Fuzzy logic and PID controllers in terms of tracking efficiency and computational time. Computational result evaluated using mat lab shows that Adaptive (Fuzzy logic provides better tracking performance than PID.

  8. Cost benefit analysis for climate change adaption

    OpenAIRE

    Ierland, E.C., van; Weikard, H.P.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.J.H.; Bruin, K. de; Rietveld, P.; Bockarjova, M.; Hofkes, M.; Brouwer, R.; Dekker, T

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this programme was on the development of decision making tools based on cost benefit analysis under uncertainty, for analysing adaptation and mitigation options related to spatial planning in the Netherlands. The full programme focused on the methodological issues for cost benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA) in a spatially explicit and dynamic context, including ancillary benefits and the issue of how to allocate costs to various domains, if ancillary benefit...

  9. An evaluation of cusum analysis and control charts applied to quantitative gamma-camera uniformity parameters for automated quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-camera uniformity is often monitored for quality control of performance. Many parameters can be derived from computer analysis of the image of a uniform (flood) source to obtain quantitative measures of uniformity. To compare the various parameters and assess two techniques used for their analysis, a series of Tc-99m flood images were obtained consecutively. After establishing a baseline from repeated images, uniformity was degraded by offsetting the PHA window by a small amount. Nine non-uniformity parameters were calculated for each flood image and the uniformity index and the percentage of pixels more than 5% from the mean. All parameters were calculated for both central field-of-view (CFOV) and useful field-of-view (UFOV). Eighty such trials were carried out on two gamma-cameras. The PHA offsets ranged from 1-10 keV. The two techniques used for analysis were the control chart and cusum analysis. Decision levels were set for each parameter, as multiples of SD for the control charts or by varying the dimensions of a truncated V-mask for cusum analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were then used for an objective comparison of the parameters and of the analysis techniques. The area under the ROC curve was used to rank the parameters in order of sensitivity to change in uniformity. The uniformity index and NEMA integral non-uniformity were found to be the most sensitive. Cusum analysis improved the sensitivity of those parameters that appeared to have low sensitivity to change when subjected to control chart analysis. However, there was little difference between the two analysis techniques for the more sensitive parameters. The ROC curves could also be used to provide a method for selecting decision levels, hence establishing an automated method for gamma-camera quality control. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of control rod reactivity worths for AVR power plant at cold and hot conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control rod worths of the AVR power plant for the cold and hot conditions were analyzed to verify an analysis method of reflector control rod worths. In the analysis method, the neutron-flux-weighting method was used to obtain the effective group constants of the control rod inserted in the graphite nose. The control rod worths were calculated with the core analysis code system for the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The experimental values of the control rod worths were 6.47 and 6.81%?? for the cold and hot conditions, respectively. The differences between the experimental and analytical values for the cold and hot conditions were 2 and 10%, respectively. From these results, it was made clear that the analysis method applied here predicts well the control rod worth of the AVR power plant and is applicable for the nuclear designs of reflector control rods of future small HTGRs. (author)

  11. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ursu, Ioan; Nastase, Ilinca; Sorin CALUIANU; Andreea IFTENE; George TECUCEANU; Adrian TOADER

    2013-01-01

    This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm) of...

  12. Analysis of Information Quality in event triggered Smart Grid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Olsen, Rasmus LØvenstein

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into the power grid requires added control intelligence which imposes new communication requirements onto the future power grid. Since large scale implementation of new communication infrastructure is infeasible, we consider methods of increasing dependability of existing networks. We develop models for network delays and information dynamics, and uses these to model information quality for three given information access schemes in an event triggered control scenario. We analyse the impact of model parameters, and show how optimal choice of information access scheme depends on network conditions as well as trade-offs between information quality, network resources and control reactivity.

  13. Impedance Analysis of Control Modes in Cascaded Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe; Loh, Poh Chiang; Hu, Yanting

    system more stable. The concept of coordinative front-to-end impedance control is proposed in this paper, which can assist the cascaded system with better stability. This paper compares converter impedance behaviors between different control methods, and shows that the front-to-end impedance controller......Constant power load converter will introduce unstable factor to the cascaded system. Exchanging the position of constant power load converter as the source converter can improve system stability. Active solutions to modify the negative impedance of constant power load converter can also make the...... can make the system more stable. The conclusions have been validated by simulation results....

  14. Analysis of Information Quality in event triggered Smart Grid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into the power grid requires added control intelligence which imposes new communication requirements onto the future power grid. Since large scale implementation of new communication infrastructure is infeasible, we consider methods of increasing depend...... access scheme depends on network conditions as well as trade-offs between information quality, network resources and control reactivity....... dependability of existing networks. We develop models for network delays and information dynamics, and uses these to model information quality for three given information access schemes in an event triggered control scenario. We analyse the impact of model parameters, and show how optimal choice of information...

  15. Automatic analysis of signals during Eddy currents controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and the corresponding instrument have been developed for automatic analysis of Eddy currents testing signals. This apparatus enables at the same time the analysis, every 2 milliseconds, of two signals at two different frequencies. It can be used either on line with an Eddy Current testing instrument or with a magnetic tape recorder

  16. Small-angle stability analysis of a linear control system for a high power communication satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omalley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    A small angle stability analysis is presented for one particular configuration of a high power communication satellite having a linear control system. Both the central body and the solar array are treated as rigid bodies. The control system studied consists of three-axis control of the central body and one-axis control of the solar array rotation relative to the central body. The results yield preliminary indications of the relation of stability to satellite inertias and control gains.

  17. On Static and Dynamic Control-Flow Information in Program Analysis and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel

    This thesis addresses several aspects of static and dynamic control-flow information in programming languages, by investigating its interaction with program transformation and program analysis. Control-flow information indicates for each point in a program the possible program points to be executed...... next. Control-flow information in a program may be static, as when the syntax of the program directly determines which parts of the program may be executed next. Control-flow information may be dynamic, as when run-time values and inputs of the program are required to determine which parts of the...... program may be executed next. A control-flow analysis approximates the dynamic control-flow information with conservative static control-flow information. We explore the impact of a continuation-passing-style (CPS) transformation on the result of a constraint-based control-flow analysis over Moggi...

  18. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) are applied to the evaluation matrix data set obtained by simulation of several control strategies applied to the plant-wide IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2). These techniques allow i) to determine natural groups or clusters of control strategies with a similar behaviour, ii) to find and interpret hidden, complex and casual relation features in the data set and iii) to identify important discriminant variables within the groups found by the cluster analysis. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariable statistical techniques for both analysis and interpretation of the complex multicriteria data sets and allows an improved use of information for effective evaluation of control strategies.

  19. System level analysis and control of manufacturing process variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Michael S.; Martz, Harry F.; Eleswarpu, Jay K.; Preissler, Michael J.

    2005-05-31

    A computer-implemented method is implemented for determining the variability of a manufacturing system having a plurality of subsystems. Each subsystem of the plurality of subsystems is characterized by signal factors, noise factors, control factors, and an output response, all having mean and variance values. Response models are then fitted to each subsystem to determine unknown coefficients for use in the response models that characterize the relationship between the signal factors, noise factors, control factors, and the corresponding output response having mean and variance values that are related to the signal factors, noise factors, and control factors. The response models for each subsystem are coupled to model the output of the manufacturing system as a whole. The coefficients of the fitted response models are randomly varied to propagate variances through the plurality of subsystems and values of signal factors and control factors are found to optimize the output of the manufacturing system to meet a specified criterion.

  20. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid; MacDonald, Ewen; Munhall, Kevin; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit...... supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech....... multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech is...

  1. Quality Control Criteria for Analysis of Organic Traces in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jose L. Martinez Vidal; Antonia Garrido Frenich; Francisco J. Egea Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the discussion of quality control (QC) criteria for environmental monitoring of organic contaminants at trace levels in water. In addition, QC criteria in the identification and confirmation of target analytes have been considered.

  2. Multidimensional effects in optimal control analysis for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physically realistic step function control rod models are shown to be unsolvable under traditional formulations of distributed parameter optimal control theory. Extensions to the theory are proposed and derived to allow these systems to be analyzed using straightforward optimality conditions. The extended theory is then applied to a xenon-iodine oscillation problem in two dimensions. The conditions of optimality are found, and analytical insights concerning the importance of the control rod tip for the optimality condition are obtained. The flux influence function is found by solving an eigenvalue problem, and the required normalization condition is found in one of the optimality conditions. The optimality and normalization conditions are solved numerically for a severe xenon transient, and the transient is stabilized by the intervention of the optimal control

  3. Extracting Chaos Control Parameters from Time Series Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method to analyze time series, and estimate the parameters needed to control chaos in dynamical systems. Application of the method to a system described by the logistic map is also shown. Analyzing only two 100-point time series, we achieved results within 2% of the analytical ones. With these estimates, we show that OGY control method successfully stabilized a period-1 unstable periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor.

  4. Customization and management control: An analysis of franchise contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Verbieren, Sofie; Cools, Martine; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how service customization impacts on the way in which franchisors control the relationship with their franchised service units. We particularly investigate variation in franchise contract design in terms of the delegation of decision rights, monitoring, incentives and input control in chains offering services with varying levels of customization. We code and analyze a unique sample of 81 contracts of chains from different service industries. The results...

  5. Analysis of Series Resonant Inverter using Hysteresis Current Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, R; Ms.N.P.Anila; Mohan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze a series resonant inverter for industrial induction heating application. It is a process used for heat conductive materials, bond, harden, and soften metals. Resonant inverters which operate at high frequency preferable for induction heating. Series resonant inverters which is made up of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). Power control is obtained by Hysteresis Current Control (HCC). Soft switching techniques is performed which minimizes s...

  6. Decentralized Control of Cooperative Systems: Categorization and Complexity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, C. V.; Zilberstein, S.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized control of cooperative systems captures the operation of a group of decision makers that share a single global objective. The difficulty in solving optimally such problems arises when the agents lack full observability of the global state of the system when they operate. The general problem has been shown to be NEXP-complete. In this paper, we identify classes of decentralized control problems whose complexity ranges between NEXP and P. In particular, we study ...

  7. Economic Analysis of the Birth-Control Law in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chenhao Zhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the two approaches of governments’ population policy: command-and-control regulation and market-oriented incentive. From both the micro and macro perspective, this paper draws a conclusion that the population market has its own autonomous principles and too much government intervention like the birth-control law in China is harmful. Policy-makers should provide guarantee from the political regime. And in case of market failure, the government should adopt the market-orient...

  8. Analysis of Series Resonant Inverter using Hysteresis Current Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Nithya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze a series resonant inverter for industrial induction heating application. It is a process used for heat conductive materials, bond, harden, and soften metals. Resonant inverters which operate at high frequency preferable for induction heating. Series resonant inverters which is made up of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. Power control is obtained by Hysteresis Current Control (HCC. Soft switching techniques is performed which minimizes switching losses.

  9. Analysis and control on road transportation of nuclear power equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road transportation of nuclear power equipment is an important link between after-manufacture and before-installation, and it is an essential stage that the manufacture value transfers to the installation and operation value. Taking the transportation of pressurizer for Unit 3 as an example, the article analyses an assortment of potential risks during transportation and puts forward measures to control such risks, in the hope of improving the quality control of transportation. (authors)

  10. Controlling Rhododendron ponticum in the British Isles: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Perrings, Charles; Williamson, Mark

    2004-04-01

    What resources should be committed to the control of invasive species? This study is based on a survey of nature conservation and forestry authorities, wildlife trusts and private landowners which investigated the extent of the ecological and economic impacts of the invasive non-native plant Rhododendron ponticum in the British Isles. There are data on 52,000 ha of land affected by R. ponticum, more than 30,000 ha of it in nature reserves. For nearly all nature reserves, displacement of native species and habitat changes were both reported. In 2001, respondents controlled 1275 ha of R. ponticum at a cost of pound 670,924. To test the optimality of this, we apply a model of social expenditure. The external costs of R. ponticum control are estimated from the probability that it will spread to contiguous sites and the damage done on invaded sites. These are then used to calculate the socially optimal level of expenditure on R. ponticum control, and the funding gap it identified by comparing the result with current levels of expenditure. The results suggest that a socially optimal level of control effort requires a significant increase in social funding for R. ponticum control, although the size of the increase varies between landholders. PMID:15016441

  11. A stability analysis method for the fuzzy controller and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed to analyze the stability of a fuzzy controller and the method is applied to a fuzzy controller developed in this work to automatically control the steam generator water level in the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The stability analysis method is devised from the relationships between the fuzzy controller and the conventional PI (Proportional and Integral) controller. The relationships are derived from the theoretical analysis and modeling of the widely used fuzzy controller having two inputs (Error, Rate) and one output with triangular type membership functions. In addition, an analyzable 9-Rule fuzzy controller is designed and computer-simulated for the automatic control of the steam generator water level in the PWR to employ the developed stability analysis method. This study shows that the stability analysis method based on the comparison of the equivalent PI gain ranges of the fuzzy controller with that of a linear PI controller provides very meaningful ideas for the design of stable fuzzy controller through the computer simulations. Therefore, the method suggested in this work can be used in a confirmatory process to check the stability of a fuzzy controller designed with two inputs (error, rate) and also the method would be used as an useful guidance to efficiently design and tune the fuzzy controller

  12. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  13. Comprehensive Analysis of the Control Strategy for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    MinhThuyen Chau, VanBao Chau

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview of the analysis of control strategies for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit (IHAPF). This analysis will be the basis of researches of the IHAPF in the future. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the control strategies.

  14. Comprehensive Analysis of the Control Strategy for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinhThuyen Chau, VanBao Chau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the analysis of control strategies for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit (IHAPF. This analysis will be the basis of researches of the IHAPF in the future. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the control strategies.

  15. Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed

  16. Recurrent neural network modeling of hierarchical motor control and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Current theories on biological motor control mostly concern with how the brain as a whole performs sensory-motor processing, with little reference to how such functions are distributed across the hierarchical structure. Here, we study the fundamental design principle of biological motor control hierarchy, with a special focus on the lowest-level-controllers (LLC, such as the primary motor cortex (M1 and spinal cord central pattern generators (CPG. As a component of a hierarchical structure, a LLC receives command signals from higher-level-controllers and controls the body movement accordingly. Our study shows that an LLC should exhibit stability and memoryless properties in order for the command signal to be properly reflected in the body movement. These conditions imply that when command input is held fixed over time, the body state should converge to a stable attractor that is uniquely determined by the input. It also means that the mapping from command to body movement is unambiguous. Experiments confirm that biological motor systems indeed employ attractor dynamics. Graziano et all [1] showed that micro-stimulation of M1 drives limbs toward a unique posture regardless of previous movement history. The result implies that M1 has point-attractor dynamics. On the other hand, most CPGs in the spinal cord (e.g. locomotive CPG have periodic movement patterns, which are limit-cycle attractors. By exploiting the attractor property, we calculate the true complexity (dimensionality of the LLC mapping problem (It is roughly twice the dimensionality of the attractor space. We also obtain an efficient training method for approximating the optimal LLC that is otherwise a hopelessly high-dimensional learning problem. We train recurrent neural networks (RNN to approximate desired LLCs. These RNN models unify multiple theories of motor control (optimal control, equilibrium control, coordinate translation, synergy and provide a bridge that connects the theories and neurophysiology data. The RNN models reveal the following properties of LLC control: (1 Attractor dynamics of the LLC is the basic building block of all movement generation. (2 The combined dynamics of LLC-body is simpler than the pure body dynamics. (3 Due to the simplified dynamics, the higher-level-controllers can easily manipulate body movements without having to dealing with complex physical properties of muscles and joints. Our work questions the validity of the current view of motor control hierarchy, which assumes that different levels of hierarchy have distinct functional roles (decision making ->movement trajectory planning -> execution of motor plan. Valuable progress has been made in domains like sensory process by using feed-forward models with functionally distinct hierarchical processes. However, there is a growing need to account for dynamical systems with feedback and recurrent processing, which resists the same kind of functional decomposition. For example, controlling a movement trajectory does not only depend on a high-level-command sequence, but also the dynamic properties of LLC-body. A useful alternative is to consider the design principle of the whole hierarchy as successively simplifying the body dynamics, so that higher-level-controllers can achieve abstract motor goals without dealing with the complexity of body dynamics.

  17. Analysis and Synthesis of the SNS Superconducting RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y M; Regan, A H

    2000-01-01

    The RF system for the SNS superconducting linac consists of a superconducting cavity, a klystron, and a low-level RF (LLRF) control system. For a proton linac like SNS, the field in each individual cavity needs to be controlled to meet the overall system requirements. The purpose of the LLRF control system is to maintain the RF cavity field to a desired magnitude and phase by controlling the klystron driver signal. The Lorentz force detuning causes the shift of the resonant frequency during the normal operation in the order of a few hundreds hertz. In order to compensate the Lorentz force detuning effects, the cavity is pre-tuned into the middle of the expected frequency shift caused by the Lorentz force detuning. Meanwhile, to reduce the overshoot in the transient response, a feed-forward algorithm, a linear parameter varying gain scheduling (LPV-GS) controller, is proposed to get away a repetitive noised caused by the pulsed operation as well as the Lorentz force detuning effects.

  18. Non-target effects of the microbial control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and Clonostachys rosea IK726 in soils cropped with barley followed by sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Binnerup, Svend J.; Winding, Anne; Johansen, Jens E.; Jensen, Linda E.; Andersen, Karen Stevnbak; Svenning, Mette M.; Bonde, Torben A.

    2005-01-01

    Non-target effects of a bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54) and a fungal (Clonostachys rosea IK726) microbial control agent (MCA), on the indigenous microbiota in bulk soil and rhizosphere of barley, and subsequent a sugar beet crop, were studied in a greenhouse experiment. MCAs were...... factor of 106 and 20, respectively, and DR54 showed a short-lasting growth increase in the sugar beet rhizosphere. In general, the non-target effects were small and transient. IK726 seemed to have general stimulating effects on soil enzyme activity and the soil microbiota, and resulted in a significant...... be suitable for in situ monitoring of MCA non-target effects on the soil microbiota, but should be combined with assays for MCA survival and soil enzyme activity....

  19. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  20. Motion and vibration control of a slewing flexible structure by SMA actuators and parameter sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, F. C.; Tusset, A. M.; Piccirillo, V.; Balthazar, J. M.; Brasil, R. M. L. R. F.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents two approaches to the problem of vibration and positioning control of a flexible structural beam driven by a DC motor. The position is controlled by the current applied to the DC motor armature. A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator controls vibrations of the flexible structural beam. The State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique is used to provide a control action which uses sub-optimal control and system local stability search. The robustness of these two controllers is tested by sensitivity analysis to parametric uncertainties. Numerical simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Planning and control of maintenance systems modelling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duffuaa, Salih O

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing maintenance as an integrated system with objectives, strategies and processes that need to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled using statistical and optimization techniques, the theme of this book is the strategic holistic system approach for maintenance. This approach enables maintenance decision makers to view maintenance as a provider of a competitive edge not a necessary evil. Encompassing maintenance systems; maintenance strategic and capacity planning, planned and preventive maintenance, work measurements and standards, material (spares) control, maintenance operations and control, planning and scheduling, maintenance quality, training, and others, this book gives readers an understanding of the relevant methodology and how to apply it to real-world problems in industry. Each chapter includes a number exercises and is suitable as a textbook or a reference for a professionals and practitioners whilst being of interest to industrial engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical en...

  2. Analysis of Decentralized Control for Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates decentralized control structures for absorption cycle heat pumps and a dynamic nonlinear model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption system is used as case study. The model has four controllable inputs, which can be used to stabilize the operation of the heat pump under different load conditions. Different feasible input-output pairings are analyzed by computation of relative gain array matrices and scaled condition numbers, which indicate the best pairing choice and the potential of each input-output set. Further, it is possible to minimize the effect of cross couplings and improve stability with the right pairing of input and output. Simulation of selected candidate input-output pairings demonstrate that decentralized control can provide stable operation of the heat pump.

  3. Fracture analysis for controlled blasting demolition of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward establishing a design method for controlled blasting demolition used for the designed dismantling of large reinforced concrete (RC) structures, this study is intended to prove the overall suitability and efficiency of this method. The previous paper (Controlled Blasting for Demolition of Biological Shield Concrete Wall: Part 2) described an application of controlled blasting demolition to an inner part of the radioactive RC biological shield in the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). Through this experience, it was confirmed that the partial demolition of the structure was carried out safely and rationally using this method. In order to clarify the characteristics of blasting effect, an RC cylinder blasting test was performed and the results of this test were compared with analytical simulation of this test using the discrete element method (DEM) and the finite element method (FEM). This paper outlines the test, the analyses and the comparison. (author)

  4. Design and analysis of a rotary motion controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Caye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a rotary motion controller based on the peritrochoid geometry of the rotary (Wankle engine. It uses an orifice limited flow of incompressible fluid between the chambers of the Wankle-type geometry to control the rotation of the rotor. The paper develops the theory of operation and then implements the design as a Matlab model to simulate the motion control under various conditions. It is found that the time to reach stabilised motion is determined by the orifice size and fluid density. When stabilised motion is achieved, the motion dependence on material and geometry factors is determined by the orifice flow equation. The angular velocity is also found to have a square root dependence on the applied torque when in the stabilised regime.

  5. Comparative analysis of algorithms for lunar landing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. I.; Likhachev, V. N.; Sazonov, V. V.; Sikharulidze, Yu. G.; Tuchin, A. G.; Tuchin, D. A.; Fedotov, V. P.; Yaroshevskii, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    For the descent from the pericenter of a prelanding circumlunar orbit a comparison of three algorithms for the control of lander motion is performed. These algorithms use various combinations of terminal and programmed control in a trajectory including three parts: main braking, precision braking, and descent with constant velocity. In the first approximation, autonomous navigational measurements are taken into account and an estimate of the disturbances generated by movement of the fuel in the tanks was obtained. Estimates of the accuracy for landing placement, fuel consumption, and performance of the conditions for safe lunar landing are obtained.

  6. Qualitative analysis and control of complex neural networks with delays

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhanshan; Zheng, Chengde

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the stability of the dynamical neural system, synchronization of the coupling neural system and their applications in automation control and electrical engineering. The redefined concept of stability, synchronization and consensus are adopted to provide a better explanation of the complex neural network. Researchers in the fields of dynamical systems, computer science, electrical engineering and mathematics will benefit from the discussions on complex systems. The book will also help readers to better understand the theory behind the control technique and its design.

  7. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-06-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos` Mechanical & Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  8. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos' Mechanical Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  9. Parametric Analysis of Controllers for Constrained Linear Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baric, Miroslav; Jones, Colin; Morari, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We analyze properties of closed-loop systems based on explicit model predictive control (MPC) when parameters of the controllers are changing. Formulation of the problem in the framework of MPC with a cost based on piecewise linear norms leads to the generalized multi-parametric linear program containing parameters both in the cost and in the constraints. The focus of the paper is on describing a novel simplex-based algorithm for solving such a class of problems. The algorithm uses the concep...

  10. Powerful tool for design analysis of linear control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddux, Jr, A S

    1982-05-10

    The methods for designing linear controls for electronic or mechanical systems have been understood and put to practice. What has not been readily available to engineers, however, is a practical, quick and inexpensive method for analyzing these linear control (feedback) systems once they have been designed into the electronic or mechanical hardware. Now, the PET, manufactured by Commodore Business Machines (CBM), operating with several peripherals via the IEEE 488 Bus, brings to the engineer for about $4000 a complete set of office tools for analyzing these system designs.

  11. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network...... as a measure of the organization and interconnectivity of the network. We find that the number of driver nodes n(D) needed to control the whole network is 64% of the TFs in the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to only 17% for the yeast network, 4% for the mouse network and 8......% for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular...

  12. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  13. Analysis of achievable disturbance attenuation in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Alexander V.; Holmes, Michael L.; Behrouzjou, Roxana; Trumper, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the achievable disturbance attenuation to get an Angstrom motion control resolution and macroscopic travel in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system are presented in this paper. Noise sources in the transducers, electronics, and mechanical vibrations are used to develop the control design.

  14. Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

  15. DESCRIBING FUNCTION METHOD FOR PI-FUZZY CONTROLLED SYSTEMS STABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan PREITL

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a global stability analysis method dedicated to fuzzy control systems containing Mamdani PI-fuzzy controllers with output integration to control SISO linear / linearized plants. The method is expressed in terms of relatively simple steps, and it is based on: the generalization of the describing function method for the considered fuzzy control systems to the MIMO case, the approximation of the describing functions by applying the least squares method. The method is applied to the stability analysis of a class of PI-fuzzy controlled servo-systems, and validated by considering a case study.

  16. A strategic analysis of future growth options for an established process control company

    OpenAIRE

    Levesque, Sheila Lynne

    2007-01-01

    This project speaks to the prevailing business environment presently encountered at WESTCOAST Controls Ltd (WESTCOAST), a leading process control company in British Columbia, Canada. The scope of the project covers topics such as company overview, external industry analysis, and internal company analysis including strategic tools such as Porter's 5 Forces. The project concludes with a recommendation for the restructuring of the control systems & solutions division for improved performan...

  17. Analysis of Nonlinear Speed-Torque Performance of SRM with Fuzzy Based Nonlinear Controller

    OpenAIRE

    BASANT KUMAR NAYAK; CH. RAVI KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    By the use of linear controller the analysis of performance of SRM is not sufficient because of stator inductance of stator winding of SRM is function of rotor position, so here proposed to be design the nonlinear controller i.e. fuzzy based controller which converge the comparison analysis of SRM based on speed error and its change with respect time domain specification. Neural network and fuzzy logic technique are unique technique in which process the information specify by mathematical equ...

  18. Combining Control-Flow Integrity and Static Analysis for Ef?cient and Validated Data Sandboxing

    OpenAIRE

    ZENG, BIN; Tan, Gang; Morrisett, John Gregory

    2011-01-01

    In many software attacks, inducing an illegal control-flow transfer in the target system is one common step. Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) protects a software system by enforcing a pre-determined control-flow graph. In addition to providing strong security, CFI enables static analysis on low-level code. This paper evaluates whether CFI-enabled static analysis can help build efficient and validated data sandboxing. Previous systems generally sandbox memory writes for integrity, but avoid protec...

  19. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced. PMID:19159968

  20. Modelling and Analysis of Tiltrotor Aircraft for Flight Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As known that flight control design and real-time simulation is very important in the aircraft system, in order to realize linear/nonlinear flight control design and real-time simulation, this study presents the full nonlinear flight dynamic model of tiltrotor aircraft. Primary dynamic equations of the model are developed considering nacelles tilting dynamics. The force and the moment in primary equations are decomposed and calculated by multi-body aerodynamic models, including the aerodynamic effect of rotor wake on the wing/elevator/rudder. Rotor dynamic model is developed based on the blade element theory and the gyroscopic moment caused by nacelles tilting is introduced into the blade flapping dynamics. By the linearization of full nonlinear equations of motion, a family of linear state-space models in the whole flight envelop is obtained. For the velocity control of the aircraft in hover or low speed, the nacelle angle is derived as a new control input. Because the number of unknown parameters is bigger than that of equations, two different algorithms are applied to trim the mathematical model. The results by these trimming methods are in conformity with each other and then the reference transition curve is determined. The results of trimming and linearization derivatives are identical with GTRS (Ground Test Reactor System, so the model is valid.

  1. REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.

  2. Quantitative analysis by computer controlled X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy has become a widely accepted method in the metallurgical field for analysis of both minor and major elements. As encountered in many other analytical techniques, the problem of matrix effect generally known as the interelemental effects is to be dealt with effectively in order to make the analysis accurate. There are several methods by which the effects of matrix on the analyte are minimised or corrected for and the mathematical correction is one among them. In this method the characteristic secondary X-ray intensities are measured from standard samples and correction coefficients. If any, for interelemental effects are evaluated by mathematical calculations. This paper describes attempts to evaluate the correction coefficients for interelemental effects by multiple linear regression programmes using a computer for the quantitative analysis of stainless steel and a nickel base cast alloy. The quantitative results obtained using this method for a standard stainless steel sample are compared with the given certified values. (author)

  3. System analysis applied for controlling the quality of metallurgical rollers

    OpenAIRE

    L. Wojtynek

    2010-01-01

    In the work, the system analysis in the foundry where the quality management system has been implemented was described. The generalized model of the foundry’s production system was presented taking the company’s surrounding and process attitude into account.

  4. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is the most committed type of regulation in living cells where transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of their target genes and TF expression is controlled by other TFs forming complex transcriptional regulatory networks that can be highly interconnected. Here we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network as a measure of the organization and interconnectivity of the network. We find that the number of driver nodes n(D) needed to control the whole network is 64% of the TFs in the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to only 17% for the yeast network, 4% for the mouse network and 8% for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles can be associated with potential unstable steady-states where even small changes in binding affinities can cause dramatic rearrangements of the state of the network.

  5. Analysis and control of radioactive forms from interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the temporarily stored radioactive waste in the FRG is at present stored in the well-known, yellow 200 l waste drums. For the final disposal they still have to be placed into another container or other vessel. Before doing so this waste has to be randomly tested on the observance of the final storage requirements by the PTB product control station which is established at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre. In addition the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre was charged by the Land authorities with the examination of individual casks for the clearing-up of irregularities of declaration. The presented non-destructive measuring methods and results are suitable for the control of old waste, especially with respect to their final storage suitability. (orig./DG)

  6. Component-based analysis of embedded control applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelov, Christo K.; Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Zhou, Feng; Sierszecki, Krzysztof; Top, Søren

    2011-01-01

    configuration of applications from validated design models and trusted components. This design philosophy has been instrumental for developing COMDES—a component-based framework for distributed embedded control systems. A COMDES application is conceived as a network of embedded actors that are configured from......The widespread use of embedded systems requires the creation of industrial software technology that will make it possible to engineer systems being correct by construction. That can be achieved through the use of validated (trusted) components, verification of design models, and automatic...... instances of reusable, executable components—function blocks (FBs). System actors operate in accordance with a timed multitasking model of computation, whereby I/O signals are exchanged with the controlled plant at precisely specified time instants, resulting in the elimination of I/O jitter. The paper...

  7. Overflow risk analysis for designing a nonpoint sources control detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chi Hyun; Cho, Seonju; Park, Moo Jong; Kim, Sangdan

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a design method by which the overflow risk related to a detention for managing nonpoint pollutant sources in urban areas can be evaluated. The overall overflow risk of a nonpoint pollutant sources control detention can be estimated by inherent overflow risk and operational overflow risk. For the purpose of calculating overflow risk, the 3-parameter mixed exponential distribution is applied to describe the probability distribution of rainfall event depth. As a rainfall-runoff calculation procedure required for deriving a rainfall capture curve, the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service runoff curve number method is applied to consider the nonlinearity of the rainfall-runoff relation. Finally, the detention overflow risk is assessed with respect to the detention design capacity and drainage time. The proposed overflow risk assessment is expected to provide a baseline to determine quantitative parameters in designing a nonpoint sources control detention. PMID:22852429

  8. Comparative Analysis of the CERN Accelerator Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, C

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a future unique accelerator control structure for the LHC era, the convergence of the PS and SL systems was relaunched in 1997. The present study was triggered by a directive from the SL and PS Divisions to investigate and propose concrete actions. The two systems are compared in the areas of server architecture, networking capabilities including performance and flexibility, support for generic, re-configurable applications, and general purpose operator interfaces. Additional sub-systems covered by this report include the timing system software, error reporting, and the alarm sub-system. Areas where duplication of effort exists are noted, as are areas where each system could profit from the strengths of the other system. Additionally, areas are pointed out where features are missing from both systems as compared to other state- of-the-art accelerator control systems. A set of specific recommendations is proposed leading in the direction of future integration of these two systems. features ...

  9. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2014-01-01

    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  10. Analysis of the voltage control capability of energy harvesting networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cuffe, Paul; Smith, Paul; Keane, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    At times of high generation levels from distributed generators (DGs), there may be a paucity of conventional generators still synchronised to the transmission system. These synchronous machines have traditionally been the power system's principal source of controllable reactive power. If DGs are operated at inductive power factors, total reactive power absorption at distribution system bulk supply points may be highest at times when the transmission system is least equipped to supply it. On t...

  11. Extreme value analysis for evaluating ozone control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Brian; Cooley, Daniel; Foley, Kristen; Napelenok, Sergey; Shaby, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of six criteria pollutants regulated by the US EPA, and has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular endpoints and adverse effects on vegetation and ecosystems. Regional photochemical models have been developed to study the impacts of emission reductions on ozone levels. The standard approach is to run the deterministic model under new emission levels and attribute the change in ozone concentration to the emission control strategy. However, run...

  12. Classification Aided Analysis of Oscillatory Signatures in Controlled Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Ketz, Nicholas; O'Reilly, Randal C.; CURRAN, TIM

    2013-01-01

    Control processes are critical for both facilitating and suppressing memory retrieval, but these processes are not well understood. The current work, inspired by a similar fMRI design (Detre et al., in press), used a modified Think/No-Think(TNT) paradigm to investigate the neural signatures of volition over enhancing and suppressing memory retrieval. Previous studies have shown memory enhancement when well-learned stimulus pairs are restudied in cued recall (“Recall or think of studied pair i...

  13. REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary; Zachariah C Alex; Lawrence Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN) are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN). The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP); a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due...

  14. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  15. Economic analysis and randomised controlled trials: an investment appraisal approach

    OpenAIRE

    Backhouse, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) play a fundamental role in the development and marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies. They are the primary means of evaluating the tolerability, safety and efficacy of a drug, and for providing information relevant for pricing and reimbursement decisions and clinical decision-making. RCTs require a substantial investment by pharmaceutical companies and the financial consequences of poorly or sub-optimally designed trials are potentially substanti...

  16. Control theory application in power market stability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, YX; Wu, FF; Liu, Y.(Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China)

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new framework to model the system dynamics and study the system stability for the quantity bidding competition in power market. From the viewpoint of control theory, the quantity bidding competition is modeled as close-loop dynamic system, where market price is the system feedback signal. Based on the objective of maximizing individual profit in a shot-game, a general dynamic process is given to describe supplier's adjustment behavior, which can be used to model all clas...

  17. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  18. Analysis of Setups of the Control of Rail Microprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article will have been introduced possibilities following from the application of the microprocessor technology in rail systems of the control of traffic will remain for example of modern signalling on railway crossings. Introduction to microcomputer and microprocessor systems of rail devices will permit to eliminate and to replace disusedrelay devices with them and raising safety on railway and increasing reliability of used devices.

  19. Robust control of underactuated manipulators: Analysis and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerman, Marcel; Xu, Yangsheng

    1994-05-01

    Underactuated manipulators are robot manipulators composed of both active and passive joints. The advantages of using such systems reside in the fact that they weigh less and consume less energy than their fully-actuated counterparts, thus being useful for applications such as space robotics. Another interest resides in the reliability or fault-tolerant design of fully-actuated manipulators. If any of the joint actuators of such a device fails, an entire operation may have to be aborted because of the loss of one or more degrees of freedom. The methodology proposed in this paper uses the dynamic coupling between the passive joints and the active joints, and controls the active ones in order to bring the passive joint angles to a desired set-point. Therefore, the control law and the performance of the system are completely dependent on the dynamic model. Since it is difficult to obtain the exact dynamic model of the system in general, considerable position errors and even instability can result in some cases. In this paper, we propose a variable structure controller to provide the system with the robustness necessary to perform tasks regardless of the modelling errors. Case studies are provided as a means of illustration.

  20. COST-BENEFIT Analysis in Railway Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    OERTLI, J.

    2000-03-01

    A method to calculate the network-wide costs of realizing different noise control possibilities and their benefits in terms of noise reduction for lineside inhabitants has been implemented in Switzerland. These studies have shown that an optimal cost distribution consists of spending 65% of the available finances on rolling stock improvement, 30% on noise control barriers and 5% on insulated windows. This mix protects 70% of the lineside population for 30% of the cost necessary to attain threshold levels for all inhabitants. This noise control strategy has been accepted by the federal traffic and environment agencies involved and will save billions of Swiss francs. The success of the calculation methodology has prompted development of a Europe-wide decision support system to the same effect. Along two freight freeways the relationship between rolling stock improvement, noise barriers, insulated windows, operational measures and track characteristics is being studied. The decision support system will allow determination of those combinations with the best cost-benefit ratios. The study is currently being undertaken as a joint venture by the railways of Switzerland, France, Germany and the Netherlands as well as the European Rail Research Institute. The results constitute part of the negotiating strategy of the railways with European and national legislators.

  1. Performance Analysis of Concurrency Control Mechanisms for OLTP Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaspi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concurrency control (CC in distributed and multidimensional databases is becoming more important due to recent increase in high-volume data storage with increasing online transaction processing (OLTP requirements for medium and large organisations. This paper examines three concurrency control mechanisms commonly adopted and analyses their performance in distributed databases for OLTP operational systems of enterprises. The three CC mechanisms investigated are, two phase locking (2PL, wait depth limited (WDL and optimistic concurrency control. These CC mechanisms have been studied well in disk-based systems. However, with the recent advances of cost-effective main memory or in-memory storage that can support much higher transaction rates than disk-based systems, there is sufficient motivation to re-investigate the performance of such CC mechanisms in diverse processor configurations. This paper presents a comparison of their behaviour and performance in terms of throughput rates achieved with varying transaction size and contention. The outcome of this study has resulted in further research proposals for improving the performance of these CC mechanisms for OLTP databases.

  2. Uranium enrichment using gas centrifugation. An analysis focusing export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has performed a study on uranium enrichment by gas centrifugation. The theory and principles of gas centrifugation is described in this report and relevant equipment used in the process has been identified. Different aspects of operating a gas centrifuge facility - and its indicators - are also presented. The separation efficiency and the flow of material through a centrifuge are very small, and therefore, a large number of centrifuges in cascades is needed to produce a larger amount of enriched uranium within a reasonable time. Countries with nuclear weapons ambitions often show an interest in gas centrifuges to produce weapons grade uranium - if they have managed to acquire the technology - because of the efficiency of the process and since it is relatively easy to conceal. Most equipment used in gas centrifuge facilities is under export control to prevent clandestine uranium enrichment. The Nuclear Suppliers' Group has compiled lists of nuclear related equipment and components that are of importance to export control. The control lists have also been included in the EU legislation

  3. Analysis of Linear L1 Adaptive Control Architectures for Aerospace Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Anders; Åström, Karl Johan; Robertsson, Anders; Johansson, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    In some situations the closed-loop system obtained by L1 adaptive control is equivalent to linear systems. The architectures of these systems are investigated and compared with internal model control and the input observer architecture. The analysis is focused on aerospace application. An effort has been made to understand and describe what fundamental control characteristic of flying applications that make L1 adaptive controllers suitable for the task.

  4. Uncertainty Principle in Control Theory, Part I: Analysis of Performance Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    King, Ji

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates performance limitations and tradeoffs in the control design for linear time-invariant systems. It is shown that control specifications in time domain and in frequency domain are always mutually exclusive determined by uncertainty relations. The uncertainty principle from quantum mechanics and harmonic analysis therefore embeds itself inherently in control theory. The relations among transient specifications, system bandwidth and control energy are obtained within the f...

  5. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (a) Hazard analysis. Every processor...for it, a hazard analysis to determine...experience, illness data, scientific reports...whenever a hazard analysis reveals one or...contamination; (iii) Chemical contamination...processor. This signature shall signify...

  6. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise due to the conflicting objectives. The compromise can be mitigated by augmenting the fuel cell power system with an energy buffer such as a battery. We consider two different and popular ways of connecting the battery and the fuel cell to the load and we refer to them as electric architectures. Various controller gains are used to span the fuel cell operation from load-following to load-leveling, and hence, to determine adequate fuel cell-battery sizing (hybridization level) and the associated trends in the system efficiency.

  7. Research for quality control in the SEM/SIMS analysis of uranium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the quality-control methods applied to the analysis of uranium-containing particles by SIMS in IAEA nuclear safeguards analytical laboratory and combined with the practical conditions of laboratory, the quality-control methods for the SEM/SIMS analysis have been explored primarily. It is showed that cross-contamination is essential in the SEM/SIMS analysis. Fume hood is the critical area of the introduction of cross-contamination during the process of sample preparation and handling. The chamber of SEM is the key area of the introduction of cross-contamination in the process of analysis. The list of contamination and the corresponding measures have been established. In the research of quality-control samples, the room blanks, process blank, standard samples and blind samples were analyzed. The initial quality-control methods for the SEM/SIMS analysis have been built up. It is demonstrated that the study of quality control is effective through the analysis of swipe samples. An important progress has been made in contamination control and analysis control, which provides the support for the establishment of a sound quality-assurance system in our laboratory. (authors)

  8. Postural control analysis of diabetic individuals through baropodometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Jeanne Lourenço Nozabieli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to analyze the postural balance of neuropathic diabetic individuals through baropodometry, related to losses in the sensorimotor system. Twenty-eight healthy and 25 diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy were subjected to static evaluation (measurement of displacement of body center of pressure and dynamic (temporal analysis of the stance phase of gait cycle. The tactile sensitivity of the feet was assessed by Semmes Weinstein monofilaments and isometric muscle strength of ankle dynamometry. Analyses of multivariânvia (MANOVAs and variance (ANOVAs indicated lower performance in tactile sensitivity, muscle strength and dynamic balance, but showed no difference for static equilibrium of diabetic neuropathy. With this study by regression analysis, one can infer that the equilibrium differences in gait of neuropathic insensitivity may result from tactile and muscle strength.

  9. Nuclear power plant control room task analysis. Pilot study for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this nuclear plant task analysis pilot study: to demonstrate the use of task analysis techniques on selected abnormal or emergency operation events in a nuclear power plant; to evaluate the use of simulator data obtained from an automated Performance Measurement System to supplement and validate data obtained by traditional task analysis methods; and to demonstrate sample applications of task analysis data to address questions pertinent to nuclear power plant operational safety: control room layout, staffing and training requirements, operating procedures, interpersonal communications, and job performance aids. Five data sources were investigated to provide information for a task analysis. These sources were (1) written operating procedures (event-based); (2) interviews with subject matter experts (the control room operators); (3) videotapes of the control room operators (senior reactor operators and reactor operators) while responding to each event in a simulator; (4) walk-/talk-throughs conducted by control room operators for each event; and (5) simulator data from the PMS

  10. Air pollution analysis used in operating an environmental control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, R T; Fenyves, E J; Rea, W J

    1979-03-01

    A simple, fast and reliable method was developed to measure the origin and daily and seasonal variations of selected air pollutants in the Brookhaven Environmental Unit. None of the pollutants that were measured surpassed its threshold limit value. The average concentrations of the pollutants that were measured could be considered as preliminary standard for environmental units in hospitals as long as material analysis for outgassing is used simultaneously. PMID:426326

  11. Statistical inference in behavior analysis: Experimental control is better

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Statistical inference promises automatic, objective, reliable assessments of data, independent of the skills or biases of the investigator, whereas the single-subject methods favored by behavior analysts often are said to rely too much on the investigator's subjective impressions, particularly in the visual analysis of data. In fact, conventional statistical methods are difficult to apply correctly, even by experts, and the underlying logic of null-hypothesis testing has drawn criticism since...

  12. Analysis and Modeling of Control Tasks in Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær; Krink, Thiemo; Jensen, Mikkel Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2002-01-01

    Most applications of evolutionary algorithms deal with static optimization problems. However, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in time-varying (dynamic) problems, which are typically found in real-world scenarios. One major challenge in this field is the design of realistic test-case generators (TCGs), which requires a systematic analysis of dynamic optimization tasks. So far, only a few TCGs have been suggested. Our investigation leads to the conclusion that these TCGs are not...

  13. Unsupervised Feature Selection via Nonnegative Spectral Analysis and Redundancy Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zechao; Tang, Jinhui

    2015-12-01

    In many image processing and pattern recognition problems, visual contents of images are currently described by high-dimensional features, which are often redundant and noisy. Toward this end, we propose a novel unsupervised feature selection scheme, namely, nonnegative spectral analysis with constrained redundancy, by jointly leveraging nonnegative spectral clustering and redundancy analysis. The proposed method can directly identify a discriminative subset of the most useful and redundancy-constrained features. Nonnegative spectral analysis is developed to learn more accurate cluster labels of the input images, during which the feature selection is performed simultaneously. The joint learning of the cluster labels and feature selection matrix enables to select the most discriminative features. Row-wise sparse models with a general ℓ(2, p)-norm (0 objective function solved by the developed simple yet efficient iterative algorithm. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on nine diverse image benchmarks, including face data, handwritten digit data, and object image data. The proposed method achieves encouraging the experimental results in comparison with several representative algorithms, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for unsupervised feature selection. PMID:26394422

  14. Metodologias de controle de qualidade de análises granulométricas do solo / Methodologies for quality control of soil particle size analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilson Antonio, Klein; Tiago, Madalosso; José Miguel, Reichert; Luis Eduardo Akiyoshi Sanches, Suzuki; Milton da, Veiga; Jackson Adriano, Albuquerque; Eloy Antonio, Pauletto.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da análise granulométrica é imprescindível para a adequada classificação textural dos solos e enquadramento no Zoneamento Agroclimático. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar metodologias de controle de qualidade das análises granulométricas. Foram coletadas amostras de solos com diferen [...] tes texturas, as quais foram analisadas por cinco laboratórios. O controle da qualidade foi realizado utilizando duas metodologias, uma proposta pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC) e a outra pela Rede Oficial de Laboratórios de Análise de Solo e de Tecido Vegetal dos Estados do RS e SC (ROLAS). Verificou-se maior número de inconformidades para as frações argila e silte, independentemente do método, sendo que o método da ROLAS apresentou maior número de inconformidades (76% das amostras), principalmente para amostras com teores mais elevados dessas frações. A metodologia da ROLAS com utilização da mediana é mais rigorosa no controle da qualidade das análises. Abstract in english The quality of particle size analysis is essential for correct soil textural classification and defining the Brazilian Agroclimatic Zoning. The objectives were to evaluate methods of particle size analysis and develop a spreadsheet for use in quality control analyzes. We collected 50 soil samples wi [...] th different particle size distribution, in RS and SC states of Brazil, which were analyzed by five laboratories in the two states that perform the soil particle size analysis using two methods: one proposed by the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC) and the other by the Network of Soil and Plant Tissue Analysis Laboratories of the states of RS and SC (ROLAS). A greater number of disparities were observed for the clay and sand fractions regardless of the method. The ROLAS method had a higher number of mismatches (76% of samples), especially for samples with higher contents of those two fractions. The use of the median value in the ROLAS methodology is more rigorous in analysis quality control.

  15. Metodologias de controle de qualidade de análises granulométricas do solo Methodologies for quality control of soil particle size analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Antonio Klein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da análise granulométrica é imprescindível para a adequada classificação textural dos solos e enquadramento no Zoneamento Agroclimático. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar metodologias de controle de qualidade das análises granulométricas. Foram coletadas amostras de solos com diferentes texturas, as quais foram analisadas por cinco laboratórios. O controle da qualidade foi realizado utilizando duas metodologias, uma proposta pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC e a outra pela Rede Oficial de Laboratórios de Análise de Solo e de Tecido Vegetal dos Estados do RS e SC (ROLAS. Verificou-se maior número de inconformidades para as frações argila e silte, independentemente do método, sendo que o método da ROLAS apresentou maior número de inconformidades (76% das amostras, principalmente para amostras com teores mais elevados dessas frações. A metodologia da ROLAS com utilização da mediana é mais rigorosa no controle da qualidade das análises.The quality of particle size analysis is essential for correct soil textural classification and defining the Brazilian Agroclimatic Zoning. The objectives were to evaluate methods of particle size analysis and develop a spreadsheet for use in quality control analyzes. We collected 50 soil samples with different particle size distribution, in RS and SC states of Brazil, which were analyzed by five laboratories in the two states that perform the soil particle size analysis using two methods: one proposed by the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC and the other by the Network of Soil and Plant Tissue Analysis Laboratories of the states of RS and SC (ROLAS. A greater number of disparities were observed for the clay and sand fractions regardless of the method. The ROLAS method had a higher number of mismatches (76% of samples, especially for samples with higher contents of those two fractions. The use of the median value in the ROLAS methodology is more rigorous in analysis quality control.

  16. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  17. Model-based analysis of context-specific cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosephA.King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Interference resolution is improved for stimuli presented in contexts (e.g. locations associated with frequent conflict. This phenomenon, the “context-specific proportion congruent” (CSPC effect, has challenged the traditional juxtaposition of “automatic” and “controlled” processing because it suggests that contextual cues can prime top-down control settings in a bottom-up manner. We recently obtained support for this “priming of control” hypothesis with fMRI by showing that CSPC effects are mediated by contextually-cued adjustments in processing selectivity. However, an equally plausible explanation is that CSPC effects reflect adjustments in response caution triggered by expectancy violations (i.e. prediction errors when encountering rare events as compared to common ones (e.g. high-conflict incongruent trials in a task context associated with infrequent conflict. Here, we applied a quantitative model of choice, the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA, to distil the reaction time and accuracy data from four independent samples that performed a modified flanker task into latent variables representing the psychological processes underlying task-related decision making. We contrasted models which differentially accounted for CSPC effects as arising either from contextually-cued shifts in the rate of sensory evidence accumulation (“drift” models or in the amount of evidence required to reach a decision (“threshold” models. For the majority of the participants, the LBA ascribed CSPC effects to increases in response threshold for contextually-infrequent trial types (e.g. low-conflict congruent trials in the frequent conflict context, suggesting that the phenomenon may reflect more a prediction error-triggered shift in decision criterion rather than enhanced sensory evidence accumulation under conditions of frequent conflict.

  18. Free and moving boundaries analysis, simulation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Glowinski, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Optimal Tubes: Geodesic Metric, Euler Flow, Moving Domain J.P. Zolésio Numerical Simulation of Pattern Formation in a Rotating Suspension of Non-Brownian Settling Particles Tsorg-Whay Pan and Roland Glowinski On the Homogenization of Optimal Control Problems on Periodic Graphs P.I. Kogut and G. Leugering Lift and Sedimentation of Particles in the Flow of a Viscoelastic Liquid in a Channel G.P. Galdi and V. Heuveline Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Gas Free Surface Flows A. Caboussat, M.

  19. Analysis of discriminative control by social behavioral stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Hake, Don F.; Donaldson, Tom; Hyten, Cloyd

    1983-01-01

    Visual discriminative control of the behavior of one rat by the behavior of another was studied in a two-compartment chamber. Each rat's compartment had a food cup and two response keys arranged vertically next to the clear partition that separated the two rats. Illumination of the leader's key lights signaled a “search” period when a response by the leader on the unsignaled and randomly selected correct key for that trial illuminated the follower's keys. Then, a response by the follower on t...

  20. Airport and highway noise control, planning and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Hendriks, R. W.; Hatano, M.; Douglass, R. D.; Drinkwater, J. K.; Billera, D. J.; Cunningham, B. C.; Brittle, C.; Broeg, W.; Haberle, G. F.

    Areas addressed are as follows: determination of effectiveness of noise barriers along I-285, Atlanta; evaluation of noise barriers; transparent noise barriers along I-95 in Baltimore City, Maryland; NJ-18 Freeway and Rutgers University classrooms -- unique construction noise mitigation experience; role of airport noise allocations in a regional airport system; comparison of irritation caused by noise generated by road traffic and aviation traffic; enhancement of highway noise modeling through computer graphics; highway construction noise modeling; and noise control through land use planning -- the Calgary case.