WorldWideScience
1

Geotail MCA plasma wave data analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Grant NAG 5-2346 supports the data analysis effort at The University of Iowa for the GEOTAIL Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) which is a part of the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI). At the beginning of this reporting period we had just begun to receive our GEOTAIL Sirius data on CD-ROMs. Much programming effort went into adapting and refining the data analysis programs to include the CD-ROM inputs. Programs were also developed to display the high-frequency-resolution PWI Sweep Frequency Analyzer (SFA) data and to include in all the various plot products the electron cyclotron frequency derived from the magnitude of the magnetic field extracted from the GEOTAIL Magnetic Field (MGF) data included in the GEOTAIL Sirius data. We also developed programs to use the MGF data residing in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) GEOTAIL Scientific Data Base (SDB). Our programmers also developed programs and provided technical support for the GEOTAIL data analysis efforts of Co-lnvestigator William W. L. Taylor at Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). At the end of this report we have included brief summaries of the NRC effort and the progress being made.

Anderson, Roger R.

1994-01-01

2

'Membership matters': applying Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA) to qualitative data using Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) Software  

OpenAIRE

This paper introduces and outlines a methodology that may be unfamiliar to some qualitative researchers: Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA). The first section of the paper explains the basic principles of MCA and why it is a valid method for exploring the power of categorisations in texts and talk. Additionally, it explains why MCA differs from other forms of qualitative data analysis. The second section begins with a discussion of why researchers might or might not use Computer?Assis...

King, A.

2010-01-01

3

MCA emulation on HYPERGAM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HYPERGAM, a new HPGe ?-ray spectrum analysis software, has been developed by Park et. al. To use the HYPERGAM as an on-line spectrum acquisition and analysis software, which enables a spectrum analysis during data acquisition in addition to an off-line analysis, the MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) emulation function was added to control the spectrum acquisition device and to conduct reading out the data. Although there are a few commercial programs such as GammaVision(ORTEC) and Genie 2000(CANBERRA) to control acquisition device, modification and improvement are not permitted to the programs for user's various and suitable purposes since the programs are not open. Therefore, the MCA emulation function was embodied to the HYPERGAM in C++ language based on the user's programming libraries provided by the vendors. Hereby, detector control and spectrum read-out are possible by HYPERGAM and accordingly the analysis functions of it can be used in both online and offline

4

Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in.×4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K40, U238 and Th232. This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K40, U238 and Th232) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. - Highlights: ? Geometrical enhancement for ppm range primordial radio elemental determination. ? Experimental cental determination. ? Experimental constraints include detector setup, background and counting time. ? Gamma spectrometric performance monitored on digital and analog MCA systems. ? Study indicates higher variance of Compton stripping constants on digital MCA system.

5

MCA has more to say.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent development of two mathematical frameworks for the analysis and design of metabolic systems is reviewed here. Both frameworks employ a (log)linear kinetic metabolic model that is constructed making direct, explicit use of the individual enzyme kinetic parameters which are a foundation of Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) information. The first framework allows the description of the dynamic responses of metabolic systems subject to fluctuations in their parameters. The second framework considers the problem of optimizing the regulatory structure of metabolic networks. Both frameworks are powerful in enabling greater insights into metabolism based on MCA quantities. PMID:8944154

Hatzimanikatis, V; Bailey, J E

1996-10-01

6

Design and implementation of an MCA card with double ADC for nuclear radiation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid development of technology has triggered several interesting trends in nuclear instrumentation. In particular, the introduction of add-on cards that can serve as multichannel analyzer and offer adequate performance for most of the nuclear applications. The purpose of this thesis has been the design of a multichannel analyser inserted into microcomputer. The originality of this prototype MCA card with its innovative concept is the use of two analog digital converters or ADC of which the objective is to reduce to minima the lost of pulses during the acquisition and the signals processing. The first ADC works as the main converter (or master) and the second ADC the slave converter. The first ADC begins the first signals acquisition, while it will be busy for the processing, the second ADC continues the acquisition, thus there will be no lost pulses or precisely lost of pulses will be reduced to minima.The three main points for a multichannel analyzer will be studied such a the pile-up, the differential non-linearity or 'DNL' and the dead time. In the first part of this thesis the function of the MCA has been described and the different roles of the composed modules have been developed. In the second part, spectra analysis has been done with the MCA prototype as well the comparison with other MCAs such as MCAs S100, TISA, MCA35+, and the Inspector.

7

Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in. Multiplication-Sign 4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K{sup 40}, U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232}. This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K{sup 40}, U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232}) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometrical enhancement for ppm range primordial radio elemental determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental constraints include detector setup, background and counting time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma spectrometric performance monitored on digital and analog MCA systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study indicates higher variance of Compton stripping constants on digital MCA system.

Kukreti, B.M., E-mail: bharatkuk@gmail.com [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Physics Laboratory, Department of Atomic Energy, Nongmynsong, AMD Complex, Shillong, Meghalaya 793019 (India); Sharma, G.K. [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Physics Laboratory, Department of Atomic Energy, Nongmynsong, AMD Complex, Shillong, Meghalaya 793019 (India)

2012-05-15

8

Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in. × 4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K(40), U(238) and Th(232). This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. PMID:22405639

Kukreti, B M; Sharma, G K

2012-05-01

9

Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability : combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)  

OpenAIRE

General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about the positive and negative aspects of using the main judgement-oriented evaluation tools of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) together in the context of sustainability...

Sijtsma, Frans J.

2006-01-01

10

Determination of Steady-State and Faulty Regimes of Overhead Lines by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Single-phase positive sequence modelling is often used in power systems when power flows and short circuit analysis are assessed. Of course, the use of single-phase positive sequence modelling assumes purely three-phase configurations and perfectly symmetrical ones so that single-phase modelling considers that all the phase conductors behave in the same way. When considering the physical reality of power networks, this assumption can be questionable and the behaviors of all the system conductors including the passive ones (earth wires for overhead lines, metallic screens and armours for cables and enclosures for gas insulated lines is completely unknown. Therefore, the present multiconductor cell analysis (MCA becomes necessary, since it allows one to achieve great precision results on the regimes of both phase conductors and passive conductors. MCA offers a powerful tool in order to validate (or less approximated and simplified computation methods. In particular, for single and double circuit overhead lines (OHLs, the current phasors induced in the earth wires and the ground return current alongside the line can be directly computed by MCA in steady state and faulty regimes. It is worth noting that, for faulty regimes, MCA allows also evaluating the approximation degree and validity field of screening factors k.

Fabio Guglielmi

2012-07-01

11

Steady State Assessment of Shunt Compensated EHV Insulated Cables by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author has already presented some papers which allow studying cable systems by means of the multiconductor cell analysis (MCA. This method considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The multiconductor matrix procedure based on the use of admittance matrices, which account for the line cells (with earth return currents, different types of screen bonding, possible multiple circuits (single and double circuit or more, allows predicting the steady-state regime of any cable system. In the previous papers, these matrix algorithms have been presented with reference to a short extra-high voltage (EHV double-circuit cross-bonded (CB underground cable (UGC system. Since the cable link was short, the shunt reactive compensation was not necessary and consequently not considered. In this paper the procedure is generalized in order to take into account three single-phase (or also one three-phase reactors installed at the cable ends or also at intermediate locations.

Roberto Benato

2012-01-01

12

The use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for evaluating feasible countermeasures after an accidental release of radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to establish a system that enables rational decisions to be taken for reducing (if necessary) the radiological risk to a population. These decisions normally concern whether a particular food product will be consumed or not, as well as wether it should be diverted for other uses. To evaluate the consequences of such actions, many different criteria have to be taken into account such as the radiological risk, nutritional and environmental criteria, current technical intervention levels, economic costs and public reaction. Under the guidance of the Institute of Automation and Operations Research at the University of Fribourg a Multi-Criteria-Analysis (MCA) approach, based on the most recent developments in decision theory, is being elaborated. MCA requires input from a suite of sub-models combined with basic input data. For the radiological impact model the German code ECOSYS will be adapted for Swiss conditions. Furthermore, input data on the effect of food processing on radionuclide content of foodstuffs and consumption habits are needed. MCA thus allows the consequences of different countermeasures to be assessed in relation to the different governing criteria. In order to allow efficient use of this technique it shall be implemented as a user friendly computerized decision support system. In this paper, an example of different countermeasures to reduce the dose from milk contaminated with I-131 resulting from a reactor accident is giventing from a reactor accident is given

13

System of accounting and control of nuclear materials (MCA) relative to IAEA safeguards and improvement of radioecological situation of the Joint Stock Company ULBA Metallurgical Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following goals must be accomplished following this Project : - Develop computerized and automated MCA data system; - Provide up-to-date and reliable accounting and control of availability and transfer of nuclear materials, detect loss or theft of nuclear materials; - Improve book keeping of nuclear materials, provide paperwork for raw materials and finished products sales and purchase control, process nuclear materials shipment data; - Reduce sampling error and to obtain precise measure of nuclear materials to obtain ESADRA target values; - Thorium concentrates transfer preliminary released from raw Beryllium to the new storage to prevent environment radiation pollution and obvious fire accidents; - Improve radioecological situation of the territory caused by old storage dismantling and decontamination of site; - Improve accounting, storing and Physical Protection of Thorium Following is the proposal to obtain goals of the Project : - Develop accounting and control systems - Develop basic standards and procedures for MCA system - Develop users specifications of MCA data system - Develop software of MCA data system - Assembly and adjustment of local network at the production facilities - Automated MCA data system personnel training - Develop measurement system - Determination of the mistakes in sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content - Develop the procedures of sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content providing ESADRA target values - Develop measure control program covering scales and analytical equipment and measuring methods - Develop software for measure control program support - Thorium shipment, decontamination and improvement of Physical Protection of Thorium storage - Accounting of Thorium containing materials when transferring to the new storage - Arrange storage decontamination - Develop new systems of Thorium Containment/Surveillance and Physical Protection

14

The hardware design of digital MCA based on FPGA and USB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An digital MCA (multi-channel analyzer) based on FPGA and USB2.0 technology is introduced. FPGA is the main processor. The nuclear signal through the amplifier circuit and AD converter is processed in FPGA. then the result is transferred to host computer through USB2.0 interface. The design achieves full digital control. Verilog HDL is used for FPGA programming and the interface software on the host computer is written in QT. The software on the host computer accomplishes the acquisition and display of the input signal and the MCA spectrum. The MCA pulse-amplitude analysis is achieved digitally in FPGA. (authors)

15

mcaGUI: microbial community analysis R-Graphical User Interface (GUI)  

OpenAIRE

Summary: Microbial communities have an important role in natural ecosystems and have an impact on animal and human health. Intuitive graphic and analytical tools that can facilitate the study of these communities are in short supply. This article introduces Microbial Community Analysis GUI, a graphical user interface (GUI) for the R-programming language (R Development Core Team, 2010). With this application, researchers can input aligned and clustered sequence data to create custom abundance ...

Copeland, Wade K.; Krishnan, Vandhana; Beck, Daniel; Settles, Matt; Foster, James A.; Cho, Kyu-chul; Day, Mitch; Hickey, Roxana; Schu?tte, Ursel M. E.; Zhou, Xia; Williams, Christopher J.; Forney, Larry J.; Abdo, Zaid

2012-01-01

16

Nonlinear metabolic control analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical description of metabolic systems allows the calculation of the expected responses of metabolism to genetic modifications and the identification of the most promising targets for metabolic engineering. Metabolic control analysis (MCA) provides such a description in the form of quantitative indices (elasticities and control coefficients). These indices are determined by perturbation experiments around a reference steady state and, therefore, the predictive power of MCA is limited to small changes in the metabolic parameters. The modeling framework introduced here allows accurate description of the metabolic responses over wide range of changes in the metabolic parameters. The framework requires information about the MCA indices at the reference state and the corresponding values of the metabolic reaction rates, and employs simplifying assumptions about the reaction mechanisms. It is shown that knowledge of the intracellular metabolite concentrations is not necessary for the application of the framework. The performance of the methodology is illustrated using three elementary metabolic systems that display highly nonlinear responses to the modification in their parameters: an unbranched pathway, an interconvertible enzyme system, and a branched pathway subject to feedback inhibition. PMID:10935756

Hatzimanikatis, V

1999-01-01

17

Haemodynamic analysis of vessel remodelling in STA-MCA bypass for Moyamoya disease and its impact on bypass patency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to estimate the remodelling characteristics of STA-MCA bypass and its influence on patency via the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. The reconstructed three-dimensional geometries from MRA were segmented to create computational domains for CFD simulations. Eleven patients, who underwent regular MRA both immediately following surgery and at the six months follow-up, were studied. The flow velocities at STA were measured via the use of quantitative MRA (QMRA) to validate simulation results. STA-MCA bypass patency was confirmed for each patient immediately following surgery. The simulation indicated that the remodelling of the arterial pedicle in nine patients was associated with a reduction in the resistance to flow through the bypass. For these cases, the modelling of a driving pressure of 10mmHg through the bypass at 6 months post-surgery resulted in a 50% greater blood flow than those found immediately following surgery. However, two patients were found to exhibit contradictory patterns of remodelling, in which a highly curved bending at the bypass immediately post-surgery underwent progression, with increased resistance to flow through the bypass at 6 months follow-up, thereby resulting in a modelled flow rate reduction of 50% and 25%, respectively. This study revealed that STA-MCA bypass has a characteristic remodelling that usually reduces flow resistance. The initial morphology of the bypass may have had a significant effect on the outcome of vessel remodelling. PMID:24720886

Zhu, Feng-Ping; Zhang, Yu; Higurashi, Masakazu; Xu, Bin; Gu, Yu-Xiang; Mao, Ying; Morgan, Michael Kerin; Qian, Yi

2014-06-01

18

A Study of MCA Learning Algorithm for Incident Signals Estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many signal subspace-based approaches have already been proposed for determining the fixed Direction of Arrival (DOA of plane waves impinging on an array of sensors. Two procedures for DOA estimation based neural network are presented. Firstly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA is employed to extract the maximum eigenvalue and eigenvector from signal subspace to estimate DOA. Secondly, Minor component analysis (MCA is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will modify a MCA learning algorithm to enhance the Convergence, where a Convergence is essential for MCA algorithm towards practical applications. The learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Simulation results will be furnished to illustrate the theoretical results achieved.

Rashid Ahmed

2014-12-01

19

Indissoluble Connection of Russian MC&A System Sustainability with that of the Russian Methodological & Training Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past 10 years of collaboration under the U.S.-Russian Materials Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program great efforts were made to transform and upgrade the Russian Federal Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC&A) System. The efforts were focused not only on MC&A systems for nuclear facilities but also on creating and developing the system infrastructure, including legislation, state inspection and agency monitoring, training of operators and inspectors, instrument and methodological support, and the Federal Information System (FIS). At present the most important and urgent goal is to provide sustainability of MC&A systems at the existing level or at the level that will be achieved in 2007-2008. Since the very beginning of the program, the Russian Methodological and Training Center (RMTC) activities have been focused on intensive training of the personnel as well as the methodological support necessary for transformation and development of the entire system and its elements located at nuclear facilities. Sustainability of the federal MC&A system is impossible without advanced training of personnel and methodological support for upgrading of system elements at nuclear facilities. That is why the RMTC sustainability is one of the key conditions required for the system sustainability as a whole. The paper presents the results of analysis of the conditions for the Russian MC&A system sustainable development in conjunction with the RMTC sustainability.

Ryazanov, Boris G.; Goryunov, Victor; Pshakin, Gennady M.; Shapsha, V.; Crawford, Cary E.; Dickman, Deborah A.

2005-07-30

20

MCA Learning Algorithm for Incident Signals Estimation:A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently there has been many works on adaptive subspace filtering in the signal processing literature. Most of them are concerned with tracking the signal subspace spanned by the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of the signal plus noise data. Minor Component Analysis (MCA is important tool and has a wide application in telecommunications, antenna array processing, statistical parametric estimation, etc. As an important feature extraction technique, MCA is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will present a MCA learning algorithm to extract minor component from input signals, and the learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Simulation results will be furnished to illustrate the theoretical results achieved.

Rashid Ahmed

2014-05-01

21

Mini-MCA: an intelligent inspection instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The small portable multichannel analyzer (Mini-MCA) designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an intelligent safeguards instrument developed for the IAEA under the United States Aid Program. The Mini-MCA is a basic 1-k channel MCA that features a high degree of user friendliness and portability. Its history, use, and future applications are discussed. 5 figures, 3 tables

22

Involvement of the putative Ca²?-permeable mechanosensitive channels, NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, in Ca²? uptake, Ca²?-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain insight into the cellular functions of the mid1-complementing activity (MCA) family proteins, encoding putative Ca²?-permeable mechanosensitive channels, we isolated two MCA homologs of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, named NtMCA1 and NtMCA2. NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 partially complemented the lethality and Ca²? uptake defects of yeast mutants lacking mechanosensitive Ca²? channel components. Furthermore, in yeast cells overexpressing NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, the hypo-osmotic shock-induced Ca²? influx was enhanced. Overexpression of NtMCA1 or NtMCA2 in BY-2 cells enhanced Ca²? uptake, and significantly alleviated growth inhibition under Ca²? limitation. NtMCA1-overexpressing BY-2 cells showed higher sensitivity to hypo-osmotic shock than control cells, and induced the expression of the touch-inducible gene, NtERF4. We found that both NtMCA1-GFP and NtMCA2-GFP were localized at the plasma membrane and its interface with the cell wall, Hechtian strands, and at the cell plate and perinuclear vesicles of dividing cells. NtMCA2 transcript levels fluctuated during the cell cycle and were highest at the G1 phase. These results suggest that NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 play roles in Ca²?-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in BY-2 cells, by regulating the Ca²? influx through the plasma membrane. PMID:22080252

Kurusu, Takamitsu; Yamanaka, Takuya; Nakano, Masataka; Takiguchi, Akiko; Ogasawara, Yoko; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Iida, Kazuko; Hanamata, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Iida, Hidetoshi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

2012-07-01

23

Molecular Analysis Among MCA13-reactive Isolates Reveals a Strategy for Rapid Assessment of Citrus tristeza Virus Severity  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypes vary in disease severity ranging from symptomless to virulent (stem pitting) in commercial citrus plantings. Because CTV is spread by propagation and by aphid vectors, rapid identification and virulence typing are critical for control and interdiction activitie...

24

A data processor interface for 4-K MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A data processing system has been designed for use with the indigenous 4-K MCA. It consists of Micro 2200 - a programmable calculator, Micro data Interface (MDI), floppy disk attachment to Micro and a Data Interface specially designed for the transfer of data from MCA to Micro 2200 and for reverse transfer. This complete system enables one to transfer the spectrum from MCA, and to carry out desired spectrum analysis. The system has been used for routine analysis of energy dispersive XRF spectra. The report describes the hardware design of the Data Interface and the software of data transfer and standard spectrum analysis routines. Listing of Micro programmes for transfer and analysis are also given in the report. (author)

25

Miniature-MCA technology developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have recently reduced the size of multichannel analyzers (MCAs) and have implemented more features in hardware to relieve software requirements. We built and tested a spectroscopy grade, 4096-channel MCA. Exclusive of amplifier and power supply, it fits on two boards each approximately 7 by 15 cm. This paper discusses the features and performance of the analyzer and some reasonable applications of these technologies.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Stephens, M.M.; Biddle, R.S.

1991-12-31

26

Miniature-MCA technology developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have recently reduced the size of multichannel analyzers (MCAs) and have implemented more features in hardware to relieve software requirements. We built and tested a spectroscopy grade, 4096-channel MCA. Exclusive of amplifier and power supply, it fits on two boards each approximately 7 by 15 cm. This paper discusses the features and performance of the analyzer and some reasonable applications of these technologies.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Stephens, M.M.; Biddle, R.S.

1991-01-01

27

Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1981 a small, battery-operated multichannel analyzer (MCA) prototype developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory was delivered to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The intent was to produce an instrument for inspector (nonscientist) use. Automated measurement programs were built into the MCA. An enhanced, commercially produced MCA is now available, which was patterned after and is software compatible with the prototype. After an extensive review of the hardware and software of the available portable MCAs, the IAEA has chosen this MCA to be used by IAEA inspectors throughout the world. Inspectors from the EURATOM Directorate of Safeguards are also using these MCAs in inspections throughout Europe. While this MCA's portability and programmability make it ideally suited for infield applications, its powerful built-in intelligence and communications protocol make it a strong candidate for distributed data acquisition and control systems. The user-instrument interface philosophy is so easy to use that in domestic and international training schools, the operators manual is not used

28

Improving MC&A Oversight in Russia by Implementing Measurement and Training Programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the Russian State regulatory agency responsible for oversight of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A), Gosatomnadzor of Russia (GAN) determines the status of the MC&A programs at Russian facilities. Last year, GAN developed and implemented their Nuclear Material Measurement Program Plan which documents current non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement capability in all regions of GAN; provides justification for upgrades to equipment, procedures and training; and defines the inspector-facility operator interface as it relates to NDA measurement equipment use. This Program Plan has helped to give the GAN inspection measurements more legal and official status as an oversight tool, and has also helped to improve other GAN MC&A oversight activities. These improvements include developing a tamper-indicating device program, conducting NDA workshops at specific Russian nuclear facilities to better train MC&A inspectors, and developing training evaluation programs. The Program is an important tool to address the GAN role in oversight of the Russian Federal Information System nuclear material database. This paper describes the feedback received from the GAN regional offices on the implementation of the Program Plan during its first year in operation and how the Program Plan has affected other GAN inspection activities to improve MC&A oversight.

Bokov, Dmitry; Byers, Kenneth R.

2004-07-12

29

Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

Qian Hong

2008-05-01

30

Distribution patterns of MCA-coated granules aerially applied to corn fields of Southern Hungary between 2000 and 2002.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies in corn (Zea mays L.) were conducted to evaluate distribution patterns of 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde (MCA) coated corn grits after aerial application with a Dromader fixed wing aircraft. The kairomone mimic MCA is synthetically available and a quite specific and efficient adult attractant for the invasive alien maize pest western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Orientation disruptive properties of MCA for WCR when applied at unphysiologically high concentrations are currently under investigation. For successful implementation of the MCA disruption technique, the distribution patterns of MCA coated corn granules ('grits') in the field are important. Grits are degrained corn cobs, shredded to different sizes, coated with MCA and used as a carrier material to disseminate MCA vapors into corn fields. Granules of 10-12 mesh size were aerially applied eight times at rates ranging from 12.4 to 25.0 kg/ha. The goal is to evaluate distribution patterns of corn grits treated with MCA in three fields located at Csanadpalota, Kardoskút and Mezöhegyes in Southern Hungary between 2000 and 2002. Increasing rates reflect our attempts in finding and optimising the most even distribution of granules in the field. Field experiments were evaluated by collecting grits in 30-cm plastic saucers and by counting grits accumulated on corn plant parts. Variation in grit number per unit area and frequency of corn granule number per plant showed some transient technical application problems. Analysis of grits collected in the saucers revealed some statistical difference between the different application dates as well as differences in rates applied. Altogether grits in saucers were more evenly distributed in comparison to the grits collected on plant parts. As the corn plants age, their leaves and whorls present a smaller and smaller surface area where granules can accumulate. Altogether, however, grit distribution patterns indicate that aerial application is a viable tool for disseminating MCA in corn fields. PMID:15149096

Wennemann, L; Hummel, H E

2003-01-01

31

Differential nonlinearity compensation enables the design of a low-cost networked MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By use of an algorithm to compensate for the differential nonlinearity of an inexpensive integrated circuit analog to digital converter (ADC), the authors have been able to develop a simple, low-cost multichannel analyzer (MCA). The cost is low enough ($250) to enable the use of an MCA per head in a plutonium continuous air monitoring (CAM) system. Multiple heads are connected to a standard personal computer via a simple networking scheme to allow a single computer to control a number of heads. The power requirements are low enough for the heads to be powered from a single power supply via the network cable

32

The SO-20.3 MC&A modernization plan final report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) provides assurance to the nation that nuclear materials are controlled in accordance with their strategic and economic importance and that the misuse, theft or diversion of these materials will be detected. MC&A plays an important part in security at nuclear facilities, especially in addressing threats such as theft of materials, environmental contamination, and nuclear safety incidents associated with nuclear materials. For this reason, it is important that MC&A takes advantage of new technologies and methods in order to provide information on a site's nuclear materials in the most timely and useful manner possible. Within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Security Policy, Policy Integration and Technical Support Program (SO-20.3) is responsible for the development of safeguards and security technology that enables DOE and NNSA facilities to safeguard their Special Nuclear Materials. The SO-20.3 Program tasked safeguards personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory to lead a project with representatives from the Y-12 Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Site to prepare an MC&A Modernization Plan that provides recommendations for development new technologies and methodologies for MC&A in both new and existing DOE facilities. The team was tasked with taking into account new concerns about the protection of nuclear material following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Opportunities for applying new MC&A approaches and technologies that provide increased freedom of operation, increased security and provide a potential for cost savings in existing and new DOE facilities are discussed in this report.

Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Ensslin, Norbert; Files, C. (Chistina); Joseph, Joshua A., Jr.; Rudy, C. R. (Clifford R.); Smith, M. K. (Morag K.); Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Wilkey, D. D. (David Dennis); Pickett, C. (Chris); Brosey, W. (William); Swanson, J. (Joel)

2004-01-01

33

Geotail MCA Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary goals of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program are identifying, studying, and understanding the source, movement, and dissipation of plasma mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and the Earth. The GEOTAIL spacecraft was built by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and has provided extensive measurements of entry, storage, acceleration, and transport in the geomagnetic tail and throughout the Earth's outer magnetosphere. GEOTAIL was launched on July 24, 1992, and began its scientific mission with eighteen extensions into the deep-tail region with apogees ranging from around 60 R(sub e) to more than 208 R(sub e) in the period up to late 1994. Due to the nature of the GEOTAIL trajectory which kept the spacecraft passing into the deep tail, GEOTAIL also made 'magnetopause skimming passes' which allowed measurements in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, magnetosheath, bow shock, and upstream solar wind regions as well as in the lobe, magnetosheath, boundary layers, and central plasma sheet regions of the tail. In late 1994, after spending nearly 30 months primarily traversing the deep tail region, GEOTAIL began its near-Earth phase. Perigee was reduced to 10 R(sub e) and apogee first to 50 R(sub e) and finally to 30 R(sub e) in early 1995. This orbit provides many more opportunities for GEOTAIL to explore the upstream solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, and outer magnetosphere as well as the near-Earth tail regions. The WIND spacecraft was launched on November 1, 1994 and the POLAR spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996. These successful launches have dramatically increased the opportunities for GEOTAIL and the GGS spacecraft to be used to conduct the global research for which the ISTP program was designed. The measurement and study of plasma waves have made and will continue to make important contributions to reaching the ISTP/GGS goals and solving the significant problems of sun-earth connections. Plasma waves are involved in the energization and de-energization of plasma and energetic particles via numerous wave-particle interaction processes. Plasma waves in many instances are the source for the heating or cooling of the particles. They can cause particle precipitation by scattering particles into the loss cone. They move particles across boundaries in mass and energy dependent ways. Identifying the waves and the instabilities which produce them are thus crucial for understanding the plasma processes. Wave-particle interaction processes are especially important at various boundaries between the different regions of geospace including the bow shock, magnetopause, and interfaces in the geomagnetic tail between the magnetosheath, lobe, plasmasheet, boundary layers, and neutral sheet. In addition to identifying the characteristics of the instabilities and generation mechanisms encountered, plasma wave measurement are used in conjunction with other fields and particle measurements to identify the region of space the spacecraft is in or the boundary that is being crosed.

Anderson, Roger R.

1997-01-01

34

The metacaspase (Mca1p) has a dual role in farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manipulating the apoptotic response of Candida albicans may help in the control of this opportunistic pathogen. The metacaspase Mca1p has been described as a key protease for apoptosis in C. albicans but little is known about its cleavage specificity and substrates. We therefore initiated a series of studies to describe its function. We used a strain disrupted for the MCA1 gene (mca1?/?) and compared its proteome to that of a wild-type isogenic strain, in the presence and absence of a known inducer of apoptosis, the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol. Label-free and TMT labeling quantitative proteomic analyses showed that both mca1 disruption and farnesol treatment significantly affected the proteome of the cells. The combination of both conditions led to an unexpected biological response: the strong overexpression of proteins implicated in the general stress. We studied sites cleaved by Mca1p using native peptidomic techniques, and a bottom-up approach involving GluC endoprotease: there appeared to be a "K/R" substrate specificity in P1 and a "D/E" specificity in P2. We also found 77 potential substrates of Mca1p, 13 of which validated using the most stringent filters, implicated in protein folding, protein aggregate resolubilization, glycolysis, and a number of mitochondrial functions. An immunoblot assay confirmed the cleavage of Ssb1p, a member of the HSP70 family of heat-shock proteins, in conditions where the metacaspase is activated. These various results indicate that Mca1p is involved in a limited and specific proteolysis program triggered by apoptosis. One of the main functions of Mca1p appears to be the degradation of several major heat-shock proteins, thereby contributing to weakening cellular defenses and amplifying the cell death process. Finally, Mca1p appears to contribute significantly to the control of mitochondria biogenesis and degradation. Consequently, Mca1p may be a link between the extrinsic and the intrinsic programmed cell death pathways in C. albicans. PMID:25348831

Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Ounissi, Marwa; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Camadro, Jean-Michel

2015-01-01

35

Multi criteria analysis in environmental management: Selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited in the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper presents the application of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool in choosing the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. The results obtained from the application of MCA in stormwater pollution control have many benefits to the contractors, consultants and decision makers by making them able to select the best control measure for every stage of construction.

Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malyasia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-07-01

36

The research of methods of multi-criteria analysis for increase of reliability of distribution networks by remote-controlled elements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the remote control components of an electrical network. The study included assessments of the weighted sum approach; ideal points analysis; the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS); and, concordance-discordance analysis. A standardized matrix was created for the evaluation. A weight was assigned to each criterion in order to assess the importance of particular criteria in relation to other criteria. The Fuller triangle method was then used to determine the number of preferences over other criteria. The Saaty method was used to calculate the eigen vector. Results of the study showed that the application of remote control components shortened the duration of faults in the network by accelerating handling times. Methods of paired comparison provided optimal solutions for the problems presented during the analysis. It was concluded that the MCA method successfully located areas in the network that were suitable for remote control components. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Hradilek, Z.; Krejci, P. [Technical Univ. of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

2005-07-01

37

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA Aneurysms in Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intracranial saccular aneurysm is the most frequent cause of the spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. At least, a second aneurysm is detected during the operation or initial angiography in about one – third of cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage. 95 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, were evaluated retrospectively. We detected 24 aneurysms in 11 patients . There were 4 male and 7 woman ranging in age from 23 to 70 years with mean age 54,7. Their neurological status according to Hunt and Hess scale were; 4 (% 36,3 grade I, 3 ( % 27,4 grade II and 4 (%36,3 grade III. Density of hemorrhage in the multiple aneurysm group was greater than the group of single aneurysms according to Fisher grade system. (% 72, 8 patients with multiple aneurysms were graded as grade IV according to Fisher grade system on initial CT, while only % 28,5 of patients with single aneurysm were in grade IV. Middle cerebral bifurcation aneurysm was detected as the most frequently aneurysm. The rate of MCA aneurysm (% 21,4 among all patients was significantly lower than the rate of MCA aneurysm accompanying to multiple aneurysm (% 72,7. One third of patients with MCA aneurysm were taking part in a multiple aneurysm. All patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage must be evaluated for multiple saccular aneurysms by four vessel angiography. Especially,subarachnoid hemorrhage suggesting a MCA aneurysm in the initial CT, must be carefully evaluated because clipping all detected aneurysms is the goal of therapy in patients with SAH.

Bulent DEMIRGIL

2006-09-01

38

Automation of a pneumatic system by controlling a microcomputer equipped with a custom add on board for neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automated sample transfer system associated with a 3 x 592 GBq Am-Be neutron source has been constructed at the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (CINAA). The pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an IBM PS/1 personal computer which is equipped with a custom add-on board for relevant hardware and control software written in Turbo Pascal. The system computer interactively works with a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for proper data acquisition. The sample transfer system also runs manually. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (Author)

39

MC&A software assistance to Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application that is being developed as part of the U.S. assistance program to Ukraine in Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A). The AIMAS software prototype was designed to provide a starting point for joint U.S./Ukraine system development. Computer systems with AIMAS prototypes have been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy & Industry (SINEI) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety database management system (RDBMS) and application development environment. It has been designed to be highly flexible and configurable, and to support a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration and security). Security measures include multilevel password access controls, all transactions logged with the user ID, and system administration controls. Interfaces to external modules are being designed to provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. 1 ref.

Ewing, T.; McWilliams, C.; Olson, A. [and others

1997-09-01

40

MCA Based Performance Evaluation of Project Selection  

CERN Document Server

Multi-criteria decision support systems are used in various fields of human activities. In every alternative multi-criteria decision making problem can be represented by a set of properties or constraints. The properties can be qualitative & quantitative. For measurement of these properties, there are different unit, as well as there are different optimization techniques. Depending upon the desired goal, the normalization aims for obtaining reference scales of values of these properties. This paper deals with a new additive ratio assessment method. In order to make the appropriate decision and to make a proper comparison among the available alternatives Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and ARAS have been used. The uses of AHP is for analysis the structure of the project selection problem and to assign the weights of the properties and the ARAS method is used to obtain the final ranking and select the best one among the projects. To illustrate the above mention methods survey data on the expansion of optic...

Bakshi, Tuli

2011-01-01

41

A 256 channel portable MCA for field application [Paper No.:I3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ gamma-spectrometry is a very important tool to characterise the contamination resulting due to radioactive fall out. Even in reactor environment this technique is helpful in analysing contaminations and the leakages on the spot. A battery powered 256 channel portable pulse height analyser has been developed to meet this requirement. The analyser consists of a single card Wilkinson type 8 bit ADC cum linear amplifier interfaced to an 8085 based micro computer. The MCA uses 2x2 inch NaI(Tl) detector and provides minimal necessary front panel controls for field use. A built-in DC to DC converter generates EHT for detector system and all the necessary DC voltages (+5V, ± 12V) from a 6V (7AH) battery. The MCA is capable of storing around 60 spectrums sequentially which can be down-loaded into a PC for further processing through built in serial RS-232 port. The paper describes the hardware and software developed for the system, and its performance evaluations. (author). 3 figs

42

Mechanosensitive channel candidate MCA2 is involved in touch-induced root responses in Arabidopsis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive (MS) channel is a mechanical stress sensor. We previously reported that Arabidopsis MCA1 and its paralog MCA2 functioned individually as Ca2+-permeable MS channels. In the present study, we showed that the primary roots of the mca2-null mutant behaved abnormally on the surface of hard medium. First, primary roots are known to exhibit a skewing growth pattern on the surface of vertically placed agar medium. On such surface, the primary roots of mca2-null skewed more than those of the wild type. Second, when seedlings were grown on a tilted agar surface, the primary root of mca2-null showed abnormal waving patterns. Third, wild-type seedlings eventually died when grown on horizontally placed 3.2% gelrite medium, which was too hard to allow the primary roots of the wild type to penetrate, because their primary roots sprang from the surface of the medium and may have been unable to absorb water and nutrients. In contrast, the primary roots of mca2-null, but not those of mca1-null, were able to creep over the surface of the medium and grow. Fourth, when grown on the surface of 3.2% agar medium supplemented with 30 mM CaCl2, only mca2-null grew with a root that coiled in a clockwise direction. Lastly, on the surface of vertically placed rectangular plates that allowed primary roots to grow vertically down to the frame of the plate, wild-type primary roots grew horizontally after touching the frame at an angle of 90?. During the horizontal growth, only the extreme root tips maintained contact with the frame. In contrast, the primary roots of mca2-null allowed not only the extreme root tips, but also the meristem and elongation zones to maintain contact with the frame during horizontal growth. These results suggest that MCA2 is involved in touch-related root responses. PMID:25191336

Nakano, Masataka; Samejima, Rika; Iida, Hidetoshi

2014-01-01

43

The melatonin analog 5-MCA-NAT increases endogenous dopamine levels by binding NRH:quinone reductase enzyme in the developing chick retina.  

Science.gov (United States)

NRH:quinone reductase (QR2) is present in the retinas of embryonic and post-hatched (PH) chicks. 5-Methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT) is a QR2 ligand that increases cAMP levels in developing retinas, but it does not affect cAMP levels in CHO-QR2 cells. The dopamine quinone reductase activity of QR2 retrieves dopamine, which increases cAMP levels in developing retinas. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether 5-MCA-NAT increases endogenous dopamine levels in retinas from chick embryos and post-hatched chicks. Endogenous dopamine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 5-MCA-NAT increased retinal endogenous dopamine levels at all developmental stages studied and in PH chicks (-logEC50=11.62±0.34 M). This effect was inhibited by non-selective antagonists of receptors and melatonin binding sites N-acetyl-2-benzyltryptamine (luzindole, 5 ?M), but it was not inhibited by the Mel1b melatonin receptor antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT, 10 nM). The QR2 cosubstrate, N-methyl-dihydronicotinamide (NMH) (-logEC50=6.74±0.26 M), increased endogenous dopamine levels in controls and in retinas stimulated with 5-MCA-NAT (3 nM). The QR2 inhibitor benzo[e]pyrene inhibited endogenous dopamine levels in both control (-logIC50=7.4±0.28 M) and NMH-stimulated (at 100 nM and 1 ?M benzo[e]pyrene concentrations) retinas. Theoretical studies using Molegro Virtual Docking software corroborated these experimental results. We conclude that 5-MCA-NAT increases the level of endogenous dopamine via QR2. We suggest that this enzyme triggers double reduction of the dopamine quinone, recovering dopamine in retinal development. PMID:25218627

Sampaio, Lucia de Fatima Sobral; Mesquita, Felipe Pantoja; de Sousa, Paulo Robson Monteiro; Silva, Jerônimo Lameira; Alves, Claudio Nahum

2014-11-01

44

A reliable approach to distinguish between transient with and without HFOs using TQWT and MCA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have reported that discrete high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the range of 80-500Hz may serve as promising biomarkers of the seizure focus in humans. Visual scoring of HFOs is tiring, time consuming, highly subjective and requires a great deal of mental concentration. Due to the recent explosion of HFOs research, development of a robust automated detector is expected to play a vital role in studying HFOs and their relationship to epileptogenesis. Therefore, a handful of automated detectors have been introduced in the literature over the past few years. In fact, all the proposed methods have been associated with high false-positive rates, which essentially arising from filtered sharp transients like spikes, sharp waves and artifacts. In order to specifically minimize false positive rates and improve the specificity of HFOs detection, we proposed a new approach, which is a combination of tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT), morphological component analysis (MCA) and complex Morlet wavelet (CMW). The main findings of this study can be summarized as follows: The proposed method results in a sensitivity of 96.77%, a specificity of 85.00% and a false discovery rate (FDR) of 07.41%. Compared to this, the classical CMW method applied directly on the signals without pre-processing by TQWT-MCA achieves a sensitivity of 98.71%, a specificity of 18.75%, and an FDR of 29.95%. The proposed method may be considered highly accurate to distinguish between transients with and without HFOs. Consequently, it is remarkably reliable and robust for the detection of HFOs. PMID:24814526

Chaibi, Sahbi; Lajnef, Tarek; Sakka, Zied; Samet, Mounir; Kachouri, Abdennaceur

2014-07-30

45

Inspector-2000. A DSP-based, portable, multi-purpose MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various in-situ gamma-spectroscopy applications need a versatile, multi-purpose, portable multi-channel analyzer (MCA). Recently, Canberra has introduced the Inspector-2000 for this purpose. It uses digital signal processing (DSP) technology and weighs only about 1.2 kg. It also supports CdTe, NaI and Ge detectors. Due to its use of DSP technology, the Inspector-2000 also provides a longer battery life, a better detector resolution and a better temperature stability than most portable MCAs. A short description of the Inspector-2000 MCA is included and its performance characteristics compared to an analog MCA. (author)

46

J-ACT II. Differences in rate of valid recanalization and of a favorable outcome by site of MCA occlusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The background and purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the effects of alteplase differ with occlusion site of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). An exploratory analysis was made of 57 patients enrolled on the Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial II (J-ACT II). The residual vessel length (mm), determined on pretreatment MR angiography (MRA), was used to reflect the occluded site. The proportions of patients with valid recanalization (modified Mori grade 2-3) at 6 and 24 hours, and a favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1 at 3 months) were compared between the groups dichotomized according to their lengths of residual vessel. Multiple logistic regression models were generated to elucidate the predictors of valid recanalization and a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that 5 mm was the practical cutoff length for the dichotomization. In patients with M1 length <5 mm (n=12), the frequencies of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours (16.6%/25.0%) were significantly low compared with those (62.2%/82.2%) of 45 patients with a residual M1 length of ?5 mm and M2 occlusions (p=0.008 for 6 hours, p<0.001 for 24 hours). The proportion of a favorable outcome was also small in patients with M1 length <5 mm (8.3%), as compared to the others (57.8%, p=0.004). In logistic regression models, the site of MCA occlusion (<5 mm) was the significant predictor of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours and of a favorable outcome. In patients with f a favorable outcome. In patients with acute MCA occlusion, residual vessel length <5 mm on MRA can identify poor responders. (author)

47

Unilateral Moyamoya Phenomenon Due to MCA Occlusion in a Child Presenting with Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

OpenAIRE

Spontaneous middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion leading to moyamoya phenomenon is different from classical moyamoya disease. Previous studies have reported such phenomena in adults with ischemic lesions, except for a solitary case in a child. We report a case of a ten-year old girl who presented with a deep intracerebral hematoma and a normal ipsilateral middle cerebral artery on initial evaluation by CT. Subsequently, on follow-up angiography, the ipsilateral MCA was occluded with evidenc...

Srikanth, S. G.; Nagarajan, K.; Chandrashekar, H. S.; Vasudev, M. K.; Pillai, Shibu V.

2006-01-01

48

Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DSD-2056-4K portable multi-channel analyzer (PMCA) is a standard tool used in both international and domestic safeguards. This tool and the built-in user programs have been field proven. For applications where the manpower to program built-in programs is not available, programs in external computers can control the PMCA. A set of general purpose setup and analysis subroutines have been written in BASIC to be used directly or as a guide in the external applications. While safeguards and the nuclear industry are just beginning to make use of the present PMCA, we are looking into ways of making it easier to write internal programs for the PMCA and into replacing its current 8-bit processor with a 16-bit processor to give it the capability to do very involved analysis such as peak fitting and detailed plutonium isotopic analysis. 8 refs., 3 figs

49

Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DSD-2056-4K portable multi-channel analyzer (PMCA) is a standard tool used in both international and domestic safeguards. This tool and the built-in user programs have been field proven. For applications where the manpower to program built-in programs is not available, programs in external computers can control the PMCA. A set of general purpose setup and analysis subroutines have been written in BASIC to be used directly or as a guide in the external applications. While safeguards and the nuclear industry are just beginning to make use of the present PMCA, we are looking into ways of making it easier to write internal programs for the PMCA and into replacing its current 8-bit processor with a 16-bit processor to give it the capability to do very involved analysis such as peak fitting and detailed plutonium isotopic analysis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Cameron, R.A.

1985-01-01

50

Selective buildup of 131-UKO-1 MCA in the tissue of mouse lymphoid leukemia L 1210  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monoclonal antibodies (MCA) ICO-1 of IgG3 isotope against la-like human antigens were labelled with 131I using chloramine T; a radionuclide-bound fraction was isolated by radiochromatography. Basing on the results of assessment of component-dependent cytotoxicity against lymphocites from the lymph nodes of BDF1 mice a conclusion was made that MCA immunological reactivity changed slightly after radionuclide tracer administration. In vitro experiments with a panel of normal and malignant cells showed 131I-MCA binding with cells of mouse lymphoid leukemia L1210 and hemocytoblastosis La as well as with spleen and lymph node normal lymphocytes. During in vivo experiments 131I anti-la MCA at a dose of 30 ?g (specific activity of 32.1010 Bg/mmol) was administered intravenously to BDF1 mice with transplantable lymphoid leukemia L1210. Radiometry of the organs 24 h after administration of antobodies showed their accumulation in a solid tumor localized on intestinum tenue mesenteriale. The ratio of concentrations of labelled antibodies (in % of the administered amount per 1 g) of tumor/blood was 2.4, that of tumor/liver - 4.5. For normal nonimmune 125I-IgG this rate was 0.4 and 0.7, respectively. A high level of MCA in the blood is a factor decreasing MCA diagnostic potentialities. The use of F(a,b)-fragments may considerably decrease the role of this factor. The data obtained suggest a poss factor. The data obtained suggest a possibility of the use of MCA ICO-1 for in vivo radioimmunoassays of some hematological tumors

51

Linking least-cost energy system costs models with MCA: An assessment of the EU renewable energy targets and supporting policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several technoeconomic modeling approaches that provide quantitative results such as costs and the level of achievement of certain renewable energy (RE) policy targets. These approaches often do not consider other important factors for policy implementation (such as socio-political aspects and stakeholders' preferences). Recent multicriteria analysis (MCA) approaches attempt to integrate these multiple aspects in decision making process. In this respect, aim of this paper is to combine technoeconomic modeling and MCA approaches in a general analytical framework incorporating multiple aspects. Each method in an RE policy interaction problem can feed in the necessary policy information for the subsequent steps of an ex-ante and an ex-post assessment in a decision tree, starting from recognizing the need for implementing a new policy in parallel to the incumbent ones, assessing the actual policy costs and finally identifying the social acceptability of these RE policies.

52

Construction of a reasonable multi channel analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In resent years, the performances of new electronic devices, for example FPGA or so on, have been improved, and these devices become more cost-effective ones year by year. Moreover, prices of personal computers have become less expensive, and the programming environment on PC becomes much user-friendly and easy to operate in this decimal year. These advancements have possibilities to provide a great help for self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments, which needed huge cost and work to construct in the past. Then, I tried to construct a reasonable Mulch Channel Analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board named EDX-005 (HuMANDATA ltd.), and conduct test measurements of the MCA. The MCA was constructed in a short period, and its cost was just under 50 thousands yen. The MCA normally works at 200 [cps/ch] count rate with a NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The description of the MCA and some points of self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments are provided in this paper. (author)

53

Status report on the TSA Systems, Ltd., MCA465 gamma-ray confirmation instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TSA Systems, Ltd., MCA465 is hand-portable, low resolution, gamma-ray instrument for confirming special nuclear materials (SNM) and related applications. The instrument evolved from earlier TSA Systems hand-held instruments, and, since its inception in 1991, it has been undergoing cycles of evaluation and then repair or redesign to correct problems. Through the efforts of Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, and TSA Systems, the MCA465 now has achieved commendable progress toward achieving quality performance as a rapid confirmation tool for SNM

54

Correlação de três variáveis na descrição da permeabilidade nasal (HD, MCA, escala NOSE) de pacientes saudáveis / Correlation of three variables describing nasal patency (HD, MCA, NOSE score) in healthy subjects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Rinoresistometria e rinometria acústica são dois métodos utilizados na avaliação da função respiratória nasal. Ambos utilizam variáveis diferentes para descrever a permeabilidade nasal: o diâmetro hidráulico, HD, na rinoresistometria; e as áreas mínimas da seção transversal, MCA1 (istmo nasal) e MCA [...] 2 (cabeça do corneto inferior e corpo cavernoso do septo nasal), na rinometria acústica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre HD e MCA em pacientes sem afecções nasais e identificar se tais variáveis objetivas apresentam correlação com a escala NOSE, uma ferramenta validada para avaliar a percepção subjetiva de permeabilidade nasal. MÉTODO: Coleta estruturada dos dados de 24 indivíduos saudáveis sem afecções nasais. RESULTADOS: Correlações estatisticamente significativas de fracas a moderadas foram identificadas entre HD e MCA2 antes do descongestionamento. Foi identificada correlação moderada entre HD, MCA2 e escala NOSE no lado mais estreito. CONCLUSÃO: Na avaliação de permeabilidade nasal, parece ser recomendável determinar HD, MCA1 e MCA2, bem como uma variável subjetiva como a escala NOSE, que não aparentam ser variáveis completamente redundantes. Estudos futuros devem avaliar a correlação destas variáveis em pacientes com afecções nasais. Abstract in english Rhinoresistometry and acoustic rhinometry are two established apparative methods to objectify the respiratory function of the nose. Both methods use different variables to describe nasal patency: "hydraulic diameter", HD, in rhinoresistometry, and "minimal cross-sectional area", MCA1 (nasal isthmus) [...] and MCA2 (head of the inferior turbinate and cavernous body of the nasal septum), in acoustic rhinometry. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the mutual correlation of HD and MCA as a pilot study in patients without nasal pathologies. Additionally, we investigated if these objective variables correlate with the NOSE score, a validated tool to measure subjective perception of nasal patency. METHOD: Planned data collection in a collective of 24 healthy subjects without nasal pathologies. RESULTS: Statistically significant, weak to moderate correlations were found between HD and MCA2 before decongestion. A moderate correlation was found between both HD and MCA2 and the NOSE score on the narrower side. CONCLUSION: In the assessment of nasal patency, it seems advisable to determine HD, MCA1 and MCA2, but also a subjective variable such as the NOSE score, which all seem to be not fully redundant variables. In further studies, the correlation of the variables should be assessed in patients with nasal pathologies.

Thomas, Braun; Maria, Rich; Matthias F., Kramer.

2013-06-01

55

Correlação de três variáveis na descrição da permeabilidade nasal (HD, MCA, escala NOSE de pacientes saudáveis Correlation of three variables describing nasal patency (HD, MCA, NOSE score in healthy subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rinoresistometria e rinometria acústica são dois métodos utilizados na avaliação da função respiratória nasal. Ambos utilizam variáveis diferentes para descrever a permeabilidade nasal: o diâmetro hidráulico, HD, na rinoresistometria; e as áreas mínimas da seção transversal, MCA1 (istmo nasal e MCA2 (cabeça do corneto inferior e corpo cavernoso do septo nasal, na rinometria acústica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre HD e MCA em pacientes sem afecções nasais e identificar se tais variáveis objetivas apresentam correlação com a escala NOSE, uma ferramenta validada para avaliar a percepção subjetiva de permeabilidade nasal. MÉTODO: Coleta estruturada dos dados de 24 indivíduos saudáveis sem afecções nasais. RESULTADOS: Correlações estatisticamente significativas de fracas a moderadas foram identificadas entre HD e MCA2 antes do descongestionamento. Foi identificada correlação moderada entre HD, MCA2 e escala NOSE no lado mais estreito. CONCLUSÃO: Na avaliação de permeabilidade nasal, parece ser recomendável determinar HD, MCA1 e MCA2, bem como uma variável subjetiva como a escala NOSE, que não aparentam ser variáveis completamente redundantes. Estudos futuros devem avaliar a correlação destas variáveis em pacientes com afecções nasais.Rhinoresistometry and acoustic rhinometry are two established apparative methods to objectify the respiratory function of the nose. Both methods use different variables to describe nasal patency: "hydraulic diameter", HD, in rhinoresistometry, and "minimal cross-sectional area", MCA1 (nasal isthmus and MCA2 (head of the inferior turbinate and cavernous body of the nasal septum, in acoustic rhinometry. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the mutual correlation of HD and MCA as a pilot study in patients without nasal pathologies. Additionally, we investigated if these objective variables correlate with the NOSE score, a validated tool to measure subjective perception of nasal patency. METHOD: Planned data collection in a collective of 24 healthy subjects without nasal pathologies. RESULTS: Statistically significant, weak to moderate correlations were found between HD and MCA2 before decongestion. A moderate correlation was found between both HD and MCA2 and the NOSE score on the narrower side. CONCLUSION: In the assessment of nasal patency, it seems advisable to determine HD, MCA1 and MCA2, but also a subjective variable such as the NOSE score, which all seem to be not fully redundant variables. In further studies, the correlation of the variables should be assessed in patients with nasal pathologies.

Thomas Braun

2013-06-01

56

Synthesis and luminescence properties of Ce3+ doped MWO4 (M=Ca, Sr and Ba) microcrystalline phosphors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ce3+ doped and undoped samples of alkali earth metal tungstate MWO4 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) phosphors are synthesized by a co-precipitation method in controlled pH environment. The resulting phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL). XRD pattern and SEM micrographs reveal the formation of agglomerated microcrystalline phosphor. FTIR spectra show the strong absorption around 821 cm?1 due to characteristic vibrations of (WO4)2? complex. PL excitation spectra show broadband in the UV region having peak at 280 nm, and the emission spectrum shows broadband in the visible region with peak in the blue region. The PL emission intensity increases with Ce3+ concentration with the most effective concentration at 5 mol%. The complex TL glow curve of Ce3+ doped phosphors is deconvoluted by using a TLAnal computer program. The trap parameters obtained by TLAnal were compared with those calculated by Chen's method and a possible model for TL is discussed. - Highlights: • M1?xWO4:Cex (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) phosphors are synthesized by the co-precipitation method in controlled pH environment. • Phosphor exhibits broad emission band with maximum in the blue region. • Enhancement of PL emission intensity due to doping of Ce in a host lattice. • The complex TL glow curves were deconvoluted by TLAnal. • FTIR spectra show the main transmittance peaks related to v3 and v4 vibration modes of W–O bonds

57

Energy transfer in M?(PO?)? ?F:Eu²?,Ce³? (M?=?Ca and Ba) phosphors.  

Science.gov (United States)

M5(PO4)3F:Eu(2+) (M?=?Ca and Ba) co-doped with Ce(3+) phosphors were successfully prepared by the combustion synthesis method. The introduction of co-dopant (Ce(3+)) into the host enhanced the luminescent intensity of the M5(PO4)3F:Eu(2+) (M?=?Ca and Ba) efficiently. Previously, we have reported the synthesis and photoluminescence properties of same phosphors. The aim of this article is to report energy transfer mechanism between Ce(3+) ?Eu(2+) ions in M5(PO4)3F:Eu(2+) (M?=?Ca and Ba) phosphors, where Ce(3+) ions act as sensitizers and Eu(2+) ions act as activators. The M5(PO4)3F:Eu(2+) (M?=?Ca and Ba) co-doped with Ce(3+) phosphor exhibits great potential for use in white ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode applications to serve as a single-phased phosphor that can be pumped with near-UV or UV light-emitting diodes. PMID:23901019

Shinde, K N; Dhoble, S J

2014-08-01

58

Serodiagnosis of leptospirosis in China by the one-point MCA method.  

OpenAIRE

The one-point MCA method is very simple to perform and useful as a screening test in diagnosing leptospirosis in routine clinical laboratories. The kit, sensitized with six serovars occurring in Japan, was also useful in detecting serum antibodies of patients with leptospirosis in China.

Arimitsu, Y.; Matuhasi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Sato, T.; Cui, J. J.

1987-01-01

59

Expression of Arabidopsis MCA1 enhanced mechanosensitive channel activity in the Xenopus laevis oocyte plasma membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher plants sense and respond to osmotic and mechanical stresses such as turgor, touch, flexure and gravity. Mechanosensitive (MS) channels, directly activated by tension in the cell membrane and cytoskeleton, are supposed to be involved in the cell volume regulation under hypotonic conditions and the sensing of these mechanical stresses based on electrophysiological and pharmacological studies. However, limited progress has been achieved in the molecular identification of plant MS channels. Here, we show that MCA1 (mid1-complementing activity 1; a putative mechanosensitive Ca ( 2+) -permeable channel in Arabidopsis thaliana) increased MS channel activity in the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes. The functional and kinetic properties of MCA1 were examined by using a Xenopus laevis oocytes expression system, which showed that MCA1-dependent MS cation currents were activated by hypo-osmotic shock or by membrane stretch produced by pipette suction. Single-channel analyses suggest that MCA1 encodes a possible MS channel with a conductance of 34 pS. PMID:22751361

Furuichi, Takuya; Iida, Hidetoshi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Tatsumi, Hitoshi

2012-08-01

60

An unexpected evolution of symptomatic mild middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis: asymptomatic occlusion  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it has been reported more frequently in Asians and African-American people, but the finding of intracranial stenosis as a cause of ischemic stroke is relatively common also in Caucasians. The prognosis of patients with stroke due to intracranial steno-occlusion is strictly dependent on the time of recanalization. Moreover, the course of the vessel involvement is highly dynamic in both directions, improvement or worsening, although several data are derived from the atherosclerotic subtype, compared to other causes. Case description We report the clinical, neurosonological and neuroradiological findings of a young woman, who came to our Stroke Unit because of the abrupt onset of aphasia during her work. An urgent neurosonological examination showed a left M1 MCA stenosis, congruent with the presenting symptoms; magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding and identified an acute ischemic lesion on the left MCA territory. The past history of the patient was significant only for a hyperinsulinemic condition, treated with metformine, and a mild overweight. At this time a selective cerebral angiography was not performed because of the patient refusal and she was discharged on antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy, having failed to identify autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Within 1 month, she went back to our attention because of the recurrence of aphasia, lasting about ten minutes. Neuroimaging findings were unchanged, but the patient accepted to undergo a selective cerebral angiography, which showed a mild left distal M1 MCA stenosis. During the follow-up the patient did not experienced any recurrence, but a routine neurosonological examination found an unexpected evolution of the known MCA stenosis, i.e. left M1 MCA occlusion. Neuroradiological imaging did not identify new lesions of the brain parenchyma and a repeated selective cerebral angiography confirmed the left M1 MCA occlusion. Conclusions Regardless of the role of metabolic and/or inflammatory factors on the aetiology of the intracranial stenosis in this case, the course of the vessel disease was unexpected and previously unreported in the literature at our knowledge.

Malferrari Giovanni

2011-12-01

61

An Auto sequence Code to Integrate a Neutron Unfolding Code with thePC-MCA Accuspec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a neutron spectrometry using proton recoil method, the neutronunfolding code is needed to unfold the measured proton spectrum to become theneutron spectrum. The process of the unfolding neutron in the existingneutron spectrometry which was successfully installed last year was doneseparately. This manuscript reports that the auto sequence code to integratethe neutron unfolding code UNFSPEC.EXE with the software facility of thePC-MCA Accuspec has been made and run successfully so that the new neutronspectrometry become compact. The auto sequence code was written based on therules in application program facility of PC-MCA Accuspec and then it wascompiled using AC-EXE. Result of the test of the auto sequence code showedthat for binning width 20, 30, and 40 giving a little different spectrumshape. The binning width around 30 gives a better spectrum in mean of givingsmall error compared to the others. (author)

62

The evaluation of STA-MCA anastomosis by observation of rCBF alterations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of STA-MCA anastomosis in ischemic cerebrovascular disease was studied, with special reference to alterations in the rCBF after operation, using single-photon-emission CT. After the operation, the rCBF was not increased in 15 cases, but it was increased significantly in 11 cases, mainly at the anastomotic site. In only 3 cases was the rCBF increased globally, including the deep area of the affected side and also the healthy hemisphere. rCBF study during STA (bypass artery) compression revealed that the blood flow via the bypass artery was significantly increased, mainly at the anastomotic site, after the operation. In some cases, the impairment of the CO2 reactivity and the autoregulation of cerebral vessels were somewhat improved after the operation. These findings probably indicate that the improvement of rCBF by STA-MCA anastomosis has a beneficial effect on the tissue function of the ischemic brain. (author)

63

Detection of methylation in promoter sequences by melting curve analysis-based semiquantitative real time PCR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We present two melting curve analysis (MCA-based semiquantitative real time PCR techniques to detect the promoter methylation status of genes. The first, MCA-MSP, follows the same principle as standard MSP but it is performed in a real time thermalcycler with results being visualized in a melting curve. The second, MCA-Meth, uses a single pair of primers designed with no CpGs in its sequence. These primers amplify both unmethylated and methylated sequences. In clinical applications the MSP technique has revolutionized methylation detection by simplifying the analysis to a PCR-based protocol. MCA-analysis based techniques may be able to further improve and simplify methylation analyses by reducing starting DNA amounts, by introducing an all-in-one tube reaction and by eliminating a final gel stage for visualization of the result. The current study aimed at investigating the feasibility of both MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in the analysis of promoter methylation, and at defining potential advantages and shortcomings in comparison to currently implemented techniques, i.e. bisulfite sequencing and standard MSP. Methods The promoters of the RASSF1A (3p21.3, BLU (3p21.3 and MGMT (10q26 genes were analyzed by MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in 13 astrocytoma samples, 6 high grade glioma cell lines and 4 neuroblastoma cell lines. The data were compared with standard MSP and validated by bisulfite sequencing. Results Both, MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth, successfully determined promoter methylation. MCA-MSP provided information similar to standard MSP analyses. However the analysis was possible in a single tube and avoided the gel stage. MCA-Meth proved to be useful in samples with intermediate methylation status, reflected by a melting curve position shift in dependence on methylation extent. Conclusion We propose MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth as alternative or supplementary techniques to MSP or bisulfite sequencing.

Lázcoz Paula

2008-02-01

64

NuSTAR ground calibration: The Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5-80 keV ) telescope to orbit. The ground calibration of the three flight optics was carried out at the Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF) built for this purpose. In this article we present the facility and its use for the ground calibration of the three optics.

Brejnholt, Nicolai; Christensen, Finn Erland

2011-01-01

65

Admission Insular Infarction >25% is the Strongest Predictor of Large Mismatch Loss in Proximal MCA Stroke  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Purpose Previous univariate analyses have suggested that proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts with insular involvement have greater severity, and are more likely to progress into surrounding penumbral “tissue-at-risk”. We hypothesized that a practical, simple scoring method to assess percent insular-ribbon infarction (“PIRI-score”) would improve prediction of penumbral-loss over other common imaging biomarkers. Methods Of consecutive acute stroke patients from 2003–2008, forty-five with proximal-MCA-only occlusion met inclusion criteria, including available penumbral imaging. Infarct (DWI), tissue-at-risk (MR-MTT), and final infarct-volume (MR/CT) were manually segmented. DWI images were rated according to the 5-point PIRI-score (“0”=normal, “1”PIRI-score was 3 (0.75–4). PIRI-score was significantly correlated with PML (pPIRI (25% threshold), age, NIHSS-score, DWI-infarct-volume, and CTA-collateral-score as covariates, revealed that only dichotomized insula-score (p=0.03) and age (p=0.02) were independent predictors of large (68.2%) vs. small (8.1%) mismatch-loss. There was excellent inter-observer agreement for dichotomized PIRI-scoring (? =0.91). Conclusions Admission insular infarction >25% is the strongest predictor of large mismatch-loss in this cohort of proximal-MCA occlusive stroke. This outcome marker may help to identify treatment-eligible patients who are in greatest need of rapid reperfusion therapy. PMID:23988643

Kamalian, Shervin; Kemmling, Andre; Borgie, Roderick C; Morais, Livia T; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Franceschi, Ana M; Kamalian, Shahmir; Yoo, Albert J; Furie, Karen L; Lev, Michael H

2013-01-01

66

NATO-ASTEC-matrix-research environment, information sharing and MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The successful implementations of the NATO-ASTECMATRIX project in Armenia are essential contribution into security, stability and solidarity among regional nations, by applying the best technical expertise to problem solving. Collaboration, networking and capacity-building are means used to accomplish these goals. A further aim is to promote the co-operation with new partners and the ASTEC are creating links between scientists and organizations in formerly separated communities, developing new strategy concentrating support on security related collaborative projects and finding answers to critical questions and a way of connecting nations. The NATO-ASTECMATRIX within Armenia leads to a network of high standards laboratories that will drastically improve the overview and the technical infrastructure for monitoring, accounting and control of CBRN materials in the Armenia. This new infrastructure will enhance the exchange of information on this vital issue via the IRIS. In follow-up phases, it will also help to better define the needs and requirements for a policy to enhance legal tools for the management of these materials, and for the creation of one or several agencies aiming at dealing with wastes or no longer useful materials containing CBRN components in Armenia

67

Isomorphous miscibility in MEO4 (scheelite) - LnVO4 (zircon) systems, where M=Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, Pb; E=Mo, W; Ln=Y and lanthanides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Method of X-ray phase analysis was used to study phase relations in MEO4 (scheelite) - LnVO4 (zircon) systems, where M=Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, Pb; E=Mo, W; Ln=Y, Ce, Nd, Eu. Formation of limited solid solutions M1-xVxO4 was established. Evaluation of isomorphous miscibility in scheelite-zircon systems according to the statements of energy theory of isomorphous miscibility was conducted

68

Application Of The Digital Signal Processing Technique For The Design And Construction Of Gamma DSP-Based MCA 8K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL code then programing into FPGA device. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing technique then application for design and construction of DSP-based MCA 8K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, almost component such as low pass filter, high pass filter, math function module as adder/subtractor and multiplier, logic control, First In First Out, register, memory and Central processing unit needed for our design can be synthesized and implemented. The VHDL source design has been compiled and implemented by xilinx ISE 10.1 software toolkit and then used to configuration the Spartan XC3S400 device. The main Spartan 3 development board named Siphec XC3S400-TB is used for design of the project. An application software is written in LabVIEW 8.5. The firmware to control the USB interface and interface between FPGA and PC is design in Keil C51 compiler toolkit. (author)

69

Evaluation of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) degradation and toxicity to Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fate of monochloroacetic acid (MCA), a common phytotoxic aquatic contaminant, and its toxicity to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba (L. gibba), Myriophyllum spicatum (M. spicatum), and Myriophyllum sibiricum (M. sibiricum) under semi-natural field conditions was studied. Replicate 12,000 l enclosures were treated with 0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/l of MCA. Each microcosm was stocked with eight individual apical shoots of M. spicatum and M. sibiricum 1 day prior to initiation of exposure. Plants were sampled after 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure and their response assessed using numerous somatic and biochemical endpoints. L. gibba was introduced into the microcosms the day of MCA treatment and monitored regularly for 21 days. The half-life of MCA in the water column ranged between 86 and 523 h. The most sensitive plant species was M. spicatum, followed by M. sibiricum and L. gibba. All species demonstrated toxicity within a threefold range of each other. Endpoint sensitivity varied depending on the duration of exposure and the level of effect chosen. Most species endpoint EC(x) values were less than an order of magnitude different. Citrate levels in Myriophyllum spp. were not influenced by exposure to MCA. The toxicity of MCA to M. spicatum and M. sibiricum was very similar and thus highly predictive of toxicity observed for each other. The EC(10) was a more conservative estimate of toxicity than the statistically derived no observed effect concentration. Current concentrations of MCA are not likely to pose a risk to these aquatic plants in surface waters. PMID:12359395

Hanson, Mark L; Sibley, Paul K; Ellis, David A; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R

2002-12-01

70

Controllability analysis of decentralised linear controllers for polymeric fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with the control of polymeric fuel cells. It includes a linear analysis of the system at different operating points, the comparison and selection of different control structures, and the validation of the controlled system by simulation. The work is based on a complex non linear model which has been linearised at several operating points. The linear analysis tools used are the Morari resiliency index, the condition number, and the relative gain array. These techniques are employed to compare the controllability of the system with different control structures and at different operating conditions. According to the results, the most promising control structures are selected and their performance with PI based diagonal controllers is evaluated through simulations with the complete non linear model. The range of operability of the examined control structures is compared. Conclusions indicate good performance of several diagonal linear controllers. However, very few have a wide operability range. (author)

Serra, Maria; Aguado, Joaquin; Ansede, Xavier; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2005-10-10

71

Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Directional Solidification Process of Turbine Blade Casting with MCA Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel-based superalloy turbine blade castings are widely used as a key part in aero engines. However, due to the complex manufacturing processes, the complicated internal structure, and the interaction between different parts of the turbine blade, casting defects, such as stray grains, often happen during the directional solidification of turbine blade castings, which causes low production yield and high production cost. To improve the quality of the directionally solidified turbine blade castings, modeling and simulation technique has been employed to study the microstructure evolution as well as to optimize the casting process. In this article, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) method was used to simulate the directional solidification of turbine blade casting. The MCA method was coupled with macro heat transfer and micro grain growth kinetics to simulate the microstructure evolution during the directional solidification. In addition, a ray tracing method was proposed to calculate the heat transfer, especially the heat radiation of multiple blade castings in a Bridgman furnace. A competitive mechanism was incorporated into the grain growth model to describe the grain selection behavior phenomena of multiple columnar grains in the grain selector. With the proposed models, the microstructure evolution and related defects could be simulated, while the processing parameters optimized and the blade casting quality guaranteed as well. Several experiments were carried out to validate the proposed models, and good agreement between the simulated and experimental results was achieved.

Xu, Qingyan; Zhang, Hang; Qi, Xiang; Liu, Baicheng

2014-04-01

72

Rent control: a comparative analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders - and consequential homelessness - on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do [...] not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socioeconomic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

S, Maass.

73

RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socio-economic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

Sue-Mari Maass

2012-11-01

74

The Foetal ‘Mind’ as a Reflection of its Inner Self: Evidence from Colour Doppler Ultrasound of Foetal MCA  

Science.gov (United States)

The unborn healthy foetus is looked upon as a blessing by one and all. A plethora of thoughts arise in the brains of expectant parents. But what goes on in the brain of the yet unborn still remains a mystery. ‘Foetal mind’ is a reflection of functions of its organs of sense, an instrument of knowledge that may even be reduced to machine to demonstrate the effect of sense organs and brain contact. Testimony to this fact are the various waveform patterns obtained non-invasively from the foetal Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) by using Colour Doppler Ultrasound. Our study, conducted for evaluating the foetal MCA in a rural obstetric population in Maharashtra, India, explains how the MCA - a major artery supplying foetal brain, can give abundant information about foetal heart and foetal stress. When only the foetal heart is stressed by the presence of arrhythmias or ectopic beats, these changes are manifest in the foetal MCA velocity waveform pattern as seen on Colour Doppler study. When the entire foetus is under stress, as in cases of intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR), changes again manifest in the foetal MCA velocity waveform pattern and are designated as the foetal Brain Sparing Effect. Thus scientific evaluation of foetal MCA waveform can objectively demonstrate that the overtly non-communicating foetal brain indeed remains an internal organ of sense and a vital instrument of knowledge to clarify the various effects of sense organs and brain contact. Although the brain parenchyma or cerebral metabolism has not been studied here, cerebral vessels serve as a window to cerebral metabolism, as auto regulatory function of brain leads to changes in haemodynamics of cerebral vessels. Also, like other vessels, MCA mirrors foetal distress and IUGR; but unlike other vessels, e.g. the umbilical or uterine artery, which show these changes in the form of reduction or even reversal of diastolic flow, MCA shows an increase in diastolic component due to brain sparing effect. The unique connection between physical changes in the foetal heart, brain and mental operations are thus critically clarified to some extent, and this helps untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Although this preliminary study has its limitations, it still carries forward the present corpus of knowledge on the strength of its evidential and critical enquiry and helps unravel the concept of foetal consciousness. PMID:22654385

Kachewar, Sushil Ghanshyam; Gandage, Siddappa Gurubalappa

2012-01-01

75

Detection of focal hypoxic-ischemic injury and neuronal stress in a rodent model of unilateral MCA occlusion/reperfusion using radiolabeled annexin V  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study we wished to determine whether technetium-99m annexin V, an in vivo marker of cellular injury and death, could be used to noninvasively monitor neuronal injury following focal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion injury. Sixteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (along with four controls) underwent left (unilateral) MCA intraluminal beaded thread occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion. One hour following tail vein injection of 5-10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V, animals underwent either single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or autoradiography followed by immunohistochemical analyses. There was abnormal, bilateral, multifocal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V in each cerebral hemisphere as seen by both SPECT and autoradiography at 4 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after initiation of occlusion. The average maximal annexin V uptake at 4 h was 310%{+-}85% and 365%{+-}151% above control values (P<0.006) within the right and left hemispheres, respectively, peaking on day 3 with values of 925%{+-}734% and 1,194%{+-}643% (P<0.03) that decreased by day 7 to 489%{+-}233% and 785%{+-}225% (P<0.01). Total lesional volume of the left hemisphere was 226%, 261%, and 451% (P<0.03) larger than the right at 4, 24, and 72 h after injury, respectively. Annexin V localized to the cytoplasm of injured neurons ipsilateral to the site of injury as well as to otherwise normal-appearing neurons of the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by dual fluorescent microscopy. It is concluded that there is abnormal bilateral, multifocal annexin V uptake, greater on the left than on the right side, within 4 h of unilateral left MCA ischemic injury and that the uptake peaks at 3 days and decreases by 7 days after injury. This pattern suggests that neuronal stress may play a role in the response of the brain to focal injury and be responsible for annexin V uptake outside the region of ischemic insult. (orig.)

Mari, Carina; Goris, Michael L. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Hospital, CA 94305, Stanford (United States); Karabiyikoglu, Murat; Yenari, Midori Anne [Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Stanford University Hospital, CA 94305, Stanford (United States); Tait, Jonathan F. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, WA 98195-7110, Seattle (United States); Blankenberg, Francis G. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Hospital, CA 94305, Stanford (United States); Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, 725 Welch Road, Room 1673, CA 94305, Palo Alto (United States)

2004-05-01

76

Detection of focal hypoxic-ischemic injury and neuronal stress in a rodent model of unilateral MCA occlusion/reperfusion using radiolabeled annexin V  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we wished to determine whether technetium-99m annexin V, an in vivo marker of cellular injury and death, could be used to noninvasively monitor neuronal injury following focal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion injury. Sixteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (along with four controls) underwent left (unilateral) MCA intraluminal beaded thread occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion. One hour following tail vein injection of 5-10 mCi of 99mTc-annexin V, animals underwent either single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or autoradiography followed by immunohistochemical analyses. There was abnormal, bilateral, multifocal uptake of 99mTc-annexin V in each cerebral hemisphere as seen by both SPECT and autoradiography at 4 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after initiation of occlusion. The average maximal annexin V uptake at 4 h was 310%±85% and 365%±151% above control values (P<0.006) within the right and left hemispheres, respectively, peaking on day 3 with values of 925%±734% and 1,194%±643% (P<0.03) that decreased by day 7 to 489%±233% and 785%±225% (P<0.01). Total lesional volume of the left hemisphere was 226%, 261%, and 451% (P<0.03) larger than the right at 4, 24, and 72 h after injury, respectively. Annexin V localized to the cytoplasm of injured neurons ipsilateral to the site of injury as well as to otherwise normal-appearing neurons of the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by dual fluorescent micas confirmed by dual fluorescent microscopy. It is concluded that there is abnormal bilateral, multifocal annexin V uptake, greater on the left than on the right side, within 4 h of unilateral left MCA ischemic injury and that the uptake peaks at 3 days and decreases by 7 days after injury. This pattern suggests that neuronal stress may play a role in the response of the brain to focal injury and be responsible for annexin V uptake outside the region of ischemic insult. (orig.)

77

LANMAS Gap Analysis Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In July, 2000, the Controlled Materials Accountability and Tracking System (COMATS) Team, with the assistance of a representative of the Local Area Network Materials Accountability System (LANMAS) development team from Savannah River, performed an evaluation to enumerate and qualify differences between the current LANMAS functionality and LLNL requirements as implemented by COMATS. The differences found range from minor to serious deficiencies of LANMAS in relation to current LLNL MC&A practice. Therefore, we recommend a gradual integration of LANMAS into a hybrid system which uses LANMAS to satisfy DOE/NNSA MC&A and reporting requirements and uses COMATS to satisfy LLNL-specific MC&A and operational requirements.

Parrish, C.; Yee, W.; Okuda, V.; Watson, B.; Storch, N

2000-08-25

78

Microwave-assisted synthesis and photoluminescence of MMoO4 (M=Ca, Ba) particles via a metathetic reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MMoO4 (M=Ca, Ba) particles were synthesized by a metathetic reaction in ethylene glycol assisted by cyclic microwave irradiation followed by further heat-treatment. The MMoO4 (M=Ca, Ba) particles were well crystallized after heat-treatment at 400–600 °C for 3 h. The microstructures exhibited fine morphologies with sizes of 0.5–1 ?m and 1.5–2 ?m for the CaMoO4 and BaMoO4 particles, respectively. The synthesized MMoO4 (M=Ca, Ba) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The optical properties were examined by photoluminescence emission and Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: ? MMoO4 (M=Ca, Ba) particles were synthesized by a metathetic reaction in ethylene glycol accompanied by a cyclic microwave irradiation. ? The CaMoO4 and BaMoO4 particles after heat-treatment at 400–600 °C for 3 h exhibited fine morphologies with sizes of 0.5–2 ?m. ? The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence emission and Raman spectroscopy.

79

Analysis of the TMT mount control system  

Science.gov (United States)

The TMT mount control system provides telescope pointing and tracking. Requirements include wind disturbance rejection, offsetting time and accuracy, control system robustness, and the magnitude of response at structural resonances. A finite element model of the complete telescope has been developed and the transfer functions used for the control designs are presented. Wind disturbance, encoder, and wave-front-sensor models are presented that are used for the control design. A performance analysis translates the requirements to a required bandwidth. Achieving this bandwidth is important for reducing telescope image motion due to wind-buffeting. A mount control design is presented that meets the demanding requirements by maximizing low frequency gain and using structural filters to roll-off structural modes. The control system analysis includes an outer guide loop using a wave front sensor. Offsetting time and accuracy requirements are satisfied using feed-forward control architecture.

Thompson, Peter M.; MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Sirota, Mark J.

2008-07-01

80

Design And Analysis Of Linear Control Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Package of five computer programs developed to assist in design and analysis of linear control systems by use of root-locus and frequency-response methods. Package written in FORTRAN (BODE, TPEAK) and BASIC (LOCUS, KTUNE, and POLYROOT).

Jamison, John W.

1991-01-01

81

10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment...NRC-approved material control and accounting system that will achieve...shall: (1) Submit a fundamental nuclear material control plan...the Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system must...

2010-01-01

82

10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.  

Science.gov (United States)

... MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL...Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear...Commission-approved material control and accounting (MC&A) system that will...section, shall submit a fundamental nuclear material...

2010-01-01

83

The design of database for analysis of data from multichannel analyzer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of database management system in analyzing data from multichannel analyzer (MCA) are studied and designed to bring up various types of data from MCA to microcomputer in neutron activation analysis work. RS-232 interface used in transmitting and receiving signals from MCA to microcomputer by asynchronous communication was studied. The software (PC-talk) used in receiving data from MCA and save data file on diskette in microcomputer was studied. Then the developing database program was used to analyze types of element, determine the content of elements and also report results

84

Preliminary analysis on plasma equilibrium control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Survey of the plasma experiments about dependence of plasma confinement on plasma shaping, prescription of the space state equation for plasma shape control using MHD equilibrium equation and analysis of steady state deformation of plasma cross sectional shape due to plasma parameter disturbances were caried out for the shake of preliminary study of plasma equilibrium control in the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). Experiments so far showed that it is desirable to control plasma surface position within 1 cm error, but the analysis here showed that possible disturbance may shift it by 2 - 3 cm and it is difficult to control plasma whole surface in good accuracy only with the plasma position control coils which is placed at the inner area of the toroidal coils. (author)

85

MCA4climate - a practical framework for pro-development climate policy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Climate is an inordinate challenge but also an inordinate opportunity to transform economies onto a low-carbon, resourcee !cient Green Economy path. Catalyzing clean energy will not only cut greenhouse-gas emissions as part of e”orts to limit a global temperature rise to under 2 degrees C or more, it also represents a way of curbing healthhazardous air pollution while o”ering a rapid path to address energy poverty, especially in rural areas of developing economies. Meanwhile enhancing ecosystems such as forests, mangroves and seagrasses in order to conserve their carbon stocks can also trigger multiple benefits from boosting water supplies and improving agriculture to maintaining natural sea defences and nurseries for fish. The 17th Conference of the Parties meeting in Durban, South Africa, later this year presents the world with another opportunity to advance the climate agenda and co-operative action under the UN Climate Convention. It is crucial that those actions are designed within a coherent and robust policy-planning framework to ensure that they are both cost-e”ective and compatible with broader social, economic and environmental goals. For developing countries, sound climatepolicy planning will also enhance access to climate finance from the developed ones. Climate-policy planning is a complex undertaking. Many developing countries are only just starting to consider how to go about it and some require improved access to the requisite knowledge, expertise and technical skills. Drawing upon best practices, tried and tested in other parts of the world, is clearly an advantage. The MCA4climate, a new UNEP initiative, is designed to assist policymakers, particularly in the developing world, in that endeavour. It o”ers concrete guidance and recommendations on a number of critical issues and proposes a formal framework for evaluating climate mitigation and adaptation policies, paving a practical way forward so that countries evolve sustainably and grow their economies in a way that keeps humanity’s footprint within planetary boundaries. It draws on the work of leading experts on climate policymaking from around the world and uses an innovative approach to assessing policies that ensures that climate policies and strategies take full account of developmental concerns and objectives. The MCA4climate initiative reflects UNEP’s mission to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations—issues at the centre of Rio+20 next year in Brazil as governments look to scale-up and accelerate the implementation of the agreements, including those relating to climate change, established in Rio in 1992.

Trevor, Morgan

2011-01-01

86

Analysis and control of underactuated mechanical systems  

CERN Document Server

This monograph provides readers with tools for the analysis, and control of systems with fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom to be controlled, i.e., underactuated systems. The text deals with the consequences of a lack of a general theory that would allow methodical treatment of such systems and the ad hoc approach to control design that often results, imposing a level of organization whenever the latter is lacking. The authors take as their starting point the construction of a graphical characterization or control flow diagram reflecting the transmission of generalized forces through the degrees of freedom. Underactuated systems are classified according to the three main structures by which this is found to happen—chain, tree, and isolated vertex—and control design procedures proposed. The procedure is applied to several well-known examples of underactuated systems: acrobot; pendubot; Tora system; ball and beam; inertia wheel; and robotic arm with elastic joint. The text is illustrated with MATL...

Choukchou-Braham, Amal; Djemaï, Mohamed; Busawon, Krishna

2014-01-01

87

Temperature analysis of control rod for HTTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, the reactor shut down from the high temperature condition is made by the two-step control rods insertion in order to avoid a fatigue damage of control rod casing at high temperature. The control rods in reflector region are inserted into the core immediately after reactor scram and then, the control rods in fuel region are inserted when the core temperature becomes enough lower than the temperature limit of materials. Control rods in fuel region are inserted automatically by either signal of prescribed time given by timers or the signal that reactor outlet coolant temperature reached the preset value. This report describes the method, condition and results of control rod temperature analysis under various scram conditions. (author)

88

Analysis and design of hybrid control systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

Malmborg, J.

1998-05-01

89

A theoretical analysis of quantum control landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantum control landscape is a dynamical optimization metric expressed as a function of the control variables. A landscape can be defined for various problems in quantum control, such as the transfer of population between distinct quantum states, the optimization of the expectation value of an observable operator, or the construction of a quantum unitary transformation of a specific form. The first chapter outlines the history of quantum control to the present. The second through fifth chapters develop the foundation for a theoretical analysis of quantum control landscapes, focusing particularly on the critical topology. The enumeration of the critical regions is found in general to scale favorably with the Hilbert space dimension of the system. The dimensionality of the critical regions also has desirable scaling properties, imparting intrinsic robustness to the control solutions that comprise them. The sixth chapter focuses on the local geometry of the landscape. The main result is that the landscape gradient can at any point be expanded in a low-dimensional subspace of the control function space. This provides not only a theoretical rationale for the dimension-reduction for the quantum optimal control problem, but also the basis for a qualitatively new experimental control protocol. In the seventh chapter is presented a generalization of the "toolkit" method of propagating the Schrodinger equation, used for computations in the sixth chapter, but generally applicable to many kinds of numerical computations in quantum control. A summary of findings and open questions are discussed in the eighth chapter.

Hsieh, Michael M.

90

Modular Curriculum Approach (MCA) for teaching of introductory physics: Tablet PCs and flexible instructional space to stimulate active learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Modular Curriculum Approach is an innovative model designed at McMurry University and adopted for teaching of introductory physics courses. In MCA, traditional lab/lecture structure is converted into a system of flexible instructional modules, with lecture, lab, and discussion being merged into one technologically and collaboratively rich experience. Different elements are integrated with Tablet PCs as a single unifying platform to improve continuity among module components. A technology suite incorporated with tablets includes: Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response systems, data acquisition systems, and tablet-based note-taking tools. The MCA has been further reinforced by creating a new instructional space with movable partitions, allowing for easy transformation between lecture and lab modes. The space is supportive of small peer- group activities with easy-to-reconfigure table clusters, multiple white and black board surfaces, multiple TVs and projection screens.

Bykov, Tikhon; Kosheleva, Yelena

2011-03-01

91

Preoperative cerebral perfusion SPECT identify patients at risk for transient neurological deterioration after STA-MCA bypass surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient neurological deterioration (TND) is one of the most fatal complications after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery and it has been assumed to be caused by transient hyperperfusion. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between TND and preoperative cerebral perfusion status on brain SPECT to identify patients who are at risk of TND following superficial temporal artery middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery. Sixty patients who underwent STA-MCA bypass surgery were enrolled. The resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) after acetazolamide challenge were measured before and 10 days after surgery using Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimmer SPECT. Moreover, the CBF was measured on the third day postoperation. Follow up perfusion SPECT 6 month after surgery were obtained in 42 patients. With the use of the statistical parametric mapping and probabilistic brain atlas, the counts for the MCA territory were calculated for each image and statistical analyses were performed. In 6 of 60 patients (10%), TND occurred after surgery. The average CBF on the third postoperative day was significantly higher than the preoperative CBF (p 0.003). Furthermore, in 42 patients who had brain SPECT in the 6 months following operation, cerebral perfusion in the 6 months post operation was still higher than that observed before the operation. The increase in CBF from the preoperative day to the third postoperative day negatively correlathird postoperative day negatively correlated with preoperative perfusion (correlation coefficient = -0.66, p 0.0006). In TND patients, basal CBF on preoperative SPECT was significantly lower (p=0.01), and the changes in CBF on the third day after surgery was significant higher (p = 0.008). However, CVR did not significantly correlate with the increased perfusion after operation. The preoperative CBF and the subsequent changes in CBF after operation can help identify the risk of TND after STA-MCA bypass surgery

92

A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC  

OpenAIRE

A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the cou...

Aruna Lolla

2012-01-01

93

Pharmacological Effects of the Ruthenium Complex NAMI-A Given Orally to CBA Mice With MCa Mammary Carcinoma  

OpenAIRE

NAMI-A, imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethylsulfoxidetetrachlororuthenate, is a ruthenium based compounds capable of inhibiting the growth of lung metastases of solid tumours in a number of experimental conditions.The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of NAMI-A by the oral route to treat lung metastases of MCa mammary carcinoma in the CBA mouse. treatment of mice, carrying intramuscular tumours in advanced stage of growth, for 11 consecutive days caused a signi...

Zorzet, Sonia; Sorc, Alenka; Casarsa, Claudia; Cocchietto, Moreno; Sava, Gianni

2001-01-01

94

Redistribution of cerebral blood flow following STA-MCA by-pass in patients with hemispheric ischemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional cerebral blood flow and vasomotor reactivity were measured in 33 patients with surgically remediable hemispheric ischemia by the 133Xe inhalation method prior to superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) by-pass. Thirteen patients also underwent LCBF and L lambda measurements by the stable xenon CT method for comparison. Twenty-four had proximal occlusion of one or both internal carotid arteries, 9 had intracranial occlusive disease. Measurements were repeated at intervals up to 30 months following surgery and compared to measurements in a similar group treated medically. In the surgically treated group 22 patients had recurrent TIAs, of whom 12 also had minor residual neurological deficits from recent small cerebral infarctions with potential for recovery while the remaining 11 had RINDs without TIAs. After surgery 28 improved with cessation of TIAs and/or neurological recovery, 3 remained unchanged, 2 cases worsened. Compared to age-matched normal hemispheric F1 values, pre-operative F1 values in the STA-MCA group were reduced in both ischemic and opposite hemispheres. Ischemic regions showed imparied vasomotor reactivity to 5% CO2 or 100% O2 inhalation. After surgery, mean hemispheric F1 values increased + 12.8% on the by-pass side and + 10.5% on the contralateral side. Mean F1 increases reached a maximum 3 months after by-pass, most evident in ipsilateral frontal region. Vasomotor reactivity did not significion. Vasomotor reactivity did not significantly improve. Medically treated cases did not show similar F1 increases. Thirteen with carotid occlusive disease underwent CT LCBF and L lambda measurements before and after STA-MCA by-pass. Cases with recent infarcts showed reduced LCBF and L lambda values which increased significantly after STA-MCA by-pass, however the total group operated upon showed only trends for CBF increases, probably due to large standard deviations encountered in serial measurements

95

A short segment intracranial–intracranial jump graft bypass followed by proximal arterial occlusion for a distal MCA aneurysm  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: To describe the use of a short segment cortical intracranial–intracranial (IC–IC) bypass for the treatment of a distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. Case Description: A 54-year-old woman presented with a loss of consciousness followed by multiple seizures and was found to have a partially thrombosed distal MCA aneurysm. This possibly mycotic aneurysm was treated by creating a short segment jump graft between a normal cortical artery and a nearby cortical branch arising from the aneurysmal M3 arterial segment. The bypass allowed for subsequent occlusion of the aneurysmal vessel without ischemic consequence. At surgery, the anterior division of the superficial temporal artery (STA) was exposed and dissected. Intraoperative angiography was utilized to localize a cortical artery arising from the involved segment as well as a nearby cortical artery arising from a distinct, uninvolved MCA branch. A segment of the STA was harvested, and then 10-0 suture was utilized to anastomose this short segment, to both the involved and normal cortical arteries. This created a short jump graft allowing for subsequent sacrifice of the diseased artery. Following surgery, the patient immediately underwent coil embolization of the aneurysm back into the parent artery resulting in local vascular sacrifice. The remainder of the patient's hospital course was uneventful. She was discharged home in good condition. Conclusions: We suggest that cortical IC–IC bypass followed by endovascular arterial sacrifice as performed in our case represents a simple and safe option for treating unclippable distal MCA aneurysms including mycotic lesions. PMID:21811704

Nussbaum, Leslie; Defillo, Archie; Zelensky, Andrea; Nussbaum, Eric S.

2011-01-01

96

10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...  

Science.gov (United States)

... MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL...Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material...Commission-approved material control and accounting (MC&A) system that will...shall: (1) Submit a fundamental nuclear material...

2010-01-01

97

Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Ex...

Hopkins, B. L.

1995-01-01

98

Precious metal analysis by controlled potential coulometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Controlled potential coulometry is an electrochemical technique of high accuracy and precision and is especially suitable to the analysis of precious metals. Only approx. 5 mg of metal are required for each determination, and an accuracy and precision within 0.1% can be achieved routinely. The technique and its application to the analysis of gold and silver plating solutions are described. 3 figures, 3 tables.

Harrar, J.E.; Waggoner, M.C.

1981-01-01

99

Revealing the translation control by transcriptome analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A asmodel, some aspects of different points of gene expression controland transcriptome studies are discussed. A parallel with proteomicstudies is presented, as well as the optimization of thetranscriptome analysis using polysome profile assay. The polysomeprofile assay application reveals the translational control of mRNAsnot identified by traditional differential analysis of transcriptomes,which is widely employed to study diseases, such as tumors.

Augusto Ducati Luchessi

2006-09-01

100

Revealing the translation control by transcriptome analysis  

OpenAIRE

Taking the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) asmodel, some aspects of different points of gene expression controland transcriptome studies are discussed. A parallel with proteomicstudies is presented, as well as the optimization of thetranscriptome analysis using polysome profile assay. The polysomeprofile assay application reveals the translational control of mRNAsnot identified by traditional differential analysis of transcriptomes,which is widely employed to study disease...

Augusto Ducati Luchessi; Rui Curi; Claudio Miguel Costa-Neto

2006-01-01

101

Effect of STA-MCA bypass for ocular ischemic syndrome due to occlusive internal carotid artery diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined the effect of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for chronic ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) due to occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) diseases. We retrospectively examined the result of STA-MCA bypass in 49 patients with chronic OIS due to occlusive ICA diseases. Symptoms were a decline in visual acuity in 32 patients, frequent amaurosis fugax in 8 patients, and 9 patients showed both symptoms. Preoperatively, the flow directions of the ophthalmic artery were reversed in 45 patients and antegrade in 4 patients. The average peak systolic flow velocity (PFV) of the ophthalmic artery was -0.37 m/sec. At one month after bypass, 17 patients showed the antegrade ophthalmic artery flow. Mean PFV of the ophthalmic artery significantly rose to -0.12 m/sec (p<0.05). At three months after surgery, 26 patients showed the antegrade flow. Mean PFV of the ophthalmic artery significantly increased to 0.01 m/sec (p<0.05). During the follow-up period (mean 4.9 years), visual acuity improved in 23 patients (47%) and ceased to worsen in the remaining 26 patients. STA-MCA bypass was useful in improving and preventing OIS due to occlusive ICA diseases. (author)

102

PROMETHEE Method and Sensitivity Analysis in the Software Application for the Support of Decision-Making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PROMETHEE is one of methods, which fall into multi-criteria analysis (MCA. The MCA, as the name itself indicates, deals with the evaluation of particular variants according to several criteria. Developed software application (MCA8 for the support of multi-criteria decision-making was upgraded about PROMETHEE method and a graphic tool, which enables the execution of the sensitivity analysis. This analysis is used to ascertain how a given model output depends upon the input parameters. The MCA8 software application with mentioned graphic upgrade was developed for purposes of solving multi-criteria decision tasks. In the MCA8 is possible to perform sensitivity analysis by a simple form – through column graphs. We can change criteria significances (weights in these column graphs directly and watch the changes of the order of variants immediately.

Leopold Paszek

2008-01-01

103

General Analysis Tool Box for Controlled Perturbation  

CERN Document Server

The implementation of reliable and efficient geometric algorithms is a challenging task. The reason is the following conflict: On the one hand, computing with rounded arithmetic may question the reliability of programs while, on the other hand, computing with exact arithmetic may be too expensive and hence inefficient. One solution is the implementation of controlled perturbation algorithms which combine the speed of floating-point arithmetic with a protection mechanism that guarantees reliability, nonetheless. This paper is concerned with the performance analysis of controlled perturbation algorithms in theory. We answer this question with the presentation of a general analysis tool box. This tool box is separated into independent components which are presented individually with their interfaces. This way, the tool box supports alternative approaches for the derivation of the most crucial bounds. We present three approaches for this task. Furthermore, we have thoroughly reworked the concept of controlled per...

Osbild, Ralf

2012-01-01

104

Quality control and analysis of radiotracer compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Special emphasis was on the problems and errors possible in quality control and analysis. The principles underlying quality control were outlined, and analytical techniques applicable to radiotracers were described. Chapter concluded with a selection of examples showing the effects of impurities on the use of radiotracers. The subject of quality control and analysis was treated from the viewpoint of the user and those research workers who need to synthesize and analyze their own radiochemicals. The quality characteristics for radiotracers are of two kinds, valuable or attributive. These were discussed in the chapter. For counting low radioactive concentration, scintillation techniques are in general use, whereas ionization techniques are now used mainly for the measurement of high radioactive concentrations or large quantities of radioactivity, for scanning chromatograms, and a number of very specific purposes. Determination of radionuclidic purity was discussed. Use of radiotracers in pharmaceuticals were presented. 4 figures, 6 tables

105

Analysis of feedback control of piezoelectric transducers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Velocity control feedback may be required for implementation in large underwater acoustic arrays to mitigate the effects of strong acoustic field coupling when specific beam pattern performance over a variety of operating conditions is desired. This paper presents an analysis of velocity control with piezoelectric loads using motional current monitoring [as an extension to Aronov, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119(6), 3822-3830 (2006) and Bachand, Brown, and Aronov, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124(4), 2568 (2008)], with particular interest in automated wideband acoustic beamforming. The analysis is applicable to other forms of motional feedback control such as accelerometer or displacement signal feedback. Topics presented include the control loop's effectiveness, stability criteria, and the array equations governing the acoustical outputs. The conditions that can cause negative radiation impedance are also presented, concluding that in any velocity control system with acoustic interactions, the likelihood of a transmit channel absorbing more energy than it is transmitting increases with the feedback loop gain. This fundamental limitation must be considered before developing any practical acoustic velocity control system with strong inter-element acoustic field coupling. PMID:24907806

Randall, Robert C; Brown, David A

2014-06-01

106

76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations  

Science.gov (United States)

...facilities must have fundamental nuclear material control...does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe the accounting aspects that MC&A programs...definitions to be added are: Accounting, custodian, item...

2011-05-16

107

Financial Analysis, Budgeting, Decision and Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic processes taking place in the economic environment are stochastic processes that involve and imply risks, arising from product diversification, competition, financial derivatives transactions: swaps, futures, options and from the large number of actors involved in the stock market with a higher or a smaller uncertainty degree. Competition and competitiveness, led to major and rapid change in the business environment, they determined actors participating in the economy to find solutions and methods of collecting and processing data, in such a way that, after being transformed into information they quickly help based on their analysis in decision making, planning and financial forecasting, having an effect on increasing their economic efficiency. In these circumstances the financial analysis, decision, forecasting and control, should be based on quality information that should be a value creation source. The active nature of the financial function implies the existence of a substantially large share of financial analysis, financial decision, forecasting and control.

Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

2013-12-01

108

TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system consists of two major parts: (1) a Gould 584 industrial programmable controller (PC); (2) a VAX 11/750 based data acquisition and analysis system. The PC is designed for use in harsh industrial environments and has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective means for automated control. The PC configuration is dedicated to control tasks on the TARA magnet, vacuum, RF, neutral beam, diagnostics, and utility systems. The data transfer functions are used to download system operating parameters from menu selectable tables. Real time status reports are provided to video terminals and as blocks of data to the host computer for storage. The data acquisition and analysis system for TARA was designed to provide a high throughput and ready access to data from earlier runs. The adopted design uses pre-existing software packages in a system which is simple, coherent, fast and which requires a minimum of new software development. The computer configuration is a VAX 11/750 running VMS with 124 M BYTE massbuss disk and 1.4 G BYTE unibus disk subsystem. The front end for the data is a kinetic systems camac serial highway interface, and the graphics I/0 is done through a DMA terminal multiplexer. The data system provides a set of standard tools for use in user-written analysis programs. These tools allow access to current shot data as well as past shots with a minimum of overhead. The acquisition, archival, basic analysis, and dispsition, archival, basic analysis, and display of 1 M BYTE of data for every shot is accomplished once each 3 to 5 minutes, and any shot may be easily reanalyzed

109

21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 ...Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard analysis...absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan. Every processor shall have...

2010-04-01

110

Connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems assesses the feasibility of a field existing that can transfer at least some amplitude between any specified pair of states. Although Hamiltonians with special structure or symmetry may not produce full connectivity, it is argued and demonstrated that virtually any Hamiltonian is expected to be connected. The connectivity of any particular system is generally revealed in the quantum evolution over a single or at most a few time steps. A connectivity analysis is inexpensive to perform and it can also identify statistically significant intermediate states linking a specified initial and final state. These points are illustrated with several simple systems. The likelihood of an arbitrary system being connected implies that at least some product yield can be expected in the laboratory for virtually all systems subjected to a suitable control

111

Control Analysis of flexible Solar Sails  

Science.gov (United States)

Future solar sail missions will require sails with dimensions on the order of 100 m to l km. At these sizes, given the gossamer nature of the sail supporting structures, flexible modes may be low enough to interact with the control system. This paper develops a practical analysis of the flexible interactions using state-space systems and modal data from standard finite element models of the sail sub- system. The modal data is combined with a rigid core bus to create a modal coordinate state-space plant, which can be analyzed for stability with a state-space controller. Results are presented for an 80 m sail for both collocated actuation and control by actuators mounted at the sail tips.

Thomas, Stephanie J.; Paluszek, Michael A.

2005-01-01

112

Overview of systems analysis, market assessment and controls work  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat pump analysis, absorption and Rankine cooling analysis, and desiccant cooling analysis are reported. National energy savings, meeting cost and performance goals, recent simulation analysis, and controls research are discussed.

Warren, M. L.

1981-08-01

113

A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the course.

Aruna Lolla

2012-02-01

114

Human reliability analysis of control room operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

115

Thermal analysis and control of electronic equipment  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of thermal control techniques to the cooling of electronic components is examined from theoretical and practical points of view. The electronic-thermal-control (ETC) problem and the physical and conceptual restraints on its solution are characterized, with a focus on the goal of system reliability. The fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid mechanics are discussed, including steady-state and transient conduction, convection, radiation, phase-change processes, contact resistance, heat exchangers, air handling, and dimensional analysis. Mathematical models and empirical correlations are explored for such ETC techniques as direct air cooling, extended surfaces, cold plates, immersion cooling, heat pipes, and thermoelectric coolers. Specific ETC applications to inertial equipment, transistors, vacuum tubes, microwave equipment, microelectronics, and printed-circuit boards are considered.

Kraus, A. D.; Bar-Cohen, A.

116

Large scale systems approximation: Analysis and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work concerns the study of the approximation of high dimensional systems by low order models. This approximation is defined by aggregation methods, the method based on singular perturbations and a relatively recent method. This later one is formulated in a particular representation of the system and is called balanced realisation method. The application of the approximation is then studied in the case of suboptimal control theory for the several defined models. The results of numerical simulation for the analysis and control are carried on two examples defined by a model of a nuclear reactor core of order nine and a steam generator of a fuel station of order twenty and permitted to develop a comparative study of the performances of the different methods analysed in the case of open loop and closed loop models

117

MAP Attitude Control System Design and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The MAP spacecraft will perform its mission in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L(sub 2) Lagrange point to suppress potential instrument disturbances. To make a full-sky map of cosmic microwave background fluctuations, a combination fast spin and slow precession motion will be used. MAP requires a propulsion system to reach L(sub 2), to unload system momentum, and to perform stationkeeping maneuvers once at L(sub 2). A minimum hardware, power and thermal safe control mode must also be provided. Sufficient attitude knowledge must be provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation of 1.8 arc-minutes. The short development time and tight budgets require a new way of designing, simulating, and analyzing the Attitude Control System (ACS). This paper presents the design and analysis of the control system to meet these requirements.

Andrews, S. F.; Campbell, C. E.; Ericsson-Jackson, A. J.; Markley, F. L.; ODonnell, J. R., Jr.

1997-01-01

118

Decision-tree analysis of control strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major focus of research on visually guided action is the identification of control strategies that map optical information to actions. The traditional approach has been to test the behavioral predictions of a few hypothesized strategies against subject behavior in environments in which various manipulations of available information have been made. While important and compelling results have been achieved with these methods, they are potentially limited by small sets of hypotheses and the methods used to test them. In this study, we introduce a novel application of data-mining techniques in an analysis of experimental data that is able to both describe and model human behavior. This method permits the rapid testing of a wide range of possible control strategies using arbitrarily complex combinations of optical variables. Through the use of decision-tree techniques, subject data can be transformed into an easily interpretable, algorithmic form. This output can then be immediately incorporated into a working model of subject behavior. We tested the effectiveness of this method in identifying the optical information used by human subjects in a collision-avoidance task. Our results comport with published research on collision-avoidance control strategies while also providing additional insight not possible with traditional methods. Further, the modeling component of our method produces behavior that closely resembles that of the subjects upon whose data the models were based. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that data-mining techniques provide powerful new tools for analyzing human data and building models that can be applied to a wide range of perception-action tasks, even outside the visual-control setting we describe. PMID:25316047

Weber, Romann M; Fajen, Brett R

2014-10-15

119

The reliability analysis of reactor neutron flux (power) control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a reliability analysis taking into consideration related failures and the effect of regular maintenance of control system components are described. The analysis is focused on the determination of the control system components reliability characteristics and on the algorithm computation. Modifications of the control system are recommended on the basis of the results to increase the system reliability

120

Studying On Digital Signal Processing Method For Tested Design And The Construction Of DSP-Based MCA 1K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments for Physics research. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing for tested design and construction of DSP-based MCA 1K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, memory and Central processing unit are created. An application software for receiving data is written in LabVIEW 8.5. Spartan 3E starter kit is used for design of the project, combining with ISE software, XilinX 9.2i. (author)

121

User controlled analysis of gamma ray spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program 'ANGES' was designed as a general purpose high-resolution ? ray spectrometry program. It offers all main features as commercial software packages except control of acquisition process. The program is able to perform automatic analysis of spectra but it is announced as 'user controlled' because it supplies all intermediate results and gives the opportunity these results to be analyzed and corrected by the user. ANGES offers: multi document Windows interface; detailed visualization of spectra; nuclide library based on another contribution to CRP; energy and FWHM calibrations calculated by means of orthonormal polynomial fitting; peak processing engine based on a non-linear LSQ method for fitting peaks; peak location engine, based on first derivative method is provided to ease the preparation of a spectrum for processing; two methods for efficiency calibration (an efficiency calibration curve and reference table); peak identification and activity calculation procedure; a number of corrections (true coincidence summing, background correction, pile up rejection and so on); an option for processing series of similar spectra. The fitting procedure can be applied to the whole spectrum or to a single Region-of-Interest (ROI). The assumed peak shape is pure Gaussian. All peaks in single ROI are assumed to have the same FWHM. The maximum number of peaks in a single ROI is restricted to 25, the maximum ROI length is 512 channels, and the baseline is described with a polynomial of a degree up to 4. As a result of the identification procedure a report file is issued containing spectrum processing results, list of identified and not identified peaks, list of identified nuclides and background nuclides. (author)

122

Structurally constrained controllers analysis and synthesis  

CERN Document Server

Explains and investigates recent cutting edge applications including such topics as formation flyingComplete coverage of robust control in structurally constrained controllersDiscusses the performance evaluation of decentralized controllersExplains how to use new LMI method to solve traditional constrained control problems

Sojoudi, Somayeh; Aghdam, Amir G

2011-01-01

123

A microprocessor controlled multichannel analyser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microprocessor controlled MCA, in which direct memory access techniques are used to allow fast acquisition rates, is presented. The hardware, assembled around an Intel Corp. 8086 central processing unit, is briefly described. Operating commands to the MCA are given through front panel switches and through a keyboard; the command structure and the various software implemented functions are discussed. Among these there are functions for scale selection, comparison and transfer of spectra, marking of areas of interest, arithmetic operations, differentiation and integration of spectra. The corresponding programs and subroutines are described and their source and object codes are made available. (orig.)

124

Analysis of Controller Communication in En Route Air Traffic Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

To contribute to an understanding of the elements of good air traffic controller communication with the objective of providing recommendations to improve controller communication training, two studies analyzed team communication, ground-air communication, and ground-line communication. The simulated and live traffic analyses examined established…

Seamster, Thomas L.; And Others

125

Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

2008-01-01

126

Strategic Planning and Decision Analysis: Presentation of the COSIMA Software System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a composite decision support system, COSIMA, programmed in MS Excel. COSIMA provides assistance to the decision maker as concerns complex decisions and strategic planning. The COSIMA software is designed as interconnected modules which make it possible to conduct Cost-Benefit Analysis and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) either in combination or separated. The MCA module is based on the AHP and SMARTER techniques. COSIMA also handles risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation.

127

Friction in Servo Machines: Analysis and Control Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis tools and compensation methods for the automatic control of systems with friction are surveyed. The literature reviewed is principally that of the controls and mechanics communities, and the perspective taken is that of the controls engineer. Over 180 papers are cited. The analysis tools discussed are describing functions, algebraic analysis, phase plane analysis and simulation. All major compensation techniques are described including both those which employ friction models (fixed and adaptive feedforward compensation) and those which do not (stiff PD, integral, dither, impulsive and dual mode control). A summary of current engineering practice in industry is reported and a paradigm for future research is proposed.

Armstrong-Hélouvry, Brian; Dupont, Pierre; Canudas de Wit, Carlos

128

Analysis of nonlinearities compensation for control valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control valves have an important function in many industry processes, such as power generation plants, chemical industries, refinery industries, etc. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent nonlinearities characteristics, e.g. static friction (stiction), backlash, and dead-band. The presence of nonlinearities in a control valve limits the control loop performance and also causes a stability problem of the system. Moreover, this condition renders the design of control system more complex and very hard to be handled. Based on this phenomenon, it is desirable to improve the control systems to compensate for these inherent nonlinear characteristics of the control valve. In this paper, a procedure to compensate for the stiction phenomenon of control valve for a pneumatic control valve type is presented. A computational simulation is also presented to verify the proposed method. (authors)

129

Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation can now be analytically studied, and specialized optimization in the upper level control can also be made accordingly. Case studies on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation are carried out using proposed power flow analysis.

Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay

2014-01-01

130

Control and Analysis of Droop and Reverse Droop Controllers for Distributed Generations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper addresses control and analysis of droop and reverse droop control for distributed generations (DG). The droop control is well known applied to the voltage control mode (VCM) DG units, but has limitation when implemented on the current control mode (CCM) units. Therefore, this paper gives a more complete primary control for DG systems that integrates with both VCM and CCM units. The power management can be uniformly achieved by designing proportional droop and reverse droop parameters. And the power sharing effect among CCM and VCM DG units is discussed. Finally, hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out to validate the proposed control and analysis.

Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen

2014-01-01

131

Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment.  

OpenAIRE

Cell shape and motility are primarily controlled by cellular mechanics. The attachment of the plasma membrane to the underlying actomyosin cortex has been proposed to be important for cellular processes involving membrane deformation. However, little is known about the actual function of membrane-to-cortex attachment (MCA) in cell protrusion formation and migration, in particular in the context of the developing embryo. Here, we use a multidisciplinary approach to study MCA in zebrafish mesod...

Diz-mun?oz, A.; Krieg, M.; Bergert, M.; Ibarlucea-benitez, I.; Muller, D. J.; Paluch, E.; Heisenberg, C. P.

2010-01-01

132

Analysis and control of nonlinear systems  

CERN Document Server

A work on a hot topic in the field of control of nonlinear systems that ranges from mathematical system theory to practical industrial control applications. It addresses two fundamental questions in Systems and Control: how to plan the motion of a system and track the corresponding trajectory in presence of perturbations.

Levine, Jean

2009-01-01

133

PID control system analysis and design  

OpenAIRE

With its three-term functionality offering treatment of both transient and steady-state responses, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control provides a generic and efficient solution to realworld control problems. The wide application of PID control has stimulated and sustained research and development to "get the best out of PID", and "the search is on to find the next key technology or methodology for PID tuning". This article presents remedies for problems involving the...

Li, Y.; Ang, K. H.; Chong, G. C. Y.

2006-01-01

134

Analysis, estimation and control of nonlinear oscillations  

OpenAIRE

The author received the Ph.D. degree in Automatic Control from the Saint-Petersburg State Electrical Engineering University (Russia) in 2001, and the Dr.Sc. degree in Automatic control in 2006 from Institute for Problems of Mechanical Engineering RAS (Saint-Petersburg, Russia). From 2000 to 2009 he was research fellow of the Institute for Problems of Mechanical Engineering RAS, Control of Complex Systems Laboratory. From 2006 to 2011 he was working with the LSS (Supelec, France), the Montefio...

Efimov, Denis

2012-01-01

135

Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems  

OpenAIRE

The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are required to effectively anticipate. Hence, typically a real-time optimal control strategy results. As weather forecasts are uncertain, predicted model outputs and related costs of the control strat...

Keesman, K. J.; Doeswijk, T. G.

2010-01-01

136

A new microcomputer-controlled neutron activation and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microcomputer-controlled irradiation and measurement system and a microprocessor-controlled sample changer have been installed at the SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). These systems can provide the gamut of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for the analyst. Custom software has been created for system control, data acquisition, and off-line spectral analysis using programs that incorporate Gaussian peak-fitting methods of analysis. The design and use of the equipment is discussed, and the performance is illustrated with results obtained from the analysis of marine sediment and biological reference materials

137

Analysis of Lyapunov Control for Hamiltonian Quantum Systems  

OpenAIRE

We present detailed analysis of the convergence properties and effectiveness of Lyapunov control design for bilinear Hamiltonian quantum systems based on the application of LaSalle's invariance principle and stability analysis from dynamical systems and control theory. For a certain class of Hamiltonians, strong convergence results can be obtained for both pure and mixed state systems. The control Hamiltonians for realistic physical systems, however, generally do not fall in...

Wang, Xiaoting; Schirmer, Sonia

2008-01-01

138

Solar Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, control design, and control performance test of solar power system. Solar power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter control, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter control is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for control design. The dynamic analysis results show that these controls affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of controllers are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of control parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter control stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.

Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun

1996-01-01

139

Reliability analysis of VVER-1000 information and control systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of the analysis is the reliability of the information and control systems for the Ukrainian nuclear power plants (NPP) with pressurized-water reactors type VVER-1000. The analysis had three directions. 1. The analysis of the reliability of the instruments. 2. The analysis of the reliability of the NPP systems in whole under the realization of the different functions. 3. The analysis of the accidents in the time of the NPP operation, which look place because of the control and information systems failures. The applications of the obtain results are described. (author)

140

Analysis of Reconfigured Control Loop with a Virtual Actuator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control reconfiguration changes the control structure in response to a fault detected in the plant. This becomes necessary, because a major fault like loss of an actuator breaks the corresponding control loop and therefore renders the whole system inoperable.  An important aim of control reconfiguration is to change the control structure as little as possible, since every change bears the potential of practical problems. The proposed solution is to keep the original controller in the loop and to add an extension called virtual actuator that implements the necessary changes of the control structure. The virtual actuator translates between the signals of the nominal controller and the signal of the faulty plants. This paper is concerned with the analysis of reconfigured loop with a virtual actuator for the system with the faulty actuator. The proposed analysis is illustrated on numerical example.

Daniel Gontkovic

2011-01-01

141

OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM  

OpenAIRE

The present work describes the design and analysis of a chemical process control system. The design is accomplished to attain the optimality of control operation. The total system is supposed to consist of the suitable controller operated in the closed loop manner with negative feedback path, affording the suitable output to the input. The optimality of the performance for the system is considered to be attained with gain of the (PD) controller [1], so chosen that the integral square error be...

Ashis Kumar Das

2013-01-01

142

Analysis and Design of PLL Motor Speed Control System  

OpenAIRE

Phase-locked technology in motor speed control system has a wide range of applications, Especially for high accuracy in the motor steady speed operation situation, more and more use of phase-locked servo control system. This paper describes the block diagram and mathematical model of phase-locked control system, Shows the circuit parameter calculation method This and combined with design example analysis of phase-locked control system, Indicated through the theory and practice, using PLL can ...

Qi Chao Zhang

2013-01-01

143

Control Engineering Analysis of Mechanical Pitch Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

With the help of a local stability analysis the coefficient range of a discrete damper, used for centrifugal forced, mechanical pitch system of small wind turbines (SWT), is gained for equilibrium points. – By a global stability analysis the gained coefficient range can be validated. An appropriate approach by Takagi-Sugeno is presented in the paper.

Bernicke, Olaf; Gauterin, Eckhard; Schulte, Horst; Zajac, Michal

2014-12-01

144

Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented

145

Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented.

Zardecki, A.

1994-08-01

146

INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS  

OpenAIRE

Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by ...

MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU; N?T?LI?A-MIHAELA LESCONI-FRUMU?ANU

2010-01-01

147

Adaptive Control Algorithms, Analysis and Applications  

OpenAIRE

Adaptive Control (second edition) shows how a desired level of system performance can be maintained automatically and in real time, even when process or disturbance parameters are unknown and variable. It is a coherent exposition of the many aspects of this field, setting out the problems to be addressed and moving on to solutions, their practical significance and their application. Discrete-time aspects of adaptive control are emphasized to reflect the importance of digital computers in the ...

Landau, Ioan; Lozano, Rogelio; M Saad, Mohammed; Karimi, Alireza

2011-01-01

148

Design and Simulation of Seido Buffer for Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) on Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) Application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of our electronic equipment has buffer, thus this make buffer as one of importance in electronic gadget. This paper introduced Single Ended Input Differential Output (SEIDO) buffer to predict the bias at approximately 2.5 V. For this purpose, the input range between -1 mV to 4 V was implemented. The software used to cascade SEIDO buffer is called LTspice IV; an open source software developed by Linear Technology Incorporation. The component involve in this development was Operational Amplifier (OP AMP) AD826 from Analog Devices Incorporation, capacitor and resistor. Kirchhoffs Current Law and Kirchhoffs Voltage Law was applied to calculated voltage gain and biasing voltage. All design has been verified by LTspice IV. The result produced from simulation was between -0.3 V to 6.3 V with bias roughly at 2.5 V. These results prove that it was capable to drive Analog Digital Converter (ADC) that can subsequently apply for Multichannel Analyzer (MCA). (author)

149

Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems  

CERN Document Server

Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

2012-01-01

150

STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available      The performance of pressure control system and stability analysis was studied for different types of controllers. A theoretical model for closed-loop system is developed and dynamic behavior of the control system was studied by introducing a step change in the pressure of the inlet stream. The results show that the theoretical response is faster than the experimental response due to the lags of the control valve and measuring elements. The pressure control system is stable for all conditions and for different control action because the real parts of roots of characteristics equation are negative but the response at PID controller is oscillatory stable. when PID controller used the response is improve due to eliminate the offset and stabilizing effect of derivative allow the proportional gain to be increased and increasing the speed of response compared to proportional and proportional-integral controllers.  

Duraid F. Ahmed

2013-05-01

151

INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by public entities. Internal Audit, along its evolution - characterized by complex dynamics and adaptability - created confusion regarding the concept of control. The research presented in this paper is based on works published to date regarding the conceptual boundaries of this notion.

MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU

2010-01-01

152

Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptorcy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

153

Plasma membrane protein OsMCA1 is involved in regulation of hypo-osmotic shock-induced Ca2+ influx and modulates generation of reactive oxygen species in cultured rice cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanosensing and its downstream responses are speculated to involve sensory complexes containing Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive channels. On recognizing osmotic signals, plant cells initiate activation of a widespread signal transduction network that induces second messengers and triggers inducible defense responses. Characteristic early signaling events include Ca2+ influx, protein phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Pharmacological analyses show Ca2+ influx mediated by mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels to influence induction of osmotic signals, including ROS generation. However, molecular bases and regulatory mechanisms for early osmotic signaling events remain poorly elucidated. Results We here identified and investigated OsMCA1, the sole rice homolog of putative Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive channels in Arabidopsis (MCAs. OsMCA1 was specifically localized at the plasma membrane. A promoter-reporter assay suggested that OsMCA1 mRNA is widely expressed in seed embryos, proximal and apical regions of shoots, and mesophyll cells of leaves and roots in rice. Ca2+ uptake was enhanced in OsMCA1-overexpressing suspension-cultured cells, suggesting that OsMCA1 is involved in Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Hypo-osmotic shock-induced ROS generation mediated by NADPH oxidases was also enhanced in OsMCA1-overexpressing cells. We also generated and characterized OsMCA1-RNAi transgenic plants and cultured cells; OsMCA1-suppressed plants showed retarded growth and shortened rachises, while OsMCA1-suppressed cells carrying Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin showed partially impaired changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt induced by hypo-osmotic shock and trinitrophenol, an activator of mechanosensitive channels. Conclusions We have identified a sole MCA ortholog in the rice genome and developed both overexpression and suppression lines. Analyses of cultured cells with altered levels of this putative Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive channel indicate that OsMCA1 is involved in regulation of plasma membrane Ca2+ influx and ROS generation induced by hypo-osmotic stress in cultured rice cells. These findings shed light on our understanding of mechanical sensing pathways.

Kurusu Takamitsu

2012-01-01

154

Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brushless DC motors (BLDC find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease of implementation, these controllers pose difficulties where there are some control complexity such as nonlinearity, load disturbances and parametric variations. Moreover PI controllers require precise linear mathematical models. In this paper, the analysis and mathematical modeling of BLDC motor is implemented. Also, speed control of three phase BLDC motor drive using power electronic device is projected by using matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows the improved performance of developed Brushless DC motor drive.

Mr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

2013-09-01

155

Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System  

OpenAIRE

The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategie...

Aleem Ahmed Khan; Kashan Hussain

2012-01-01

156

Time Series Analysis Forecasting and Control  

CERN Document Server

A modernized new edition of one of the most trusted books on time series analysis. Since publication of the first edition in 1970, Time Series Analysis has served as one of the most influential and prominent works on the subject. This new edition maintains its balanced presentation of the tools for modeling and analyzing time series and also introduces the latest developments that have occurred n the field over the past decade through applications from areas such as business, finance, and engineering. The Fourth Edition provides a clearly written exploration of the key methods for building, cl

Box, George E P; Reinsel, Gregory C

2011-01-01

157

Post-Operative Follow-up of Breast Cancer Patients Using Serum Tumor Markers: CEA and CA15.3 vs MCA in the Early Detection of Distant Metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In breast cancer current guidelines do not recommended the routine use of serum tumor markers. Differently, we observed that CEA, CA 15.3 panel permits early detection for most relapsing patients. As high sensitivity and specificity and different cut-off values have been reported for Mucin-like Carcinoma associated Antigen (MCA, we compared MCA with the above mentioned tumor markers. In 150 breast cancer patients submitted to post-operative follow-up with tumor markers, we compared MCA (cut-off values, = 11 and = 15 U mL -1 with CEA and CA15.3 for detection of relapse. Distant metastases occurred in 12 (8% of the 150 patients who were disease-free at the beginning of the study. MCA sensitivity with both cut-off values was higher than that of CEA or CA15.3 (65 vs 12%, 33% and (55 vs 17%, 31% , respectively. With cut-off = 11 U mL -1, MCA showed the lowest specificity (32%. With out-off =15 U mL -1, MCA specificity was lower than that of CEA and CA 15.3 (71 vs 95 and 96%, respectively. At both the evaluated cut-off values serum MCA sensitivity is higher than that of CEA or CA15.3 but its specificity is lower than them. These findings further support the need for prospective randomized clinical trial to assess whether post-operative follow-up with an appropriate use of serum tumor markers such as MCA can significantly improve clinical outcome of early detected relapsing patients.

2008-01-01

158

Flexible Space Station Attitude Control System analysis and design  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Attitude Control System (ACS) is designed to ensure integrated dynamic stability and performance under coupling of attached flexible bodies, articulation of payloads, interaction of substructural joint control systems with the primary structure, and docking transients. In particular, the objective of the flex control system design is to provide adequate flex stability margin and to minimize control effector induced flex oscillations. This paper describes a flexible body control methodology and present analysis results. Low bandwidth Control Moment Gyroscopes and Momentum Management (CMG/MM) attitude control system and Reaction Control System (RCS) rigid body controllers provide wide separation between rigid body control bandwidth and the first significant flex mode. This gives rise to a feasible design approach which uses gain stabilization. The design provides 18 dB gain margin for all flex modes with nominal flex parameters. The modal parameter uncertainty analysis results indicate that 18 dB margin is sufficient. No active damping of flex modes is provided. The design approach and integrated analysis tools are also discussed.

Chang, David S.; Lee, John F. L.

1992-08-01

159

Control of Spatially Heterogeneous and Time-Varying Cellular Reaction Networks A New Summation Law  

CERN Document Server

A hallmark of a plethora of intracellular signaling pathways is the spatial separation of activation and deactivation processes that potentially results in precipitous gradients of activated proteins. The classical Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA), which quantifies the influence of an individual process on a system variable as the control coefficient, cannot be applied to spatially separated protein networks. The present paper unravels the principles that govern the control over the fluxes and intermediate concentrations in spatially heterogeneous reaction networks. Our main results are two types of the control summation theorems. The first type is a non-trivial generalization of the classical theorems to systems with spatially and temporally varying concentrations. In this generalization, the process of diffusion, which enters as the result of spatial concentration gradients, plays a role similar to other processes such as chemical reactions and membrane transport. The second summation theorem is completely ...

Peletier, M A; Kholodenko, B N; Peletier, Mark A.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Kholodenko, Boris N.

2002-01-01

160

Control theoretic analysis and design of numerical algorithms  

OpenAIRE

Many iterative numerical algorithms can be considered as dynamical systems. Since control theory deals with the study of dynamical systems, it has the potential to provide new insight, analysis tools and even new algorithms to the field of numerical analysis. Although the early knowledge of this observation, the research in this application area is scarce. In this thesis we use control theoretic ideas to study and design numerical algorithms. We will focus on developing analys...

Hasan, Ammar

2012-01-01

161

Analysis and design of networked control systems  

CERN Document Server

This monograph focuses on characterizing the stability and performance consequences of inserting limited-capacity communication networks within a control loop. The text shows how integration of the ideas of control and estimation with those of communication and information theory can be used to provide important insights concerning several fundamental problems such as: ·         minimum data rate for stabilization of linear systems over noisy channels; ·         minimum network requirement for stabilization of linear systems over fading channels; and ·         stability of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations. A fundamental link is revealed between the topological entropy of linear dynamical systems and the capacities of communication channels. The design of a logarithmic quantizer for the stabilization of linear systems under various network environments is also extensively discussed and solutions to many problems of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations are de...

You, Keyou; Xie, Lihua

2015-01-01

162

Magnetic field regulation control system analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study comprises (1) an analytical characterization of the Cameca ion microscope`s magnetic field regulation circuitry and (2) comparisons between the analytical predictions and the measured performance of the control system. It is the first step in a project to achieve routine field regulation better than 10ppm. The control loop was decomposed into functional subcircuits and simulated in SPICE to determine DC, AC, and transient response. Transfer functions were extracted from SPICE, simplified, and analyzed in MATLAB. Both SPICE and MATLAB simulations were calculated for step inputs, and these results were compared to actual measurements. Magnetic field fluctuations were measured at high mass resolving power. The frequency spectrum of the fluctuations was analyzed by FFT. Difficulties encountered and implications for future work are discussed.

Badelt, S.W. [Lawrence Livremore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-05-01

163

PID control system analysis, design, and technology  

OpenAIRE

Designing and tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller appears to be conceptually intuitive, but can be hard in practice, if multiple (and often conflicting) objectives such as short transient and high stability are to be achieved. Usually, initial designs obtained by all means need to be adjusted repeatedly through computer simulations until the closed-loop system performs or compromises as desired. This stimulates the development of "intelligent" tools...

Ang, K. H.; Chong, G. C. Y.; Li, Y.

2005-01-01

164

Cognitive Task Analysis of Prioritization in Air Traffic Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cognitive task analysis was performed to analyze the key cognitive components of the en route air traffic controllers' jobs. The goals were to ascertain expert mental models and decision-making strategies and to identify important differences in controller knowledge, skills, and mental models as a function of expertise. Four groups of…

Redding, Richard E.; And Others

165

FAILURE ANALYSIS AND METHODS OF CONTROL TRACK CIRCUITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the analysis of refusal and existing methods of control of condition of track circuits of tonal frequency is conducted for development (on this base of methods and devices of automated control of the track circuits’ parameters.

D. V. Dunaiev

2009-12-01

166

Use of 123I-IMP brain SPET to predict outcome following STA-MCA bypass surgery: cerebral blood flow but not vasoreactivity is a predictive parameter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superficial temporal artery - middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery might improve the cerebral blood flow (CBF) but fail to reduce the risk of post-surgical events such as ischaemic stroke. In this study, we studied retrospectively whether the risk of post-surgical events corresponded to the change in resting CBF and/or the change in vasoreactivity observed before and after STA-MCA surgery using N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 123I-IMP brain SPET images obtained at rest and following acetazolamide challenge both before and after STA-MCA surgery were studied in 30 patients. Resting CBF was estimated semiquantitatively using the resting count ratios of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) area to the cerebellum. Acetazolamide challenge was assumed to result in an average increase in flow of 40% in the cerebellum. The vasoreactive response was then estimated as the ratio of the change in counts (acetazolamide - rest) to the resting cerebellar counts multiplied by 1.4. We classified 14 patients (50.5±19.3 years) into group I, who had a change in their resting CBF from before to after surgery of >10%, and 16 patients (54.0±18.8 years) into group II, who had a change in their resting CBF from before to after surgery of ?10%. Oxygen-15 positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed in five patients from group I and five patients from group II. One post-surgical event occ group II. One post-surgical event occurred in group I while there were eight post-surgical events in group II (P<0.05). Resting CBF improved by 20.4%±7.5% in group I and by 0.9%±6.9% in group II patients after surgery (P<0.001). No significant difference in the improvement in vasoreactivity was observed between group I patients (32.6%±17.7%) and group II patients (24.6%±15.6%) following surgery. Patients in the group I PET subset showed normalization of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from 0.59±0.09 before surgery to 0.46±0.06 after surgery (P<0.05), while patients in the group II PET subset showed no statistical difference in OEF before surgery (0.58±0.14) and after surgery (0.54± 0.05). We conclude that the outcome of STA-MCA bypass surgery can be predicted by the improvement in resting CBF but not by the improvement in vasoreactivity. (orig.)

167

Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop  

OpenAIRE

We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics...

Galhardo, C. E. C.; Penna, T. J. P.; Menezes, M. Argollo; Soares, P. P. S.

2009-01-01

168

FROM FAULT TREE ANALYSIS TO MODEL CHECKING OF LOGIC CONTROLLERS  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a method enabling to state formal properties of a logic controller, a prerequisite for formal verification using model-checking, from a fault-tree analysis taking into account both the controlled process and the controller. Invariants, non-timed and timed properties are considered and illustrated thanks to an example. The aim of this method is to ease formal properties design and to bridge the gap between fault forecasting and fault removal for automated systems.

Santiago Barragan, Israel; Faure, Jean-marc

2005-01-01

169

A performance requirements analysis of the SSC control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of analysis of the performance requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider Control System. We quantify the performance requirements of the system in terms of response time, throughput and reliability. We then examine the effect of distance and traffic patterns on control system performance and examine how these factors influence the implementation of the control network architecture and compare the proposed system against those criteria. (author)

170

State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

Rasmussen, Robert D.

2005-01-01

171

Contamination control - the analysis of things as they should be  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination can be controlled in chemical analyses by the use of suitable containers, cleanliness, appropriate apparatus design, isolation of the analysis process from air, and in-situ analysis. Examples based on analyses of organic reactor coolant, metals, and underground natural waters are given. (LL)

172

Power system small signal stability analysis and control  

CERN Document Server

Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

2014-01-01

173

Discontinuous control systems frequency-domain analysis and design  

CERN Document Server

This book provides new insight on the problem of closed-loop performance and oscillations in discontinuous control systems, covering the class of systems that do not necessarily have low-pass filtering properties. The author provides a practical, yet rigorous and exact approach to analysis and design of discontinuous control systems via application of a novel frequency-domain tool: the locus of a perturbed relay system. Presented are a number of practical examples applying the theory to analysis and design of discontinuous control systems from various branches of engineering, including electro

Boiko, Igor

2008-01-01

174

Controllability analysis of modified Petlyuk structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distillation columns can consume a large portion of energy in chemical industry processes. Integrated Petlyuk columns have been shown to improve energy efficiencies by between 20 and 40 per cent, and thermally coupled distillation columns can serve as an alternative to conventional distillation sequences in multicomponent mixture separation processes. Until recently, operational difficulties have limited the wider introduction of Petlyuk columns in industrial applications. Alternative Petlyuk-type schemes have now been developed to provide improved operation properties. This paper discussed, evaluated, and compared the theoretical control properties of 6 different Petlyuk schemes. Computations were performed using a singular value decomposition (SVD) technique in the frequency domain. Dynamic closed-loop responses for set point tracking, and disturbance rejections were derived in order to support each scheme's theoretical control properties. Results of the comparative evaluation demonstrated that reductions in the number of interconnections and the use of unidirectional flows impacted the dynamic properties of the schemes, and led to operational improvements in thermally coupled distillation sequences. It was concluded that Petyluk properties can be improved through the correction of the bidirectionality of interconnecting streams. 30 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs.

Tamayo-Galvan, V.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.; Hernandez, S.; Hernandez, H. [Guanajuato Univ. (Mexico). Faculty of Chemistry

2008-02-15

175

Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation. To this end, four distinct modes of operation are identified (dry weather, filling, saturation and emptying) and for each of these the process gain matrix is found. Based on the gain matrices a controllability analysis is performed, to screen for suitable pairings between measurements and actuators in the case study area of Copenhagen. The analysis effectively reduces the number of potential controlled variables, by considering the sensitivity of the measurements towards changes in the manipulated variables. Several potential pairings are generated and the best alternative is chosen for closed-loop testing. The methodology is a promising tool for systematic generation of solutions for sewer system control.

Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

2015-01-01

176

Set-Up of Digital MCA with HPGE Detector in High Gamma Fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processing time adjustability of a commercial portable spectroscopy workstation based on Digital Signal Processing technology was investigated in areas from highly contaminated (mSv/h dose rate) to high energies (up to 8 MeV) to throughput and resolution performance coaxial Germanium detector. Altering the rise/fall and flat top times of the trapezoidal filter, it was estimated the full width at half maximum at the following peaks: 54Mn 834.8 keV, 60Co 1332.5 keV, 16O(n, p)16N 6129.9 keV, 56Fe(n, ?) 7631.1 keV and 56Fe(n, ?) 7645.5 keV. First type measurement for ultra-high counting and throughput rates was performed at ionex filter which capture activation products (54Mn, 60Co) from primary cooling medium and second type measurement for highest resolution was carried out at pressure water reactor platform during nominal power level giving high energy gamma 6129.9 keV from interaction fast neutrons 16O(n, p)16N and 7631.1 keV, 7645.5 keV from radiation capturing thermal neutrons by 56Fe(n, ?). To measure through energy range up to 8 MeV was reached setting coarse and fine gain to lower range and measuring at contaminated ionex filter by GBq activity was allowed using 50 mm cylindrical collimator by 30 mm diameter, without using this collimator was destroyed whole gamma spectrum despite altering rise/flat times. The results, which are presente times. The results, which are presented, provide optimum performance for high throughput: FWHM 1.71 keV/834.8 keV (54Mn) and 2.00 keV/1332.5 keV (60Co) and best resolution: FWHM 4.49 keV/6129.9 keV (16N), 4.97 keV/7631.1 keV/7645.5 keV (prompt gamma iron) setting 2.8 ?s rise time and 0.6 ?s flat top time. For 0.8/1.2 ?s rise time and 0.2 ?s flat top time occurred results with destroyed resolution broadening and peak shift at 6129.9 keV and 7631.1/7645.5 keV. For rise time above 8.8 ?s and flat time above 0.8 ?s were peaks at 834.8 keV and 1332.5 keV unusable for purpose peak analysis process. (author)

177

21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 120.8 Section 120.8 ...HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120...Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) HACCP plan. Each...

2010-04-01

178

Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating.

Tian Jian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)], E-mail: tjian@mailst.xjtu.edu.cn; Feng Quanke; Zhu Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-05-15

179

Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating. (author)

Tian, Jian; Feng, Quanke; Zhu, Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-05-15

180

Analysis and Comparison of Access Control Policies Validation Mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Validation and verification of security policies is a critical and important task to ensure that access control policies are error free. The two most common problems present in access control policies are: inconsistencies and incompleteness. In order to detect such problems, various access control policy validation mechanisms are proposed by the researchers. However, comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the existing access control policy validation techniques is missing in the literature. In this paper, we have provided a first detailed survey of this domain and presented the taxonomy of the access control policy validation mechanisms. Furthermore, we have provided a qualitative comparison and trend analysis of the existing schemes. From this survey, we found that only few validation mechanisms exist that can handle both inconsistency and incompleteness problem. Also, most of the policy validation techniques are inefficient in handling continuous values and Boolean expressions.

Muhammad Aqib

2014-12-01

181

Nonlinear analysis and control of a continuous fermentation process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Different types of nonlinear controllers are designed and compared for a simple continuous bioreactor operating near optimal productivity. This operating point is located close to a fold bifurcation point. Nonlinear analysis of stability, controllability and zero dynamics is used to investigate open-loop system properties, to explore the possible control difficulties and to select the system output to be used in the control structure. A wide range of controllers are tested including pole placement and LQ controllers, feedback and input–output linearization controllers and a nonlinear controller based on direct passivation. The comparison is based on time-domain performance and on investigating the stability region, robustness and tuning possibilities of the controllers. Controllers using partial state feedback of the substrate concentration and not directly depending on the reaction rate are recommended for the simple fermenter. Passivity based controllers have been found to be globally stable, not very sensitive to the uncertainties in the reaction rate and controller parameter but they require full nonlinear state feedback.

Szederkényi, G.; Kristensen, Niels Rode

2002-01-01

182

Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

Schoenwald, D.A.

1993-07-01

183

Performance Analysis and FPGA Implementation of Digital PID Controller for Speed Control of DC Motor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance analysis and implementation of PID(Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller on FPGA platform.The hardware implementation has been done on Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA board.The software implementation has been done using Xilinx ISE 8.1i as a tool and simulation is performed using ModelSim 5.4a as a simulator.The PWM signal is generated by FPGA board,which further given to dc motor for its speed control. A new technique has been introduced for the generation of the control input as a PWM signal for controlling the motor driver circuit and decoding the optical encoder data for using it for the speed feedback in the PID control loop. The VHDL algorithm for the proposed implementation has been presented in this paper. Performance analysis of PID controller using MATLAB software shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Charul Agarwal

2013-06-01

184

REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems

185

REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems.

D.W. Markman

1999-09-17

186

Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

187

Analysis of design control values for TEP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) Performance Requirements Report (USITER-13201-TD0005-R00), date May 29, 2007 defined feed sources for TEP quantities and approximate flow rate of gases from these individual sources. In addition, the report identified the approximate periods of time (during Burn and Dwell, 'Silent Shift', etc.) that these gases would be transferred to TEP. This report did not take into account the detailed, time dependent, sequencing options for receiving gases from these feed sources. Sequencing is critical in defining the actual design basis values (flow rates, etc.) for TEP. This report analyzes the time dependent sequencing of feed flows to TEP and defines the ,design basis values. This analysis is based on the values presented in the TEP Performance Requirements Report (TEP PRR), and indicates that the ITER Burn and Dwell, Silent Shift Following 16 hours of Burn and Dwell, Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC), and Silent Shift following 100 hours of GDC scenarios are the limiting scenarios from which the design basis values will be defined.

Carlson, Bryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

188

77 FR 60482 - Regulatory Guide 5.67, Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment...Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment...and Content for the Fundamental Nuclear Material Control...material control and accounting (MC&A) programs...and Content for the Fundamental Nuclear Material...

2012-10-03

189

Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

190

Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-11

191

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 2. AGRICULTURAL SEDIMENT CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely effects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting...

192

Use of task analysis in control room evaluations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Responding to recently formulated regulatory requirements, the BWR Owners' Group, working in conjunction with General Electric, has formulated a method for performing human factors design reviews of nuclear power plant control rooms. This process incorporates task analyses to analyze operational aspects of panel layout and design. Correlation of operator functions defined by emergency procedures against required controls and displays has proven successful in identifying instrumentation required in the control room to adequately respond to transient conditions, and in evaluating the effectiveness of panel design and physical arrangement. Extensions of the analysis have provided information on operator response paths, frequency of use of instruments, and control room layout. The techniques used were based on a need to identify primary controls and indications required by the operator in performing each step of the applicable procedure. The relative locations of these instruments were then analyzed for information on the adequacy of the control room design for those conditions

193

Page: a program for gamma spectra analysis in PC microcomputers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PAGE is a software package, written in BASIC language, to perform gamma spectra analysis. It was developed to be used in a high-purity intrinsic germanium detector-multichannel analyser-PC microcomputer system. The analysis program of PAGE package accomplishes functions as follows: peak location; gamma nuclides identification; activity determination. Standard nuclides sources were used to calibrate the system. To perform the efficiency x energy calibration a logarithmic fit was applied. Analysis of nuclides with overlapping peaks is allowed by PAGE program. PAGE has additional auxiliary programs for: building and list of isotopic nuclear data libraries; data acquisition from multichannel analyser; spectrum display with automatic area and FWHM determinations. This software is to be applied in analytical process control where time response is a very important parameter. PAGE takes ca. 1.5 minutes to analyse a complex spectrum from a 4096 channels MCA. (author)

194

Unified power flow controller: Modeling, stability analysis, control strategy and control system design  

Science.gov (United States)

Unified power flow controller (UPFC) has been the most versatile Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device due to its ability to control real and reactive power flow on transmission lines while controlling the voltage of the bus to which it is connected. UPFC being a multi-variable power system controller it is necessary to analyze its effect on power system operation. To study the performance of the UPFC in damping power oscillations using PSCAD-EMTDC software, a de-coupled control system has been designed for the shunt inverter to control the UPFC bus voltage and the DC link capacitor voltage. The series inverter of a UPFC controls the real power flow in the transmission line. One problem associated with using a high gain PI controller (used to achieve fast control of transmission line real power flow) for the series inverter of a UPFC to control the real power flow in a transmission line is the presence of low damping. This problem is solved in this research by using a fuzzy controller. A method to model a fuzzy controller in PSCAD-EMTDC software has also been described. Further, in order to facilitate proper operation between the series and the shunt inverter control system, a new real power coordination controller has been developed and its performance was evaluated. The other problem concerning the operation of a UPFC is with respect to transmission line reactive power flow control. Step changes to transmission line reactive power references have significant impact on the UPFC bus voltage. To reduce the adverse effect of step changes in transmission line reactive power references on the UPFC bus voltage, a new reactive power coordination controller has been designed. Transient response studies have been conducted using PSCAD-EMTDC software to show the improvement in power oscillation damping with UPFC. These simulations include the real and reactive power coordination controllers. Finally, a new control strategy has been proposed for UPFC. In this proposed control strategy, the shunt inverter controls the DC link capacitor voltage and the transmission line reactive power flow. The series inverter controls the transmission line real power flow and the UPFC bus voltage. PSCAD-EMTDC simulations have been conducted to show the viability of the control strategy in damping power oscillations.

Sreenivasachar, Kannan

2001-07-01

195

Proposed design for a high quality PC-MCA add on card with reduced electronic hardware [Paper No.: I4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design and construction of an 8 k personal computer analyser (PCA), used for nuclear pulse height analysis. The complete PCA uses a single card that can be mounted in a slot of personal computer. The PCA circuit consists of an interface memory circuit and an 8-K nuclear ADC along with its associated controls giving differential non-linearity (DNL) of ? ± 1% with conversion time of nearly 15 micro sec. All standard facilities like selection of conversion gain, digital offset etc. are provided. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

196

Adaptive Backstepping Control and Safety Analysis for Modern Fighter Aircraft:  

OpenAIRE

There exist many examples of aircraft incidents in which the pilots have successfully used the remaining control authority over an aircraft to save the airframe and its passengers and cargo from apparently hopeless failure conditions. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. Several accidents happened in which the crew was not able to save the aircraft, although post-flight analysis showed that it was possible with alternative, perhaps unconventional, control strategies. These aircraft accid...

Oort, E. R.

2011-01-01

197

Spectroscopic analysis of immobilised redox enzymes under direct electrochemical control.  

OpenAIRE

This article reviews recent developments in spectroscopic analysis of electrode-immobilised enzymes under direct, unmediated electrochemical control. These methods unite the suite of spectroscopic methods available for characterisation of structural, electronic and coordination changes in proteins with the exquisite control over complex redox enzymes that can be achieved in protein film electrochemistry in which immobilised protein molecules exchange electrons directly with an electrode. This...

Ash, Pa; Vincent, Ka

2012-01-01

198

Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis  

OpenAIRE

Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

Hall, Genae A.

1993-01-01

199

Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) in air condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general, the reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in solids needs an annealing process in a reducing atmosphere. In this paper, it is of great interest and importance to find that the reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ can be realized in a series of alkaline-earth metal aluminum silicates MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) just in air condition. The Eu2+-doped MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) powder samples were prepared in air atmosphere by Pechini-type sol-gel process. It was found that the strong band emissions of 4f65d1-4f7 from Eu2+ were observed at 417, 404 and 373 nm in air-annealed CaAl2Si2O8, SrAl2Si2O8 and BaAl2Si2O8, respectively, under ultraviolet excitation although the Eu3+ precursors were employed. In addition, under low-voltage electron beam excitation, Eu2+-doped MAl2Si2O8 also shows strong blue or ultraviolet emission corresponding to 4f65d1-4f7 transition. The reduction mechanism from Eu3+ to Eu2+ in these compounds has been discussed in detail. - Graphical abstract: It is of great importance to find that the reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ can be realized in a series of alkaline-earth metal aluminum a series of alkaline-earth metal aluminum silicates MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) just in air condition.

200

Interference control in low-level 129I analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis for 129I at levels close to the detection limit requires consideration of radionuclide and nuclear reaction interferences. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometer methods for detection and measurement of interferences have been developed. Procedures which control or eliminate potential 129I measurement errors during pre-irradiation separation, neutron activation, post-irradiation separation, radiation counting and data analysis are needed. (author)

201

Towards constructive nonlinear control systems analysis and design  

OpenAIRE

This work presents a novel method to solve analysis and design problems for nonlinear control systems, the classical solutions of which rely on the solvability, or on the solution itself, of partial differential equations or inequalities. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the analysis of nonlinear systems. The notion of Dynamic Lyapunov function is introduced. These functions allow to study stability properties of equilibrium points, similarly to standard Lyapunov fu...

Sassano, Mario

2012-01-01

202

Multihop Medium Access Control for WSNs: An Energy Analysis Model  

OpenAIRE

We present an energy analysis technique applicable to medium access control (MAC) and multihop communications. Furthermore, the technique's application gives insight on using multihop forwarding instead of single-hop communications. Using the technique, we perform an energy analysis of carrier-sense-multiple-access (CSMA-) based MAC protocols with sleeping schemes. Power constraints set by battery operation raise energy efficiency as the prime factor for wireless sensor networks. A detail...

Nen Petri, M. H.; Haapola Jussi; Shelby Zach; Pomalaza-Ráez Carlos

2005-01-01

203

Team One (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. Progress report for the two quarters ending March 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report covers progress by Team One of the DOE/OFE/D and T 12 Tesla Coil Development Program during the first and second quarters of fiscal 1981. General Atomic Company is the Team One leader, with Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) as industrial subcontractor. The basic mission of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and establish an engineering data base for utilizing bath cooled NbTi alloy to generate a peak toroidal field of 12 tesla in a tokamak reactor

204

Security Analysis of a Wireless Quadruple Tank Control System  

OpenAIRE

The main emphasis of this Master Thesis is the analysis of the effect of malicious deception attacks applied to a real process, in this case a scale model of a water distribution system made up of four interconnected water tanks and two pumps to control the water levels. The process model is derived, followed by the design and  est of three kinds of controllers: LQG, PI and PI robustified with the Glover-McFarlane method. Later, the performance of the closed loop system with these controller...

Forment Navarro, Albert

2011-01-01

205

Floquet stability analysis of Ott Grebogi Yorke and difference control  

Science.gov (United States)

Stabilization of instable periodic orbits of nonlinear dynamical systems has been a widely explored field theoretically and in applications. The techniques can be grouped into time-continuous control schemes based on Pyragas, and the two Poincaré-based chaos control schemes, Ott Gebogi Yorke (OGY) and difference control. Here, a new stability analysis of these two Poincaré-based chaos control schemes is given by means of the Floquet theory. This approach allows to calculate exactly the stability restrictions occurring for small measurement delays and for an impulse length shorter than the length of the orbit. This is of practical experimental relevance; to avoid a selection of the relative impulse length by trial and error, it is advised to investigate whether the used control scheme itself shows systematic limitations on the choice of the impulse length. To investigate this point, a Floquet analysis is performed. For OGY control the influence of the impulse length is marginal. As an unexpected result, difference control fails when the impulse length is taken longer than a maximal value that is approximately one half of the orbit length for small Ljapunov numbers and decreases with the Ljapunov number.

Claussen, Jens Christian

2008-06-01

206

Development of ADOCS controllers and control laws. Volume 2: Literature review and preliminary analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Cockpit Controls/Advanced Flight Control System (ACC/AFCS) study was conducted by the Boeing Vertol Company as part of the Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) program. Specifically, the ACC/AFCS investigation was aimed at developing the flight control laws for the ADOCS demonstrator aircraft which will provide satisfactory handling qualities for an attack helicopter mission. The three major elements of design considered are as follows: Pilot's integrated Side-Stick Controller (SSC) -- Number of axes controlled; force/displacement characteristics; ergonomic design. Stability and Control Augmentation System (SCAS)--Digital flight control laws for the various mission phases; SCAS mode switching logic. Pilot's Displays--For night/adverse weather conditions, the dynamics of the superimposed symbology presented to the pilot in a format similar to the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) Pilot Night Vision System (PNVS) for each mission phase as a function of ACAS characteristics; display mode switching logic. Findings from the literature review and the analysis and synthesis of desired control laws are reported in Volume 2. Conclusions drawn from pilot rating data and commentary were used to formulate recommendations for the ADOCS demonstrator flight control system design. The ACC/AFCS simulation data also provide an extensive data base to aid the development of advanced flight control system design for future V/STOL aircraft.

Landis, Kenneth H.; Glusman, Steven I.

1985-01-01

207

The TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MIT tandem mirror (TARA) control, data acquisition and analysis system consists of two major parts: 1) a Gould 584 industrial programmable controller (PC) to control engineering functions; and 2) a VAX 11/750 based data acquisition and analysis system for physics analysis. The PC is designed for use in harsh industrial environments and has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective means for automated control. The PC configuration is dedicated to control tasks on the TARA magnet, vacuum, RF, neutral beam, diagnostics, and utility systems. The data transfer functions are used to download system operating parameters from menu selectable tables. Real time status reports are provided to video terminals and as blocks of data to the host computer for storage. The data acquisition and analysis system for TARA was designed to provide high throughput and ready access to data from earlier runs. The adopted design uses pre-existing software packages in a system which is simple, coherent, fast, and which requires a minimum of new software development. The computer configuration is a VAX 11/750 running VMS with 124 M byte massbus disk and 1.4 G byte unibus disk subsystem. The front end for the data system is a Kinetic Systems CAMAC serial highway interface, and the graphics I/O is done through a DMA terminal multiplexer. The data system provides a set of standard tools for use in user-written analysis programs. These tools allow access to current shot data as well as to past s to current shot data as well as to past shots with a minimum of overhead. The acquisition, archival, basic analysis, and display of 1 M byte of data for every shot is accomplished once every 3-5 minutes, and any shot may be easily reanalyzed

208

Autonomous miniaturised device with USB interface for pulse height analysis and multi-channel scaling (TUKAN-8K-USB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present autonomous a 8K-channel miniature device designed for spectroscopy or intensity vs. time measurements. The device (TUKAN-8K-USB) is based on the USB interface, and is contained in a screened separate box - it can be proved either directly from the USB port or from an external DC source (wall adapter of battery). The device may work in two independent operational modes: Multi-Channel Analysis (MCA) and Multi-Channel Scaling (MCS). The crucial MCA component - Peak detect and Hold circuitry - is featuring a novel architecture based on a diamond transistor. Its analog stage can accept analog pulses with front edges down to 100 ns and has a differential linearity below 0.5% (full scale sliding scale averaging). Automatic stops on count in Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and on preset live or real time are implemented. The MCS works at medium speed counting rates (up to 8 MHz), with preset dwell time, number of channels and multi-sweep mode. Each these parameters can also be controlled externally. Digital interfacing is based on four used configurable logical I/O lines. A single CYCLONE EP1C3 Altera FPGA provides all control functions. The USB communication is based on FYDI FIFO controller. The analyzer is equipped with advanced, user-friendly software, which is subjected of another publication. )author)

209

Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bushlya, Anatoly V [ROSATOM, RUSSIA; Efimenko, Vladimir F [IPPE, RUSSIA; Ilyanstev, Anatoly [IPPE, RUSSIA; Regoushevsky, Victor I [IPPE, RUSSIA

2010-01-01

210

Control Flow Analysis for the Pi-calculus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Control Flow Analysis is a static technique for predicting safe and computable approximations to the set of values that the objects of a program may assume during its execution. We present an analysis for the pi-calculus that shows how names will be bound to actual channels at run time. The formulation of the analysis requires no extensions to the pi-calculus, except for assigning ``channels'' to the occurrences of names within restrictions, and assigning ``binders'' to the occurrences of names within input prefixes. The result of our analysis establishes a super-set of the set of names to which a given name may be bound and of the set of names that may be sent along a given channel. Applications of our analysis include establishing simple security properties of processes. One example is that P has no leaks, i.e. P offers communication through public channels only, and confines its secret names within itself.

Bodei, C.; Degano, P.

1998-01-01

211

Output Feedback Robust Hinf Control of Uncertain Active Fault Tolerant Control Systems via Convex Analysis  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the problem of H_{infty} and robust H_{infty} control, via dynamic output feedback, of continuous time Active Fault Tolerant Control Systems with Markovian Parameters (AFTCSMP) subject to both structured and unstructured parameter uncertainties. The above problematic is addressed under a convex programming approach. Indeed, the fundamental tool in the analysis is an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequalities) characterization of dynamical compensators that stochastically (robustly)...

Aberkane, Samir; Sauter, Dominique; Ponsart, Jean-christophe

2007-01-01

212

A Calculus for Control Flow Analysis of Security Protocols  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The design of a process calculus for anaysing security protocols is governed by three factors: how to express the security protocol in a precise and faithful manner, how to accommodate the variety of attack scenarios, and how to utilise the strengths (and limit the weaknesses) of the underlying analysis methodology. We pursue an analysis methodology based on control flow analysis in flow logic style and we have previously shown its ability to analyse a variety of security protocols. This paper develops a calculus, LysaNS that allows for much greater control and clarity in the description of attack scenarios, that gives a more flexible format for expressing protocols, and that at the same time allows to circumvent some of the ``false positives'' arising in previous work.

Buchholtz, Mikael; Nielson, Hanne Riis

2004-01-01

213

Chaos in electric drive systems analysis control and application  

CERN Document Server

In Chaos in Electric Drive Systems: Analysis, Control and Application authors Chau and Wang systematically introduce an emerging technology of electrical engineering that bridges abstract chaos theory and practical electric drives. The authors consolidate all important information in this interdisciplinary technology, including the fundamental concepts, mathematical modeling, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and hardware implementation. The book provides comprehensive coverage of chaos in electric drive systems with three main parts: analysis, control and application. Corresponding drive systems range from the simplest to the latest types: DC, induction, synchronous reluctance, switched reluctance, and permanent magnet brushless drives.The first book to comprehensively treat chaos in electric drive systemsReviews chaos in various electrical engineering technologies and drive systemsPresents innovative approaches to stabilize and stimulate chaos in typical drivesDiscusses practical application of cha...

Chau, K T

2011-01-01

214

Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

Moore, L.

1998-07-22

215

Orientation disruption of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in maize by a liquid MCA formulation released from paper squares in the Banat region of Serbia and Montenegro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serbia-Montenegro, formerly the Republic of Yugoslavia, is the first European Country where Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte (Col.: Chrysomelidae) (D.v.v.) was reported in 1992 as an invasive alien pest species, Baca (1993), Camprag and Baca, (1995): From a focal point near Belgrade airport, the maize pest quickly spread in all directions reaching the economic threshold in a number of surrounding countries around 1995. The field experiments described took place in the Banat region east of Belgrade in July of 2002. The plant kairomone mimic 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (MCA) dissolved in acetone was slowly volatilized from paper squares. It permeated a maize field of known D.v.v. history of 0.5 ha size 3 km north of the village of Crepaja. With release rates of 266 g/ha, max. orientation disruption levels of 55% were achieved. The total amount of MCA was distributed in two manual applications. Readings of orientation levels were continued for eleven days during the latter part of July and into early August of 2002. PMID:15149097

Hummel, H E; Baca, F I; Erski, P

2003-01-01

216

Hybrid formulations of liposomes and bioadhesive polymers improve the hypotensive effect of the melatonin analogue 5-MCA-NAT in rabbit eyes.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the treatment of chronic ocular diseases such as glaucoma, continuous instillations of eye drops are needed. However, frequent administrations of hypotensive topical formulations can produce adverse ocular surface effects due to the active substance or other components of the formulation, such as preservatives or other excipients. Thus the development of unpreserved formulations that are well tolerated after frequent instillations is an important challenge to improve ophthalmic chronic topical therapies. Furthermore, several components can improve the properties of the formulation in terms of efficacy. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, we have developed formulations of liposomes (150-200 nm) containing components similar to those in the tear film and loaded with the hypotensive melatonin analog 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT, 100 µM). These formulations were combined with mucoadhesive (sodium hyaluronate or carboxymethylcellulose) or amphiphilic block thermosensitive (poloxamer) polymers to prolong the hypotensive efficacy of the drug. In rabbit eyes, the decrease of intraocular pressure with 5-MCA-NAT-loaded liposomes that were dispersed with 0.2% sodium hyaluronate, 39.1±2.2%, was remarkably higher compared to other liposomes formulated without or with other bioadhesive polymers, and the effect lasted more than 8 hours. According to the results obtained in the present work, these technological strategies could provide an improved modality for delivering therapeutic agents in patients with glaucoma. PMID:25329636

Quinteros, Daniela; Vicario-de-la-Torre, Marta; Andrés-Guerrero, Vanessa; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina-Martínez, Irene T

2014-01-01

217

Rapid and accurate control rod calibration measurement and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reduce the time needed to perform control rod calibrations and improve the accuracy of the results, a technique for a measurement, analysis, and tabulation of integral rod worths has been developed. A single series of critical rod positions are determined at constant low power to reduce the waiting time between positive period measurements and still assure true stable reactor period data. Reactivity values from positive period measurements and control rod drop measurements are used as input data for a non-linear fit to the expected control rod integral worth shape. With this method, two control rods can be calibrated in about two hours, and integral and differential calibration tables for operator use are printed almost immediately. Listings of the BASIC computer programs for the non-linear fitting and calibration table preparation are provided. (author)

218

Design and Analysis of Bayesian Model Predictive Controller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, a novel predictive controller based on a Bayesian inferring nonlinear model (BMPC is presented and analyzed. In the construction of the BMPC, the Bayesian inferring model is selected as the predictive model with the characteristics of on-line tracing ability to the actual controlled object. The nonlinear programming method called the steepest gradient is set as the receding horizon optimization algorithm of the BMPC. The on-line controller output is obtained using this method. The convergence analysis of the proposed BMPC is given and the examples (nonminimum phase and nonlinear objects are selected to validate the performance of the BMPC. The simulation results show that with the help of the presented BMPC algorithm, the closed loop control system demonstrates the abilities of anti-disturbance and robustness.

Yijian Liu

2014-07-01

219

Analysis on step action of hydraulic control rod driving  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The step action of the hydraulic control rod driving (HCRD) has been achieved by experiments. The author reveals the action mechanism of the HCRD, gives detail analysis of the relationship among its dynamic feature, the control rod and combined valve performance parameters, and the combined valve operation. The results indicate that the step process of the control rod is affected by output flow pulsation of the combined valve, pressure wave, and heavily damped pressure oscillation that is produced by the step cylinder movement. The performance parameters of the step cylinder limit the flow range in its stationary balanced state and also limit the capability of absorbing flow pulsation and pressure wave in its step process. The performance parameters of the combined valve decide the quantity values of stationary balance, delay balance, flowing pulsation and pressure wave. The relation of both parameters determines the step states of the control rod

220

Ordinary differential equations analysis, qualitative theory and control  

CERN Document Server

The book comprises a rigorous and self-contained treatment of initial-value problems for ordinary differential equations. It additionally develops the basics of control theory, which is a unique feature in the current textbook literature. The following topics are particularly emphasised: • existence, uniqueness and continuation of solutions, • continuous dependence on initial data, • flows, • qualitative behaviour of solutions, • limit sets, • stability theory, • invariance principles, • introductory control theory, • feedback and stabilization. The last two items cover classical control theoretic material such as linear control theory and absolute stability of nonlinear feedback systems. It also includes an introduction to the more recent concept of input-to-state stability. Only a basic grounding in linear algebra and analysis is assumed. Ordinary Differential Equations will be suitable for final year undergraduate students of mathematics and appropriate for beginning postgraduates in math...

Logemann, Hartmut

2014-01-01

221

Experimental Bifurcation Analysis By Control-based Continuation - Determining Stability’  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The newly developed control-based continuation technique has made it possible to perform experimental bifurcation analysis, e.g. to track stable as well as unstable branches of frequency responses directly in experiments. The method bypasses mathematical models, and systematically explores how vibration characteristics of dynamical systems change under variation of parameters. The method employs a control scheme to modify the response stability. While this facilitates exploration of the unstable branches of a bifurcation diagram, it unfortunately makes it impossible to distinguish previously stable and unstable equilibrium states. We present the ongoing work of developing and applying the control-based continuation method to an experimental mechanical test-rig, consisting of a harmonically forced nonlinear impact oscillator controlled by electromagnetic actuators. Furthermore we propose and test ideas on how to determine the stability of equilibria states during continuation.

Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar

2012-01-01

222

Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in pressure and flow. This report formulates the system equations and develops the controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to satisfy flow rate tracking requirements. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking performance.

Jackson, M. E.

1995-01-01

223

Parameter Estimation Analysis for Hybrid Adaptive Fault Tolerant Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Research efforts have increased in recent years toward the development of intelligent fault tolerant control laws, which are capable of helping the pilot to safely maintain aircraft control at post failure conditions. Researchers at West Virginia University (WVU) have been actively involved in the development of fault tolerant adaptive control laws in all three major categories: direct, indirect, and hybrid. The first implemented design to provide adaptation was a direct adaptive controller, which used artificial neural networks to generate augmentation commands in order to reduce the modeling error. Indirect adaptive laws were implemented in another controller, which utilized online PID to estimate and update the controller parameter. Finally, a new controller design was introduced, which integrated both direct and indirect control laws. This controller is known as hybrid adaptive controller. This last control design outperformed the two earlier designs in terms of less NNs effort and better tracking quality. The performance of online PID has an important role in the quality of the hybrid controller; therefore, the quality of the estimation will be of a great importance. Unfortunately, PID is not perfect and the online estimation process has some inherited issues; the online PID estimates are primarily affected by delays and biases. In order to ensure updating reliable estimates to the controller, the estimator consumes some time to converge. Moreover, the estimator will often converge to a biased value. This thesis conducts a sensitivity analysis for the estimation issues, delay and bias, and their effect on the tracking quality. In addition, the performance of the hybrid controller as compared to direct adaptive controller is explored. In order to serve this purpose, a simulation environment in MATLAB/SIMULINK has been created. The simulation environment is customized to provide the user with the flexibility to add different combinations of biases and delays to the explored derivatives. Biases were considered in the range -500% to 500% and delays in the range 0.5 to 40 seconds. The stability and control derivatives considered in this research effort are a combination of decoupled derivatives in the three channels, longitudinal, lateral, and directional. Numerous simulation scenarios and flight conditions are considered to provide more credibility to the obtained results. In addition, a statistical analysis has been conducted to assess the results. The performance of the control laws has been evaluated in terms of the integral of the error in tracking the three desired angular rates, pitch, roll, and yaw. In addition, the effort of the neural networks exerted to compensate for tracking errors is considered in the analysis as well. The results show that in order to obtain reliable estimates for the investigated derivatives, the estimator needs to generate values with less than five seconds delay. In addition, derivatives estimates are within 50% or -15% off the exact values. Moreover, the importance of updating derivatives depends on the maneuver scenario and the flight condition. The estimation process at quasi-steady state conditions provides reliable estimates as opposed to estimation during fast dynamic changes; also, the estimation process has better performance at large rate of change of derivatives values.

Eshak, Peter B.

224

Electromagnetic analysis of control element drive mechanism for KSNP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic jack type Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) is an electromechanical device which provides controlled linear motion to the Control Element Assembly (CEA) through the Extension Shaft Assembly (ESA) in response to operational signals received from the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). The CEDM is operated by applying localized magnetic flux fields to movable latch and lift magnets, which are in the coolant pressure boundary. The CEDM design had been developed through electromechanical testing of the system including the magnetic force lifting the ESA. But it will be inefficient if parametric studies should be performed to improve the CEDM by test due to the consumption of high cost and long duration. So it becomes necessary to develop a computational model to simulate the electromagnetic characteristics of the CEDM to improve the CEDM design efficiently. In this paper, the electromagnetic analysis using a 2D finite element model has been carried out to simulate magnetic force of the lift magnet of the CEDM, to provide effective evaluation between leakage flux and lift force and to compare with test results. Analysis results show the lift force satisfied the test results and design requirement and the lift force depend on the shape of the components, leakage flux and B-H curve

225

Concurrent analysis of choice and control in childbirth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports original research on choice and control in childbirth. Eight women were interviewed as part of a wider investigation into locus of control in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term (PROM 1. Methods The following study uses concurrent analysis to sample and analyse narrative aspects of relevant literature along with these interviews in order to synthesise a generalisable analysis of the pertinent issues. The original PROM study had found that women experienced a higher degree of control in hospital, a finding that appeared at odds with contemporary notions of choice. However, this paper contextualises this finding by presenting narratives that lucidly subscribe to the dominant discourse of hospital as the safest place to give birth, under the premise of assuring a live healthy baby irrespective of their management type. Results This complex narrative is composed of the following themes: 'perceiving risk', 'being prepared', 'reflecting on experience', maintaining control' and relinquishing control'. These themes are constructed within and around the medical, foetocentric, risk averse cultural context. Primary data are presented throughout to show the origins and interconnected nature of these themes. Conclusions Within this context it is clear that there is a highly valued role for competent health professionals that respect, understand and are capable of facilitating genuine choice for women.

Martin Caroline

2011-06-01

226

Sensitivity Analysis of Stoichiometric Networks: An Extension of Metabolic Control Analysis to Non-equilibrium Trajectories  

OpenAIRE

A sensitivity analysis of general stoichiometric networks is considered. The results are presented as a generalization of Metabolic Control Analysis, which has been concerned primarily with system sensitivities at steady state. An expression for time-varying sensitivity coefficients is given, and the Summation and Connectivity Theorems are generalized. The results are compared to previous treatments. The analysis is accompanied by a discussion of the computation of the sensi...

Ingalls, Brian P.; Sauro, Herbert M.

2002-01-01

227

Multihop Medium Access Control for WSNs: An Energy Analysis Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an energy analysis technique applicable to medium access control (MAC and multihop communications. Furthermore, the technique's application gives insight on using multihop forwarding instead of single-hop communications. Using the technique, we perform an energy analysis of carrier-sense-multiple-access (CSMA- based MAC protocols with sleeping schemes. Power constraints set by battery operation raise energy efficiency as the prime factor for wireless sensor networks. A detailed energy expenditure analysis of the physical, the link, and the network layers together can provide a basis for developing new energy-efficient wireless sensor networks. The presented technique provides a set of analytical tools for accomplishing this. With those tools, the energy impact of radio, MAC, and topology parameters on the network can be investigated. From the analysis, we extract key parameters of selected MAC protocols and show that some traditional mechanisms, such as binary exponential backoff, have inherent problems.

Mähönen Petri

2005-01-01

228

Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

2008-01-01

229

Nonsmooth optimization analysis and algorithms with applications to optimal control  

CERN Document Server

This book is a self-contained elementary study for nonsmooth analysis and optimization, and their use in solution of nonsmooth optimal control problems. The first part of the book is concerned with nonsmooth differential calculus containing necessary tools for nonsmooth optimization. The second part is devoted to the methods of nonsmooth optimization and their development. A proximal bundle method for nonsmooth nonconvex optimization subject to nonsmooth constraints is constructed. In the last part nonsmooth optimization is applied to problems arising from optimal control of systems covered by

Makela, M M

1992-01-01

230

Analysis of Droop Controlled Parallel Inverters in Islanded Microgrids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three-phase droop controlled inverters are widely used in islanded microgrids to interface distributed energy resources and to provide for the loads active and reactive powers demand. The assessment of microgrids stability, affected by the control and line parameters, is a stringent issue. This paper shows a systematic approach to derive a closed loop model of the microgrid and then to perform an eigenvalues analysis that highlights how the system’s parameters affect the stability of the network. It is also shown that by means of a singular perturbation approach the resulting reduced order system well approximate the original full order system.

Mariani, Valerio; Vasca, Francesco

2014-01-01

231

Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities

232

Analysis of control rod drop transients for pressurized water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology has been developed to analyze control rod drop transients in PWR's without a turbine runback or a rod withdrawal block which takes credit for a high negative neutron flux rate trip. This methodology addresses both the overall plant response and the detailed core thermal hydraulics to predict conservative minimum thermal margins throughout the event. This method has been applied to the two Prairie Island Units to demonstrate that existing operating restrictions for the control rod drive system are not necessary to preclude fuel damage. A reduced setpoint for the rate trip relative to current limiting Technical Specifications was assumed in the analysis to minimize the consequences of this event

233

Sneak circuit analysis of chemical and volume control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the chemical and volume control system (RCV) of nuclear power plant pipelines are very complex, there are many valve control nodes. These make the probabilistic risk of unexpected situation rather high in design and running. In order to increase the reliability and safety of the system in design and running, the sneak circuit analysis technology is applied in gas and liquid pipelines of RCV to find latent path and temporal sequence in design and running. Improvements and advices are given to avoid these latent risks in design and running. (authors)

234

Analysis and control of unified active power filter  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined series and shunt active filters have been proposed to alleviate the power quality problems at the demand-side power systems. However, the conventional approach for the control of the combined active filter systems have resulted in large operating capacity of the shunt active filter because reactive power compensation involves only the shunt active filter. Furthermore, the harmonic mitigation problems are handled mainly by indirect harmonic compensation schemes rather than direct harmonic isolation schemes. This thesis presents the analysis and control of Unified Active Power Filter (UAPF) and proposes a novel concept of load reactive power compensation involving both the series active filter and the shunt active filter. The thesis also applies discrete-time sliding-mode control technique to enhance the performance of the combined active filter system in terms of fast dynamic response and effective solution to harmonic mitigation problems. The thesis also presents simulation and experimental results to provide verification of the proposed UAPF concept. The involvement of series active filter for reactive power compensation is achieved by controlling the phase difference between the load voltage and the utility voltage. The complete steady-state operating characteristics of UAPF are analyzed with the identification of the different operating modes of UAPF and the analysis of active and reactive power handled by the active filter components. The performance of UAPF to meet the stringent power quality standards are realized by applying discrete-time sliding-mode control schemes for the load voltage regulation and the active power factor correction. The control algorithms are developed to track a given load voltage and line current reference signals respectively. The effect of computational delay in DSP implementation is studied extensively and the control law is designed with the consideration for the computational delay. The systematic approach for the design of DC link voltage regulation is also presented in this thesis. A prototype experimental setup including the power circuit for UAPF and DSP based control circuit is built to implement the control and to verify the performance characteristics of UAPF. A real-time control algorithm is developed and is implemented on a DSP TMS320C40 system with PWM implementation by DMA without the intervention of CPU. The operation of UAPF at the optimal operating point is shown to reduce the ratings of the shunt active filter and to improve the efficiency. With the discrete-time sliding mode control, the compensation characteristics of UAPF are shown to meet the stringent power quality standards. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Muthu, Subramanian

1999-11-01

235

Analysis of GPS Abnormal Conditions within Fault Tolerant Control Laws  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Position System (GPS) is a critical element for the functionality of autonomous flying vehicles. The GPS operation at normal and abnormal conditions directly impacts the trajectory tracking performance of the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) controllers. The effects of GPS parameter variation must be well understood and user-friendly computational tools must be developed to facilitate the design and evaluation of fault tolerant control laws. This thesis presents the development of a simplified GPS error model in Matlab/Simulink and its use performing a sensitivity analysis of GPS parameters effect under system normal and abnormal operation on different UAV trajectory tracking controllers. The model statistically generates position and velocity errors, simulates the effect of GPS satellite configuration on the position and velocity measurement accuracy, and implements a set of failures to the GPS readings. The model and its graphical user interface was integrated within the WVU UAV simulation environment as a masked Simulink block. The effects on the controllers' trajectory tracking performance of the following GPS parameters were investigated within normal operation ranges and outside: time delay, update rate, error standard deviation, bias, and major position and velocity failures. Several sets of control laws with fixed and adaptive parameters and of different levels of complexity have been used in this investigation. A complex performance index formulated in terms of tracking errors and control activity was used for control laws performance evaluation. The composition of various metrics within the performance index was performed using fixed and variable weights depending on the local characteristics of the commanded trajectory. This study has revealed that GPS error parameters have a significant impact on control laws performance. The proposed GPS model has proved to be a valuable, flexible tool for testing and evaluation of the fault tolerant capabilities of autonomous flight control laws.

Al-Sinbol, Gahssan

236

The benefit-cost analysis of disease control programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

When farmers must make economic decisions, three competing goals must be considered: maximization of profit, avoidance of risk, and personal satisfaction. If a decision has a relatively long time-frame, then the time value of costs and of benefits also must be considered. There are a variety of ways to structure the comparison between disease control programs. If disease is endemic, a partial budget analysis is recommended. If, instead, probabilities must be included in the calculations, then the recommendation is to use pay-off table analysis or to draw a decision tree (the latter especially if there are sequences of decisions). PMID:3130972

Erb, H N

1988-03-01

237

Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis

238

Development, analysis and control of the inductor-converter bridge  

Science.gov (United States)

The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconduction energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis.

Ehsani, M.; Kustom, R. L.

1981-08-01

239

Analysis of limit cycling on a boiler feedwater control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During operation of the UKAEA Prototype Fast Reactor, it was found that oscillations sometimes occurred in the boiler feedwater systems. These were normally of relatively low amplitude, but led to the adoption of low controller gains so that control was rather slack. While control performance proved generally adequate for steady running, the lack of tight control of steam drum levels sometimes led to difficulties during periods when plant conditions were undergoing major change. The paper discusses the methods used to gain a full understanding of the phenomena occurring, and describes how that knowledge is being used to improve the control system so as to eliminate the limit cycling modes and ensure good control of steam drum levels. A noteworthy feature of the study was the use of two independent representations of plant behaviour: (i) a frequency response model, FWRFREQ, and (ii) a time-domain simulation model, PFRTDM. The simplified analysis of FWRFREQ proved to be of enormous value in identifying modes of system behaviour; PFRTDM was used as a detailed check on the accuracy and validity of the results obtained. (author)

240

Cost/benefit analysis of eliminating poison control in LWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the economics of power generation determines, to a large extent,a utility's choice of reactor systems, the cost of electricity from a spectral shift control (SSC) reactor is a crucial measure of the SSC reactor's competitiveness. Thus, a preliminary cost analysis is an important part of our overall assessment. The economic comparisons in this work focus on the cost differences between a standard pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the breeder/moderator controlled/burner light water reactor (BMB-LWR) design concept. The BMB-LWR is a typical large current design PWR with a minimum of changes. The BMB-LWR does not use any poison for reactivity control in the cycle length range of interest (1 to 2 yr) and uses soluble poison only for refueling purposes, to provide a sufficient additional negative reactivity margin to supplement the water displacement system. However, the water displacement system is very similar to the control rod system from a mechanical design point of view, differing mainly in the characteristics of the in-core control pins. Mixing both poison and displacer pins in the same core introduces added complexity, but not necessarily at a large cost impact; e.g., the advanced PWR has substantial water displacement control components, whereas the BMB-LWR primarily increases the displacer-to-poison ratio. The annual credits and penalties of replacing the standard PWR with the BMB-LWR concept are covered in the analysislysis

241

Pressure Control in Distillation Columns: A Model-Based Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A comprehensive assessment of pressure control in distillation columns is presented, including the consequences for composition control and energy consumption. Two types of representative control structures are modeled, analyzed, and benchmarked. A detailed simulation test, based on a real industrial distillation column, is used to assess the differences between the two control structures and to demonstrate the benefits of pressure control in the operation. In the second part of the article, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to establish the influence of pressure on relative volatility for (pseudo)binary mixtures. A simple criterion is found, based on the difference in the scaled heats of vaporization of the light and heavy compounds: A large difference indicates that relative volatility is sensitive to pressure changes, whereas no a priori conclusion can be made for small differences. Depending on the sensitivity of relative volatility to pressure, it is shown that controlling the bottom-tray pressure instead of the top-tray pressure leads to operation at the minimum possible average column pressure, so that significant energy savings can be achieved.

Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Bisgaard, Thomas

2014-01-01

242

Comparative analysis of PSO algorithms for PID controller tuning  

Science.gov (United States)

The active magnetic bearing(AMB) suspends the rotating shaft and maintains it in levitated position by applying controlled electromagnetic forces on the rotor in radial and axial directions. Although the development of various control methods is rapid, PID control strategy is still the most widely used control strategy in many applications, including AMBs. In order to tune PID controller, a particle swarm optimization(PSO) method is applied. Therefore, a comparative analysis of particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithms is carried out, where two PSO algorithms, namely (1) PSO with linearly decreasing inertia weight(LDW-PSO), and (2) PSO algorithm with constriction factor approach(CFA-PSO), are independently tested for different PID structures. The computer simulations are carried out with the aim of minimizing the objective function defined as the integral of time multiplied by the absolute value of error(ITAE). In order to validate the performance of the analyzed PSO algorithms, one-axis and two-axis radial rotor/active magnetic bearing systems are examined. The results show that PSO algorithms are effective and easily implemented methods, providing stable convergence and good computational efficiency of different PID structures for the rotor/AMB systems. Moreover, the PSO algorithms prove to be easily used for controller tuning in case of both SISO and MIMO system, which consider the system delay and the interference among the horizontal and vertical rotor axes.

Štimac, Goranka; Braut, Sanjin; Žiguli?, Roberto

2014-09-01

243

Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes a methodology that integrates quantitative and qualitative assessment. The methodology proposed combines conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) with multi-criteria analysis (MCA). The CBA methodology, based on welfare theory, assures that the project with the highest welfare for society is ranked uppermost. To compare the different impacts, it is necessary to have a common monetary unit. Theoretically, all benefits and all costs should be accounted for in socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. However, this is far from in practical the general case due to difficulties in a valuating all the criteria in monetary terms. Thus CBA does not meet the need for a comprehensive evaluation, for which reason MCA is introduced to overcome this problem. Not only does MCA provides an opportunity to include non-market impacts in the analysis, but MCA also provides a framework for breaking down a problem into its constituent parts in order to better understand the problem and consequently arrive at a decision. However, while MCA opens up for the possibility to include non-market impacts, it does not provide the decision makers with guidance combining the CBA with MCA. In the paper different methods for combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis are examined and compared and a software system is presented. The software system gives the decision makers some possibilities regarding preference analysis, sensitivity and risk analysis. The aim of the software is to facilitate a straightforward method to support decision making involving both quantitative and qualitative impacts. An outcome of this is that the methodology and the results on this basis are easily understood by the different stakeholders, which is seen as important. The methodology and software system are demonstrated by examining the decision problem of choosing between alternatives for a new airport to service the capital of Greenland, Nuuk. Three different alternatives are examined ranging in costs from 90m USD to 400m USD. Furthermore, three sets of different stakeholders’ preferences (decision makers, citizens in Nuuk and other citizens in Greenland) are examined and compared. The cost-benefit analysis of the three airport alternatives includes impacts like travel time (for business and local travellers), waiting time, drawback of shifts, regularity, out of pocket costs, operating costs and not the least construction and maintenance costs. The MCA is made use of to assess noise, land use planning, business potential and tourism impacts for the three alternatives. More technically the software system offers a set of different features to undertake the MCA. Thus the users have two different methods to assess weights for the criteria, either by using the Swing Weight method or the more simple Rank Order Distribution (ROD) method. For evaluating the different alternatives with respect to each criterion the user has the possibility of making use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), REMBRANDT or Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranks (SMARTER) methods. Finally, a feature combining the CBA and MCA results can be provided by applying a trade off between the two methods or by means of the so called efficiency frontier is demonstrated. The presented multi-dimensional methodology and software system for CBA and MCA decision making is finally compared with other methods for combining the CBA and MCA. Ultimately, some conclusions are made and perspectives are drawn. Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Multi-criteria analysis, Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding, Transport infrastructure, Analytical Hierarchy Process, REMBRANDT, SMARTER, stakeholders’ preferences and CBA&MCA Software system.

244

Experimental analysis and treatment of multiply controlled self-injury.  

OpenAIRE

A functional analysis of the self-injurious behavior (SIB) of 3 adults with profound developmental disabilities showed that each engaged in SIB in more than one assessment condition. Such outcomes may result from a failure to isolate the variable maintaining SIB, or they may reflect multiple sources of control over SIB. In order to identify more clearly the determinants of SIB, each subject was exposed to a series of treatments appropriate to one or both of the apparent functions of SIB. Thes...

Smith, R. G.; Iwata, B. A.; Vollmer, T. R.; Zarcone, J. R.

1993-01-01

245

Control Flow Analysis Can Find New Flaws Too  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A previous study showed how control flow analysis can be applied to analyse key distribution protocols based on symmetric key cryptography. We have extended both the theoretical treatment and our fully automatic verifier to deal with protocols based on asymmetric cryptography. This paper reports on the application of our technique - exemplified on the Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR protocol, which uses both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography - and show how we discover an undocumented flaw.

Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael

2004-01-01

246

Real-time film analysis system. Minicomputer control program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for the control program of the minicomputer in the many-computer complex oriented for primary analysis of track detector films is offered. The choice for this model is based on application of the concept of logic input devices as well as in the introduced concept of virtual devices of typical graphic object scanning and interruption processing. This enables to represent the model as a system of finite automata

247

Contribution to stability analysis of nonlinear control systems  

OpenAIRE

The Popov criterion for the stability of nonlinear control systems is considered. The Popov criterion gives sufficient conditions for stability of nonlinear systems in the frequency domain. It has a direct graphical interpretation and is convenient for both design and analysis. In the article presented, a table of transfer functions of linear parts of nonlinear systems is constructed. The table includes frequency response functions and offers solutions to the stability of the given systems. T...

?varc Ivan

2003-01-01

248

Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions  

OpenAIRE

After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes) free of infes...

Oliveira Filho, A. M.

1989-01-01

249

Passivity In Analysis Of Robustness Of A Control System  

Science.gov (United States)

Robustness margin (measure of degree of passivity) defined. Paper presents new approach to analysis of stability of multivariable feedforward-and-feedback control system consisting of exponentially stable linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem and nonlinear time-varying (NTV) or dynamic feedback subsystem. New method based on notion of passivity, quantified by robustness margin. Margin provides bound on magnitudes of perturbations, below which perturbations will not make system unstable.

Wen, John Ting-Yung

1989-01-01

250

Interference control in low-level analysis of iodine 129  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work analyses the integration of several steps applied to control potentials sources of error in the determination of 129I and prevent spurious results in order to achieve the minimum detection limit. The procedure of pre and post-irradiation purification, neutron irradiation, radioactive counting and data analysis are needed. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used for detection and measurement of low level interferences. (author)

251

Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

2012-01-01

252

Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop  

CERN Document Server

We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

2009-01-01

253

Robust Stability Analysis with Time Delay Using PI Controller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, real time implementation of PI and PID controllers is Investigated for stabilizing an arbitrary-order plant or system. Simple closed loop feedback ,PI controller can overcome all the problems of uncertainties like time delay in LTI (Linear Time Invariant system.This paper will give us an implortant alogorithm to be imlemented in MATLAB for achieving the robust stability in LTI plant in presence of any type of perturbations or external disturbances. In this paper, a single input and single output (LTI linear time invariant plant under perturbed conditions with additive uncertainity weight senstivity is considered. In this paper especially, I have found all set of PI gains Kp,Ki which will promise us for the stability in a given disturbed (SISO (LTI system by achieving the robust stability constraint ? <=1 can be found by obtaining the PI controller gains Kp,Ki using frequency domain analysis .

Gursewak Singh

2012-11-01

254

Decentralized Control of Cooperative Systems: Categorization and Complexity Analysis  

CERN Document Server

Decentralized control of cooperative systems captures the operation of a group of decision makers that share a single global objective. The difficulty in solving optimally such problems arises when the agents lack full observability of the global state of the system when they operate. The general problem has been shown to be NEXP-complete. In this paper, we identify classes of decentralized control problems whose complexity ranges between NEXP and P. In particular, we study problems characterized by independent transitions, independent observations, and goal-oriented objective functions. Two algorithms are shown to solve optimally useful classes of goal-oriented decentralized processes in polynomial time. This paper also studies information sharing among the decision-makers, which can improve their performance. We distinguish between three ways in which agents can exchange information: indirect communication, direct communication and sharing state features that are not controlled by the agents. Our analysis s...

Goldman, C V; 10.1613/jair.1427

2011-01-01

255

Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

256

Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

Galhardo, C E C; Penna, T J P; Argollo de Menezes, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Soares, P P S [Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Prof. Hernani Melo n. 101, 24210-130, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcio@mail.if.uff.br

2009-10-15

257

Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop  

Science.gov (United States)

We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

Galhardo, C. E. C.; Penna, T. J. P.; Argollo de Menezes, M.; Soares, P. P. S.

2009-10-01

258

SISO extended predictive control: implementation and robust stability analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proposed algorithm of extended predictive control (EPC) represents an exact method for removing the ill-conditioning in the system matrix by developing a unique weighting structure for any control horizon. The main feature of the EPC algorithm is that it uses the condition number of the system matrix to evaluate a single tuning parameter that provides a specified closed-loop response. Robust analysis demonstrated that EPC is more robust in comparison with move-suppressed and m-shifted predictive controllers in all aspects of process variation in gain, delay, and time-constant ratios. Tuning of EPC is effective and simple since there is a direct relationship between closed-loop performance and its tuning parameter. PMID:16856634

Abu-Ayyad, M; Dubay, R; Kember, G

2006-07-01

259

System integration and control strategy analysis of PEMFC car  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new fuel car was designed according to the prototype LN2000 hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car. The new prototype consists of a compact fuel cell engine with separated fuel cell stack, nickel metal hydride battery, a motor with power of 30Kw/100Kw and an inverter with high efficiency. With in the powertrain, a two-shift Planet gear transmission was employed. The power performance was greatly improved. New battery with EMS, new self-developed fuel cell engine, the motor propulsion system and electronic controlled transmission make it feasible to control the whole fuel car automatically and efficiently with optimization. The presents the system integration and the control strategy analysis of the fuel cell car prototype. The paper can be used for reference for engineers in the field of fuel cell vehicle. (author)

260

Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

2007-09-01

261

Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

2007-08-01

262

SEM Image Analysis for Quality Control of Nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

In nano-medicine, mesoporous silicon particles provide efficient vehicles for the dissemination and delivery of key proteins at the micron scale. We propose a new quality-control method for the nanopore structure of these particles, based on image analysis software developed to automatically inspect scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of nanoparticles in a fully automated fashion. Our algorithm first identifies the precise position and shape of each nanopore, then generates a graphic display of these nanopores and of their boundaries. This is essentially a texture segmentation task, and a key quality-control requirement is fast computing speed. Our software then computes key shape characteristics of individual nanopores, such as area, outer diameter, eccentricity, etc., and then generates means, standard deviations, and histograms of each pore-shape feature. Thus, the image analysis algorithms automatically produce a vector from each image which contains relevant nanoparticle quality control characteristics, either for comparison to pre-established acceptability thresholds, or for the analysis of homogeneity and the detection of outliers among families of nanoparticles.

Alexander, S. K.; Azencott, R.; Bodmann, B. G.; Bouamrani, A.; Chiappini, C.; Ferrari, M.; Liu, X.; Tasciotti, E.

263

An Unified Approach for Process Quality Analysis and Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract— The process in a company finally results in product of the company, which represents the company standard. Hence, during the process execution time quality of the process needs to be taken care before and after the work done. In this paper, an unified approach to quality analysis and control of a process development is presented. This approach gives an overview of what the task the company assigned to the employers. The process is defined as the set of action items to achieve the work completion. Quality means grade of excellence. Quality analysis of a process is an improvement of the process and making sure that all the standard procedures are followed. An unified approach designed in this paper is a combination of software cost estimation and a financial market forecasting with the support of historical data, statistical data mining technique and artificial neural networks, which helps the developers as well as investors in strategic planning and investment decision making. Therefore, the paper describes a recommended process to develop software (SW cost estimates for software managers, perform financial market forecasting to control quality of process development. As a result, the improvement and analysis of the process quality can be performed from basic level to the corporate level. By this work, we conclude that the process quality control can be made easier and efficient compared to the old graphical analytics technique.

Prof.Chandrakanth Biradar,Aruna Kawdi

2012-09-01

264

Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

1994-01-01

265

Spatial Analysis for Flood Control by Using Environmental Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To create the final spatial information and analysis, flood hazard maps and land development priority maps and information, data for the flood events to 2009 in north of Iran were incorporated with using Geo-spatial Information System data of physiographic divisions, geologic divisions, land cover classification, elevation, drainage network, administrative districts and population density and environmental parameters modeling. Special analysis also attention was paid to population density for the construction of the land development priority map and using satellite image analysis to determine land use changes and analysis of geo-spatial information, because highly dense populated areas represent the highly important urban and industrial areas. While geo-information technology offers an opportunity to support flood management adequate geo-spatial information is a prerequisite for sustainable development, but many parts of the world lack adequate information on environmental resources. Such information providing, which serves as an important tool for decision-making in land use planning, can help provide effective information to natural disaster management. This paper develops a framework for flood control and begins with some general comments on the importance of land use planning and outlines some current environmental issues and then presenting environmental models to use in disaster management plan by using GIS and remote sensing results. Flood control is a complex problem that requires cooperation of many scientists in different fields. The article also discusses the role that geo-information and environmental planning and GIS and remote sensing technology play in disaster management control to reduce negative impacts of flood and present proper alternatives for developing of Gorganrood in the north of Iran. Advanced high-resolution sensor technology has provided immense scope to the decision makers for analysis of flood and damages details using GIS and remote sensing.

Alireza Gharagozlou

2011-10-01

266

Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future

267

Analysis of TMT primary mirror control-structure interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary mirror control system (M1CS) keeps the 492 segments of the Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror aligned in the presence of disturbances. A global position control loop uses feedback from inter-segment edge sensors to three actuators behind each segment that control segment piston, tip and tilt. If soft force actuators are used (e.g. voice-coil), then in addition to the global position loop there will be a local servo loop to provide stiffness. While the M1 control system at Keck compensates only for slow disturbances such as gravity and thermal variations, the M1CS for TMT will need to provide some compensation for higher frequency wind disturbances in order to meet stringent error budget targets. An analysis of expected high-wavenumber wind forces on M1 suggests that a 1Hz control bandwidth is required for the global feedback of segment edge-sensorbased position information in order to minimize high spatial frequency segment response for both seeing-limited and adaptive optics performance. A much higher bandwidth is required from the local servo loop to provide adequate stiffness to wind or acoustic disturbances. A related paper presents the control designs for the local actuator servo loops. The disturbance rejection requirements would not be difficult to achieve for a single segment, but the structural coupling between segments mounted on a flexible mirror cell results in controlstructure interaction (CSI) that limits the achievable bandwidth. Using a combination of simplified modeling to build intuition and the full telescope finite element model for verification, we present designs and analysis for both the local servo loop and global loop demonstrating sufficient bandwidth and resulting wind-disturbance rejection despite the presence of CSI.

MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Sirota, Mark J.

2008-07-01

268

Fault-tolerant Supervisory Control : System Analysis and Logic Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main purpose of this work has been to achieve active fault-tolerance in control systems, defined as a methodology where fault detection and isolation techniques are combined with supervisory control to achieve autonomous accommodation of faults before they develop into failures. The aim of this work has been to develop and employ concepts and methods that are suitable for use in different automation processes, with applicability in various industrial fields. The requirements for high productivity and quality has resulted in employing additional instrumentation and use of more sophisticated control algorithms. The drawback is, however, that these control systems have become more vulnerable to even simple faults in instrumentation. On the other hand, due to cost-optimality requirements, an extensive use of hardware redundancy has been prohibited. Nevertheless, the dependency and availability could be increased through enhancing control systems' ability to on-line perform fault detection and reconfiguration when a fault occurs and before a safety system shuts-down the entire process. The main contributions of this research effort are development and experimentation with methodologies for systematic analysis of reconfiguration and design of supervisor logic. In addition, useful experience is obtained through implementation of a fault-tolerant control scheme against a simulated ship and its propulsion system. A development methodology, which was suggested in the Control Engineering Department, is extended to cope with the important reconfiguration problem. In order to enable a designer to acquire knowledge about reconfiguration possibilities, the structural analysis method is added as an extension to the existing methodology. This extension builds upon the earlier method where fault propagation and severity analysis are the essential parts. Structural analysis (SA) enables the designer to distinguish between the parts of the systems with no redundant information and the parts with possible redundant information. This method, hence, provides the designer with information, which is necessary during the selection of remedial actions. Furthermore, it is shown how sensor information fusion is obtained by using the SA method. The construction of the supervisor's decision logic is essential for the active form of fault-tolerant control. In this regard, two approaches has been presented. The first aims at constructing the decision logic in form of a ``language''. This language is obtained as a direct result of the component based approach, presented in this thesis. This approach is based on the definition of a functional component, components placement in a control system hierarchy and the definition of system level hierarchy. The supervisor language includes all valid strings, representing the combination of valid components, that keep the system functional. This approach is simple and can be automated. In the second approach, implementation of supervisor functionality is realized on the basis of an extension to the traditional state-event machines. Due to parallelity (inherent modularity) the supervisor logic is more easily modified, updated, maintained, and tested. A salient feature is that a change in one task only necessitates redesign of essentially one corresponding state-event machine (SEM). A heuristic guideline is provided for designing the logic in form of SEMs. A ship propulsion system benchmark has been designed and used as a case study. This includes experimentation with the above methodologies and implementation of a fault-tolerant control against the simulation. Four generic faults have been considered. It has been shown how the SA method is easily employed to generate analytical redundancy relations, which in turn are then used for FDI purposes. Three different methods are used to generate residuals. These methods are: simple numerical calculation, a non-linear observer, and a Neuro-Fuzzy method. Employment of each method follows the assumption about the available system information. The results show that it is p

Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

1999-01-01

269

Component-based analysis of embedded control applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The widespread use of embedded systems requires the creation of industrial software technology that will make it possible to engineer systems being correct by construction. That can be achieved through the use of validated (trusted) components, verification of design models, and automatic configuration of applications from validated design models and trusted components. This design philosophy has been instrumental for developing COMDES—a component-based framework for distributed embedded control systems. A COMDES application is conceived as a network of embedded actors that are configured from instances of reusable, executable components—function blocks (FBs). System actors operate in accordance with a timed multitasking model of computation, whereby I/O signals are exchanged with the controlled plant at precisely specified time instants, resulting in the elimination of I/O jitter. The paper presents an analysis technique that can be used to validate COMDES design models in SIMULINK. It is based on a transformation of the COMDES design model into a SIMULINK analysis model, which preserves the functional and timing behaviour of the application. This technique has been employed to develop a feasible (light-weight) analysis method based on runtime observers. The latter are conceived as special-purpose actors running in parallel with the application actors, while checking system properties specified in Linear Temporal Logic. Observers are configured from reusable FBs that can be exported to SIMULINK in the same way as application components, making it possible to analyze system properties via simulation. The discussion is illustrated with an industrial case study—a Medical Ventilator Control System, which has been used to validate the developed design and analysis methods.

Angelov, Christo K.; Guan, Wei

2011-01-01

270

Control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation in LHD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation facilities of the Large Helical Device (LHD), which is designed to confine the plasma in steady state. In LHD the plasma duration exceeds 3000 s by controlling the plasma position, the density and the ICRF heating. The 'LABCOM' data acquisition system takes both the short-pulse and the steady-state data. A two-layer Mass Storage System with RAIDs and Blu-ray Disk jukeboxes in a storage area network has been developed to increase capacity of storage. The steady-state data can be monitored with a Web browser in real time. A high-level data analysis system with Web interfaces is being developed in order to provide easier usage of LHD data and large FORTRAN codes in a supercomputer. A virtual laboratory system for the Japanese fusion community has been developed with Multi-protocol Label Switching Virtual Private Network Technology. Collaborators at remote sites can join the LHD experiment or use the NIFS supercomputer system as if they were working in the LHD control room

271

Extended support for accident analysis in the Test Control Room  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Test Control Room (TCR) is an engineering simulator in a screen-based control room environment. The several purposes of the TCR are described, with emphasis on safety studies of accidental situations which require consideration of the man-machine interface and the feedback imposed by the operating shift's actions. First, the characteristics of the present TCR are described with respect to employed models, visualization, and interactive control. Then, the concept of the TCR extensions for a second development phase are presented, which are intended to offer access to knowledge beyond mere simulation and useful in the analyses proposed. One such knowledge source necessary for procedure analysis consists of the operating and emergency procedures, another one is the vast knowledge acquired by probabilistic analysis. The use of these knowledge sources in decision support systems is discussed. The realization of the extended TCR will rely on a network of workstations or personal computers, with several software agents including on-line expert system shells. (orig.)

272

Control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation in LHD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation facilities of the Large Helical Device (LHD), which is designed to confine the plasma in steady state. In LHD the plasma duration exceeds 3000 s by controlling the plasma position, the density and the ICRF heating. The 'LABCOM' data acquisition system takes both the short-pulse and the steady-state data. A two-layer Mass Storage System with RAIDs and Blu-ray Disk jukeboxes in a storage area network has been developed to increase capacity of storage. The steady-state data can be monitored with a Web browser in real time. A high-level data analysis system with Web interfaces is being developed in order to provide easier usage of LHD data and large FORTRAN codes in a supercomputer. A virtual laboratory system for the Japanese fusion community has been developed with Multi-protocol Label Switching Virtual Private Network Technology. Collaborators at remote sites can join the LHD experiment or use the NIFS supercomputer system as if they were working in the LHD control room.

Nagayama, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: nagayama.yoshio@nifs.ac.jp; Emoto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakanishi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sudo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Imazu, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Inagaki, S. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Iwata, C.; Kojima, M.; Nonomura, M.; Ohsuna, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M.; Chikaraishi, H.; Funaba, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Ishiguro, S.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Mito, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] (and others)

2008-04-15

273

Crystal structures and chemistry of double perovskites Ba2M(II)M'(VI)O6 (M=Ca, Sr, M'=Te, W, U)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structures of the double perovskites Ba2M(II)M '(VI)O6 (M=Ca, Sr, M'=Te, W, U) at room temperature have been investigated by the Rietveld method using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. For double perovskites with M=Sr, the observed space groups are I2/m (M' =W) and R3-bar (M'=Te), respectively. In the case of M=Ca, the space groups are either monoclinic P21/n (M'=U) or cubic Fm3-bar m (M'=W and Te). The tetragonal and orthorhombic symmetry reported earlier for Ba2SrTeO6 and Ba2CaUO6, respectively, were not observed. In addition, non-ambient X-ray diffraction data were collected and analyzed for Ba2SrWO6 and Ba2CaWO6 in the temperature range between 80 and 723 K. It was found that the rhombohedral R3-bar structure exists in Ba2SrWO6 above room temperature between the monoclinic and the cubic structure, whereas the cubic Ba2CaWO6 undergoes a structural phase transition at low temperature to the tetragonal I4/m structure. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of structures as function of temperature in Ba2SrWO6 (left) and Ba2CaWO6 (right). The existence of two phase region in Ba2SrWO6 can be clearly seen by the progressive increase of the rhombohedral R3-bar phase marked by asterisk (*)

274

Analogy of the Coordination Chemistry of Alkaline Earth Metal and Lanthanide Ln²? Ions: The Isostructural Zoo of Mixed Metal Cages [IM(OtBu)?{Li(thf)}?(OH)] (M=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu), [MM??(OPh)?(thf)?] (M=Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, M?=Li, Na), and their Derivatives with 1,2-Dimethoxyethane  

OpenAIRE

As previously shown, alkali and alkaline earth metal iodides in nonaqueous, aprotic solvents behave like transition metal halides, forming cis- and trans-dihalides with various neutral O-donor ligands. These compounds can be used as precursors for the synthesis of new mixed alkali/alkaline earth metal aggregates. We show here that Ln²? ions form isostructural cluster compounds. Thus, with LiOtBu, 50 % of the initial iodide can be replaced in MI?, M=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, to generate the mixed-m...

Maudez, William; Meuwly, Markus; Fromm, Katharina M.

2008-01-01

275

Assessment of quality control approaches for metagenomic data analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently there is an explosive increase of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects and related datasets, which have to be processed by Quality Control (QC) procedures before they could be utilized for omics analysis. QC procedure usually includes identification and filtration of sequencing artifacts such as low-quality reads and contaminating reads, which would significantly affect and sometimes mislead downstream analysis. Quality control of NGS data for microbial communities is especially challenging. In this work, we have evaluated and compared the performance and effects of various QC pipelines on different types of metagenomic NGS data and from different angles, based on which general principles of using QC pipelines were proposed. Results based on both simulated and real metagenomic datasets have shown that: firstly, QC-Chain is superior in its ability for contamination identification for metagenomic NGS datasets with different complexities with high sensitivity and specificity. Secondly, the high performance computing engine enabled QC-Chain to achieve a significant reduction in processing time compared to other pipelines based on serial computing. Thirdly, QC-Chain could outperform other tools in benefiting downstream metagenomic data analysis.

Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Ning, Kang

2014-11-01

276

Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further. PMID:23206287

Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

2014-06-01

277

National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements

278

National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements.

Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Claybourn, R V; Pavel, G; Schaefer, W J

2001-10-19

279

Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their kinetic properties were characterized. For the other enzymes of the pathway the kinetic data were available from the literature. The metabolic model was used to analyze flux and metabolite concentration control of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway. The model demonstrated that flux control does not reside at the enzyme following the intermediate with the highest concentration, L-arabitol, but is distributed over the first three steps in the pathway, preceding and following L-arabitol. Flux control appeared to be strongly dependent on the intracellular L-arabinose concentration. At 5 mM intracellular L-arabinose, a level that resulted in realistic intermediate concentrations in the model, flux control coefficients forL-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and L-xylulose reductase were 0.68, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The analysis can be used as a guide to identify targets for metabolic engineering aiming at either flux or metabolite level optimization of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway of A. niger. Faster L-arabinose utilization may enhance utilization of readily available organic waste containing hemicelluloses to be converted into industrially interesting metabolites or valuable enzymes or proteins.

de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai

2005-01-01

280

Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their kinetic properties were characterized. For the other enzymes of the pathway the kinetic data were available from the literature. The metabolic model was used to analyze flux and metabolite concentration control of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway. The model demonstrated that flux control does not reside at the enzyme following the intermediate with the highest concentration, L-arabitol, but is distributed over the first three steps in the pathway, preceding and following L-arabitol. Flux control appeared to be strongly dependent on the intracellular L-arabinose concentration. At 5 mM intracellular L-arabinose, a level that resulted in realistic intermediate concentrations in the model, flux control coefficients for L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and L-xylulose reductase were 0.68, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The analysis can be used as a guide to identify targets for metabolic engineering aiming at either flux or metabolite level optimization of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway of A. niger. Faster L-arabinose utilization may enhance utilization of readily available organic waste containing hemicelluloses to be converted into industrially interesting metabolites or valuable enzymes or proteins. PMID:16321042

de Groot, Marco J L; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, Jaap; Ruijter, George J G

2005-01-01

281

Multi-intersection Traffic Light Control Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis  

CERN Document Server

We address the traffic light control problem for multiple intersections in tandem by viewing it as a stochastic hybrid system and developing a Stochastic Flow Model (SFM) for it. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive on-line gradient estimates of a cost metric with respect to the controllable green and red cycle lengths. The IPA estimators obtained require counting traffic light switchings and estimating car flow rates only when specific events occur. The estimators are used to iteratively adjust light cycle lengths to improve performance and, in conjunction with a standard gradient-based algorithm, to obtain optimal values which adapt to changing traffic conditions. Simulation results are included to illustrate the approach.

Geng, Yanfeng

2012-01-01

282

New Applications of Variational Analysis to Optimization and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss new applications of advanced tools of variational analysis and generalized differentiation to a number of important problems in optimization theory, equilibria, optimal control, and feedback control design. The presented results are largely based on the recent work by the author and his collaborators. Among the main topics considered and briefly surveyed in this paper are new calculus rules for generalized differentiation of nonsmooth and set-valued mappings; necessary and sufficient conditions for new notions of linear subextremality and suboptimality in constrained problems; optimality conditions for mathematical problems with equilibrium constraints; necessary optimality conditions for optimistic bilevel programming with smooth and nonsmooth data; existence theorems and optimality conditions for various notions of Pareto-type optimality in problems of multiobjective optimization with vector-valued and set-valued cost mappings; Lipschitzian stability and metric regularity aspects for constrained and variational systems.

Mordukhovich, Boris S.

283

Control rod drop transient analysis and incident recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A control rod drop incident is a relatively frequent transient over the lifetime of a pressurized water reactor. In order to distinguish this particular incident from other similar depressurized events, the transient nuclear and thermal hydraulic characteristics are identified so that the operator can immediately recognize and effectively confirm the incident. The results of this investigation can be used in operator training programs to identify various anticipated transients and, therefore, take proper actions to mitigate the consequences. The investigation of this incident uses the RETRAN system analysis computer code for the Nuclear Project Nos. 1 and 4 currently being constructed by the Washington Public Power Supply System. The dropped control rod transient is simulated by initiating a reactivity reduction at 0.001 seconds after steady-state initialization. A comparison of the transient parameters among a number of similar depressurized incidents is also included

284

Convergence Analysis of a Mixed Controlled Adaptive Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A newly developed adaptive scheme for system identification is proposed. The proposed algorithm is a mixture of two norms, namely, the -norm and the -norm ( , where a controlling parameter in the range is used to control the mixture of the two norms. Existing algorithms based on mixed norm can be considered as a special case of the proposed algorithm. Therefore, our algorithm can be seen as a generalization to these algorithms. The derivation of the algorithm and its convexity property are reported and detailed. Also, the first moment behaviour as well as the second moment behaviour of the weights is studied. Bounds for the step size on the convergence of the proposed algorithm are derived, and the steady-state analysis is carried out. Finally, simulation results are performed and are found to corroborate with the theory developed.

Zidouri Abdelmalek

2010-01-01

285

An Analysis of the PLLs With Secondary Control Path  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used in different areas of applications particularly for synchronization and control purposes in grid connected applications. A major challenge associated with the PLLs is how to improve their dynamic performance without jeopardizing their stability and filtering capability. Recently, some approaches based on adding a secondary control path (SCP) to the PLL structure have been proposed to deal with this challenge. The objective of this letter is to briefly analyze these approaches. The study starts with an overview of the PLLs with SCP. The letter proceeds with the small-signal modeling of some of these PLLs, which significantly simplifies the analysis. Using these models, the effects of adding the SCP on the PLL structure are studied. The obtained results show that the SCP may not be a practical approach to improve the PLL dynamic performance as it aggravates the stability problem.

Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek

2014-01-01

286

Evaluation of new control rooms by operator performance analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An advanced supervisory and control system called PODIATM (Plant Operation by Displayed Information and Automation) was developed by Toshiba. Since this system utilizes computer driven CRTs as a main device for information transfer to operators, thorough system integration tests were performed at the factory and evaluations were made of operators' assessment from the initial experience of the system. The PODIA system is currently installed at two BWR power plants. Based on the experiences from the development of PODIA, a more advanced man-machine interface, Advanced-PODIA (A-PODIA), is developed. A-PODIA enhances the capabilities of PODIA in automation, diagnosis, operational guidance and information display. A-PODIA has been validated by carrying out systematic experiments with a full-scope simulator developed for the validation. The results of the experiments have been analyzed by the method of operator performance analysis and applied to further improvement of the A-PODIA system. As a feedback from actual operational experience, operator performance data in simulator training is an important source of information to evaluate human factors of a control room. To facilitate analysis of operator performance, a performance evaluation system has been developed by applying AI techniques. The knowledge contained in the performance evaluation system was elicited from operator training experts and represented as rules. The rules were implemented by employing an ob rules were implemented by employing an object-oriented paradigm to facilitate knowledge management. In conclusion, it is stated that the feedback from new control room operation can be obtained at an early stage by validation tests and also continuously by comprehensive evaluation (with the help of automated tools) of operator performance in simulator training. The results of operator performance analysis can be utilized for improvement of system design as well as operator training. (author)

287

Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future.

Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R

2007-01-15

288

Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

289

Design and Performance Analysis of ZBT SRAM Controller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Memory is an essential part of electronic industry. Since, the processors used in various high performancePCs, network applications and communication equipment require high speed memories. The type ofmemory used depends on system architecture, and its applications. This paper presents an SRAMarchitecture known as Zero Bus Turnaround (ZBT. This ZBT SRAM is mainly developed for networkingapplications where frequent READ/WRITE transitions are required. The other single data rate SRAMs areinefficient as they require idle cycles when they frequently switch between reading and writing to thememory. This controller is simulated on the Spartan 3 device. And the performance analysis is done on thebasis of area, speed and power.

Smriti Sharma

2013-07-01

290

Control system analysis and synthesis for a six degree-of-freedom universal Force-Reflecting Hand Controller  

Science.gov (United States)

A six degree-of-freedom joystick with feedback motors, called the Force-Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) is used as control input for the human operator in a teleoperator system. The geometric and dynamic properties of the FRHC are entirely different from those of the manipulator being controlled. The paper discusses the analysis and synthesis of the control loop between the FRHC and the robot arm and examines the necessary position and force transformations. The controller is implemented through a dedicated minicomputer.

Handlykken, M.; Turner, T.

1980-01-01

291

Analysis of rotor slotting saliency in induction motor sensorless control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with induction machines study by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for position sensorless control drives based on rotating voltage carrier injection. It focuses the analysis of the rotor slotting saliency, under the variations of: (1) supply of the machine (both the high frequency rotating voltage carrier and the fundamental frequency supply), (2) reference flux of the drive, (3) load torque, and (4) rotor geometry design. The relative spatial harmonic of the stator inductance space-vector responsible for the rotor slotting effect has been chosen as an index for evaluating the response to the high frequency carrier. A methodology for retrieving the stator inductance space-vector from a FEA is proposed as well. Results of the variation of the rotor slotting spatial harmonic of the stator inductance with the carrier frequency, the rotor flux linkage, the load torque and the rotor geometry are presented. (author)

Pucci, Marcello; Serporta, Calogero [I.S.S.I.A.-C.N.R. (Institute on Intelligent Systems for the Automation), Via Dante, 12, 90100 Palermo (Italy)

2011-02-15

292

Cost-benefit analysis in animal disease control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Animal health economics is a relatively new discipline which is progressively developing a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision making process in optimizing animal health management. Research in this field deals primarily with three interrelated aspects: (1) quantifying the financial effects of animal diseases, (2) developing methods for optimizing decisions when individual animals, herds or populations are affected, and (3) determining the costs and benefits of disease control measures. In the paper the four most common economic modelling techniques in animal health economics (i.e. partial budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, decision analysis, and systems simulation) are described and applied on three levels of veterinary decision making: the animal, herd and national level. Outcomes so far are summarized, and shortcomings indicated and discussed. The importance of a close link between economics and epidemiology is stressed for future development, as well as the need for, and possibilities of, an international exchange of models and procedures. (author)

293

Experimental sensitivity analysis for robustness studies of a controlled system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Active and adaptive systems consist of various components with different functionalities. As the complexity of the systems increases, reliability and robustness studies become a more complicated task. Sensitivity analysis helps system designers to understand interactions between the system components and to identify the important parameters with significant overall influences on the system performance. To analyze the complex interactions of the components and parameters of an active system with respect to system performance, a framework structure with active vibration damping in a lab scale test rig was set up. With this test rig an experimental sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influences of the system components and parameters on the vibration reduction. A higher robustness of the active system was achieved by using adaptive control. (paper)

294

Process control analysis of IMRT QA: implications for clinical trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is two-fold: first is to investigate the process of IMRT QA using control charts and second is to compare control chart limits to limits calculated using the standard deviation (?). Head and neck and prostate IMRT QA cases from seven institutions in both academic and community settings are considered. The percent difference between the point dose measurement in phantom and the corresponding result from the treatment planning system (TPS) is used for analysis. The average of the percent difference calculations defines the accuracy of the process and is called the process target. This represents the degree to which the process meets the clinical goal of 0% difference between the measurements and TPS. IMRT QA process ability defines the ability of the process to meet clinical specifications (e.g. 5% difference between the measurement and TPS). The process ability is defined in two ways: (1) the half-width of the control chart limits, and (2) the half-width of ±3? limits. Process performance is characterized as being in one of four possible states that describes the stability of the process and its ability to meet clinical specifications. For the head and neck cases, the average process target across institutions was 0.3% (range: -1.5% to 2.9%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 7.2% (range: 5.3% to 9.8%) compared to 6.7% (range: 5.3% to 8.2%) using standard deviation limits. For the prostate cases, the average processthe prostate cases, the average process target across the institutions was 0.2% (range: -1.8% to 1.4%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 4.4% (range: 1.3% to 9.4%) compared to 5.3% (range: 2.3% to 9.8%) using standard deviation limits. Using the standard deviation to characterize IMRT QA process performance resulted in processes being preferentially placed in one of the four states. This is in contrast to using control charts for process characterization where the IMRT QA processes were spread over three of the four states with none of the processes in the ideal state. Control charts may be used for IMRT QA in clinical trials to categorize process performance, minimize protocol variation and guide process improvements. For the duration of an institution's participation in a protocol, updated control charts can be periodically sent to the protocol QA center to document continued process performance to protocol specifications

295

Analysis of HPGe Spectrometer Stability - Internal Quality Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory for Nuclear and Plasma Physics, Institute ''Vinea'' is authorized and accredited in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025 for measurements of radionuclide content in environmental samples. In accordance with a standards request and international recommendations, TCS No. 24, Quality System Implementation for Nuclear Analytical Techniques, permanent internal quality control of semiconductor HPGe spectrometer has been conducted. Periodical testing of spectrometer characteristics and creation of control charts are included in internal quality control processes. The evaluation of the measuring system can be performed by periodical testing as follows: FWHM chart provides evaluation of the resolution of a detector. Variation of the FWHM could be caused by electronic noise inside the detector, or might indicate a vacuum problem; FWTM chart allows to monitor tailing due to damage of the detection crystal, bad P/Z ration may indicate a leakage current; The ratio FWHM/FWTM for different gamma ray energies allows to monitor the quality of the detector; Activity chart allows to monitor the stability of the whole method; Background chart might discover contamination; Peak position chart provide indications for electronic stability and the influence of environmental conditions such as temperature or humidity. Point sources 60Co and 137Cs were used as a control sources for FWHM, FWTM, FWHM/FWTM ratio and peak position testing. Presented control charts, for a period June - December 2010, were used for an analysis of spectrometer stability. These charts show that performances of analyzed HPGe spectrometer were stable, meaning that measurements results for environmental samples could be considered as reliable, i.e. that the practice of Laboratory fully consists with an international recommendations. (author)

296

Analysis and Control of Radioactive Standards by Using ?- and ?- Spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thanks to the advances made in radioisotope measurement techniques it is possible to determine disintegration rate with very great accuracy (several parts per thousand). However, this accuracy depends largely on the radiochemical and radioisotopic purity of the products used; for this reason efficient product control is necessary. The principal analytical techniques employed are described: - gamma spectrometry with scintillation counters; - beta and gamma spectrometry with semi-conductor detectors (silicon and germanium); - control with a two-parameter analysis circuit. The data obtained for each of these techniques are processed on a computer. Special methods of calculation and programmes have been developed, e.g. a least-squares method for complex mixtures, and a method of representing total absorption peaks by mathematical functions for finding the areas and separating peaks which are very close together. Precise examples are given for each of the analytical techniques, together with the minimum detectable contents. A number of special cases are studied in greater detail: - Measurement of 199Au in 198Au, where the content varies according to the irradiation conditions; - Analysis of the mixture 195Zr + 95Nb and determination of traces of one in the other. It is possible to measure several parts per thousand of 195Zr in 95Nb and vice versa with gamma spectrometry by means of lithium-drifted germanium try by means of lithium-drifted germanium detectors. (author)

297

Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion Guidance Navigation and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch. We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool ("Critical Factors Tool" or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

2013-01-01

298

An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modelling of the CMS Detector Control System  

Science.gov (United States)

The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviours and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and checked using a model checking algorithm. For checking local requirements such as endless loop freedom, the Bounded Model Checking technique is applied. This paper discusses these analysis techniques and presents the results of their application on the CMS FSM system.

Hwong, Yi Ling; Willemse, Tim; Kusters, Vincent; Bauer, Gerry; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Biery, Kurt; Bouffet, Olivier; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Holzner, Andre; Hatton, Derek; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K.; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerb, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Sumorok, Konstanty

2011-12-01

299

An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modelling of the CMS Detector Control System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviours and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and checked using a model checking algorithm. For checking local requirements such as endless loop freedom, the Bounded Model Checking technique is applied. This paper discusses these analysis techniques and presents the results of their application on the CMS FSM system.

300

ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented

301

ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented.

Solovyanov, O; Solodkov, A; Starchenko, E; Karyukhin, A; Isaev, A; Shalanda, N [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino 142281 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Oleg.Solovyanov@ihep.ru

2008-07-01

302

The use of lac-type promoters in control analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For control analysis, it is necessary to modulate the activity of an enzyme around its normal level and measure the changes in steady-state fluxes or concentrations. We describe an improved method for effecting the modulation, as elaborated for Escherichia coli. The chromosomal gene, encoding the enzyme of interest, is put under the control of a lacUV5 or a tacI promoter. The alternative use of the two promoters leads to an expression range which should make it suitable for the use in control analysis of many enzymes. The lacUV5 promoter should be used when the wild-type expression level is low, the tacI promoter when the latter is high. The endogenous lac operon is placed under the control of a second copy of the lacUV5 promoter and a lacYam mutation (eliminating lactose permease, the transport system for the inducer isopropyl-thio-beta-D-galactoside) is introduced. The method was demonstrated experimentally by constructing E. coli strains, in which the chromosomal atp operon is transcribed from the lacUV5 and the tacI promoter. We measured the concentration of the c subunit of H+-ATPase, and found that the expression of this enzyme could be modulated between non-detectable levels and up to five times the wild-type level. Thus, in the absence of inducer, no expression of atp genes could be detected when the atp operon was controlled by the lacUV5 promoter, and we estimate that the expression was less than 0.0025 times the wild-type level. We show that the introduction of a lac Y mutation facilitated the attainment of steady induction levels of partially induced cells. The mutation also reduced positive cooperativity in the dependence of expression on the concentration of isopropyl-thio-beta-D-galactoside (the inducer) and shifted the concentration of inducer needed for half maximum induction to higher values. These properties should facilitate the experimental modulation of the enzyme activity by varying the concentration of the inducer.

Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Westerhoff, H. v.

1993-01-01

303

Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides is an integral component of planning and evaluation of insecticide use in malaria control programmes. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, better known as knockdown resistance (kdr. In An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, two different substitutions in the para-type sodium channel, a L1014F substitution common in West Africa and a L1014S replacement found in Kenya, are linked with kdr. Two different allele-specific polymerase chain reactions (AS-PCR are needed to detect these known kdr mutations. However, these AS-PCR assays rely on a single nucleotide polymorphism mismatch, which can result in unreliable results. Methods Here, a new assay for the detection of knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/Melt Curve analysis (FRET/MCA is presented and compared with the existing assays. Results The new FRET/MCA method has the important advantage of detecting both kdr alleles in one assay. Moreover, results show that the FRET/MCA is more reliable and more sensitive than the existing AS-PCR assays and is able to detect new genotypes. By using this technique, the presence of the East African kdr mutation (L1014S is shown for the first time in An. arabiensis specimens from Uganda. In addition, a new kdr genotype is reported in An. gambiae s.s. from Uganda, where four An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes possess both, the West (L1014F and East (L1014S African kdr allele, simultaneously. Conclusion The presence of both kdr mutations in the same geographical region shows the necessity of a reliable assay that enables to detect both mutations in one single assay. Hence, this new assay based on FRET/MCA will improve the screening of the kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis.

Backeljau Thierry

2006-02-01

304

Risk Analysis in Robust Control -- Making the Case for Probabilistic Robust Control  

CERN Document Server

This paper offers a critical view of the "worst-case" approach that is the cornerstone of robust control design. It is our contention that a blind acceptance of worst-case scenarios may lead to designs that are actually more dangerous than designs based on probabilistic techniques with a built-in risk factor. The real issue is one of modeling. If one accepts that no mathematical model of uncertainties is perfect then a probabilistic approach can lead to more reliable control even if it cannot guarantee stability for all possible cases. Our presentation is based on case analysis. We first establish that worst-case is not necessarily "all-encompassing." In fact, we show that for some uncertain control problems to have a conventional robust control solution it is necessary to make assumptions that leave out some feasible cases. Once we establish that point, we argue that it is not uncommon for the risk of unaccounted cases in worst-case design to be greater than that of the accepted risk in a probabilistic appro...

Chen, Xinjia; Zhou, Kemin

2007-01-01

305

Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

306

The value of standards. Essay on a cost-benefit analysis of environmental policy. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In practice, societal cost-benefit analysis (MKBA in Dutch), multicriteria analysis (MCA) and cost effectiveness analysis are applied to compare the costs and beneficial effects of governmental policies. In this report attention is paid to the societal benefits and the economic impacts of environmental standards

307

Austrian meat: Authenticity control by stable isotope analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The EU has declared that all foodstuff must be able to be traced back from 'fork to farm' to increase the safety of food and the confidence of the consumers in food quality and safety. Additionally, several incidents of 'food diseases and scandals' related with meat (e.g.: BSE, foot and mouth disease, antibiotics abuse, avian flu, etc.) have demonstrated the necessity to trace back the origin of meat, to be able to locate sources of infection/mismanagement. Besides the conventional method of the control of documentation there is the possibility of control of origin by analysing the isotopic composition of meat and herewith controlling the questioned good itself. Stable isotope ratios of the elements HCNOS are varying geographically due to different environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, geology, soil, altitude, geography, etc.) thus every region possesses an individual pattern. The isotopic pattern is imprinted on plants and animals growing in a certain region, and therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can allow the identification of agricultural goods from different regions. For the control of origin of Austrian meat about 500 beef and 500 pork samples have been collected from slaughterhouses and were analysed for the isotopic composition of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur and compared with the isotopic composition of meat samples from neighbouring countries. As Austria, despite being a small country, is very heterogeneous in its environmtry, is very heterogeneous in its environmental conditions, thus there are significant differences in the isotopic patterns of individual Austrian provinces. The isotopic signature of meat samples from neighbouring countries can overlap with the 'Austrian isotope pattern' due to similar environmental conditions. However, a correct statistical classification has been achieved for 80% and 84% of the analysed beef and pork samples, respectively. If the declared origin of meat can be pinned down to an Austrian province, the discrimination power of the database is even significantly better. (author)

308

Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design – such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I&C system designs – makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I&C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development.

Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani

2007-01-31

309

LSAP-DIGLIB, Linear Control System Design, Analysis, Plotting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LSAP (Linear Systems Analysis Program) is an interactive program with graphics capability provided through DIGLIB (Device Independent Graphics Library) that can be used for the analysis and design of linear control systems. Nearly all the classical design tools are available, including manipulation of transfer functions and generation of root locus, time response, and frequency response plots. The program is capable of working with continuous time systems and sampled data systems. For continuous time systems, the Laplace transform is used and for sampled data systems, the Z-transform is used. The capability to convert from a Laplace to a Z-transform is provided. The program is intended primarily for the analysis of feedback control systems. The system configuration or parameters can be changed easily, allowing the user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in a very convenient manner. DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with RT-11, RSX-11M, and VMS and readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting. DIGLIB has device drivers for Tektronix 4010, 4012, 4014, 4025, and 4027 terminals; VT100 terminals with the retro-graphics option; GIGI terminals, CalComp 1012 plotters, and Lexidata 3400 color graphics systems. 2 - Method of solution: LSAP performs its modeling by defining and operating ms its modeling by defining and operating upon polynomial fraction representations of transfer functions. It is a command oriented program. A command is entered, together with any necessary data, and then executed. The program is then ready for the next command. The MAIN procedure accepts a command and calls the appropriate command procedure, until the program is halted. Each command procedure uses any utilities required for the execution of the command. The commands interact with global data in two basic ways. All defined transfer functions are global records, which exist in a linked list. All commands except HALT and HELP operate upon these records. Also included in global data are switches, flags, pointers, and scalars which describe the state of the program and control the operations performed by the commands. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program can only be applied to systems which can be described by a collection of rational transfer functions that are either Laplace or Z-transforms. The order of the numerator or denominator polynomials cannot exceed 20

310

Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and luding polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion coefficient. The inherent instability of high density suspensions instigated high speed analysis techniques capable of monitoring suspensions that were undergoing rapid change as well as suggesting novel methods for the evaluation of the state of sample dispersion. (author)

311

Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

312

Analysis of Energy Controllers for Enhancement of Energy Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast changing energy market has brought the new challenges in the field of transmission systems. Today’s energy transmissionnetworks are not designed for easy voltage flow in a deregulated market and steady state control problems as well as dynamic problem are the result. A new technology in this field, the flexible ac transmission system is gaining popularity in the world due to its enormous advantages.This paper gives an overview of its development; briefly describes its device and explains its effects. Furthermore, because of the tremendous influence on the system by the introduction of flexible ac transmission system, there is a great demand to improve the energy system analysis. Also, this paper present some aspects and direction needed to be studied.

Neetu Mittal

2010-10-01

313

Establishment of analysis procedure for control rod reactivity worth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As to the calculation method of control rod reactivity relating to hexagonal assembly, which are used generally in fast reactor, we have investigated the calculation method, the problems to rise during calculation, the degrees of calculation and the enhancement of calculation modeling so on, and estimated the application of calculation method through comparison and analysis of calculation result using the effective cross section generation system, TRANSX/TWODANT, and neutron flux calculation system, diffusion theory code DIF-3D, which are belonged to K-CORE System, and determined the basic calculation method, and extracted the present calculation problem in case of application in K-CORE System and the future improvement items so on

314

Analysis of errors of radioisotope absorption methods of control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three approaches to the problem solution of measuring condition optimization during control of material density, are considered. The first approach is based on the choice of optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the conditions of providing minimum relative statistical error of measuring with the source given activity. The second approach consists in chosing optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the condition of providing equality of errors at the ends of the measured magnitude range. The third approach suggests determination of optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the condition of providing minimum error during measuring the given limiting value of the registered counting rate taking into account the possibility of chosing a source of the corresponding activity. Comparative analysis of the three mentioned methods is conducted. Dependences of relative statistical error of measuring on attenuation multiplicity factor are given

315

Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2  

CERN Document Server

In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

2012-01-01

316

Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

Roumie, M., E-mail: mroumie@cnrs.edu.l [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon); Nsouli, B. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon); Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M. [Banque du Liban, Beirut (Lebanon)

2010-06-15

317

Control of the boiling crisis: analysis of a model system  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling the transition between the low (nucleate) and high temperature (film) regimes of boiling is a serious challenge for a number of technological applications. Based on the theoretical analysis of a simplified reaction-diffusion model, it has recently been shown [A. Pumir, V.V. Barelko, Chaos 12, 610 (2002)] that the transition towards the dangerous situation where the high temperature phase tends to invade the whole system requires a higher power in a periodically spatially modulated system than in an homogeneous system. We show here that the transition mechanisms between the various boiling regimes depend on the ratio between the periodicity length along the wire and the characteristic thermal diffusion length. We analyse theoretically a simple experimental setup aimed at testing these ideas. The heater consists of a thin wire, with an applied electric current, with alternatively low resistance and high resistance sections. We determine the gain in stability for a set of realistic values of the parameters.

Pumir, A.; Barelko, V. V.; Buryak, E. V.

2007-11-01

318

Establishment of analysis procedure for control rod reactivity worth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As to the calculation method of control rod reactivity relating to hexagonal assembly, which are used generally in fast reactor, we have investigated the calculation method, the problems to rise during calculation, the degrees of calculation and the enhancement of calculation modeling so on, and estimated the application of calculation method through comparison and analysis of calculation result using the effective cross section generation system, TRANSX/TWODANT, and neutron flux calculation system, diffusion theory code DIF-3D, which are belonged to K-CORE System, and determined the basic calculation method, and extracted the present calculation problem in case of application in K-CORE System and the future improvement items so on.

Song, Hoon; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Sang Ji; Kim, Young In

2001-03-01

319

Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

A. M. Oliveira Filho

1989-01-01

320

Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the [...] prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes) free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES) based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

A. M., Oliveira Filho.

321

Root cause analysis to support infection control in healthcare premises.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection control teams (ICTs) seek to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). They undertake surveillance and prevention, promote safety and quality of care, and evaluate and manage risk. Root cause analysis (RCA) can support this work but is not widely used by ICTs. This paper describes how ICTs can use RCA to enhance their day-to-day work. Many different tools and methods exist for RCA. Its primary aim is to identify the factors that have led to HCAI, but RCA can also be used for near-misses. A team effort and multidisciplinary work are usually required. Published accounts and personal experience in the field indicate that an ICT that correctly uses RCA implements more effective prevention measures, improves practice and collaborative working, enhances teamwork, and reduces the risk of HCAI. RCA should be promoted among ICTs because it adds value to their work and helps to develop a hospital culture that anticipates and pre-empts problems. PMID:25634490

Venier, A-G

2015-04-01

322

An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modeling of the CMS Detector Control System  

CERN Document Server

The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviors and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and c...

Ling Hwong, Yi

2010-01-01

323

Analysis of Control Strategies for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of various Pulse Width Modulation (PWM strategies for the three phase Diode Clamped Multi Level Inverter (DCMLI. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of new modulation schemes with Variable Amplitude (VA and various new schemes adopting the constant switching frequency and also variable switching frequency multicarrier control freedom degree combination concepts are developed and simulated for the chosen three phase DCMLI. The three phase DCMLI, is controlled in this paper with Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM reference along with triangular carriers and analysis is made among both without carrier overlapping and with Carrier Overlapping (CO techniques to choose the better strategy by performing simulation using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The variation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD and fundamental RMS output voltage is observed for various modulation indices. It is observed that among the various equal amplitude PWM strategies, COPWM-C provides less THD and higher RMS voltage. It is recognized that among the various variable amplitude PWM strategies, VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. By comparing the equal amplitude PWM strategies with the variable amplitude PWM strategies it is inferred that VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. It is also inferred that carrier overlapping techniques provides better results compared to the without carrier overlapping techniques.

C. R. Balamurugan

2013-05-01

324

Multi-resolution analysis for determining control rod drop time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes a multi-resolution analysis (MRA) to determine the onset and end drop times of control rods. The measurement test of the drop times of control rods is normally performed during the start-up test of each reactor cycle since it is a crucial safety function to guarantee the reactor safe shutdown. The MRA with wavelet transform is particularly useful in analyzing the onset transients of rod drop as a means of capturing the unique attributes of such signals in an efficient way. This approach also allows the automated determination of rod drop time which reduces the uncertainty induced by ad hoc heuristic approaches. The test signal is generated by adding the random noise measured from real rod drop tests subtracting the wavelet-filtered noise free signal from the noisy signal leaving the noise. The signal is similar to both high sharp spikes noise and sine wave noise from the real voltage trace generated during the rod drop test. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by the MRA process. (author)

325

Introduction to time-delay systems analysis and control  

CERN Document Server

The beginning of the 21st century can be characterized as the ”time-delay boom” leading to numerous important results. The purpose of this book is two-fold, to familiarize the non-expert reader with time-delay systems and to provide a systematic treatment of modern ideas and techniques for experts. This book is based on the course ”Introduction to time-delay systems” for graduate students in Engineering and Applied Mathematics that the author taught in Tel Aviv University in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. The sufficient background to follow most of the material are the undergraduate courses in mathematics and an introduction to control. The book leads the reader from some basic classical results on time-delay systems to recent developments on Lyapunov-based analysis and design with applications to the hot topics of sampled-data and network-based control. The objective is to provide useful tools that will allow the reader not only to apply the existing methods, but also to develop new ones. It...

Fridman, Emilia

2014-01-01

326

Analysis of Fuzzy PID and Immune PID Controller for Three Tank Liquid Level Control  

OpenAIRE

In industrial control systems the liquid level iscarrying its significance as the control action for level control intanks containing different chemicals or mixtures is essential forfurther control linking set points. The three level control modelsare considered in our work. The conventional control algorithm isdifficult to reach required control quality with more strictrestriction on overshoot. Design a parameter self-tuningPID-controller based on fuzzy control, which can adjustPID-parameter...

Sharad Kumar Tiwari; Gagandeep Kaur

2011-01-01

327

HPLC-MS technique for radiopharmaceuticals analysis and quality control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potentialities of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector (MSD) were investigated with the objective of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals; 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) being an example. Screening of suitable MSD analytical lines is presented. Mass-spectrometric monitoring of acetonitrile-aqueous ammonium formate eluant by negatively charged FDG.HCO2- ions enables isotope analysis (specific activity) of the radiopharmaceutical at m/z 227 and 226. Kryptofix 222 provides an intense MSD signal of the positive ion associated with NH4+ at m/z 394. Expired FDG injection samples contain decomposition products from which at least one labelled by 18F and characterised by signal of negative ions at m/z 207 does not correspond to FDG fragments but to C5 decomposition products. A glucose chromatographic peak, characterised by m/z 225 negative ion is accompanied by a tail of a component giving a signal of m/z 227, which can belong to [18O]glucose; isobaric sorbitol signals were excluded but FDG-glucose association occurs in the co-elution of separation of model mixtures. The latter can actually lead to a convoluted chromatographic peak, but the absence of 18F makes this inconsistent. Quantification and validation of the FDG component analysis is under way. (author)

328

Metabolic control analysis under uncertainty: framework development and case studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information about the enzyme kinetics in a metabolic network will enable understanding of the function of the network and quantitative prediction of the network responses to genetic and environmental perturbations. Despite recent advances in experimental techniques, such information is limited and existing experimental data show extensive variation and they are based on in vitro experiments. In this article, we present a computational framework based on the well-established (log)linear formalism of metabolic control analysis. The framework employs a Monte Carlo sampling procedure to simulate the uncertainty in the kinetic data and applies statistical tools for the identification of the rate-limiting steps in metabolic networks. We applied the proposed framework to a branched biosynthetic pathway and the yeast glycolysis pathway. Analysis of the results allowed us to interpret and predict the responses of metabolic networks to genetic and environmental changes, and to gain insights on how uncertainty in the kinetic mechanisms and kinetic parameters propagate into the uncertainty in predicting network responses. Some of the practical applications of the proposed approach include the identification of drug targets for metabolic diseases and the guidance for design strategies in metabolic engineering for the purposeful manipulation of the metabolism of industrial organisms. PMID:15465856

Wang, Liqing; Birol, Inanç; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

2004-12-01

329

Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay. Stabilized RED (SRED is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM. We also included the comparative analysis of loss rate having different bandwidth for these algorithms.

Sanjeev Patel

2011-09-01

330

Numerical stability analysis in respiratory control system models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stability of the unique equilibrium in two mathematical models (based on chemical balance dynamics of human respiration is examined using numerical methods. Due to the transport delays in the respiratory control system these models are governed by delay differential equations. First, a simplified two-state model with one delay is considered, then a five-state model with four delays (where the application of numerical methods is essential is investigated. In particular, software is developed to perform linearized stability analysis and simulations of the model equations. Furthermore, the Matlab package DDE-BIFTOOL v.~2.00 is employed to carry out numerical bifurcation analysis. Our main goal is to study the effects of transport delays on the stability of the model equations. Critical values of the transport delays (i.e., where Hopf bifurcations occur are determined, and stable periodic solutions are found as the delays pass their critical values. The numerical findings are in good agreement with analytic results obtained earlier for the two-state model.

Laszlo E. Kollar

2005-04-01

331

Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author)

332

75 FR 37421 - Santiam Water Control District; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...12574-002] Santiam Water Control District; Notice...Ready for Environmental Analysis, and Soliciting Comments...Applicant: Santiam Water Control District. e...Control District, 284 East Water Street, Stayton OR 97383...ready for environmental analysis at this time. l....

2010-06-29

333

Stability Analysis and Control of Nonlinear Phenomena in Buck Converters Using Variable Structure Control Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time varying, nonlinear nature of the power switches and several other sources of nonlinearities in DC-DC Converters deviates its performance from the theoretical prediction of stability. The switching nature necessitates a study of the stability and their periodic orbit rather than the equilibrium point. The closed loopoperation exhibits several types of nonlinear phenomena including bifurcation, chaos and quasi-periodicity. This paper is oriented with the analysis of such nonlinear phenomena in buck converter and attempts to coin a new strategy that can control chaos and significantly extend the parameter range for nominal period-I operation, in its mission to enhance the operating range of the converter.

Dr. S. R. PARANJOTHI,

2011-01-01

334

Zonal frequency analysis of the gyral and sulcal extent of cerebral infarcts. Part III: Middle cerebral artery and watershed infarcts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We tested the hypothesis that frequency analysis of the anatomic zones affected by single anterior (A), posterior (P), and middle (M) cerebral artery (CA), multivessel, and watershed infarcts will disclose specific sites (peak zones) most frequently involved by each type, sites most frequently injured by multiple different types (vulnerable zones), and overlapping sites of equal relative frequency for two or more different types of infarct (equal frequency zones). We adopted precise definitions of each vascular territory. CT and MRI studies of 50 MCA, 20 ACA-MCA, three PCA-MCA, and 30 parasagittal watershed infarcts were mapped onto a standard template. Relative infarct frequencies in each zone were analyzed within and across infarct types to identify the centers and peripheries of each, vulnerable zones, and equal frequency zones. These data were then correlated with the prior analysis of 47 ACA, PCA, dual ACA-PCA, and ACA-PCA-MCA infarcts. Zonal frequency data for MCA and watershed infarcts, the sites of peak infarct frequency, the sites of vulnerability to diverse infarcts, and the overlapping sites of equal infarct frequency are tabulated and displayed in standardized format for direct comparison of different infarcts. This method successfully displays the nature, sites, and extent of individual infarct types, illustrates the shifts in zonal frequency and lesion center that attend dual and triple infarcts, and clarifies the relationships among the diverse types ofe relationships among the diverse types of infarct. (orig.)

335

Molecular analysis of the genera eremopyrum (ledeb). jaub. and spach and agropyron gaertner (poaceae) by pcr methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Post PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Melting Curve Analysis (MCA) have been used to investigate the pattern of genetic variation among some species in the genera Eremopyrum (Ledeb.) Jaub. and Spach and Agropyron Gaertner (Poaceae). Thirteen primers have been used in the study based on the RAPD-PCR and MCA analyses. Each species produced a distinct pattern of DNA fragments which have been used as a measure of the degree of relationship between species by means of using the RAPD-PCR results with three primers selected for identifying the genetic similarities. Polymorphic melting profiles have been obtained with Post PCR MCA method using three primers. Genetic similarities are calculated for all the species studied with RAPD-PCR and MCA methods, the dendrograms are obtained with the MVSP (Multi Variate Statistical Package) software using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages) and Jaccard's Coefficient. Polymorphism between 18 populations of Eremopyrum and 6 Agropyron populations and within the species are determined by using RAPD-PCR and Post PCR melting curve analysis (MCA) respectively. (author)

336

Simulation of the treat-upgrade automatic reactor control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design of the Automatic Reactor Control System (ARCS) for the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Upgrade. A simulation was used to facilitate the ARCS design, and to completely test and verify its operation before installation at the TREAT facility. The ARCS is a microprocessor network based closed loop control system that provides a position demand control signal to the transient rod hydraulic drive system. There are four identical servo-hydraulic rod drives and each operates as a position control system. The ARCS updates its position demand control signal every 1 msec and its function is to control the transient rods so that the reactor follows a prescribed power-time profile (planned transient). The Main Control Algorithm (MCA) for the ARCS is an optimal reactivity demand algorithm. At each time step, the MCA generates a set of reference reactor functions, e.g., power, period, energy, and delayed neutron power. These functions are compared to plant measurements and estimated values at each time step and are operated on by appropriate algorithms to generate the reactivity demand function. The data necessary to calculate the reference functions is supplied from a Transient Prescription Control Data Set (TPCDS). The TPCDS specifies the planned transient as a fixed number of simply connected independent power profile segments. The developed simulation code models the TREAT reactor kinetics, the hydraulic rod drive system, the plant measureraulic rod drive system, the plant measurement system, and the ARCS control processor MCA. All of the models operate as continuous systems with the exception of the MCA which operates as a discrete time system at fixed multiples of 1 msec. The study indicates that the ARCS will meet or exceed all of its design specifications

337

Analysis for Secondary Task in Advanced Main Control Room Using Soft Controls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to analyze operator tasks using soft controls from the simulation data of an advanced MCR. In this study, the primary and secondary tasks of eighteen simulation data were analyzed. The results showed that secondary tasks were required to perform scenarios more than primary task needs. Among these secondary tasks, the 'switch screen' made up the largest portion. This indicates that operator workload would increase with an increase of the 'switch screen' task. To reduce operator workload, Cps designers put the screen link buttons in the Cps. According to an analysis of secondary tasks using the screen link buttons, it is recognized that using the screen link buttons of the Cps helps reduce the number of secondary tasks and reduce errors of the 'switch screen'. Therefore, although increased secondary tasks can affect the increase of operator workload according to the adapting soft controls in advanced MCRs, using supporting designs such as the screen link buttons helps to reduce operator workload and errors

338

Cadmium and lead residue control in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2003-2004, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted an exploratory assessment to determine the occurrence and levels of cadmium and lead in randomly collected samples of kidney, liver, and muscle tissues of mature chickens, boars/stags, dairy cows, and heifers. The data generated in the study were qualitatively compared to data that FSIS gathered in a 1985-1986 study in order to identify trends in the levels of cadmium and lead in meat and poultry products. The exploratory assessment was necessary to verify that Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point plans and efforts to control exposure to these heavy metals are effective and result in products that meet U.S. export requirements. A comparison of data from the two FSIS studies suggests that the incidence and levels of cadmium and lead in different slaughter classes have remained stable since the first study was conducted in 1985-1986. This study was conducted to fulfill FSIS mandate to ensure that meat, poultry, and egg products entering commerce in the United States are free of adulterants, including elevated levels of environmental contaminants such as cadmium and lead. PMID:17249686

Pagan-Rodríguez, Doritza; O'Keefe, Margaret; Deyrup, Cindy; Zervos, Penny; Walker, Harry; Thaler, Alice

2007-02-21

339

Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two methods. Closing remarks conclude the paper.

Ngo, Trung Dung

2010-01-01

340

Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen production and audits in such AI centers for the external control of hygiene parameters. PMID:25459424

Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

2015-02-01

341

Control Volume Analysis, Entropy Balance and the Entropy Production in Flow Systems  

OpenAIRE

This chapter concerns "control volume analysis", the standard engineering tool for the analysis of flow systems, and its application to entropy balance calculations. Firstly, the principles of control volume analysis are enunciated and applied to flows of conserved quantities (e.g. mass, momentum, energy) through a control volume, giving integral (Reynolds transport theorem) and differential forms of the conservation equations. Several definitions of steady state are discuss...

Niven, Robert K.; Noack, Bernd R.

2014-01-01

342

MODELLING, SIMULATION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE PROCESS CONTROL  

OpenAIRE

Processes characterized by large time constant, such as those with temperature control systems, are found in a large number of industrial applications. To control such systems, the appropriate mathematical models identification is needed, considering the uncertainties modeling, handling in dynamic operating regime and proposing control solutions. The paper presents a control system used in a part of a complex plant where is needed to maintain temperature at a set point. The controlled install...

Mircea Dulau; Adrian Gligor; Horatiu-Stefan Grif

2012-01-01

343

Methodology for analysis and synthesis of control alternatives  

OpenAIRE

Este trabajo describe una metodología para el análisis de alternativas de control en un proceso determinado. Con esta metodología, una vez obtenido el modelo matemático, se lineariza automáticamente para evaluar distintos criterios de control a fin de discernir entre combinaciones viables de mediciones y controles. Para evaluar todas las alternativas de control, primero se generan todas las posibles alternativas, y después se aplican los criterios de control más estrictos p...

Zques, M. Garfias-v U. E.; Herrera-alonso, R.; Edguez-bustamante, E. Rodr U.; Solano-sompanzi, A.; Mez, G. Rodr U. Edguez-g U. F.; Oz-arteaga, J. Mu U. F.; Rez-romero, D. Ju U. E.

2005-01-01

344

Model-based analysis of control performance in sewer systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Design and assessment of control in wastewater systems has to be tackled at all levels, including supervisory and regulatory level. We present here an integrated approach to assessment of control in sewer systems based on modelling and the use of process control tools to assess the controllability of the process. A case study of a subcatchment area in Copenhagen (Denmark) is used to illustrate the combined approach in modelling of the system and control assessment.

Mollerup, Ane HØyer; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel

2012-01-01

345

Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter c...

Rathnakannan Kailasam; Ranjan Vanaja

2008-01-01

346

Sensitivity analysis of an optimal control problem in greenhouse climate management.  

OpenAIRE

Optimal control systems are based on a performance measure to be optimised and a model description of the dynamic process to be controlled. When on-line implementation is considered, the performance of optimally controlled processes will depend on the accuracy of the model description used. Sensitivity analysis offers insight into the impact of uncertainty in the model parameters on the performance of the optimally controlled process. Additionally, sensitivity analysis may reveal the mechanis...

Henten, E. J.

2003-01-01

347

Application analysis of servo-control system based on PMAC with feed-forward control  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of traditional PID algorithm, the paper analyzes the improvements of control algorithm of PMAC (Programmable Multiple-Axis Controller) with feedforward control, and presents the computational model of the control algorithm. The debugging results of motors are analyzed in combination with PMAC as the controller. The problems and the final graphics data that appear throughout debugging process are analyzed in detail, which proves that there are better steady characteristics and dynamic performance for the servo-control system based on PMAC with feedforward control. The control system is rebuilded by parameter-adaptive PID+feedforward control for higher machining accuracy.

Lin, Rongkun; Yao, Bin; Chen, Minghui; Li, Fei; Peng, Liwen

2011-12-01

348

Control of interferences in the analysis of low-concentration I 129  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traces of uranium, cesium and tellurium interfere in the determination of I 129 by neutron activation analysis. The paper describes the procedures used to control or eliminate the interferences in the different steps of the analysis

349

How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The chemostat makes it possible to study microbial physiology at steady state. However, because growth rate in a chemostat is set by the experimenter, it seems impossible to employ the chemostat to study the control of microbial growth by processes within the microorganism. In this paper we show how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth limiting substrate.

Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

1994-01-01

350

Analysis of Fuzzy PID and Immune PID Controller for Three Tank Liquid Level Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In industrial control systems the liquid level iscarrying its significance as the control action for level control intanks containing different chemicals or mixtures is essential forfurther control linking set points. The three level control modelsare considered in our work. The conventional control algorithm isdifficult to reach required control quality with more strictrestriction on overshoot. Design a parameter self-tuningPID-controller based on fuzzy control, which can adjustPID-parameters according to error and change in error.Biological immune system is a control system that has strongrobusticity and self-adaptability in complex disturbance andindeterminacy environments. The artificial intelligence techniqueof fuzzy logic and immune controller is adopted for more reliableand precise control action which incorporate the uncertain factorsalso. In this work the comparison of the conventional model, fuzzymodel and immune feedback mechanism is clarified.

Sharad Kumar Tiwari

2011-09-01

351

Fuzzy Current-Mode Control and Stability Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper a current-mode control (CMC) methodology is developed for a buck converter by using a fuzzy logic controller. Conventional CMC methodologies are based on lead-lag compensation with voltage and inductor current feedback. In this paper the converter lead-lag compensation will be substituted with a fuzzy controller. A small-signal model of the fuzzy controller will also be developed in order to examine the stability properties of this buck converter control system. The paper develops an analytical approach, introducing fuzzy control into the area of CMC.

Kopasakis, George

2000-01-01

352

Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.  

OpenAIRE

The Brushless DC motors (BLDC) find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI) controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease ...

Nagasekhar Reddy, P.

2013-01-01

353

Task analysis of soft control operations in advanced main control rooms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In advanced main control rooms (MCRs), operations are performed using soft controls such as mo uses, touch panels and so on. The soft control operations require totally different operation process from that of conventional controls. Especially, the interface management tasks are most distinguishable characteristics of soft controls. In this work, simulation data of an advanced MCR was analyzed in order to observe operators' behavior during soft control operations

354

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

Lynne M. Stevens

2010-07-01

355

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

356

Control of Switching Systems by Invariance Analysis (Invited Talk)  

OpenAIRE

Switched systems are embedded devices widespread in industrial applications such as power electronics and automotive control. They consist of continuous-time dynamical subsystems and a rule that controls the switching between them. Under a suitable control rule, the system can improve its steady-state performance and meet essential properties such as safety and stability in desirable operating zones. We explain that such controller synthesis problems are related to the construction of appropr...

Fribourg, Laurent

2013-01-01

357

Description and analysis of a cascade control of fluid flow  

Science.gov (United States)

A new invention, called the cascade control of fluid flow, is described and analyzed. The main idea of this control method is that the flow can be kept constant at varying pressure differences by using the existing pressure difference over the control valve as an energy source for making adjustments. Some technical limits for the applicability of the method are discussed. A theoretical consideration of a servocontrol system, where the desired volume flow is changed by external control, is also presented.

Lampinen, M. J.; Toivonen, H. T.; Niskanen, E. J.; Kaerkkaeinen, A.

358

Output controllability analysis of fixed speed wind turbine  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the concepts of output controllability and steady output controllability, it demonstrates that they are not equivalent of concepts. A linear system has been calculated from the nonlinear equations of the squirrel cage induction generator, supposing it connected directly to the grid and assuming a steady state operating point. The study of output controllability and steady-output controllability concepts of the introduced system is done.

Domi?nguez Garci?a, Jose? Lui?s; Garci?a Planas, Mari?a Isabel

2011-01-01

359

Sensory Stimulation-Based Complete Protection from Ischemic Stroke Remains Stable at 4 Months Post-Occlusion of MCA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research from our lab has shown that when using a rodent model of ischemic stroke (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion), mild sensory stimulation, when delivered within two hours of ischemic onset, completely protects the cortex from impending ischemic stroke damage when assessed 24 hours post-occlusion. However, the long-term stability of this protection remains unclear. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging for assessment of cortical function, laser speckle imaging for assessment of blood flow, a battery of behavioral tests and cresyl violet for histological assessment, the present study examined whether this protection was long-lasting. When assessed 4 months post-occlusion (this length of time being equivalent to 10-15 years in humans), rats receiving sensory stimulation treatment immediately after ischemic onset exhibit normal neuronal and vascular function, and they are behaviorally and histologically equivalent to healthy controls (surgical shams). Thus, the complete neuroprotection due to cortical activation via sensory stimulation remains stable with time. These findings add support to the translational potential of this sensory stimulation-based treatment. PMID:24634892

Hancock, Aneeka M; Lay, Christopher C; Davis, Melissa F; Frostig, Ron D

2013-11-01

360

Empirical Analysis of Interactive Control’s Effectiveness: A Parent-Subsidiary Company’s Interdependence Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the increasingly complex business environment and the principal-agent relationship, the enterprise group should establish a control system to prevent agency risk. Besides traditional system control, the parent company tends to adopt an interactive control including decentralized decision making, process communication and target incentive to guide and govern the subsidiaries. As an elastic control mechanism, the interactive control’s effectiveness could be influenced by the resources dependence relationship which is objective existence between the parent and subsidiary company. Based on the classical literature review, this study analyzes the effects of interaction control to the performance (“interactive control ? performance” and the interdependence’s regulating role by a total sample and a multiple-group structural equation analysis based on Chinese groups’ data, the results show that the interactive control could improve the subsidiaries’ performance, but different control process has its particular applicable interdependence situation. In the conclusions, we proposed some suggestions to promote the interactive control’s effectiveness in the enterprise group’s management practices.

Biao Luo

2012-09-01

361

Controllability Analysis for a Class of Multirotors Subject to Rotor Failure/Wear  

OpenAIRE

This paper considers the controllability analysis problem for a class of multirotor systems subject to rotor failure/wear. It is shown that classical controllability theories of linear systems are not sufficient to test the controllability of the considered multirotors. Owing to this, an easy-to-use measurement index is introduced to assess the available control authority. Based on it, a new necessary and sufficient condition for the controllability of multirotors is derived...

Du, Guang-xun; Quan, Quan; Yang, Binxian; Cai, Kai-yuan

2014-01-01

362

Robust Control Analysis using Real-Time Implementation of a Hybrid Fuel Cell Power Generation System  

OpenAIRE

In this paper a complete robustness analysis is performed for a hybrid Fuel Cell/Supercapacitor generation system with power management, realized through the control of two identical boost power converters. For the closed-loop control a previously proposed multivariable robust control is considered. The robust control strategy analyzed consists of a multivariable Proportional-Integral controller found using an algorithm with a Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) formulation proposed by the autho...

Hernandez-torres, David; Riu, Delphine; Sename, Olivier; Druart, Florence

2011-01-01

363

Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) are applied to the evaluation matrix data set obtained by simulation of several control strategies applied to the plant-wide IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2). These techniques allow i) to determine natural groups or clusters of control strategies with a similar behaviour, ii) to find and interpret hidden, complex and casual relation features in the data set and iii) to identify important discriminant variables within the groups found by the cluster analysis. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariable statistical techniques for both analysis and interpretation of the complex multicriteria data sets and allows an improved use of information for effective evaluation of control strategies.

Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.

2007-01-01

364

Fuzzycat : A Fuzzy Control Analysis Tool for Maple  

OpenAIRE

This report is an abbreviated translation of a M.Sc thesis work about fuzzy control that was carried out by the second author (A.S.) under the supervision of the first author (K.F.) during the fall of 1992. The complete report (in Swedish) is [14]. Fuzzy Control is a design method for nonlinear controllers, which is becoming more and more common in industrial applications. However, a major disadvantage of fuzzy control, is that the controllers obtained are often difficult to analyze mathemati...

Forsman, Krister; Stenman, Anders

1993-01-01

365

Network analysis reveals multiscale controls on streamwater chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

By coupling synoptic data from a basin-wide assessment of streamwater chemistry with network-based geostatistical analysis, we show that spatial processes differentially affect biogeochemical condition and pattern across a headwater stream network. We analyzed a high-resolution dataset consisting of 664 water samples collected every 100 m throughout 32 tributaries in an entire fifth-order stream network. These samples were analyzed for an exhaustive suite of chemical constituents. The fine grain and broad extent of this study design allowed us to quantify spatial patterns over a range of scales by using empirical semivariograms that explicitly incorporated network topology. Here, we show that spatial structure, as determined by the characteristic shape of the semivariograms, differed both among chemical constituents and by spatial relationship (flow-connected, flow-unconnected, or Euclidean). Spatial structure was apparent at either a single scale or at multiple nested scales, suggesting separate processes operating simultaneously within the stream network and surrounding terrestrial landscape. Expected patterns of spatial dependence for flow-connected relationships (e.g., increasing homogeneity with downstream distance) occurred for some chemical constituents (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, sulfate, and aluminum) but not for others (e.g., nitrate, sodium). By comparing semivariograms for the different chemical constituents and spatial relationships, we were able to separate effects on streamwater chemistry of (i) fine-scale versus broad-scale processes and (ii) in-stream processes versus landscape controls. These findings provide insight on the hierarchical scaling of local, longitudinal, and landscape processes that drive biogeochemical patterns in stream networks. PMID:24753575

McGuire, Kevin J; Torgersen, Christian E; Likens, Gene E; Buso, Donald C; Lowe, Winsor H; Bailey, Scott W

2014-05-13

366

Methodology for analysis and synthesis of control alternatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabajo describe una metodología para el análisis de alternativas de control en un proceso determinado. Con esta metodología, una vez obtenido el modelo matemático, se lineariza automáticamente para evaluar distintos criterios de control a fin de discernir entre combinaciones viables de mediciones y controles. Para evaluar todas las alternativas de control, primero se generan todas las posibles alternativas, y después se aplican los criterios de control más estrictos para reducir rápidamente el número de candidatos. Posteriormente, se aplican secuencialmente los criterios de control deseables a los candidatos restantes. Las configuraciones más promisorias se usan para sintetizar un control desacoplado mediante un compensador que optimiza la dominancia en la diagonal. Esta metodología fue implementada usando un paradigma basado en patrones, el cual se aplica al análisis de un evaporador doble efecto y a dos columnas de destilación con grados de fidelidad diferentes.

M. Garfias-V\\u00E1zques

2005-01-01

367

A Goal-Function Approach to Analysis of Control Situations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The concept of situations plays a central role in all theories of meaning and context. and serve to frame or group events and other occurrences into coherent meaningful wholes. Situations are typed, may be interconnected and organized into higher level structures. In operation of industrial processes situations should identify operational aspects relevant for control agent’s decision making in plant supervision and control. Control situations can be understood as recurrent and interconnected patterns of control with important implications for control and HMI design. Goal-Function approaches to systems modeling like Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used to represent control situations. The paper will describe an action theoretical foundation for MFM and its use for the development of a theory of control situations.

Lind, Morten

2010-01-01

368

Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ? 10 nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. Highlights: • 3D scaffolds of Mg-carbonate–apatite and anionic-collagen were produced. • The biomimetic approach and the cross-linking with 0.25% GA solution were employed. • The scaffolds showed open-porous structure and apatite crystals on collagen fibrils. • The cross-linked scaffolds exhibited integrity when immersed in culture medium. • SaOs2 cells adhered and proliferated on the cross-linked scaffolds confirming no cytotoxicity.

Sader, Marcia S., E-mail: msader@metalmat.ufrj.br [Prog. Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, COPPE/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Virginia C.A. [Depto. de Química e Física Molecular, IQSC/USP, SP (Brazil); Gomez, Santiago [Dept. Anatomía Patológica, Universidad de Cádiz, Cadiz (Spain); LeGeros, Racquel Z. [Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry, NY (United States); Soares, Gloria A. [Prog. Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, COPPE/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)

2013-10-15

369

Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ? 10 nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. Highlights: • 3D scaffolds of Mg-carbonate–apatite and anionic-collagen were produced. • The biomimetic approach and the cross-linking with 0.25% GA solution were employed. • The scaffolds showed open-porous structure and apatite crystals on collagen fibrils. • The cross-linked scaffolds exhibited integrity when immersed in culture medium. • SaOs2 cells adhered and proliferated on the cross-linked scaffolds confirming no cytotoxicity

370

A stability analysis method for the fuzzy controller and its application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is proposed to analyze the stability of a fuzzy controller and the method is applied to a fuzzy controller developed in this work to automatically control the steam generator water level in the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The stability analysis method is devised from the relationships between the fuzzy controller and the conventional PI (Proportional and Integral) controller. The relationships are derived from the theoretical analysis and modeling of the widely used fuzzy controller having two inputs (Error, Rate) and one output with triangular type membership functions. In addition, an analyzable 9-Rule fuzzy controller is designed and computer-simulated for the automatic control of the steam generator water level in the PWR to employ the developed stability analysis method. This study shows that the stability analysis method based on the comparison of the equivalent PI gain ranges of the fuzzy controller with that of a linear PI controller provides very meaningful ideas for the design of stable fuzzy controller through the computer simulations. Therefore, the method suggested in this work can be used in a confirmatory process to check the stability of a fuzzy controller designed with two inputs (error, rate) and also the method would be used as an useful guidance to efficiently design and tune the fuzzy controller

371

Comprehensive Analysis of the Control Strategy for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the analysis of control strategies for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit (IHAPF. This analysis will be the basis of researches of the IHAPF in the future. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the control strategies.

MinhThuyen Chau, VanBao Chau

2013-07-01

372

MODELLING, SIMULATION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE PROCESS CONTROL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processes characterized by large time constant, such as those with temperature control systems, are found in a large number of industrial applications. To control such systems, the appropriate mathematical models identification is needed, considering the uncertainties modeling, handling in dynamic operating regime and proposing control solutions. The paper presents a control system used in a part of a complex plant where is needed to maintain temperature at a set point. The controlled installation consists from two connected tanks, for which a simplified mathematical model based on transfer functions are determined, considering additive uncertainties and classical cascade PI control structures are proposed. Developed models and solutions are analyzed by simulation in Matlab environment.

Mircea Dulau

2012-11-01

373

Analysis of buffering process of control rod hydraulic absorber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control Rod Hydraulic Drive Mechanism(CRHDM) is a newly invented build-in control rod drive mechanism. Hydraulic absorber is the key part of this mechanism, and is used to cushion the control rod when the rod scrams. Thus, it prevents the control rod from being deformed and damaged. In this paper dynamics program ANSYS CFX is used to calculate all kinds of flow conditions in hydraulic absorber to obtain its hydraulic characteristics. Based on the flow resistance coefficients obtained from the simulation results, fluid mass and momentum equations were developed to get the trend of pressure change in the hydraulic cylinder and the displacement of the piston rod during the buffering process of the control rod. The results obtained in this paper indicate that the hydraulic absorber meets the design requirement. The work in this paper will be helpful for the design and optimization of the control rod hydraulic absorber. (author)

374

Control software analysis, Part I Open-loop properties  

CERN Document Server

As the digital world enters further into everyday life, questions are raised about the increasing challenges brought by the interaction of real-time software with physical devices. Many accidents and incidents encountered in areas as diverse as medical systems, transportation systems or weapon systems are ultimately attributed to "software failures". Since real-time software that interacts with physical systems might as well be called control software, the long litany of accidents due to real-time software failures might be taken as an equally long list of opportunities for control systems engineering. In this paper, we are interested only in run-time errors in those pieces of software that are a direct implementation of control system specifications: For well-defined and well-understood control architectures such as those present in standard textbooks on digital control systems, the current state of theoretical computer science is well-equipped enough to address and analyze control algorithms. It appears tha...

Feron, Eric

2008-01-01

375

Probabilistic Analysis of Reactive Power Control Strategies for Wind Farms  

OpenAIRE

The increasing wind power penetration in electrical power systems across Europe has led to rising grid code requirements concerning reactive power control by wind farms in order to meet the upcoming challenges for system stability, control and operation. Some of the important factors for the reactive power control strategy are the stochastic variations of wind and grid voltage which affect both the reactive power capabilities of wind farms and the reactive power support demanded by the grid c...

Hethey, Ja?nos; Leweson, Sofie

2009-01-01

376

Design and Analysis of Bayesian Model Predictive Controller  

OpenAIRE

In this article, a novel predictive controller based on a Bayesian inferring nonlinear model (BMPC) is presented and analyzed. In the construction of the BMPC, the Bayesian inferring model is selected as the predictive model with the characteristics of on-line tracing ability to the actual controlled object. The nonlinear programming method called the steepest gradient is set as the receding horizon optimization algorithm of the BMPC. The on-line controller output is obtained using this metho...

Yijian Liu; Weixing Qian; Liming Di

2014-01-01

377

Analysis of control rod worth in experimental fast reactor JOYO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In JOYO, the measurement of control rod worths have been carried out in the beginning of the each cycle, using both period method and neutron source multiplication method. In this paper, the calculational method of control rod worths in the design stage and the comparison with the design values and measured ones are shown. The reasons that the control rod worths change slightly in each cycle, are also investigated. (author). 13 figs, 12 tabs

378

Simulation Based Analysis of Two Different Control Strategies for PMSM  

OpenAIRE

In low power application generally permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are used. Because of their high performance/cost ratio, the attention toward PMSM in variable speed application, is greater. Control of torque, rotation speed and position for four quadrants and low speed operation, with high-performance dynamic behaviour, are often required in industrial applications but they are sensitive from the standpoint of the control strategies reliability. Vector control based on fieldorient...

Lindita Dhamo, Aida Spahiu

2013-01-01

379

Analysis and design of controllers for a double inverted pendulum  

OpenAIRE

A physical control problem is studied with the ? methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the chart. It is shown how these performance limitation will effect the design of a ?...

Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, J. K.

2010-01-01

380

Simulation Based Analysis of Two Different Control Strategies for PMSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In low power application generally permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM are used. Because of their high performance/cost ratio, the attention toward PMSM in variable speed application, is greater. Control of torque, rotation speed and position for four quadrants and low speed operation, with high-performance dynamic behaviour, are often required in industrial applications but they are sensitive from the standpoint of the control strategies reliability. Vector control based on fieldoriented control (FOC is one of the methods most investigated and discussed by many researcher and now it is an industry standard. Traditional control methods based on FOC use position sensors result to be very expensive in electrical drive with low power. The aim of this paper is to show that sensorless control strategy based on MRAS approach can be applied successfully in PMSM drives with low cost. The results are obtained from comparison of two algorithms of vector control of PMSM: traditional FOC using position sensor and model reference adaptive system (MRAS approach based on sensorless vector control .Based on results obtained, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed control structures will be discussed.

Lindita Dhamo#1 , Aida Spahiu

2013-04-01

381

Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

2010-01-01

382

Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

2008-01-01

383

DESCRIBING FUNCTION METHOD FOR PI-FUZZY CONTROLLED SYSTEMS STABILITY ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper proposes a global stability analysis method dedicated to fuzzy control systems containing Mamdani PI-fuzzy controllers with output integration to control SISO linear / linearized plants. The method is expressed in terms of relatively simple steps, and it is based on: the generalization of the describing function method for the considered fuzzy control systems to the MIMO case, the approximation of the describing functions by applying the least squares method. The method is applied to the stability analysis of a class of PI-fuzzy controlled servo-systems, and validated by considering a case study.

Stefan PREITL

2004-12-01

384

Combining Control-Flow Integrity and Static Analysis for Ef?cient and Validated Data Sandboxing  

OpenAIRE

In many software attacks, inducing an illegal control-flow transfer in the target system is one common step. Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) protects a software system by enforcing a pre-determined control-flow graph. In addition to providing strong security, CFI enables static analysis on low-level code. This paper evaluates whether CFI-enabled static analysis can help build efficient and validated data sandboxing. Previous systems generally sandbox memory writes for integrity, but avoid protec...

Zeng, Bin; Tan, Gang; Morrisett, John Gregory

2011-01-01

385

Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies  

OpenAIRE

In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Proces...

Luk, Gigi; Green, David W.; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

2011-01-01

386

Control-Flow Analysis of Function Calls and Returns by Abstract Interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack, effectively approximating where function calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is systematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Flanagan et al. using a series of Galois connections. Abstract interpretation provides a unifying setting in which we 1) prove the analysis equivalent to the composition of a continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation followed by an abstract interpretation of a stack-less CPS machine, and 2) extract an equivalent constraint-based analysis formulation, thereby providing a rational reconstruction of a constraint-based control-flow analysis from abstract interpretation principles.

Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

2009-01-01

387

El control de convencionalidad: análisis en derecho comparado / The control of conventionality: analysis in comparative law  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el caso Almonacid (2006), por primera vez, la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos enunció la doctrina del control de convencionalidad. El control de convencionalidad ha generado un gran debate académico, especialmente en la doctrina constitucional latinoamericana. Una pregunta que surge en e [...] ste escenario es cuál es la relación entre el control de constitucionalidad y el control de convencionalidad. El derecho comparado nos permitirá aportar argumentos y criterios para abordar esta cuestión. Abstract in english In the Almonacid case (2006), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights enounced for the first time the doctrine of the control of conventionality. The control of conventionality has propelled a significant academic debate, especially between Latin-American constitutional scholars. One question that [...] arises in this scenario is about the relationship between the control of constitutionality and the control of conventionality. The comparative law brings arguments and criteria to address this question.

Gonzalo, Aguilar Cavallo.

2013-12-01

388

Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System  

OpenAIRE

This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for con...

Jing-Nang Lee; Tsung-Min Lin; Chien-Chih Chen

2014-01-01

389

SSS-A attitude control prelaunch analysis and operations plan  

Science.gov (United States)

A description of the attitude control support being supplied by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate is presented. Descriptions of the computer programs being used to support the mission for attitude determination, prediction, control, and definitive attitude processing are included. In addition, descriptions of the operating procedures which will be used to accomplish mission objectives are provided.

Werking, R. D.; Beck, J.; Gardner, D.; Moyer, P.; Plett, M.

1971-01-01

390

Design and analysis of a gyroscopically controlled micro air vehicle  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the current research on micro air vehicle design relies on aerodynamic forces for attitude control. The aerodynamic environment in which micro air vehicles operate is characterized by a low Reynolds number and is not fully understood, resulting in decreased performance and efficiency when compared to large-scale vehicles. In this work, we propose a new rotary-wing micro air vehicle design that utilizes gyroscopic dynamics for attitude control. Unlike traditional micro air vehicles where attitude control moments are generated by aerodynamic control surfaces, the proposed vehicle will leverage the existing angular momentum of its rotating components to generate gyroscopic moments for controlling attitude. We explore this paradigm in an effort to reduce mechanical complexity that is inherent in blade pitch modulation mechanisms such as the swashplate, and to increase agility and possibly even efficiency when compared to state-of-the-art micro vertical-take-off-and-landing vehicles. The evolution of the mechanical design, including the evaluation of three prototypes that explore the use of gyroscopic attitude control, is presented along with a comprehensive dynamic and aerodynamic model of the third prototype. Two controllers that utilize gyroscopic moments are developed and tested in simulation. In addition, several experiments were performed using a VICON motion tracking system and off-board control. These results will also be presented.

Thorne, Christopher Everett

391

Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

Chen, Hong

2009-01-01

392

Safety Analysis and Design for the Switch Control Unit of All-electronic Computer Interlocking System  

OpenAIRE

The switch control unit module is a critical core control module of the all-electronic computer interlocking system. Switch in the wrong place as the top event, use the Relex software for quantitative analysis of the importance of analysis method and found a key part of the module designs. The weak link in the system design through the use of the ‘2-Vote-2’ modular architecture analysis showed that the system has reached the security requirements of the railway signaling system.

Tao He

2012-01-01

393

Analysis of three phase controlled rectifier with the same distance control as compared to the same angle control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aim to compare the firing of the same distance and the same angle control at three phase controlled rectifier with seen generated harmonic at input (AC side. Then calculate of rectifier efficiency and power factor comparison from both the control type. The rectifier use passive filter with resistance 11 ohm and is analysed with program simulation using PSPICE version 7.1. Result of research indicate that use of the same distance control generates the 5th and 7th harmonics, while the same angle control generates the 3rd , 5th and 7th harmonics at the input (AC side. At the output (DC side, the same distance control type generates the 6th voltage ripples, while the same angle control generates the 2nd, and 6th voltage ripples. The result of calculation of voltage ripples that happened equal to 3.5% with efficiency 99.8% at same distance control, while at the same angle control obtained voltage ripples equal to 4% with efficiency 99.7% . At the firing angle 300 obtained by THD input equal to 50.26% with power factor equal to 0.89 at same distance control type, while the same angle control obtained by THD input equal to 53,831% with power factor to 0,87. From this result indicate that the firing of thyristor with the same distance better then is the same angle control.

Sudirman S

2007-11-01

394

Analysis of instantaneous feedback control system for SPWM inverter  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the closed-loop control method for an SPWM inverter used in a dc-link VSCF electrical power system. An instantaneous feedback control system is proposed, in which an ac current inner loop and an ac voltage outer loop are involved. For a 1 kVA single phase SPWM inverter, the closed-loop control system is designed and analyzed. The result of the experiments shows that the SPWM inverter with instantaneous feedback control has good static and dynamic electrical performance, with little distortion in the output waveform and the output voltage variation due to the variable dc voltage being effectively suppressed. It is suitable to use this closed-loop control method in a system equipped by a permanent magnet generator.

Zhou, Xing-Sheng; Yan, Yang-Guang

1993-02-01

395

Performance Analysis of Ship Tracking using PID/Fuzzy Controller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate ship Path following is an issue of the Marine Navigation Technology. In order to achieve accurate path following in ship navigation various controllers like PID(Proportional-Integral-Derivative, Adaptive and Predictive controllers are used. However, the main problem of ships is the PID controller is that they are set to work under specific conditions. Even though predictive controllers have predictive capability and are giving accurate results but they are computationally complex. In this work an attempt is made to evaluate the performance of Adaptive (Fuzzy logic and PID controllers in terms of tracking efficiency and computational time. Computational result evaluated using mat lab shows that Adaptive (Fuzzy logic provides better tracking performance than PID.

Sanjay.N1 , Adinath Jain2 , Dr.S.A.Hariprasad

2013-06-01

396

Application of computer algebra-techniques to metabolic control analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

For practical purposes the calculation of rate constants is not particularly valuable, since their physical significance is not clear. Of greater practical use are metabolic control coefficients and elasticities. Given the definition of the flux control coefficients C(E)(J), concentration control coefficient C(E)(X) and elasticity epsilon (X)(v(1)). We can calculate symbolic formulae for these using computer algebra-techniques. These are then functions of V(max), K(m), K(i) enzyme and concentrations. Having derived estimates of V(max), K(m), K(i) using the fitting method we can then calculate values of the control coefficients and elasticities. Furthermore we can calculate the metabolic control parameters using symbolic values for the conventional kinetic parameters. Using these we have verified the summation and connectivity theorems. This is a useful cross check on the reliability of the calculations. PMID:12821311

Bayram, Mustafa; Celik, Ercan

2003-05-01

397

Analysis of Offshore Knuckle Boom Crane - Part Two: Motion Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper design of electro-hydraulic motion control systems for offshore knuckle boom cranes is discussed. The influence of the control valve bandwidth along with the ramp time for the control signal are investigated both analytically with simplified system models and numerically with an experimentally verified crane model. The results of both types of investigations are related to general design rules for selection of control valves and ramp times and the relevance of these design rules is discussed. Generally, they are useful but may be too conservative for offshore knuckle boom cranes. However, as demonstrated in the paper, the only proper way to determine this is to evaluate the motion control system design by means of simulation.

Morten K. Bak

2013-10-01

398

Analysis of behavioral requirements for component-based machine controllers  

Science.gov (United States)

Machine controllers built from standardized software components have the greatest potential to reap open architecture benefits--including plug-and-play, reusability and extensibility. A challenge to component-based controllers relates to standardizing behavior in a non- restrictive manner to accommodate component packaging and component integration. Control component packaging requires behavior to be dependable, well-defined, and well-understood among a variety of users to help ensure the reusability of the component, the reliability of the component, and the correctness of the system built using the component. Integration of control components requires that the behavior model is consistent not just within a single component, but across all components in a system so that the components interoperate correctly. At the same time, the component behavioral model must be reasonably flexible to accommodate all behavioral situations and not be restrictive to a single programming methodology. Further, not all the behavior in the system may be pre-packaged as part of a component. Thus, another issue is the suitability of the standard behavior model for programming and integration of new control logic. Ideally, we need a vendor-neutral, tool-neutral, controller- neural behavior model to allow the export/import of any and all types of control logic programs. This paper will analyze the requirements of component-based, machine controller behavior, then offer a refinement of a Finite State Machine as the basis of a behavior model to satisfy these requirements. Examples will be presented based on the behavioral model the efforts of the Open, Modular, Architecture Controller User's Group Application Programming Interface for standardized, interchangeable machine controller components.

Proctor, Frederick M.; Michaloski, John L.; Birla, Sushil; Weinert, George F.

2001-02-01

399

A simulation environment for the analysis of ice storage controls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of a simulation environment for the evaluation of the performance of various controls of a set of common ice storage systems. The cooling plant used for this evaluation consisted of one chiller for icemaking and chilled-water modes, an ice storage, an air-handling unit, a condenser, and all required fans and pumps. The plant model allows the selection of one of three ice storage systems as well as one of three compressor types. Components are modeled using polynomial fits to manufacturers` data. Using dimensionless parameters, components can be scaled to arrive at a proper cooling plant design. The performance of a selected cooling plant configuration can be assessed for three conventional control strategies (chiller-priority, constant-proportion, and storage-priority control) and compared to optimal control that achieves the theoretical maximum of operating cost savings. Optimal control is found using a dynamic programming based global search in the domain of on-peak and off-peak demands. Mixed integer programming is used for validation using a linear plant model. A set of artificial rate structures with marked characteristics is applied to generate results that allow the discussion of fundamental features of cool storage control. The effect of non-cooling electrical loads on optimal control is illustrated.

Henze, G.P. [Johnson Controls, Essen (Germany); Krarti, M.; Brandemuehl, M.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1998-10-01

400

MIMO extended predictive control-implementation and robust stability analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work is to develop a new tuning strategy for multivariable extended predictive control (EPC). A natural concern is the problem of ill conditionality in controlling multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. The main advantage of EPC is that it has a simple and effective tuning strategy that results in a well-conditioned system which can achieve tight closed-loop response. Moreover, unlike most existing model predictive control tuning strategies, the proposed strategy establishes a direct relationship between one main tuning parameter for each subprocess of the MIMO system. This tuning method has been derived based on the assumption of an infinite control horizon resulting in powerful stability for the nominal case and in the presence of model uncertainty. This tuning method is applicable to unconstrained multivariable processes, and was proven to have good control on nonsquare systems. The main features of the new tuning strategy are practically illustrated on a MIMO temperature system with improved control performance as compared to move suppressed predictive control. PMID:17063937

Abu-Ayyad, M; Dubay, R

2006-10-01

401

Analysis of Pilot Decontamination Based on Power Control  

OpenAIRE

A subspace method for channel estimation is pro- posed for asymmetric antenna array systems. The so-called pilot contamination problem reported in [1] is found to be due to the linearity of channel estimation in [2]. We show that it does not occur in cellular systems with power control and power-controlled handoff when the nonlinear channel estimation method proposed in this paper is used. Power-control hand-off is needed to guarantee separability between signal and interference subspaces. We...

Cottatellucci, Laura; Mu?ller, Ralf R.; Vehkapera?, Mikko

2013-01-01

402

Instrumentation of Java program code for control flow analysis  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis we describe an approach and introduce a new tool, called JDeTEx, to extract decision tables from Java programs in order to give the maintenance engineer a better understanding of the control flow of the program. Decision tables are a compact, yet precise way to model the control flow of computer programs. In order to extract the decision tables the explicit and implicit control flow of Java programs needs to be analyzed by the tool. Firstly, the tool uses static byte code analy...

Lo?sch, Felix

2005-01-01

403

Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then tested using a nonlinear simulation.

Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

1998-01-01

404

Qantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then evaluated using a nonlinear simulation.

Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

1998-01-01

405

Jitterbug and TrueTime: Analysis Tools for Real-Time Control Systems  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents two recently developed, Matlab-based analysis tools for realtime control systems. The first tool, called Jitterbug, is used to compute a performance criterion for a control loop under various timing conditions. The tool makes it easy to quickly judge how sensitive a controller is to implementation effects such as slow sampling, delays, jitter, etc. The second tool, called TrueTime, allows detailed co-simulation of process dynamics, control task execution, and network commun...

Cervin, Anton; Henriksson, Dan; Lincoln, Bo; A?rze?n, Karl-erik

2002-01-01

406

Floquet Stability Analysis of Ott-Grebogi-Yorke and Difference Control  

OpenAIRE

Stabilization of instable periodic orbits of nonlinear dynamical systems has been a widely explored field theoretically and in applications. The techniques can be grouped in time-continuous control schemes based on Pyragas, and the two Poincar\\'e-based chaos control schemes, Ott-Gebogi-Yorke (OGY) and difference control. Here a new stability analysis of these two Poincar\\'e-based chaos control schemes is given by means of Floquet theory. This approach allows to calculate exa...

Claussen, Jens Christian

2002-01-01

407

DESCRIBING FUNCTION METHOD FOR PI-FUZZY CONTROLLED SYSTEMS STABILITY ANALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

The paper proposes a global stability analysis method dedicated to fuzzy control systems containing Mamdani PI-fuzzy controllers with output integration to control SISO linear / linearized plants. The method is expressed in terms of relatively simple steps, and it is based on: the generalization of the describing function method for the considered fuzzy control systems to the MIMO case, the approximation of the describing functions by applying the least squares method. The method is applied t...

Preitl, Stefan; Precup, Radu-emil

2004-01-01

408

Sequential design of decentralized load frequency controllers using ? synthesis and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new systematic approach to design of sequential decentralized load frequency controllers for multi-area power systems based on ? synthesis and analysis is described. System uncertainties, practical constraints on control action and desired performance are included in the synthesis procedure. The robust performance in terms of the structured singular value is used as a measure of control performance. A four area power system example is presented, demonstrating the controllers' synthesis procedure and advantages of the proposed strategy

409

Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech.

Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri

410

Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system  

Science.gov (United States)

The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

1990-01-01

411

Analysis of Series Resonant Inverter using Hysteresis Current Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze a series resonant inverter for industrial induction heating application. It is a process used for heat conductive materials, bond, harden, and soften metals. Resonant inverters which operate at high frequency preferable for induction heating. Series resonant inverters which is made up of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. Power control is obtained by Hysteresis Current Control (HCC. Soft switching techniques is performed which minimizes switching losses.

R.Nithya

2014-02-01

412

The Analysis on Financial Cooperative Controlling Mechanism of Enterprise Group  

OpenAIRE

As the core of modern market economy, enterprise group is an advanced form of organization after productive forces reached to a certain stage. For the reason of complexity and specificity of organizational form of enterprise group, the issue of financial cooperative control has been widespread concerned by theorists. Although many researches have been done, but there are still lacking of systematic research results especially in the fields of mechanism of financial cooperative control. After ...

Ziqin Feng

2010-01-01

413

Decentralized Control of Cooperative Systems: Categorization and Complexity Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Decentralized control of cooperative systems captures the operation of a group of decision makers that share a single global objective. The difficulty in solving optimally such problems arises when the agents lack full observability of the global state of the system when they operate. The general problem has been shown to be NEXP-complete. In this paper, we identify classes of decentralized control problems whose complexity ranges between NEXP and P. In particular, we study ...

Goldman, C. V.; Zilberstein, S.

2011-01-01

414

Energy Analysis for Air Conditioning System Using Fuzzy Logic Control  

OpenAIRE

Reducing energy consumption and to ensure thermal comfort are two important considerations for the designing an air conditioning system. An alternative approach to reduce energy consumption proposed in this study is to use a variable speed compressor. The control strategy will be proposed using the fuzzy logic controller (FLC). FLC was developed to imitate the performance of human expert operators by encoding their knowledge in the form of linguistic rules. The system is installed on a therma...

Henry Nasution; Hishamuddin Jamaluddin; Jamaluddin Mohd. Syeriff

2011-01-01

415

Research for quality control in the SEM/SIMS analysis of uranium-containing particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the quality-control methods applied to the analysis of uranium-containing particles by SIMS in IAEA nuclear safeguards analytical laboratory and combined with the practical conditions of laboratory, the quality-control methods for the SEM/SIMS analysis have been explored primarily. It is showed that cross-contamination is essential in the SEM/SIMS analysis. Fume hood is the critical area of the introduction of cross-contamination during the process of sample preparation and handling. The chamber of SEM is the key area of the introduction of cross-contamination in the process of analysis. The list of contamination and the corresponding measures have been established. In the research of quality-control samples, the room blanks, process blank, standard samples and blind samples were analyzed. The initial quality-control methods for the SEM/SIMS analysis have been built up. It is demonstrated that the study of quality control is effective through the analysis of swipe samples. An important progress has been made in contamination control and analysis control, which provides the support for the establishment of a sound quality-assurance system in our laboratory. (authors)

416

Analysis on electronic control unit of continuously variable transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuously variable transmission system can ensure that the engine work along the line of best fuel economy, improve fuel economy, save fuel and reduce harmful gas emissions. At the same time, continuously variable transmission allows the vehicle speed is more smooth and improves the ride comfort. Although the CVT technology has made great development, but there are many shortcomings in the CVT. The CVT system of ordinary vehicles now is still low efficiency, poor starting performance, low transmission power, and is not ideal controlling, high cost and other issues. Therefore, many scholars began to study some new type of continuously variable transmission. The transmission system with electronic systems control can achieve automatic control of power transmission, give full play to the characteristics of the engine to achieve optimal control of powertrain, so the vehicle is always traveling around the best condition. Electronic control unit is composed of the core processor, input and output circuit module and other auxiliary circuit module. Input module collects and process many signals sent by sensor and , such as throttle angle, brake signals, engine speed signal, speed signal of input and output shaft of transmission, manual shift signals, mode selection signals, gear position signal and the speed ratio signal, so as to provide its corresponding processing for the controller core.

Cao, Shuanggui

417

Control-flow analysis of function calls and returns by abstract interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack, effectively approximating where function calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is systematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Flanagan et al. using a series of Galois connections. Abstract interpretation provides a unifying setting in which we 1) prove the analysis equivalent to the composition of a continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation followed by an abstract interpretation of a stack-less CPS machine, and 2) extract an equivalent constraint-based formulation, thereby providing a rational reconstruction of a constraint-based control-flow analysis from abstract interpretation principles.

Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

2009-01-01

418

Nuclear power plant control room task analysis. Pilot study for pressurized water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of this nuclear plant task analysis pilot study: to demonstrate the use of task analysis techniques on selected abnormal or emergency operation events in a nuclear power plant; to evaluate the use of simulator data obtained from an automated Performance Measurement System to supplement and validate data obtained by traditional task analysis methods; and to demonstrate sample applications of task analysis data to address questions pertinent to nuclear power plant operational safety: control room layout, staffing and training requirements, operating procedures, interpersonal communications, and job performance aids. Five data sources were investigated to provide information for a task analysis. These sources were (1) written operating procedures (event-based); (2) interviews with subject matter experts (the control room operators); (3) videotapes of the control room operators (senior reactor operators and reactor operators) while responding to each event in a simulator; (4) walk-/talk-throughs conducted by control room operators for each event; and (5) simulator data from the PMS

419

Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

2014-01-01

420

Tsetse Fly Control in Kenya's Spatially and Temporally Dynamic Control Reservoirs: A Cost Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) are significant health concerns throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Funding for tsetse fly control operations has decreased since the 1970s, which has in turn limited the success of campaigns to control the disease vector. To maximize the effectiveness of the limited financial resources available for tsetse control, this study develops and analyzes spatially and temporally dynamic tsetse distribution maps of Gloss...

Mccord, Paul F.; Messina, Joseph P.; Campbell, David J.; Grady, Sue C.

2011-01-01

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