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1

Dual function of the McaS small RNA in controlling biofilm formation : Genes Dev  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate gene expression through base-pairing with mRNAs, and it has been assumed that these sRNAs act solely by this one mechanism. Here we report that the multicellular adhesive (McaS) sRNA of Escherichia coli uniquely acts by two different mechanisms: base-pairing and protein titration. Previous work established that McaS base pairs with the mRNAs encoding master transcription regulators of curli and flagella synthesis, respectively, resulting in down-regulation and up-regulation of these important cell surface structures. In this study, we demonstrate that McaS activates synthesis of the exopolysaccharide beta-1,6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) by binding the global RNA-binding protein CsrA, a negative regulator of pgaA translation. The McaS RNA bears at least two CsrA-binding sequences, and inactivation of these sites compromises CsrA binding, PGA regulation, and biofilm formation. Moreover, ectopic McaS expression leads to induction of two additional CsrA-repressed genes encoding diguanylate cyclases. Collectively, our study shows that McaS is a dual-function sRNA with roles in the two major post-transcriptional regulons controlled by the RNA-binding proteins Hfq and CsrA.

Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Havelund, Jesper

2013-01-01

2

Dual function of the McaS small RNA in controlling biofilm formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate gene expression through base-pairing with mRNAs, and it has been assumed that these sRNAs act solely by this one mechanism. Here we report that the multicellular adhesive (McaS) sRNA of Escherichia coli uniquely acts by two different mechanisms: base-pairing and protein titration. Previous work established that McaS base pairs with the mRNAs encoding master transcription regulators of curli and flagella synthesis, respectively, resulting in down-regulation and up-regulation of these important cell surface structures. In this study, we demonstrate that McaS activates synthesis of the exopolysaccharide ?-1,6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) by binding the global RNA-binding protein CsrA, a negative regulator of pgaA translation. The McaS RNA bears at least two CsrA-binding sequences, and inactivation of these sites compromises CsrA binding, PGA regulation, and biofilm formation. Moreover, ectopic McaS expression leads to induction of two additional CsrA-repressed genes encoding diguanylate cyclases. Collectively, our study shows that McaS is a dual-function sRNA with roles in the two major post-transcriptional regulons controlled by the RNA-binding proteins Hfq and CsrA. PMID:23666921

Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Thomason, Maureen K; Havelund, Johannes; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Storz, Gisela

2013-05-15

3

MCA emulation on HYPERGAM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HYPERGAM, a new HPGe ?-ray spectrum analysis software, has been developed by Park et. al. To use the HYPERGAM as an on-line spectrum acquisition and analysis software, which enables a spectrum analysis during data acquisition in addition to an off-line analysis, the MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) emulation function was added to control the spectrum acquisition device and to conduct reading out the data. Although there are a few commercial programs such as GammaVision(ORTEC) and Genie 2000(CANBERRA) to control acquisition device, modification and improvement are not permitted to the programs for user's various and suitable purposes since the programs are not open. Therefore, the MCA emulation function was embodied to the HYPERGAM in C++ language based on the user's programming libraries provided by the vendors. Hereby, detector control and spectrum read-out are possible by HYPERGAM and accordingly the analysis functions of it can be used in both online and offline

2007-10-01

4

Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Unruptured MCA Aneurysms: Meta-Analysis and Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. The best treatment for unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms is unclear. We perform a meta-analysis of recent publications to evaluate the results of unruptured MCA aneurysms treated with surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. Methods. A PubMed search for articles published between January 2004 and November 2013 was performed. The R statistical software package was used to create a random effects model for each desired incidence rate. Cochran's Q test was used to evaluate possible heterogeneity among the rates observed in each study. Results. A total of 1891 unruptured MCA aneurysms, 1052 clipped and 839 coiled, were included for analysis. The complete occlusion rate at 6–9 months mean follow-up was 95.5% in the clipped group and 67.8% in the coiled group (P < 0.05). The periprocedural thromboembolism rate in the clipping group was 1.8% compared with 10.7% in the aneurysms treated by coiling (P < 0.05). The recanalization rate was 0% for clipping and 14.3% for coiling (P = 0.05). Modified Rankin scores of 0–2 were obtained in 98.9% of clipped patients compared to 95.5% of coiled (NS). Conclusions. This review weakly supports clipping as the preferred treatment of unruptured MCA aneurysms. Clinical outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Blackburn, Spiros L.; Abdelazim, Abdelrahman M.; Cutler, Andrew B.; Brookins, Kevin T.; Fargen, Kyle M.; Hoh, Brian L.; Kadkhodayan, Yasha

2014-01-01

5

Design and implementation of an MCA card with double ADC for nuclear radiation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid development of technology has triggered several interesting trends in nuclear instrumentation. In particular, the introduction of add-on cards that can serve as multichannel analyzer and offer adequate performance for most of the nuclear applications. The purpose of this thesis has been the design of a multichannel analyser inserted into microcomputer. The originality of this prototype MCA card with its innovative concept is the use of two analog digital converters or ADC of which the objective is to reduce to minima the lost of pulses during the acquisition and the signals processing. The first ADC works as the main converter (or master) and the second ADC the slave converter. The first ADC begins the first signals acquisition, while it will be busy for the processing, the second ADC continues the acquisition, thus there will be no lost pulses or precisely lost of pulses will be reduced to minima.The three main points for a multichannel analyzer will be studied such a the pile-up, the differential non-linearity or 'DNL' and the dead time. In the first part of this thesis the function of the MCA has been described and the different roles of the composed modules have been developed. In the second part, spectra analysis has been done with the MCA prototype as well the comparison with other MCAs such as MCAs S100, TISA, MCA35+, and the Inspector.

2001-01-01

6

MCA emulation on HYPERGAM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HYPERGAM, a new HPGe {gamma}-ray spectrum analysis software, has been developed by Park et. al. To use the HYPERGAM as an on-line spectrum acquisition and analysis software, which enables a spectrum analysis during data acquisition in addition to an off-line analysis, the MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) emulation function was added to control the spectrum acquisition device and to conduct reading out the data. Although there are a few commercial programs such as GammaVision(ORTEC) and Genie 2000(CANBERRA) to control acquisition device, modification and improvement are not permitted to the programs for user's various and suitable purposes since the programs are not open. Therefore, the MCA emulation function was embodied to the HYPERGAM in C++ language based on the user's programming libraries provided by the vendors. Hereby, detector control and spectrum read-out are possible by HYPERGAM and accordingly the analysis functions of it can be used in both online and offline.

Park, Byung Gun; Park, Chang Su; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-10-15

7

Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in. × 4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K(40), U(238) and Th(232). This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. PMID:22405639

Kukreti, B M; Sharma, G K

2012-05-01

8

System of accounting and control of nuclear materials (MCA) relative to IAEA safeguards and improvement of radioecological situation of the Joint Stock Company ULBA Metallurgical Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following goals must be accomplished following this Project : - Develop computerized and automated MCA data system; - Provide up-to-date and reliable accounting and control of availability and transfer of nuclear materials, detect loss or theft of nuclear materials; - Improve book keeping of nuclear materials, provide paperwork for raw materials and finished products sales and purchase control, process nuclear materials shipment data; - Reduce sampling error and to obtain precise measure of nuclear materials to obtain ESADRA target values; - Thorium concentrates transfer preliminary released from raw Beryllium to the new storage to prevent environment radiation pollution and obvious fire accidents; - Improve radioecological situation of the territory caused by old storage dismantling and decontamination of site; - Improve accounting, storing and Physical Protection of Thorium Following is the proposal to obtain goals of the Project : - Develop accounting and control systems - Develop basic standards and procedures for MCA system - Develop users specifications of MCA data system - Develop software of MCA data system - Assembly and adjustment of local network at the production facilities - Automated MCA data system personnel training - Develop measurement system - Determination of the mistakes in sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content - Develop the procedures of sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content providing ESADRA target values - Develop measure control program covering scales and analytical equipment and measuring methods - Develop software for measure control program support - Thorium shipment, decontamination and improvement of Physical Protection of Thorium storage - Accounting of Thorium containing materials when transferring to the new storage - Arrange storage decontamination - Develop new systems of Thorium Containment/Surveillance and Physical Protection

1996-10-22

9

Haemodynamic analysis of vessel remodelling in STA-MCA bypass for Moyamoya disease and its impact on bypass patency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to estimate the remodelling characteristics of STA-MCA bypass and its influence on patency via the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. The reconstructed three-dimensional geometries from MRA were segmented to create computational domains for CFD simulations. Eleven patients, who underwent regular MRA both immediately following surgery and at the six months follow-up, were studied. The flow velocities at STA were measured via the use of quantitative MRA (QMRA) to validate simulation results. STA-MCA bypass patency was confirmed for each patient immediately following surgery. The simulation indicated that the remodelling of the arterial pedicle in nine patients was associated with a reduction in the resistance to flow through the bypass. For these cases, the modelling of a driving pressure of 10mmHg through the bypass at 6 months post-surgery resulted in a 50% greater blood flow than those found immediately following surgery. However, two patients were found to exhibit contradictory patterns of remodelling, in which a highly curved bending at the bypass immediately post-surgery underwent progression, with increased resistance to flow through the bypass at 6 months follow-up, thereby resulting in a modelled flow rate reduction of 50% and 25%, respectively. This study revealed that STA-MCA bypass has a characteristic remodelling that usually reduces flow resistance. The initial morphology of the bypass may have had a significant effect on the outcome of vessel remodelling. PMID:24720886

Zhu, Feng-Ping; Zhang, Yu; Higurashi, Masakazu; Xu, Bin; Gu, Yu-Xiang; Mao, Ying; Morgan, Michael Kerin; Qian, Yi

2014-06-01

10

After the super MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The German Federal Government in Bonn walked into the trap. Enthusiastic about the chance to blame the Soviet Union for bad reactor designs and even worse an information policy, our Government voluntarily drew a two-faced picture of inadequacy and danger (threatening the East) and of better standards and performance (shielding the Western world). To get out of the contradiction it created, the Government now starts a policy intended to calm down excitements, trying to cure the shock by sounding the all-clear signal. This book is aimed at disturbing this therapy. It presents the antedote: Information on - the presumed MCA scenario at Chernobyl, the Soviet nuclear energy programme, the chaotic information policy observed in the FRG, the hazards of prolonged radiation exposure, radioactivity, its nature and effects, reactions of people affected, the chances of local initiatives and necessary and feasible strategies of opting out of the nuclear power programme. Erhard Eppler, Klaus Traube, Lutz Mez, Rainer Griesshammer and many other authors came forward with a variety of papers presenting their assessment of the new situation, after the Chernobyl disaster. One common judgment of all the contributions is: The Chernobyl accident has not added any new arguments in disproof of the dangerousness of nuclear energy - all the well-known facts against the utilisation of nuclear power remaining unshattered -, but instead revealed so-called experts as professional minimizers, and their soothing strategies as an institutionalized lack of responsibility. (orig./HP)

1986-05-01

11

Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) System Upgrades and Performance Testing at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) VNIIEF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), founded in 1946 at the historic village of Sarov, in Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast, is the largest nuclear research center in the Rosatom complex. In the framework of international collaboration, the United States (US) Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency, in cooperation with US national laboratories, on the one hand, Rosatom and VNIIEF on the other hand, have focused their cooperative efforts to upgrade the existing material protection control and accountability system to prevent unauthorized access to the nuclear material. In this paper we will discuss the present status of material control and accounting (MC&A) system upgrades and the preliminary results from a pilot program on the MC&A system performance testing that was recently conducted at one technical area.

Bushmelev, Vadim [RFNC-VNIIEF; Viktorov, Vladimir [RFNC-VNIIEF; Zhikharev, Stanislav [RFNC-VNIIEF; Yuferev, Vladimir [RFNC-VNIIEF; Singh, Surinder Paul [ORNL; Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hogan, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McKisson, Jacquelin [U.S. Department of Energy

2008-01-01

12

Mini-MCA: an intelligent inspection instrument  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The small portable multichannel analyzer (Mini-MCA) designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an intelligent safeguards instrument developed for the IAEA under the United States Aid Program. The Mini-MCA is a basic 1-k channel MCA that features a high degree of user friendliness and portability. Its history, use, and future applications are discussed. 5 figures, 3 tables.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

1982-01-01

13

A data processor interface for 4-K MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A data processing system has been designed for use with the indigenous 4-K MCA. It consists of Micro 2200 - a programmable calculator, Micro data Interface (MDI), floppy disk attachment to Micro and a Data Interface specially designed for the transfer of data from MCA to Micro 2200 and for reverse transfer. This complete system enables one to transfer the spectrum from MCA, and to carry out desired spectrum analysis. The system has been used for routine analysis of energy dispersive XRF spectra. The report describes the hardware design of the Data Interface and the software of data transfer and standard spectrum analysis routines. Listing of Micro programmes for transfer and analysis are also given in the report. (author)

1982-01-01

14

The super MCA of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven correspondents and reporters of the weekly DIE ZEIT collected facts and data for this report of the world's worst nuclear accident. Thomas von Randow explains the main design features and the functions of the reactor that failed. Guenther Haaf outlines the hazardous effects on the population's health, and what can be done to provide protection. In an interview with Klaus Traube, the former nuclear industry manager who now belongs to the opponents of nuclear energy, says that the super MCA cannot be excluded, nowhere. Erhard Eppler and Heinz Riesenhuber present their views of the future of nuclear energy. (orig./GL)

1986-05-09

15

Involvement of the putative Ca²?-permeable mechanosensitive channels, NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, in Ca²? uptake, Ca²?-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain insight into the cellular functions of the mid1-complementing activity (MCA) family proteins, encoding putative Ca²?-permeable mechanosensitive channels, we isolated two MCA homologs of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, named NtMCA1 and NtMCA2. NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 partially complemented the lethality and Ca²? uptake defects of yeast mutants lacking mechanosensitive Ca²? channel components. Furthermore, in yeast cells overexpressing NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, the hypo-osmotic shock-induced Ca²? influx was enhanced. Overexpression of NtMCA1 or NtMCA2 in BY-2 cells enhanced Ca²? uptake, and significantly alleviated growth inhibition under Ca²? limitation. NtMCA1-overexpressing BY-2 cells showed higher sensitivity to hypo-osmotic shock than control cells, and induced the expression of the touch-inducible gene, NtERF4. We found that both NtMCA1-GFP and NtMCA2-GFP were localized at the plasma membrane and its interface with the cell wall, Hechtian strands, and at the cell plate and perinuclear vesicles of dividing cells. NtMCA2 transcript levels fluctuated during the cell cycle and were highest at the G1 phase. These results suggest that NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 play roles in Ca²?-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in BY-2 cells, by regulating the Ca²? influx through the plasma membrane. PMID:22080252

Kurusu, Takamitsu; Yamanaka, Takuya; Nakano, Masataka; Takiguchi, Akiko; Ogasawara, Yoko; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Iida, Kazuko; Hanamata, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Iida, Hidetoshi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

2012-07-01

16

Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1981 a small, battery-operated multichannel analyzer (MCA) prototype developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory was delivered to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The intent was to produce an instrument for inspector (nonscientist) use. Automated measurement programs were built into the MCA. An enhanced, commercially produced MCA is now available, which was patterned after and is software compatible with the prototype. After an extensive review of the hardware and software of the available portable MCAs, the IAEA has chosen this MCA to be used by IAEA inspectors throughout the world. Inspectors from the EURATOM Directorate of Safeguards are also using these MCAs in inspections throughout Europe. While this MCA's portability and programmability make it ideally suited for infield applications, its powerful built-in intelligence and communications protocol make it a strong candidate for distributed data acquisition and control systems. The user-instrument interface philosophy is so easy to use that in domestic and international training schools, the operators manual is not used.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, F.; Cameron, R.A.

1986-02-01

17

Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1981 a small, battery-operated multichannel analyzer (MCA) prototype developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory was delivered to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The intent was to produce an instrument for inspector (nonscientist) use. Automated measurement programs were built into the MCA. An enhanced, commercially produced MCA is now available, which was patterned after and is software compatible with the prototype. After an extensive review of the hardware and software of the available portable MCAs, the IAEA has chosen this MCA to be used by IAEA inspectors throughout the world. Inspectors from the EURATOM Directorate of Safeguards are also using these MCAs in inspections throughout Europe. While this MCA's portability and programmability make it ideally suited for infield applications, its powerful built-in intelligence and communications protocol make it a strong candidate for distributed data acquisition and control systems. The user-instrument interface philosophy is so easy to use that in domestic and international training schools, the operators manual is not used

1986-02-01

18

Ruptured infectious aneurysms of the distal MCA treated with trapping and STA-MCA bypass surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe two patients with ruptured infectious aneurysms of the distal MCA, which were successfully treated by trapping and superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass surgery. Our patients had not experienced any ischemic attack postoperatively. Trapping and STA-MCA bypass surgery can be a useful option. PMID:22235906

Ota, Takahiro; Yoshino, Masanori; Horiba, Ayako; Yokoya, Sigeomi; Mizutani, Tohru

2012-10-01

19

MCA: a multichannel approach to SAR autofocus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new noniterative approach to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus, termed the multichannel autofocus (MCA) algorithm. The key in the approach is to exploit the multichannel redundancy of the defocusing operation to create a linear subspace, where the unknown perfectly focused image resides, expressed in terms of a known basis formed from the given defocused image. A unique solution for the perfectly focused image is then directly determined through a linear algebraic formulation by invoking an additional image support condition. The MCA approach is found to be computationally efficient and robust and does not require prior assumptions about the SAR scene used in existing methods. In addition, the vector-space formulation of MCA allows sharpness metric optimization to be easily incorporated within the restoration framework as a regularization term. We present experimental results characterizing the performance of MCA in comparison with conventional autofocus methods and discuss the practical implementation of the technique. PMID:19278922

Morrison, Robert L; Do, Minh N; Munson, David C

2009-04-01

20

Involvement of carbonic anhydrases in the ocular hypotensive effect of melatonin analogue 5-MCA-NAT.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously demonstrated that melatonin and its analogue, 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT), reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in New Zealand rabbits. More recently, we have shown that 5-MCA-NAT can also regulate ciliary adrenoceptor gene expression. Like adrenoceptors, carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes are involved in aqueous humour secretion by the ocular ciliary epithelium. Moreover, CA enzymes have been reported to be regulated by melatonin. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the hypotensive effect of 5-MCA-NAT is also because of a regulation of CA genes and enzymes. Time course of 5-MCA-NAT effect on rabbit IOP was followed for 7 hr every day for up to 144 hr (6 days). 5-MCA-NAT reduced IOP, maximally by 51.30 ± 2.41% (at 3 hr), and the hypotensive effect was maintained for up to 96 hr with a single application. IOP studies with 5-MCA-NAT plus Trusopt(®) and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that CA are molecular targets of 5-MCA-NAT. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and immunocytochemical assays were performed to determine changes in CA2 (CAII) and CA12 (CAXII) expression in cultured rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells (NPE) treated with 5-MCA-NAT. NPE cells showed a prominent decrease in both CA, at the mRNA and protein levels. These data confirm that the long-term hypotensive effect of 5-MCA-NAT is also due, to a down-regulation of CA2 (CAII) and CA12 (CAXII) expression. PMID:22107075

Crooke, Almudena; Huete-Toral, Fernando; Martínez-Águila, Alejandro; Martín-Gil, Alba; Pintor, Jesús

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

The development of a portable MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) based on digital peak searching technology. The peak-searching function is implemented in the complex programmable logic devices (CPLD) and is designed using the hardware description language which is quite flexible and convenient. After completion of peak searching, the MCU takes the responsibility of data acquisition, and management. The data are transported to the host computer by the USB port. Compared with the traditional MCA, our design has advantages such as small size, low power consumption, easy to operate and so on. (authors)

2006-07-01

22

ScoutTM, a portable MCA system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantrad Sensor's hand-held multichannel analyzer (MCA), the ScoutTM, has evolved considerably from the initial licensing from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. DOE). The ScoutTM has grown into a flexible MCA system with alpha-, gamma-, X-ray and neutron detection capabilities with wide ranging applications. The development philosophy is discussed along with specific examples of design choices in areas such as manufacturability, upgradability, probe interchangability and software user interface. Recently introduced products include: software enhancements, additional probes, customized software and a second generation instrument, the Scout512TM, that boasts increased capabilities. Future developments are also discussed. (author)

1998-07-01

23

Developing standard performance testing procedures for MC&A components at a site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements, documentation and the human factor, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following elements and subsystems or components for a material control and accountability system: (1) MC&A Elements: Information subsystem, Measurement subsystem, NM access subsystem, including a tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated information-gathering subsystem; and (2) Detecting NM Loses Elements: Inventory differences, Shipper/receiver differences, Confirmatory measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or seal violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems (from the list above). Additionally this work includes a review of the status of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system components and potential criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a pilot Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the MBAs of SSC RF IPPE.

Scherer, Carolynn [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

24

Regulation of ocular adrenoceptor genes expression by 5-MCA-NAT: implications for glaucoma treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have demonstrated that 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT), reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) in rabbits. In addition, we have reported a link between hypotensive effect of 5-MCA-NAT and sympathetic nervous system. Moreover, it is known that aqueous humour production is controlled by the activation of adrenoceptors (ADRs) present in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate if the hypotensive effect of 5-MCA-NAT is due to a regulation of ciliary ADR genes expression. To confirm this we followed the effect of 5-MCA-NAT on rabbit IOP for 144 consecutive hours. A sustained IOP reduction for up to 72 h (P<0.01) was seen. In addition, changes in ADRB2 and ADRA2A mRNA were measured in cultured rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells. After 5-MCA-NAT treatment, a significant downregulation of ADRB2 and upregulation of ADRA2A was observed. These results provide the regulation of ADRs mRNA by 5-MCA-NAT. PMID:21705965

Crooke, Almudena; Huete-Toral, Fernando; Martínez-Águila, Alejandro; Alarma-Estrany, Pilar; Pintor, Jesús

2011-09-01

25

Improved MCA programmed by LabVIEW language  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PC based Multichannel analyser (MCA) is a popular instrument in the nuclear physics experiment. The authors introduce one kind of improved MCA which is programmed by LabVIEW language. This MCA has many advantages such as powerful data processing capability, more friendly interface and is easy to use. The basic principle of this MCA and the core technology of its software are described. Some results of experiment are presented too

1999-09-01

26

MCA: A multichannel approach to SAR autofocus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a new noniterative approach to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus, termed the multichannel autofocus (MCA) algorithm. The key in the approach is to exploit the multichannel redundancy of the defocusing operation to create a linear subspace, where the unknown perfectly focused image resides, expressed in terms of a known basis formed from the given defocused image. A unique solution for the perfectly focused image is then directly determined through a linear algebraic formulat...

Morrison, Robert L.; Do, Minh N.; Munson, David C.

2009-01-01

27

Ophthalmic formulations of the intraocular hypotensive melatonin agent 5-MCA-NAT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a hormone responsible for the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms. This hormone is synthesised in many tissues in the body including the eye, where it regulates important processes. During the recent years, the role of melatonin in the control of IOP has been investigated and it has been demonstrated that melatonin receptors are present and involved in the dynamics of the aqueous humour. 5-Methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT) is a selective MT3 melatonin receptor agonist. Topical application of this product produces a clear reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) in New Zealand white rabbits and in glaucomatous monkeys. In this work, the potent ocular hypotensive 5-MCA-NAT has been dissolved in excipients used in currently marketed drug formulations. Until now, this melatonin analogue had been dissolved in either DMSO or ethanol neither of which is suitable for ocular topical application in humans. Solubility assays in the different solvents were performed by the observation of the presence of drug crystals under optical microscopy. 5-MCA-NAT was completely dissolved in propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG 300) within 24h. Ophthalmic formulations were prepared from different ratios of PG:PBS and the commercialized Systane product. Quantification of 5-MCA-NAT in the vehicles was assessed by HPLC. In vitro cytotoxicity of the formulations was evaluated by the MTT method and in vivo tolerance of 5-MCA-NAT in the solvents was analyzed by biomicroscopy and specular microscopy. Systane and proportions of PG:PBS up to 10% of PG did not show cytotoxicity in human corneal limbal epithelial cells (HCLE). In vivo experiments showed that the higher the ocular tolerance, the less amount of PG present. The ocular hypotensive effect of 5-MCA-NAT dissolved in the new formulations was checked measuring IOP for 8h after instillation of the substance. The best effect lowering IOP was obtained with 5-MCA-NAT dissolved in PG and diluted with PBS (PG 1.43%) in which 5-MCA-NAT produced a reduction of 28.11+/-2.0% and the effect lasted about 7h. In conclusion, new formulations accepted for ocular topical treatments different from DMSO or ethanol were capable of dissolving the melatonin analogue 5-MCA-NAT, preserving its ocular hypotensive ability. Therefore, the use of 5-MCA-NAT may be possible in the treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. PMID:19056382

Andrés-Guerrero, Vanessa; Alarma-Estrany, Pilar; Molina-Martínez, Irene T; Peral, Assumpta; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Pintor, Jesús

2009-03-01

28

Differential nonlinearity compensation enables the design of a low-cost networked MCA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By use of an algorithm to compensate for the differential nonlinearity of an inexpensive integrated circuit analog to digital converter (ADC), the authors have been able to develop a simple, low-cost multichannel analyzer (MCA). The cost is low enough ($250) to enable the use of an MCA per head in a plutonium continuous air monitoring (CAM) system. Multiple heads are connected to a standard personal computer via a simple networking scheme to allow a single computer to control a number of heads. The power requirements are low enough for the heads to be powered from a single power supply via the network cable.

Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L. III

1989-02-01

29

Differential nonlinearity compensation enables the design of a low-cost networked MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By use of an algorithm to compensate for the differential nonlinearity of an inexpensive integrated circuit analog to digital converter (ADC), the authors have been able to develop a simple, low-cost multichannel analyzer (MCA). The cost is low enough ($250) to enable the use of an MCA per head in a plutonium continuous air monitoring (CAM) system. Multiple heads are connected to a standard personal computer via a simple networking scheme to allow a single computer to control a number of heads. The power requirements are low enough for the heads to be powered from a single power supply via the network cable

1989-02-01

30

The SO-20.3 MC&A modernization plan final report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) provides assurance to the nation that nuclear materials are controlled in accordance with their strategic and economic importance and that the misuse, theft or diversion of these materials will be detected. MC&A plays an important part in security at nuclear facilities, especially in addressing threats such as theft of materials, environmental contamination, and nuclear safety incidents associated with nuclear materials. For this reason, it is important that MC&A takes advantage of new technologies and methods in order to provide information on a site's nuclear materials in the most timely and useful manner possible. Within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Security Policy, Policy Integration and Technical Support Program (SO-20.3) is responsible for the development of safeguards and security technology that enables DOE and NNSA facilities to safeguard their Special Nuclear Materials. The SO-20.3 Program tasked safeguards personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory to lead a project with representatives from the Y-12 Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Site to prepare an MC&A Modernization Plan that provides recommendations for development new technologies and methodologies for MC&A in both new and existing DOE facilities. The team was tasked with taking into account new concerns about the protection of nuclear material following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Opportunities for applying new MC&A approaches and technologies that provide increased freedom of operation, increased security and provide a potential for cost savings in existing and new DOE facilities are discussed in this report.

Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Ensslin, Norbert; Files, C. (Chistina); Joseph, Joshua A., Jr.; Rudy, C. R. (Clifford R.); Smith, M. K. (Morag K.); Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Wilkey, D. D. (David Dennis); Pickett, C. (Chris); Brosey, W. (William); Swanson, J. (Joel)

2004-01-01

31

An unexpected effect of 5-MCA-NAT in chick retinal development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Luzindole is an unselective antagonist of the melatonin receptors and melatonin's other binding sites, although some exceptions have been observed in chick retinal neurodevelopment, where this unselective antagonist does not block melatonin's inhibitory effect on the adenylate cyclase enzyme, probably due to the presence of some other melatonin receptor(s) or binding site(s). The present study investigated the modulation of cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels via MT3 melatonin-binding sites, located within the QR2 (dihydronicotinamide riboside: quinone oxidoreductase 2) enzyme, by observing the response to luzindole. Embryonic and post-hatch retinas, incubated with a selective agonist for the MT3 melatonin-binding site 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT, 10 or 100 nM), had an increase in cAMP accumulation relative to control retinas. Luzindole (5microM) inhibited the 5-MCA-NAT stimulatory effect at all ages tested. The agonist 5-MCA-NAT enhanced the melatonin inhibitory effect on cAMP levels stimulated by forskolin (5microM), but not the stimulatory forskolin effect. The results suggest that MT3 melatonin-binding sites are present in embryonic and post-hatch chick retinas and that luzindole more selectively blocks the 5-MCA-NAT effect on cAMP accumulation than it blocks the melatonin inhibitory effect via G protein-coupled receptors in chick retinal neurodevelopment. PMID:19596433

Sampaio, Lucia de Fatima Sobral

2009-10-01

32

Body protein status in Fischer 344 rats bearing the MCA sarcoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of a methylcholanthrene (MCA) sarcoma on the protein status of adult, male, Fischer-344 rats was investigated. Three groups of ten rats were used. One group (TB) was inoculated with MCA sarcoma tissue, control (C) and pair-fed (PF) groups received saline only. Rats were fed a purified (20% casein, 20% fat, 45% sucrose) diet from day 7 post-transplant, when tumors became palpable. Food intake of TB was depressed relative to C at day 15 PT. Animals were killed at day 22 PT. In comparison to C, tumor growth was associated with a decrease in gastrocnemius muscle protein content and an increase in spleen weight and protein content. There was no effect of tumor growth on the weight or protein content of liver, heart, or kidneys. Data from PF animals suggested that decreased gastrocnemius muscle protein content was partly attributable to decreased food intake and partly to tumor growth; the increased spleen protein was due to tumor growth per se. Thus, growth of the MCA sarcoma affects host protein status. Some of these effects are caused partly by hypophagia and partly by tumor growth and others are due to tumor growth per se.

Radcliffe, J.D.

1986-03-05

33

Estimating the robustness of composite CBA & MCA assessments by variation of criteria importance order  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stake-holder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis described is based on the fact that when using MCA as a decision-support tool, questions often arise about the weighting (or prioritising) of the included criteria. This part of the MCA is seen as the most subjective part and could give reasons for discussion among the decision makers or stakeholders. Furthermore, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives [1]. Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness of weights used in additive utility models. When assessing larger transport infrastructure projects often several non-monetised impacts could be relevant to include in the appraisal [2]. For many decision makers and stakeholders the task of setting the criteria weights for several criteria can be very difficult. To overcome this, the proposed method uses surrogate weights based on rankings of the criteria, by the use of Rank Order Distribution (ROD) weights [3]. This reduces the problem to assigning a rank order value for each criterion. A method for combining the MCA with the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is applied as described by Salling et al. in [4]. This methodology, COSIMA, uses a calibration indicator which expresses the trade-off between the CBA and MCA part resulting in a total rate expressing the attractiveness of each alternative. However, it should be mentioned that the proposed procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights is not limited to the ROD and COSIMA methods described above. The proposed framework is applied to the case of choosing the best corridor for a high speed railway in Sweden, between Linköping and Norrköping. This link is a part of a larger railway project called Ostlänken. 4 possible corridors have been indentified between the two cities and the preliminary studies have found 8 non-monetised criteria, which all are not included in the conducted CBA. The alternatives are compared to each other with respect to each criterion by using the REMBRANDT methodology. With 8 criteria there are 40340 (8!) possible combinations of ranking the criteria which have been made use of. The proposed method calculates all combinations and produces a set of rank variation graphs for each alternative and for different values of the trade-off indicator. This information is relatively easy to grasp for the decision-makers. The result is compared with the results from a conducted decision conference about the railway link. During the decision conference the different stakeholder preferences were unveiled by the participants who had to assign weights. The proposed method also introduces a more constrained approach. In this approach the stakeholders/decision makers have the possibility to set up some constraint to the decision problem. This could for example be that criterion XX cannot assume a rank lower than 3 or criterion XX always have to be ranked higher than criterion YY. This would mean that the outcome of the method is a subset of the total solution space. The paper finishes up with a discussion and considerations about how to present the results. The question whether to present a single decision criterion, such as the benefit-cost rate or the net present value, or instead to present graphs showing the robustness of the decision analysis is discussed. Furthermore a perspective, for estimating the robustness of weights using other MCA methodologies (and weighting methods) than the proposed framework, is discussed.

Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

34

The research of methods of multi-criteria analysis for increase of reliability of distribution networks by remote-controlled elements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the remote control components of an electrical network. The study included assessments of the weighted sum approach; ideal points analysis; the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS); and, concordance-discordance analysis. A standardized matrix was created for the evaluation. A weight was assigned to each criterion in order to assess the importance of particular criteria in relation to other criteria. The Fuller triangle method was then used to determine the number of preferences over other criteria. The Saaty method was used to calculate the eigen vector. Results of the study showed that the application of remote control components shortened the duration of faults in the network by accelerating handling times. Methods of paired comparison provided optimal solutions for the problems presented during the analysis. It was concluded that the MCA method successfully located areas in the network that were suitable for remote control components. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Hradilek, Z.; Krejci, P. [Technical Univ. of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

2005-07-01

35

MCA Based Performance Evaluation of Project Selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision support systems are used in various fields of human activities. In every alternativemulti-criteria decision making problem can be represented by a set of properties or constraints. Theproperties can be qualitative & quantitative. For measurement of these properties, there are differentunit, as well as there are different optimization techniques. Depending upon the desired goal, thenormalization aims for obtaining reference scales of values of these properties. This paper deals with anew additive ratio assessment method. In order to make the appropriate decision and to make a propercomparison among the available alternatives Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and ARAS have beenused. The uses of AHP is for analysis the structure of the project selection problem and to assign theweights of the properties and the ARAS method is used to obtain the final ranking and select the best oneamong the projects. To illustrate the above mention methods survey data on the expansion of optical fibrefor a telecommunication sector is used. The decision maker can also used different weight combination inthe decision making process according to the demand of the system.

Tuli Bakshi

2011-04-01

36

Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

1999-07-01

37

A 256 channel portable MCA for field application [Paper No.:I3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ gamma-spectrometry is a very important tool to characterise the contamination resulting due to radioactive fall out. Even in reactor environment this technique is helpful in analysing contaminations and the leakages on the spot. A battery powered 256 channel portable pulse height analyser has been developed to meet this requirement. The analyser consists of a single card Wilkinson type 8 bit ADC cum linear amplifier interfaced to an 8085 based micro computer. The MCA uses 2x2 inch NaI(Tl) detector and provides minimal necessary front panel controls for field use. A built-in DC to DC converter generates EHT for detector system and all the necessary DC voltages (+5V, ± 12V) from a 6V (7AH) battery. The MCA is capable of storing around 60 spectrums sequentially which can be down-loaded into a PC for further processing through built in serial RS-232 port. The paper describes the hardware and software developed for the system, and its performance evaluations. (author). 3 figs

1993-01-01

38

Automation of a pneumatic system by controlling a microcomputer equipped with a custom add on board for neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automated sample transfer system associated with a 3 x 592 GBq Am-Be neutron source has been constructed at the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (CINAA). The pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an IBM PS/1 personal computer which is equipped with a custom add-on board for relevant hardware and control software written in Turbo Pascal. The system computer interactively works with a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for proper data acquisition. The sample transfer system also runs manually. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (Author)

1997-03-01

39

Automation of a pneumatic system by controlling a microcomputer equipped with a custom add on board for neutron activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An automated sample transfer system associated with a 3 x 592 GBq Am-Be neutron source has been constructed at the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (CINAA). The pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an IBM PS/1 personal computer which is equipped with a custom add-on board for relevant hardware and control software written in Turbo Pascal. The system computer interactively works with a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for proper data acquisition. The sample transfer system also runs manually. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (Author).

Cetiner, M.A.; Demirel, H.; Demirbas, A.; Yucel, H.; Celenk, I. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

1997-03-01

40

Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography to digital subtraction angiography for diagnosis of MCA stenosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRA in detecting MCA stenosis or occlusion compared with DSA. Methods: 35 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease underwent both MRA and DSA. Based on the results of DSA, the gold standard, we analyzed the diagnostic value of MRA for detecting MCA stenosis of different degrees. Results: 70 middle cerebral arteries (MCA) are examined in 35 patients. Based on the results of MRA, 28 arteries are normal, 42 arteries are stenostic or occlusive, and 47 segments are stenostic or occlusive. 53 segments are diagnosed consistently by MRA and DSA. The rate of coincidence is 70.67%. The degree of stenosis in MRA is higher than in DSA in 22 segments. In mild degree stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of MRA are 100%, positive Likelihood Ratio is ?, and negative predictive value is 0. In moderate degree, they are 100%, 71.4%, 73.1%, 17.6%, 100%, 3.5, 0; In severe degree, they are 100%, 81.4%, 82%, 15.4%, 100%, 5.38, 0; In occlusive MCA, they are 100%, 96.8%, 977.3%, 86.7%, 100%, 31.25, 0. For diagnosis of MRA in mild, moderate, severe degree of stenotic or occlusive MCA, Kappa values are 1.0, 0.224, 0.222, 0.912. Conclusion: Compared with DSA, the diagnostic values of MRA for detecting MCA stenosis are different according to different degrees of stenosis. The sensitivity and specificity are highest in MRA diagnosis of mild degree MCA stenosis. So MRA is a suitable option for MCA stenosis screening. The diagnostic values of MRA are lower in moderate, and severe degree MCA stenosis. The means of DSA is more helpful. Though there is a high accordance rate in occlusive MCA, the results of MRA should be also treated carefully. (authors)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Inspector-2000. A DSP-based, portable, multi-purpose MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various in-situ gamma-spectroscopy applications need a versatile, multi-purpose, portable multi-channel analyzer (MCA). Recently, Canberra has introduced the Inspector-2000 for this purpose. It uses digital signal processing (DSP) technology and weighs only about 1.2 kg. It also supports CdTe, NaI and Ge detectors. Due to its use of DSP technology, the Inspector-2000 also provides a longer battery life, a better detector resolution and a better temperature stability than most portable MCAs. A short description of the Inspector-2000 MCA is included and its performance characteristics compared to an analog MCA. (author)

2001-05-01

42

Design of High-Level Application of SSRF Low-Energy Transport Based on AT and MCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AT and MCA are accelerator physics MATLAB toolboxes that resides between the high-level application and the low-level accelerator control system. This paper will describe the design of high-level application of SSRF low-energy transport based on the two toolboxes. From the result of offline and online simulation, we can see that the high-level application of SSRF low-energy transport works well. The result match the parameters of SSRF low-energy transport well, and the calculation in simulation mode can achieve the request of SSRF R and D. (authors)

2009-05-01

43

Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DSD-2056-4K portable multi-channel analyzer (PMCA) is a standard tool used in both international and domestic safeguards. This tool and the built-in user programs have been field proven. For applications where the manpower to program built-in programs is not available, programs in external computers can control the PMCA. A set of general purpose setup and analysis subroutines have been written in BASIC to be used directly or as a guide in the external applications. While safeguards and the nuclear industry are just beginning to make use of the present PMCA, we are looking into ways of making it easier to write internal programs for the PMCA and into replacing its current 8-bit processor with a 16-bit processor to give it the capability to do very involved analysis such as peak fitting and detailed plutonium isotopic analysis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Cameron, R.A.

1985-01-01

44

MCA Center of Excellence Through Benchmarking and INMM Involvement - Key Tools for Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Materials Management Department, a BWXT-corporate partner with Westinghouse Savannah River Company, has established a vision for positioning the organization as a Global Center of Excellence for Strategic Materials Management. NMM's Road to Excellence results from a changing business environment where flexibility and adaptability have become key demands from the Department of Energy customer. Flexibility and adaptability are integral components of the department's MC&A Center of Excellence philosophy in the pursuit of improvement technologies that meet domestic and international safeguards requirements. The customer challenge has put the organization in the forefront of change where benchmarking with other MC&A programs, applying human performance technologies and leveraging INMM leadership and participation opportunities are key ingredients to influencing improvements and changes in existing MC&A standards, policies and practices. The paper challenges MC&A professionals, MC&A program owners and organizational leaders to engage in the debate of new ideas, partnering arrangements and timely deployment of technologies (human performance and technical-based applications) to exponentially improve safeguards programs. Research and development efforts in support of safeguards improvements need to seriously consider deployment to field practitioners within a 2-3 year time frame from inception. INMM plays a crucial role in accelerating such opportunities and establishing improved performance standards above our normal governmental and organizational bureaucracies.

JAY, JEFFERY

2005-10-07

45

The nucleus-encoded trans-acting factor MCA1 plays a critical role in the regulation of cytochrome f synthesis in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organelle gene expression is characterized by nucleus-encoded trans-acting factors that control posttranscriptional steps in a gene-specific manner. As a typical example, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, expression of the chloroplast petA gene encoding cytochrome f, a major subunit of the cytochrome b(6)f complex, depends on MCA1 and TCA1, required for the accumulation and translation of the petA mRNA. Here, we show that these two proteins associate in high molecular mass complexes that also contain the petA mRNA. We demonstrate that MCA1 is degraded upon interaction with unassembled cytochrome f that transiently accumulates during the biogenesis of the cytochrome b(6)f complex. Strikingly, this interaction relies on the very same residues that form the repressor motif involved in the Control by Epistasy of cytochrome f Synthesis (CES), a negative feedback mechanism that downregulates cytochrome f synthesis when its assembly within the cytochrome b(6)f complex is compromised. Based on these new findings, we present a revised picture for the CES regulation of petA mRNA translation that involves proteolysis of the translation enhancer MCA1, triggered by its interaction with unassembled cytochrome f. PMID:21216944

Boulouis, Alix; Raynaud, Cécile; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Aznar, Aude; Wollman, Francis-André; Choquet, Yves

2011-01-01

46

Status report on the TSA Systems, Ltd., MCA465 gamma-ray confirmation instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TSA Systems, Ltd., MCA465 is hand-portable, low resolution, gamma-ray instrument for confirming special nuclear materials (SNM) and related applications. The instrument evolved from earlier TSA Systems hand-held instruments, and, since its inception in 1991, it has been undergoing cycles of evaluation and then repair or redesign to correct problems. Through the efforts of Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, and TSA Systems, the MCA465 now has achieved commendable progress toward achieving quality performance as a rapid confirmation tool for SNM

1994-07-17

47

Correlação de três variáveis na descrição da permeabilidade nasal (HD, MCA, escala NOSE de pacientes saudáveis Correlation of three variables describing nasal patency (HD, MCA, NOSE score in healthy subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rinoresistometria e rinometria acústica são dois métodos utilizados na avaliação da função respiratória nasal. Ambos utilizam variáveis diferentes para descrever a permeabilidade nasal: o diâmetro hidráulico, HD, na rinoresistometria; e as áreas mínimas da seção transversal, MCA1 (istmo nasal e MCA2 (cabeça do corneto inferior e corpo cavernoso do septo nasal, na rinometria acústica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre HD e MCA em pacientes sem afecções nasais e identificar se tais variáveis objetivas apresentam correlação com a escala NOSE, uma ferramenta validada para avaliar a percepção subjetiva de permeabilidade nasal. MÉTODO: Coleta estruturada dos dados de 24 indivíduos saudáveis sem afecções nasais. RESULTADOS: Correlações estatisticamente significativas de fracas a moderadas foram identificadas entre HD e MCA2 antes do descongestionamento. Foi identificada correlação moderada entre HD, MCA2 e escala NOSE no lado mais estreito. CONCLUSÃO: Na avaliação de permeabilidade nasal, parece ser recomendável determinar HD, MCA1 e MCA2, bem como uma variável subjetiva como a escala NOSE, que não aparentam ser variáveis completamente redundantes. Estudos futuros devem avaliar a correlação destas variáveis em pacientes com afecções nasais.Rhinoresistometry and acoustic rhinometry are two established apparative methods to objectify the respiratory function of the nose. Both methods use different variables to describe nasal patency: "hydraulic diameter", HD, in rhinoresistometry, and "minimal cross-sectional area", MCA1 (nasal isthmus and MCA2 (head of the inferior turbinate and cavernous body of the nasal septum, in acoustic rhinometry. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the mutual correlation of HD and MCA as a pilot study in patients without nasal pathologies. Additionally, we investigated if these objective variables correlate with the NOSE score, a validated tool to measure subjective perception of nasal patency. METHOD: Planned data collection in a collective of 24 healthy subjects without nasal pathologies. RESULTS: Statistically significant, weak to moderate correlations were found between HD and MCA2 before decongestion. A moderate correlation was found between both HD and MCA2 and the NOSE score on the narrower side. CONCLUSION: In the assessment of nasal patency, it seems advisable to determine HD, MCA1 and MCA2, but also a subjective variable such as the NOSE score, which all seem to be not fully redundant variables. In further studies, the correlation of the variables should be assessed in patients with nasal pathologies.

Thomas Braun

2013-06-01

48

A prion of yeast metacaspase homolog (Mca1p) detected by a genetic screen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be infected with four amyloid-based prions: [URE3], [PSI(+)], [PIN(+)], and [SWI(+)], due to self-propagating aggregation of Ure2p, Sup35p, Rnq1p and Swi1p, respectively. We searched for new prions of yeast by fusing random segments of yeast DNA to SUP35MC, encoding the Sup35 protein lacking its own prion domain, selecting clones in which Sup35MC function was impaired. Three different clones contained parts of the Q/N-rich amino-terminal domain of Mca1p/Yca1p with the Sup35 part of the fusion protein partially inactive. This inactivity was dominant, segregated 4:0 in meiosis, and was efficiently transferred by cytoplasmic mixing. The inactivity was cured by overexpression of Hsp104, but the prion could arise again in the cured strain (reversible curing). Overproduction of the Mca1 N-terminal domain induced the de novo appearance of the prion form of the fusion. The prion state, which we name [MCA], was transmitted to the chromosomally encoded Mca1p based on genetic, cytological and biochemical tests. PMID:19174511

Nemecek, Julie; Nakayashiki, Toru; Wickner, Reed B

2009-02-10

49

Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on MCA102 tumor cell immunogenicity and sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of UV irradiation to induce immunogenicity of the nonimmunogenic major histocompatibility complex-negative MCA102 fibrosarcoma was studied. In parallel, the effect of short wavelength UVC light on the sensitivity of tumor cells to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was also investigated. MCA102 fibrosarcoma cells were irradiated in vitro twice with UVC light (610 and 457 J/m2). Surviving cells were expanded and maintained in vitro as the MCA102UV subline. UV treatment changed tumor cell morphology and increased their in vitro rate of proliferation. However, after inoculation of 1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(6) MCA102UV cells into C57BL/6 mice, growth of these cells was completely prevented. Lyt2.2 and not L3T4 lymphocytes were responsible for the rejection of these tumor cells. To determine the minimal and optimal dose of UV irradiation capable of increasing tumor cell immunogenicity, MCA102 cells were irradiated once or twice with different doses (76 to 610 J/m2) of UV light. After a single dose of UV treatment, tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice was inhibited, particularly with lines irradiated at the highest doses (610 or 457 J/m2). After a second round of irradiation, tumor cells became more immunogenic, and the level of tumor growth inhibition increased with higher doses of UV irradiation. Thus, cells irradiated twice with 610 and 457 J/m2 became rejectable in all immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. The increase in tumor cell immunogenicity induced by UV light was not associated with the appearance of Class I H-2 antigens. In parallel with the induction of tumor cell immunogenicity, UV irradiation made tumor cells more sensitive to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity and to lysis by TNF

1991-03-01

50

An easily extendable interpreter comprising MCA and CAMAC commands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A BASIC interpreter is a useful tool for writing small programs in a quick and easy way. For the control of experiments, however, it lacks a number of essential features. A BASIC-like command interpreter BACO has therefore been developed. It runs on PDP-11 computers with the RSX-11M operating system. Its major advantages over BASIC are: (1) new FORTRAN routines can be implemented simply, and (2) interrupts can be processed at interpreter level. As an application the implementation is described of routines to control a CAMAC system and of a multichannel analyzer simulation. The CAMAC commands follow the line proposed by the ESONE committee. Since an interpreter is inherently rather slow, the commands are intended for moderately fast data transfer and interrupt handling, which suffices for the control of many experiments. (orig.)

1984-12-01

51

An easily extendable interpreter comprising MCA and CAMAC commands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A BASIC interpreter is a useful tool for writing small programs in a quick and easy way. For the control of experiments, however, it lacks a number of essential features. A BASIC-like command interpreter BACO has therefore been developed. It runs on PDP-11 computers with the RSX-11M operating system. Its major advantages over BASIC are: (1) new FORTRAN routines can be implemented simply, and (2) interrupts can be processed at interpreter level.

Bakkum, E. L.; Elsenaar, R. J.

1984-01-01

52

An unexpected evolution of symptomatic mild middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis: asymptomatic occlusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it has been reported more frequently in Asians and African-American people, but the finding of intracranial stenosis as a cause of ischemic stroke is relatively common also in Caucasians. The prognosis of patients with stroke due to intracranial steno-occlusion is strictly dependent on the time of recanalization. Moreover, the course of the vessel involvement is highly dynamic in both directions, improvement or worsening, although several data are derived from the atherosclerotic subtype, compared to other causes. Case description We report the clinical, neurosonological and neuroradiological findings of a young woman, who came to our Stroke Unit because of the abrupt onset of aphasia during her work. An urgent neurosonological examination showed a left M1 MCA stenosis, congruent with the presenting symptoms; magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding and identified an acute ischemic lesion on the left MCA territory. The past history of the patient was significant only for a hyperinsulinemic condition, treated with metformine, and a mild overweight. At this time a selective cerebral angiography was not performed because of the patient refusal and she was discharged on antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy, having failed to identify autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Within 1 month, she went back to our attention because of the recurrence of aphasia, lasting about ten minutes. Neuroimaging findings were unchanged, but the patient accepted to undergo a selective cerebral angiography, which showed a mild left distal M1 MCA stenosis. During the follow-up the patient did not experienced any recurrence, but a routine neurosonological examination found an unexpected evolution of the known MCA stenosis, i.e. left M1 MCA occlusion. Neuroradiological imaging did not identify new lesions of the brain parenchyma and a repeated selective cerebral angiography confirmed the left M1 MCA occlusion. Conclusions Regardless of the role of metabolic and/or inflammatory factors on the aetiology of the intracranial stenosis in this case, the course of the vessel disease was unexpected and previously unreported in the literature at our knowledge.

Malferrari Giovanni

2011-12-01

53

Molecular and cellular pharmacological properties of 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (MCA-NAT): a nonspecific MT3 ligand.  

Science.gov (United States)

5-Methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (MCA-NAT) has been initially described as a ligand at non MT(1), non MT(2) melatonin binding site (MT3) selective versus MT(1) and MT(2), two membrane melatonin receptors. MCA-NAT activity has been reported by others in different models, in vivo, particularly in the intra-ocular pressure (IOP) models in rabbits and monkeys. Its activity was systematically linked to either MT3 or to a new, yet unknown, melatonin receptor. In this article, the melatonin receptor pharmacology of MCA-NAT is described. MCA-NAT has micromolar range affinities at the melatonin receptors MT(1) and MT(2), while in functional studies, MCA-NAT proved to be a powerful MT(1)/MT(2) partial agonist in the sub-micromolar range. These data strongly suggest that MCA-NAT actions might be mediated by these receptors in vivo. Finally, as described by others, we show that MCA-NAT is unable to elicit any type of receptor-like functional responses from Chinese hamster ovary cells over-expressing quinone reductase 2, the MT3. PMID:20210850

Vincent, Ludwig; Cohen, William; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A; Nosjean, Olivier

2010-04-01

54

Targeted Mutagenesis of the Mycobacterium smegmatis mca Gene, Encoding a Mycothiol-Dependent Detoxification Protein  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycothiol (MSH), a functional analogue of glutathione (GSH) that is found exclusively in actinomycetes, reacts with electrophiles and toxins to form MSH-toxin conjugates. Mycothiol S-conjugate amidase (Mca) then catalyzes the hydrolysis of an amide bond in the S conjugates, producing a mercapturic acid of the toxin, which is excreted from the bacterium, and glucosaminyl inositol, which is recycled back to MSH. In this study, we have generated and characterized an allelic exchange mutant of th...

Rawat, Mamta; Uppal, Mandeep; Newton, Gerald; Steffek, Micah; Fahey, Robert C.; Av-gay, Yossef

2004-01-01

55

Treatment of a pediatric recurrent fusiform middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with a flow diverter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric patients with aneurysm often have different localizations and morphologies from adults and recurrences are not uncommon after successful clip reconstruction/obliteration. Treatment of a recurrent pediatric aneurysm after clip ligation is a technical challenge. We present the case of an adolescent with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysm which recurred following clip reconstruction and bypass. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular flow diversion. PMID:23188788

Burrows, Anthony M; Zipfel, Gregory; Lanzino, Giuseppe

2013-11-01

56

Data transfer among Apple-II microcomputer, S-80 MCA and PDP-11 computer system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data communication method described in this paper is designed to facilitate the data transfer among S-80 MCA, MS-900 Moessbauer spectrometer based on Apple-II microcomputer and PDP-11 computer system. Some simple processing for spectral data is available in the microcomputer. The least square fitting for spectral data is performed in PDP-11 computer system while the microcomputer is used as a terminal

1989-01-01

57

Induced hypertension for the treatment of acute MCA occlusion beyond the thrombolysis window: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of stroke patients is eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Small pilot case series have hinted that elevation of incident arterial blood pressure might be associated with a favorable prognosis either in acute or subacute stroke. However, these patients were not considered for thrombolytic therapy and were not followed – up systematically. We used pharmacologically induced hypertension in a stroke patient with middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion ineligible for thrombolysis that was followed-up by radiological, clinical and functional outcome assessment. Case presentation A patient with acute embolic MCA occlusion producing a large, ischemic penumbra confirmed by perfusion CT was treated by induced hypertension with phenylephrine started within 4 h of admission. Increase in the mean arterial pressure by 20% led to a reduction of neurological deficit by 3 points on the National Institute of Stroke Scale. MRI and CT scans performed during phenylephrine infusion showed the presence of limited subcortical and cortical infarct changes that were clearly less extensive than the perfusion deficit in the brain perfusion CT at baseline, found in the absence of MCA patency. No complications due to induced hypertension therapy occurred. Moderate functional improvement up to modified Rankin scale 2 at follow up took place. Conclusion Induced hypertension in acute ischemic stroke seems clinically feasible and may be beneficial in selected normo- or hypotensive stroke patients not eligible for thrombolytic recanalization therapy.

Salonen Oili

2006-12-01

58

Effects of some ruthenium chelates on MCa mammary carcinoma and on TLX5 lymphoma in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of four Ruthenium chelates of the mixed hard/soft N-S donor ligands 2-formylpyridine (4-H/4-phenyl)thiosemicarbazone has been studied in the experimental models of MCa mammary carcinoma and TLX5 lymphoma in the CBA mouse. Although all the four tested complexes, bis-[2-formylpyridine(4- phenyl)thiosemicarbazone]ruthenium(II)chloride]Ru(L1)(L1H)Cl, 1], [2-formylpyridine(4-phenyl)thiosemicarbazone]ruthenium(II)-mu- trichloro chloro(imidazole)ruthenium(III)monomethanolate [Ru2(L1)(imz)Cl4.CH3OH, 9]. [2-formylpyridine(4-phenyl)thiosemicarbazone]dichloroimidazoler uthenium(II) [Ru(L1H)(imz)Cl2,10] and bis[2- formylpyridinethiosemicarbazone]ruthenium(II) perchlorate, dihydrate [Ru(L)(LH)ClO4.2H2O, 16], reduced the formation of lung metastases at the same extent only compound 1 caused parallel inhibition of the growth of the primary tumor. The chemical nature of the tested compounds seems to determine the nature of the antitumor effects and the bis-chelates are found to be endowed with greater cytotoxic properties towards primary tumor than the monochelates. This opens up a very interesting point, whether it is the presence of two chelate rings around the Ruthenium(II)/(III) acceptor centre or the increase in the number of the soft (S) donor centers that generates greater cytotoxic properties in the corresponding ruthenium complexes. As far as the reduction of the metastasis formation is concerned, it appears that among the four Ruthenium chelates tested, it is possible to identify structures capable of controlling the spread of tumor to the lungs in the absence of significant cytotoxicity for tumor cells. This finding appears of importance in that it indicates the possibility of a specific mechanism of interaction with cells of the metastatic tumor. In this context it appears necessary to investigate other congeners of this "family" with more sulfur donor sites and particularly those with better water solubility. PMID:8352519

Bregant, F; Pacor, S; Ghosh, S; Chattopadhyay, S K; Sava, G

1993-01-01

59

Automatic controller for voltammetric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A versatile automatic controller designed for unattended operation of a variety of electrochemical equipment is described. The instrument offers automatic control of two voltage sources and a potentiostat, as well as ancillary functions such as electrode conditioning, stirrer operation, solution purging and recorder offset and pen operation. No modification of existing Princeton Applied Research equipment is required. The controller has been used for polarography and a number of voltammetric techniques including anodic and cathodic stripping, cyclic voltammetry and potentiometric stripping analysis. Instrument design, operational sequences and interfacing to peripheral equipment are described. Instrument performance is evaluated in terms of an anodic stripping voltammetric method for the analysis of Se(IV) and Te(IV) with a thin gold film electrode. 7 figures

1979-01-01

60

Application Of The Digital Signal Processing Technique For The Design And Construction Of Gamma DSP-Based MCA 8K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL code then programing into FPGA device. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing technique then application for design and construction of DSP-based MCA 8K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, almost component such as low pass filter, high pass filter, math function module as adder/subtractor and multiplier, logic control, First In First Out, register, memory and Central processing unit needed for our design can be synthesized and implemented. The VHDL source design has been compiled and implemented by xilinx ISE 10.1 software toolkit and then used to configuration the Spartan XC3S400 device. The main Spartan 3 development board named Siphec XC3S400-TB is used for design of the project. An application software is written in LabVIEW 8.5. The firmware to control the USB interface and interface between FPGA and PC is design in Keil C51 compiler toolkit. (author)

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluation of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) degradation and toxicity to Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fate of monochloroacetic acid (MCA), a common phytotoxic aquatic contaminant, and its toxicity to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba (L. gibba), Myriophyllum spicatum (M. spicatum), and Myriophyllum sibiricum (M. sibiricum) under semi-natural field conditions was studied. Replicate 12,000 l enclosures were treated with 0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/l of MCA. Each microcosm was stocked with eight individual apical shoots of M. spicatum and M. sibiricum 1 day prior to initiation of exposure. Plants were sampled after 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure and their response assessed using numerous somatic and biochemical endpoints. L. gibba was introduced into the microcosms the day of MCA treatment and monitored regularly for 21 days. The half-life of MCA in the water column ranged between 86 and 523 h. The most sensitive plant species was M. spicatum, followed by M. sibiricum and L. gibba. All species demonstrated toxicity within a threefold range of each other. Endpoint sensitivity varied depending on the duration of exposure and the level of effect chosen. Most species endpoint EC(x) values were less than an order of magnitude different. Citrate levels in Myriophyllum spp. were not influenced by exposure to MCA. The toxicity of MCA to M. spicatum and M. sibiricum was very similar and thus highly predictive of toxicity observed for each other. The EC(10) was a more conservative estimate of toxicity than the statistically derived no observed effect concentration. Current concentrations of MCA are not likely to pose a risk to these aquatic plants in surface waters. PMID:12359395

Hanson, Mark L; Sibley, Paul K; Ellis, David A; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R

2002-12-01

62

Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Directional Solidification Process of Turbine Blade Casting with MCA Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel-based superalloy turbine blade castings are widely used as a key part in aero engines. However, due to the complex manufacturing processes, the complicated internal structure, and the interaction between different parts of the turbine blade, casting defects, such as stray grains, often happen during the directional solidification of turbine blade castings, which causes low production yield and high production cost. To improve the quality of the directionally solidified turbine blade castings, modeling and simulation technique has been employed to study the microstructure evolution as well as to optimize the casting process. In this article, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) method was used to simulate the directional solidification of turbine blade casting. The MCA method was coupled with macro heat transfer and micro grain growth kinetics to simulate the microstructure evolution during the directional solidification. In addition, a ray tracing method was proposed to calculate the heat transfer, especially the heat radiation of multiple blade castings in a Bridgman furnace. A competitive mechanism was incorporated into the grain growth model to describe the grain selection behavior phenomena of multiple columnar grains in the grain selector. With the proposed models, the microstructure evolution and related defects could be simulated, while the processing parameters optimized and the blade casting quality guaranteed as well. Several experiments were carried out to validate the proposed models, and good agreement between the simulated and experimental results was achieved.

Xu, Qingyan; Zhang, Hang; Qi, Xiang; Liu, Baicheng

2014-04-01

63

Combined revascularization surgery for childhood moyamoya disease: STA-MCA and encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present surgical techniques for optimal revascularization in childhood moyamoya disease. During the past 10 years we performed revascularization surgery for childhood moyamoya disease using direct revascularization with superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis and indirect revascularization of encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS) 43 times. Points of this surgery are as follows: (1) craniotomy and dural opening for the most extensive possible exposure of the brain surface, (2) protective manipulation of the STA, temporal muscle and middle meningeal artery, (3) STA-MCA anastomosis to the frontal branch of the MCA to improve cerebral circulation of the frontal lobe using a small branch of the STA, and (4) a small opening in the arachnoid membrane and watertight closure. PMID:9083698

Houkin, K; Kamiyama, H; Takahashi, A; Kuroda, S; Abe, H

1997-01-01

64

STA-MCA/STA-PCA Bypass Using Short Interposition Vein Graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and aims: Superficial temporal artery (STA) is the mainstay of donor vessels for extra-intracranial bypass (EC-IC bypass) in cerebral revascularization. However, the typically used STA frontal or parietal branch is not always adequate in its flow-carrying capacity. In the present study, we provide an update on an alternative strategy: the use of the STA main trunk as a donor vessel, with a short vein interposition graft. Methods: Seven patients in whom the STA main trunk was used as a donor site for anastomosis of a short interposition vein graft were included. The grafts were implanted into the M2 of the middle cerebral artery for adjunctive treatment of IC anterior wall blood-blister aneurysms in two patients, for revascularization of an internal carotid artery occlusion in one patient, into the P2/3 of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) for adjunct treatment of complex PCA aneurysms in three patients and into the P3 of PCA for adjunct treatment of basilar artery (BA) trunk giant aneurysm in one patient. Results: All the bypasses were patent. Intraoperative flow measurements confirmed a moderate flow-carrying capacity of the STA main trunk-interposition short vein graft (20-50 ml; mean 43 ml/min). Conclusion: The STA main trunk has a larger diameter than the distal branch; therefore, it would be expected to have a significantly higher flow capacity than its branches. STA main trunk to proximal MCA/PCA bypass using short interposition vein grafts can provide sufficient blood flow, and may be a reasonable alternative to ECA to MCA/PCA bypass using long vein grafts. PMID:24728638

Kaku, Yasuhiko; Funatsu, Naoko; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Yamashita, Kentarou; Kokuzawa, Jouji

2014-01-01

65

5-MCA-NAT does not act through NQO2 to reduce intraocular pressure in New-Zealand white rabbit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid data support the idea that the MT(3) melatonin binding site is an enzyme, quinone reductase 2 (NQO2), rather than a membrane melatonin receptor. However, the melatonin analogue, 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT), reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) via MT(3) melatonin receptors. Therefore, the aim of this work was to test whether the melatonin binding site, MT(3), is indeed the enzyme NQO2 in New Zealand rabbit eyes. To investigate this, the action of several substrates and inhibitors for NQO2 was compared to 5-MCA-NAT in their ability to modify IOP. Also, the effect of 5-MCA-NAT on IOP produced after NQO2 silencing by means of a siRNA was determinated. Altogether, the results led us to conclude that the in vivo effect of the MT(3) ligand 5-MCA-NAT on IOP is not mediated by the enzyme NQO2, suggesting the existence of another melatonin receptor. PMID:19627460

Alarma-Estrany, Pilar; Crooke, Almudena; Pintor, Jesús

2009-09-01

66

Controllability analysis for process and control system design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Controllability is the ability of a process to achieve acceptable performance, and in this thesis we use controllability analysis in the design of buffer tanks, feedforward controllers, and multivariable controllers such as model predictive control (MPC). There is still an increasing pressure on the process industry, both from competitors (prize and quality) and the society (safety and pollution), and one important contribution is a smooth and stable production. Thus, it is important to dampe...

Faanes, Audun

2003-01-01

67

Control stability analysis for cigarette mean weight controller  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the research about the mean weight controller which was produced by Molins Company (Britain), we worked for controlling stability analysis of this unit. We established the controlling Model and their transmission functions. Good results in the regulation of the system are obtained

1995-03-01

68

RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socio-economic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

Sue-Mari Maass

2012-11-01

69

Rent control: a comparative analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders - and consequential homelessness - on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do [...] not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socioeconomic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease shoul

S, Maass.

70

MCA4climate - a practical framework for pro-development climate policy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Climate is an inordinate challenge but also an inordinate opportunity to transform economies onto a low-carbon, resourcee !cient Green Economy path. Catalyzing clean energy will not only cut greenhouse-gas emissions as part of eâ?orts to limit a global temperature rise to under 2 degrees C or more, it also represents a way of curbing healthhazardous air pollution while oâ?ering a rapid path to address energy poverty, especially in rural areas of developing economies. Meanwhile enhancing ecosystems such as forests, mangroves and seagrasses in order to conserve their carbon stocks can also trigger multiple benefits from boosting water supplies and improving agriculture to maintaining natural sea defences and nurseries for fish. The 17th Conference of the Parties meeting in Durban, South Africa, later this year presents the world with another opportunity to advance the climate agenda and co-operative action under the UN Climate Convention. It is crucial that those actions are designed within a coherent and robust policy-planning framework to ensure that they are both cost-eâ?ective and compatible with broader social, economic and environmental goals. For developing countries, sound climatepolicy planning will also enhance access to climate finance from the developed ones. Climate-policy planning is a complex undertaking. Many developing countries are only just starting to consider how to go about it and some require improved access to the requisite knowledge, expertise and technical skills. Drawing upon best practices, tried and tested in other parts of the world, is clearly an advantage. The MCA4climate, a new UNEP initiative, is designed to assist policymakers, particularly in the developing world, in that endeavour. It oâ?ers concrete guidance and recommendations on a number of critical issues and proposes a formal framework for evaluating climate mitigation and adaptation policies, paving a practical way forward so that countries evolve sustainably and grow their economies in a way that keeps humanityâ??s footprint within planetary boundaries. It draws on the work of leading experts on climate policymaking from around the world and uses an innovative approach to assessing policies that ensures that climate policies and strategies take full account of developmental concerns and objectives. The MCA4climate initiative reflects UNEPâ??s mission to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generationsâ??issues at the centre of Rio+20 next year in Brazil as governments look to scale-up and accelerate the implementation of the agreements, including those relating to climate change, established in Rio in 1992.

2011-01-01

71

Modular Control Flow Analysis for Libraries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One problem in analyzing object oriented languages is that the exact control flow graph is not known statically due to dynamic dispatching. However, this is needed in order to apply the large class of known interprocedural analysis. Control Flow Analysis in the object oriented setting aims at determining run-time types of variables, thus allowing to possibly targeted method implementations. We present a flow sensitive analysis that allows separate handling of libraries and thereby efficient analysis of whole programs.

Probst, Christian W.

2002-01-01

72

Multivariable control system analysis of a drum level control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown how multivariable analysis and design techniques can be applied effectively to the steam drum level control system of the Prototype Fast Reactor. The drum level control system is shown to be strongly multivariable in nature and as such requires the use of multivariable analysis and design methods. The characteristic locus method was used for the initial analysis. The transmission response method was developed to check these results. The application of multivariable design techniques provided a new insight into the physical behaviour of the system and led to an improved choice of controller parameters for the existing control topology. The design was checked using a detailed simulation model of the whole plant which had been validated against plant data. Simulation results confirmed that the proposed design eliminated drum level oscillations, suffered previously, and yielded significantly better control of drum level during a plant manoeuvre or following disturbances. (author)

1986-01-01

73

A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the cou...

Aruna Lolla

2012-01-01

74

Redistribution of cerebral blood flow following STA-MCA by-pass in patients with hemispheric ischemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional cerebral blood flow and vasomotor reactivity were measured in 33 patients with surgically remediable hemispheric ischemia by the _1_3_3Xe inhalation method prior to superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) by-pass. Thirteen patients also underwent LCBF and L lambda measurements by the stable xenon CT method for comparison. Twenty-four had proximal occlusion of one or both internal carotid arteries, 9 had intracranial occlusive disease. Measurements were repeated at intervals up to 30 months following surgery and compared to measurements in a similar group treated medically. In the surgically treated group 22 patients had recurrent TIAs, of whom 12 also had minor residual neurological deficits from recent small cerebral infarctions with potential for recovery while the remaining 11 had RINDs without TIAs. After surgery 28 improved with cessation of TIAs and/or neurological recovery, 3 remained unchanged, 2 cases worsened. Compared to age-matched normal hemispheric F1 values, pre-operative F1 values in the STA-MCA group were reduced in both ischemic and opposite hemispheres. Ischemic regions showed imparied vasomotor reactivity to 5% CO"2 or 100% O"2 inhalation. After surgery, mean hemispheric F1 values increased + 12.8% on the by-pass side and + 10.5% on the contralateral side. Mean F1 increases reached a maximum 3 months after by-pass, most evident in ipsilateral frontal region. Vasomotor reactivity did not significantly improve. Medically treated cases did not show similar F1 increases. Thirteen with carotid occlusive disease underwent CT LCBF and L lambda measurements before and after STA-MCA by-pass. Cases with recent infarcts showed reduced LCBF and L lambda values which increased significantly after STA-MCA by-pass, however the total group operated upon showed only trends for CBF increases, probably due to large standard deviations encountered in serial measurements

1982-01-01

75

Effect of STA-MCA bypass for ocular ischemic syndrome due to occlusive internal carotid artery diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined the effect of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for chronic ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) due to occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) diseases. We retrospectively examined the result of STA-MCA bypass in 49 patients with chronic OIS due to occlusive ICA diseases. Symptoms were a decline in visual acuity in 32 patients, frequent amaurosis fugax in 8 patients, and 9 patients showed both symptoms. Preoperatively, the flow directions of the ophthalmic artery were reversed in 45 patients and antegrade in 4 patients. The average peak systolic flow velocity (PFV) of the ophthalmic artery was -0.37 m/sec. At one month after bypass, 17 patients showed the antegrade ophthalmic artery flow. Mean PFV of the ophthalmic artery significantly rose to -0.12 m/sec (p<0.05). At three months after surgery, 26 patients showed the antegrade flow. Mean PFV of the ophthalmic artery significantly increased to 0.01 m/sec (p<0.05). During the follow-up period (mean 4.9 years), visual acuity improved in 23 patients (47%) and ceased to worsen in the remaining 26 patients. STA-MCA bypass was useful in improving and preventing OIS due to occlusive ICA diseases. (author)

2007-02-01

76

The macroscopic analysis of radio – control problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary stage technique’s development is to characterize of radio – control systems broad application. Analysis radio – control systems is based usually on microscopic principle. Actual task is macroscopic point of view in radio – control problem. Problem statement. For radio control problem decision it is necessary describe the dynamics of process in generalize form. It is possible in conditions when macroscopic analysis is principal method. In this method it is actual the discount of probability of task fulfillment and information quantity. It is necessary find out the dependence between information quantity, relative error and dynamic characters of systems. Theoretical results. The regularities of task probability fulfillment in radio – control problem were consideration in dependence from control information quantity, information ability and relative error of radio – control system. Time of task fulfillment was determined for radio – control. The influence of speed increase coefficient of task fulfillment was determined. Typical substitution models for radio- control systems and relative errors were considerate. The information abilities of substitution models with discount of time constants and belated time were determined. For task fulfillment probability of radio – control were determine the dependences from time constants, belated time and speed increase coefficient of task fulfillment probability. Conclusion. Achieve results permit transfer the analysis of radio – control process on new quality level. Information, probability and characters of radio – control systems were taken into consideration. The ability for determination of task fulfillment time was open.

V. O. Bychkovskyi

2013-12-01

77

A Semantic analysis of control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines the use of denotational semantics to reason about control flow in sequential, basically functional languages. It extends recent work in game semantics, in which programs are interpreted as strategies for computation by interaction with an environment. Abramsky has suggested that an intensional hierarchy of computational features such as state, and their fully abstract models, can be captured as violations of the constraints on strategies in the basic functional model....

Laird, James David

1999-01-01

78

Control software analysis, part II: Closed-loop analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis and proper documentation of the properties of closed-loop control software presents many distinct aspects from the analysis of the same software running open-loop. Issues of physical system representations arise, and it is desired that such representations remain independent from the representations of the control program. For that purpose, a concurrent program representation of the plant and the control processes is proposed, although the closed-loop system is ...

Feron, Eric; Alegre, Fernando

2008-01-01

79

Stray light analysis and control  

CERN Document Server

Stray light is defined as unwanted light in an optical system, a familiar concept for anyone who has taken a photograph with the sun in or near their camera's field of view. This book addresses stray light terminology, radiometry, and the physics of stray light mechanisms, such as surface roughness scatter and ghost reflections. The most-efficient ways of using stray light analysis software packages are included. The book also demonstrates how the basic principles are applied in the design, fabrication, and testing phases of optical system development.

Fest, Eric

2013-01-01

80

Analysis Of Control Of Cooperating Robot Arms  

Science.gov (United States)

Paper presents theoretical analysis of general problem of how to control motions of, and forces exerted by, several multiple-rigid-link robot arms that cooperatively manipulate common rigid object. Emphasis mainly on construction, via full-dynamics approach, of control laws relatively independent of dynamical models.

Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Wen, John Ting-Yung

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Development of a robotized sample changing system for activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic sample changing system with a small robot has been developed and constructed for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The developed system composed of a model A151 small robot (CRS Plus Inc., Canada), a NEC PC-980m2 personal computer having two of 1 Mbyte floppy-disk drivers, a NAIG NLAB-MCA multichannel analyzer (Toshiba), Ge detector settled in a low background shield and a tray stored 20 dishes containing a sample. The robot has a five-axis articulated arm (reach: 560 mm, payload: 2 kg, speed: 17 m/s, repeatability: 0.13 mm, weight: 17 kg). The robot and the multichannel analyzer (MCA) are controlled by the personal computer via RS-232C or GP-IB interface. (author)

1993-08-01

82

Development of a robotized sample changing system for activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An automatic sample changing system with a small robot has been developed and constructed for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The developed system composed of a model A151 small robot (CRS Plus Inc., Canada), a NEC PC-980m2 personal computer having two of 1 Mbyte floppy-disk drivers, a NAIG NLAB-MCA multichannel analyzer (Toshiba), Ge detector settled in a low background shield and a tray stored 20 dishes containing a sample. The robot has a five-axis articulated arm (reach: 560 mm, payload: 2 kg, speed: 17 m/s, repeatability: 0.13 mm, weight: 17 kg). The robot and the multichannel analyzer (MCA) are controlled by the personal computer via RS-232C or GP-IB interface. (author).

Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji (Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab.)

1993-08-01

83

76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations...outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully...

2011-05-16

84

Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

2010-01-01

85

A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the course.

Aruna Lolla

2012-02-01

86

Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass of symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) total occlusion for haemodynamic impairment patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective, single-centre, non-randomized study in the management of symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) total occlusion disease to evaluate extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass as an intervention for patients with atherosclerotic MCA total occlusion, ischemic symptoms (transient ischemic attacks [TIAs]) or poor cerebral haemodynamics who had not responded well to maximal medical treatment was reported. Twenty-three patients were included in the study with the criteria of: having ischemic syndrome, for example, TIA; being associated with atherosclerotic MCA total occlusion disease (compatible with radiological assessment); being failed to respond to optimal medical therapy (e.g. antiplatelet therapy), indicating a repeat TIA or ischemic stroke attack was noted during maximal medical therapy; having poor cerebral perfusion on CT imaging; and having regional cerebrovascular reactivity (rCVR) of <20% when acetazolamide challenge was undergone. Patients had acute ischemic stroke or other major medical co-morbidities were excluded. No patient experienced any recurrent ischemic stroke during a mean follow-up period of 26.5 months except one patient suffered of immediate post-operative ischemic stroke because of the temporal vessel being clipped too long and the hypotension caused by anaesthesia. Post-operative follow-up imaging, which included MRI (MR angiography) and four-vessel digital subtraction angiography revealed a 100% patency of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. No significant differences between observation periods (baseline status: 5.46 ± 5.13/85 ± 15; 0.5 month after surgery: 5.18 ± 5.29/85.91 ± 15.46 and 3 months after surgery: 5.09 ± 4.75/85.36 ± 12.27) were found for the neurological evaluations of NIHSS and Barthel Index (both expressed in mean ± SD) in all of the 23 patients. The annual risk of recurrent stroke was 0% after EC-IC bypass. However, studies with a larger scale are warranted to further confirm the effectiveness of EC-IC bypass. PMID:22607318

Chou, Chii-Wen; Chang, Ju-Hsin; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Cho, Der-Yang; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chun-Chung

2012-12-01

87

Analysis and control of underactuated mechanical systems  

CERN Document Server

This monograph provides readers with tools for the analysis, and control of systems with fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom to be controlled, i.e., underactuated systems. The text deals with the consequences of a lack of a general theory that would allow methodical treatment of such systems and the ad hoc approach to control design that often results, imposing a level of organization whenever the latter is lacking. The authors take as their starting point the construction of a graphical characterization or control flow diagram reflecting the transmission of generalized forces through the degrees of freedom. Underactuated systems are classified according to the three main structures by which this is found to happen—chain, tree, and isolated vertex—and control design procedures proposed. The procedure is applied to several well-known examples of underactuated systems: acrobot; pendubot; Tora system; ball and beam; inertia wheel; and robotic arm with elastic joint. The text is illustrated with MATL...

Choukchou-Braham, Amal; Djemaï, Mohamed; Busawon, Krishna

2014-01-01

88

The design of database for analysis of data from multichannel analyzer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of database management system in analyzing data from multichannel analyzer (MCA) are studied and designed to bring up various types of data from MCA to microcomputer in neutron activation analysis work. RS-232 interface used in transmitting and receiving signals from MCA to microcomputer by asynchronous communication was studied. The software (PC-talk) used in receiving data from MCA and save data file on diskette in microcomputer was studied. Then the developing database program was used to analyze types of element, determine the content of elements and also report results

1988-04-19

89

78 FR 79328 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance...Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing the U...guidance on material control and accounting (MC&A) of special...

2013-12-30

90

78 FR 71532 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance...Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing the U...regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special...

2013-11-29

91

Multiple correspondence analysis in S-PLUS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) is a multivariate method for analyzing multidimensional contingency tables. General software procedures to perform MCA are available. Among them SAS Proc CORRESP, SPAD CORMU procedure and the mca function of the MASS library in S-PLUS are probably the most used. However, CORRESP and CORMU output is different from that of mca function. The aim of this short note is showing how to obtain from mca function results compatible with those achieved with SAS or SPAD. A modified code is proposed in order to obtain the same coordinate system computed by SAS and SPAD. Moreover, the computation of the contributions of the levels of the factors to the inertia explained by each axis, the squared cosine of each factor level and the re-evaluation of the inertia explained by each axis have been added in order to improve the interpretations of the results of the decomposition. PMID:15975690

Ambrogi, Federico; Biganzoli, Elia; Boracchi, Patrizia

2005-08-01

92

Solids analysis improves mud cost control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A few simple rig site measurements can cut drilling fluid expenditures. Although solids control equipment removes unwanted solids from the mud system, a fraction remains dispersed in the fluid and must be removed by dilution. A method has been devised, referred to as the Solids Control Index (SCI), that measures this fraction and leads to cost effective analysis of mud in the field. 4 refs.

Goldsmith, R.; Hare, M.H.

1982-06-01

93

TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MIT tandem mirror (TARA) control, data acquisition and analysis system consists of two major parts: (1) a Gould 584 industrial programmable controller (PC) to control engineering functions; and (2) a VAX 11/750 based data acquisition and analysis system for physics analysis. The PC is designed for use in harsh industrial environments and has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective means for automated control. The PC configuration is dedicated to control tasks on the TARA magnet, vacuum, RF, neutral beam, diagnostics, and utility systems. The data transfer functions are used to download system operating parameters from menu selectable tables. Real time status reports are provided to video terminals and as blocks of data to the host computer for storage. The data acquisition and analysis system for TARA was designed to provide high throughput and ready access to data from earlier runs. The adopted design uses pre-existing software packages in a system which is simple, coherent, fast, and which requires a minimum of new software development. The computer configuration is a VAX 11/750 running VMS with 124 M byte massbus disk and 1.4 G byte unibus disk subsystem.

Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Fredian, T.W.; Karcher, C.A.; Sevillano, E.; Stillerman, J.; Thomas, P.

1983-12-01

94

TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MIT tandem mirror (TARA) control, data acquisition and analysis system consists of two major parts: (1) a Gould 584 industrial programmable controller (PC) to control engineering functions; and (2) a VAX 11/750 based data acquisition and analysis system for physics analysis. The PC is designed for use in harsh industrial environments and has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective means for automated control. The PC configuration is dedicated to control tasks on the TARA magnet, vacuum, RF, neutral beam, diagnostics, and utility systems. The data transfer functions are used to download system operating parameters from menu selectable tables. Real time status reports are provided to video terminals and as blocks of data to the host computer for storage. The data acquisition and analysis system for TARA was designed to provide high throughput and ready access to data from earlier runs. The adopted design uses pre-existing software packages in a system which is simple, coherent, fast, and which requires a minimum of new software development. The computer configuration is a VAX 11/750 running VMS with 124 M byte massbus disk and 1.4 G byte unibus disk subsystem

1983-12-05

95

Revealing the translation control by transcriptome analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A asmodel, some aspects of different points of gene expression controland transcriptome studies are discussed. A parallel with proteomicstudies is presented, as well as the optimization of thetranscriptome analysis using polysome profile assay. The polysomeprofile assay application reveals the translational control of mRNAsnot identified by traditional differential analysis of transcriptomes,which is widely employed to study diseases, such as tumors.

Augusto Ducati Luchessi

2006-09-01

96

Capital Controls: A Meta-analysis Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this note we summarize our recent paper, where we delved into the details of this apple-to-oranges problem with the aim of defining a minimum common ground. We begin our analysis by explicitly documenting the kinds of measures that are construed as capital controls. Along the way, we describe the more drastic differences across countries/episodes and between controls on inflows and outflows as well a more subtle differences in types of inflow or outflow controls. Given that success is me...

2011-01-01

97

The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

Darius Gaidelis

2011-04-01

98

Ivy signs on FLAIR images before and after STA-MCA anastomosis in patients with Moyamoya disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging is one of the features of Moyamoya disease. However, the correlation between ivy sign and cerebral perfusion status has not been fully evaluated. Purpose: To characterize ivy sign on FLAIR images in Moyamoya disease and compare this finding with hemodynamic alterations on perfusion single-photon emission CT (SPECT) obtained before and after bypass surgery. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients with angiographically confirmed Moyamoya disease who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis were included in the study. The presence of ivy sign on FLAIR images was classified as 'negative', 'minimal' and 'positive'. We evaluated the relationship between ivy sign and findings of SPECT, including cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) before and after surgery. Results: Minimal or positive ivy sign was seen in 13 (81%) of 16 patients, and 21 (66%) of 32 hemispheres. CVR in the areas with positive or minimal ivy sign was lower than that in the areas with negative ivy sign. After STA-MCA anastomosis, ivy sign disappeared or decreased in all 21 hemispheres demonstrating ivy sign. SPECT demonstrated apparent hemodynamic improvement in areas demonstrating disappearance or decrease of ivy sign. Conclusion: Ivy sign on FLAIR image is seen in areas with decreased cerebral perfusion. The sign is useful for non-invasive assessment of cerebral hemodynamic status before and after surgery

2011-04-01

99

A portable, photon analysis spectrometer for the assay of X- and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A portable, battery-po dered, multichannel analyzer (MCA) for use with Ge spectrometers has been developed for in-field use for the assay of x- and ?-ray emitting radionuclides. The spectrometer is capable of operating to rates greater than 150,000 counts per second. The analyzer is a Canberra InSpector MCA, that is equipped with the INEEL ultra-stable dual-energy pulser, and pulse injection with subsequent removal (PISR) circuitry. PCGAP, a set of MCA control and spectral analysis programs, was developed for use on a PC with a Windows NT Operating System. It includes an interactive peak analysis program as well as automatic spectral analysis programs for the X- and ?-ray regions, and a number of utility programs. The pulser peaks are calibrated with radioactive sources in terms of energy (i.e., their energy equivalents are measured) using the PCGAP spectral analysis package so that energy shifts, including those due to changes in temperature or count rate, do not cause a loss of energy calibration. The number of injected low- and high-energy-equivalent pulses is known so the stored pulser pulses can be used for a dead-time and random summing correction. The pulser peaks are also used to monitor any deterioration in spectral quality caused by noise, ground loops, etc. The results of performance tests to demonstrate the capabilities of this pulser-equipped InSpector are reported. (author)

1998-07-01

100

Safety analysis of control rod drive computers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of the most significant user programmes revealed no errors in these programmes. The evaluation of approximately 82 cumulated years of operation demonstrated that the operating system of the control rod positioning processor has a reliability that is sufficiently good for the tasks this computer has to fulfil. Computers can be used for safety relevant tasks. The experience gained with the control rod positioning processor confirms that computers are not less reliable than conventional instrumentation and control system for comparable tasks. The examination and evaluation of computers for safety relevant tasks can be done with programme analysis or statistical evaluation of the operating experience. Programme analysis is recommended for seldom used and well structured programmes. For programmes with a long, cumulated operating time a statistical evaluation is more advisable. The effort for examination and evaluation is not greater than the corresponding effort for conventional instrumentation and control systems. This project has also revealed that, where it is technologically sensible, process controlling computers or microprocessors can be qualified for safety relevant tasks without undue effort. (orig./HP)

1985-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

2006-11-12

102

Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

Plott, B. [Alion Science and Technology, MA and D Operation, 4949 Pearl E. Circle, 300, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

2006-07-01

103

TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system consists of two major parts: (1) a Gould 584 industrial programmable controller (PC); (2) a VAX 11/750 based data acquisition and analysis system. The PC is designed for use in harsh industrial environments and has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective means for automated control. The PC configuration is dedicated to control tasks on the TARA magnet, vacuum, RF, neutral beam, diagnostics, and utility systems. The data transfer functions are used to download system operating parameters from menu selectable tables. Real time status reports are provided to video terminals and as blocks of data to the host computer for storage. The data acquisition and analysis system for TARA was designed to provide a high throughput and ready access to data from earlier runs. The adopted design uses pre-existing software packages in a system which is simple, coherent, fast and which requires a minimum of new software development. The computer configuration is a VAX 11/750 running VMS with 124 M BYTE massbuss disk and 1.4 G BYTE unibus disk subsystem. The front end for the data is a kinetic systems camac serial highway interface, and the graphics I/0 is done through a DMA terminal multiplexer. The data system provides a set of standard tools for use in user-written analysis programs. These tools allow access to current shot data as well as past shots with a minimum of overhead. The acquisition, archival, basic analysis, and display of 1 M BYTE of data for every shot is accomplished once each 3 to 5 minutes, and any shot may be easily reanalyzed

1983-11-07

104

Analysis and control of Boolean networks  

CERN Document Server

""Analysis and Control of Boolean Networks"" presents a systematic new approach to the investigation of Boolean control networks. The fundamental tool in this approach is a novel matrix product called the semi-tensor product (STP). Using the STP, a logical function can be expressed as a conventional discrete-time linear system. In the light of this linear expression, certain major issues concerning Boolean network topology - fixed points, cycles, transient times and basins of attractors - can be easily revealed by a set of formulae. This framework renders the state-space approach to dynamic co

Cheng, Daizhan; Li, Zhiqiang

2010-01-01

105

PROMETHEE Method and Sensitivity Analysis in the Software Application for the Support of Decision-Making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PROMETHEE is one of methods, which fall into multi-criteria analysis (MCA. The MCA, as the name itself indicates, deals with the evaluation of particular variants according to several criteria. Developed software application (MCA8 for the support of multi-criteria decision-making was upgraded about PROMETHEE method and a graphic tool, which enables the execution of the sensitivity analysis. This analysis is used to ascertain how a given model output depends upon the input parameters. The MCA8 software application with mentioned graphic upgrade was developed for purposes of solving multi-criteria decision tasks. In the MCA8 is possible to perform sensitivity analysis by a simple form – through column graphs. We can change criteria significances (weights in these column graphs directly and watch the changes of the order of variants immediately.

Leopold Paszek

2008-01-01

106

Studying On Digital Signal Processing Method For Tested Design And The Construction Of DSP-Based MCA 1K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSP is one of the most useful tools for development of nuclear electronics instruments for Physics research. The method can be carried out by either a special digital signal processor or FPGA which is programmed through VHDL. In this case, Digital signal processing (DPS) is performed by VHDL. The aim of this project is to study on digital signal processing for tested design and construction of DSP-based MCA 1K. VHDL standards for VHSIC hardware description language. Due to VHDL, memory and Central processing unit are created. An application software for receiving data is written in LabVIEW 8.5. Spartan 3E starter kit is used for design of the project, combining with ISE software, XilinX 9.2i. (author)

2010-03-01

107

Intensive post-operative follow-up of breast cancer patients with tumour markers: CEA, TPA or CA15.3 vs MCA and MCA-CA15.3 vs CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel in the early detection of distant metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer current guidelines do not recommend the routine use of serum tumour markers. Differently, we observed that CEA-TPA-CA15.3 (carcinoembryonic (CEA tissue polypeptide (TPA and cancer associated 115D8/DF3 (CA15.3 antigens panel permits early detection and treatment for most relapsing patients. As high sensitivity and specificity and different cut-off values have been reported for mucin-like carcinoma associated antigen (MCA, we compared MCA with the above mentioned tumour markers and MCA-CA15.3 with the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Methods In 289 breast cancer patients submitted to an intensive post-operative follow-up with tumour markers, we compared MCA (cut-off values, ? 11 and ? 15 U/mL with CEA or CA15.3 or TPA for detection of relapse. In addition, we compared the MCA-CA15.3 and CEA-TPA-CA15.3 tumour marker panels. Results Distant metastases occurred 19 times in 18 (6.7% of the 268 patients who were disease-free at the beginning of the study. MCA sensitivity with both cut-off values was higher than that of CEA or TPA or CA15.3 (68% vs 10%, 26%, 32% and 53% vs 16%, 42%, 32% respectively. With cut-off ? 11 U/mL, MCA showed the lowest specificity (42%; with cut-off ? 15 U/mL, MCA specificity was similar to TPA (73% vs 72% and lower than that of CEA and CA15.3 (96% and 97% respectively. With ? 15 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA sensitivity increased from 53% to 58% after its association with CA15.3. Sensitivity of CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel was 74% (14 of 19 recurrences. Eight of the 14 recurrences early detected with CEA-TPA-CA15.3 presented as a single lesion (oligometastatic disease (5 or were confined to bony skeleton (3 (26% and 16% respectively of the 19 relapses. With ? 11 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA-CA15.3 association showed higher sensitivity but lower specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value than the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Conclusion At both the evaluated cut-off values serum MCA sensitivity is higher than that of CEA, TPA or CA15.3 but its specificity is similar to or lower than that of TPA. Overall, CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel is more accurate than MCA-CA15.3 association and can "early" detect a few relapsed patients with limited metastatic disease and more favourable prognosis. These findings further support the need for prospective randomised clinical trial to assess whether an intensive post-operative follow-up with an appropriate use of serum tumour markers can significantly improve clinical outcome of early detected relapsing patients.

Anselmi Loretta

2006-11-01

108

IMPROVING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS BY FLOW CONTROL ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using agile methods during the implementation of the system that meets mission critical requirements can be a real challenge. The change in the system built of dozens or even hundreds of specialized devices with embedded software requires the cooperation of a large group of engineers. This article presents a solution that supports parallel work of groups of system analysts and software developers. Deployment of formal rules to the requirements written in natural language enables using formal analysis of artifacts being a bridge between software and system requirements. Formalism and textual form of requirements allowed the automatic generation of message ?ow graph for the (sub system, called the “big-picture-model”. Flow diagram analysis helped to avoid a large number of defects whose repair cost in extreme cases could undermine the legitimacy of agile methods in projects of this scale. Retrospectively, a reduction of technical debt was observed. Continuous analysis of the “big picture model” improves the control of the quality parameters of the software architecture. The article also tries to explain why the commercial platform based on UML modeling language may not be su?cient in projects of this complexity.

Piotr Poznanski

2012-01-01

109

Efficacy Assessment of Endovascular Stenting in Patients with Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Using Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping Analysis of Basal/Acetazolamide Brain Perfusion SPECT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic changes after endovascular stenting in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis using statistical probabilistic anatomical mapping (SPAM) analysis of basal/acetazolamide (ACZ) Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Eight patients (3 men and 5 women, 64.8{+-}10.5 years) who underwent endovascular stenting for unilateral MCA stenosis were enrolled. Basal/ACZ Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT studies were performed by one-day protocol before and after stenting. Using SPAM analysis, we compared basal cerebral perfusion (BCP) counts and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) index of the MCA territory before stenting with those after stenting. After stenting, no patient had any complication nor additional stroke. In SPAM analysis, 7 out of the 8 patients had improved BCP counts of the MCA territory and 7 out of the 8 patients had improved CVR index of the MCA territory after stenting. Before stenting, the mean BCP counts and CVR index in the affected MCA territory were 47.1{+-}2.2 ml/min/100 g and -2.1{+-}2.9%, respectively. After stenting, the mean BCP counts and CVR index in the affected MCA territory were improved significantly (48.3{+-}2.9 ml/min/100 g, p=0.025 and 0.1{+-}1.3%, p=0.036). This study revealed that SPAM analysis of basal/ACZ brain perfusion SPECT would be helpful to evaluate hemodynamic efficacy of endovascular stenting in unilateral MCA stenosis.

Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil; Lee, Chang Young [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-15

110

Efficacy Assessment of Endovascular Stenting in Patients with Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Using Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping Analysis of Basal/Acetazolamide Brain Perfusion SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic changes after endovascular stenting in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis using statistical probabilistic anatomical mapping (SPAM) analysis of basal/acetazolamide (ACZ) Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Eight patients (3 men and 5 women, 64.8±10.5 years) who underwent endovascular stenting for unilateral MCA stenosis were enrolled. Basal/ACZ Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT studies were performed by one-day protocol before and after stenting. Using SPAM analysis, we compared basal cerebral perfusion (BCP) counts and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) index of the MCA territory before stenting with those after stenting. After stenting, no patient had any complication nor additional stroke. In SPAM analysis, 7 out of the 8 patients had improved BCP counts of the MCA territory and 7 out of the 8 patients had improved CVR index of the MCA territory after stenting. Before stenting, the mean BCP counts and CVR index in the affected MCA territory were 47.1±2.2 ml/min/100 g and -2.1±2.9%, respectively. After stenting, the mean BCP counts and CVR index in the affected MCA territory were improved significantly (48.3±2.9 ml/min/100 g, p=0.025 and 0.1±1.3%, p=0.036). This study revealed that SPAM analysis of basal/ACZ brain perfusion SPECT would be helpful to evaluate hemodynamic efficacy of endovascular stenting in unilateral MCA stenosis

2009-08-01

111

[Detection of epileptic spike wave in EEG signals based on morphological component analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposed a morphological component analysis (MCA) method, which is based on sparse representation, to detect the spike wave in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It takes the advantage of MCA being able to extract the background waves and the spike waves from the EEG signals, respectively,as the dictionaries and chooses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the daubechies order 4 wavelet (db4) transformation as the dictionaries of MCA to detect the spike waves from the epileptic EEG. The experiment results showed that the MCA could detect epileptic spike waves in EEG signals very effectively, and it yielded high selectivity of 89.01% and sensitivity of 90.71%. As a feature extraction/decomposition algorithm, MCA can be used to extract the spike waves from EEG signals. PMID:24059041

Ma, Donghua; Zheng, Xuyuan; Wang, Zhen

2013-08-01

112

Design and Simulation of Seido Buffer for Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) on Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) Application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of our electronic equipment has buffer, thus this make buffer as one of importance in electronic gadget. This paper introduced Single Ended Input Differential Output (SEIDO) buffer to predict the bias at approximately 2.5 V. For this purpose, the input range between -1 mV to 4 V was implemented. The software used to cascade SEIDO buffer is called LTspice IV; an open source software developed by Linear Technology Incorporation. The component involve in this development was Operational Amplifier (OP AMP) AD826 from Analog Devices Incorporation, capacitor and resistor. Kirchhoffs Current Law and Kirchhoffs Voltage Law was applied to calculated voltage gain and biasing voltage. All design has been verified by LTspice IV. The result produced from simulation was between -0.3 V to 6.3 V with bias roughly at 2.5 V. These results prove that it was capable to drive Analog Digital Converter (ADC) that can subsequently apply for Multichannel Analyzer (MCA). (author)

2011-09-13

113

Spatial distribution of perfusion abnormality in acute MCA occlusion is associated with likelihood of later recanalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to investigate whether different spatial perfusion-deficit patterns, which indicate differing compensatory mechanisms, can be recognized and used to predict recanalization success of intravenous fibrinolytic therapy in acute stroke patients. Twenty-seven acute stroke data sets acquired within 6?hours from symptom onset including diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (PWI) were analyzed and dichotomized regarding recanalization outcome using time-of-flight follow-up data sets. The DWI data sets were used for calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and subsequent infarct core segmentation. A patient-individual three-dimensional (3D) shell model was generated based on the segmentation and used for spatial analysis of the ADC as well as cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow, time to peak (TTP), and mean transit time (MTT) parameters derived from PWI. Skewness, kurtosis, area under the curve, and slope were calculated for each parameter curve and used for classification (recanalized/nonrecanalized) using a LogitBoost Alternating Decision Tree (LAD Tree). The LAD tree optimization revealed that only ADC skewness, CBV kurtosis, and MTT kurtosis are required for best possible prediction of recanalization success with a precision of 85%. Our results suggest that the propensity for macrovascular recanalization after intravenous fibrinolytic therapy depends not only on clot properties but also on distal microvascular bed perfusion. The 3D approach for characterization of perfusion parameters seems promising for further research. PMID:24473482

Siemonsen, Susanne; Forkert, Nils Daniel; Hansen, Anne; Kemmling, Andre; Thomalla, Götz; Fiehler, Jens

2014-05-01

114

Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eu2+ doped silicate glasses were prepared of the system 52SiO2-48MO: xEu2+(in molar ratio, M=Ca, Sr, Ba; x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9) by a high temperature melt-quenching method in a reducing atmosphere. Glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-phosphors were obtained after the heat treatment of the glass samples. The excitation, emission spectra and lifetime decay curves of 4f65d1?4f7 of Eu2+ were measured and interpreted with respect to their crystal structures and multi-site occupations of divalent europium in the hosts. Their excitation bands mainly extend from 450 to 250 nm, which is adaptable to the main emission region of the UV LED chip. With UV light excitation, the Eu2+ emission in CaSiO3, SrSiO3 and BaSiO3 shows blue, green and yellow colors centered at 440, 505 and 555 nm, respectively. The critical Eu2+concentration was studied and determined to be x=5 for both CaSiO3 and SrSiO3 and x=7 for BaSiO3 phosphors. The results show that the Eu2+ doped glass ceramic phosphors containing MSiO3 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-crystals can be used as potential matrix materials for a high power white LED pumped by the UV LED chip. - Highlights: ? Glass ceramic containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors prepared. ? Derived phosphors emit intensively blue, green and yellow colors. ? Their luminescence properties and crystal structures have been investigated. ? Concentration quenching effects observed and analyzed. ? Potential application for UV chip exciting white LED evaluated.

2012-01-01

115

Economic analysis in randomized control trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In medical technology assessment, randomized control trials (RCTs) play an important role in determining the relative efficacy of compared treatments. As scarce resources necessitate choosing among options for care, comparing costs of alternative tests, treatments, or programs also becomes important. This study assessed the prevalence and completeness of economic analyses in RCTs published from January 1966 through June 1988. It was found that only 121 of over 50,000 published randomized trials (0.2%) included economic analyses. For a random sample of 51 of these 121 studies, results revealed a mean quality of research score of 0.32 (SD of measurement = 0.14) and a mean economic analysis completeness score of 0.52 (SD = 0.13) on scales of 0 to 1. It was also found that higher economic completeness scores were positively correlated with later dates of publication (r = 0.28, P = 0.046) and with the presence of a statement of study perspective (r = 0.38, P = 0.006). A near-zero correlation between the economic completeness and the quality of research scores was revealed. Also noted were several deficiencies among the economic analyses, including improper allocation of overhead costs, absence of sensitivity analyses, and the fact that only 28% of the 51 studies included some form of aggregation of treatment costs and consequences. Progress in health care depends on accurate assessments of both relative efficacy and costs. The quality of both needs improvement. PMID:1538611

Adams, M E; McCall, N T; Gray, D T; Orza, M J; Chalmers, T C

1992-03-01

116

Luminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+} in MWO{sub 4} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) matrix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Eu{sup 3+} doped MWO{sub 4} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors were synthesized via high temperature solid state reaction. The crystal phases of these phosphors were identified by X-ray diffraction. Shifts of the peaks in the structure were observed when Ca{sup 2+} sites in the host were completely occupied by the Sr{sup 2+} ions or Ba{sup 2+} ions. As a result of this replacement, the charge-transfer (CT) band exhibited a blue shift from CaWO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} to SrWO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} and BaWO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+}. This blue shift could be interpreted with the decreases of the bond covalence between the ligands (L) and the central ion (M) in matrix. In this work, red afterglow originated from the {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=0,1,2,3,4) transitions of Eu{sup 3+} could clearly be observed after samples were excited at 254 nm. The thermoluminescence (TL) spectra showed that there were five traps levels in CaWO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} sample and two traps levels in CaWO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} and CaWO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} samples, respectively. The possible explanation of this afterglow phenomenon was also discussed in detail. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The red afterglow of Eu{sup 3+} in MWO{sub 4} (M=Sr, Ba) matrix is first observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The blue shift of the charge-transfer band appears and its proposed explanation is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The feasible mechanism of the afterglow is presented.

Kang, Feng-wen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yi-hua, E-mail: huyh@gdut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Li; Wang, Xiao-juan; Wu, Hao-yi; Mu, Zhong-fei [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

2013-03-15

117

Analysis and control of nonlinear systems  

CERN Multimedia

A work on a hot topic in the field of control of nonlinear systems that ranges from mathematical system theory to practical industrial control applications. It addresses two fundamental questions in Systems and Control: how to plan the motion of a system and track the corresponding trajectory in presence of perturbations.

Levine, Jean

2009-01-01

118

Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

2008-01-01

119

Technical specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges and vacuum tubes for the magnets MCA/MCB in the experimental areas of the 450 GeV proton synchrotron  

CERN Document Server

Technical specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges and vacuum tubes for the magnets MCA/MCB in the experimental areas of the 450 GeV proton synchrotron

CERN. Geneva

1988-01-01

120

Risk Analysis of Safety-Critical Control Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with problems associated with risks analysis of a safety-critical control system. In the paper there are introduced recommendations enabling practical enforceability of risk analysis by the assurance of sufficient objectivity level. In the initial phases of the system lifecycle risk analysis serves for a tolerable hazard rate definition for individual safety relevant functions. In the end of the control system development process the risk analysis...

Karol Rastocny

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Techniques of quantitative reliability analysis for control rod drive systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliability analysis is a method by which the degree of successful performance of a system, under certain stipulated conditions, may be expressed in quantitative terms. Techniques of quantitative reliability analysis for control rod drive systems, which are presented, consist in: drawing up of system block diagrams as basis for the reliability analysis for normal and scram operation; estimation of possible fault rates (''mean rates'') of system components; reliability analysis of the complete control systems (total number of control rod drive mechanisms) on the basis of the analysis of the indjvidual rod drives. (author)

1980-01-01

122

Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation can now be analytically studied, and specialized optimization in the upper level control can also be made accordingly. Case studies on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation are carried out using proposed power flow analysis.

Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay

2014-01-01

123

Post-Operative Follow-up of Breast Cancer Patients Using Serum Tumor Markers: CEA and CA15.3 vs MCA in the Early Detection of Distant Metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In breast cancer current guidelines do not recommended the routine use of serum tumor markers. Differently, we observed that CEA, CA 15.3 panel permits early detection for most relapsing patients. As high sensitivity and specificity and different cut-off values have been reported for Mucin-like Carcinoma associated Antigen (MCA, we compared MCA with the above mentioned tumor markers. In 150 breast cancer patients submitted to post-operative follow-up with tumor markers, we compared MCA (cut-off values, = 11 and = 15 U mL -1 with CEA and CA15.3 for detection of relapse. Distant metastases occurred in 12 (8% of the 150 patients who were disease-free at the beginning of the study. MCA sensitivity with both cut-off values was higher than that of CEA or CA15.3 (65 vs 12%, 33% and (55 vs 17%, 31% , respectively. With cut-off = 11 U mL -1, MCA showed the lowest specificity (32%. With out-off =15 U mL -1, MCA specificity was lower than that of CEA and CA 15.3 (71 vs 95 and 96%, respectively. At both the evaluated cut-off values serum MCA sensitivity is higher than that of CEA or CA15.3 but its specificity is lower than them. These findings further support the need for prospective randomized clinical trial to assess whether post-operative follow-up with an appropriate use of serum tumor markers such as MCA can significantly improve clinical outcome of early detected relapsing patients.

2008-01-01

124

Microcomputer-multichannel analyzer data system for foreground-background data collection and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microcomputer-multichannel analyzer (MCA) system was assembled to obtain foreground-background performance in data collection and analysis for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCA performs pulse counting analysis, while the microcomputer is free to evaluate previously down-loaded data or perform other computing functions. No special interfacing hardware is required beyond single digital to analog (D/A), and analog to digital (A/D) converters. Analysis and computing time is optimized with a minimum interfacing expense.

Beard, B.C.; Dahlgren, D.; Ross P.N. Jr.

1985-09-01

125

Microcomputer-multichannel analyzer data system for foreground-background data collection and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microcomputer-multichannel analyzer (MCA) system was assembled to obtain foreground-background performance in data collection and analysis for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCA performs pulse counting analysis, while the microcomputer is free to evaluate previously down-loaded data or perform other computing functions. No special interfacing hardware is required beyond single digital to analog (D/A), and analog to digital (A/D) converters. Analysis and computing time is optimized with a minimum interfacing expense

1985-01-01

126

Integration of Design and Control Through Model Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A systematic analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. It is shown that the same set of process (control) variables and design (manipulative) variables is employed with different objectives in design and control. Analysis of the phenomena models representing the process model identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control issues. The model analysis is highlighted through examples involving processes with mass and/or energy recycle. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter

2000-01-01

127

Molten carbonate fuel cells. Modeling, analysis, simulation, and control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents model-based concepts for process analysis and control on a generalized basis. It is structured as follows: Part I - DESIGN AND OPERATION: MTU's Carbonate Fuel Cell HotModule; Operational Experiences. Part II - MODEL-BASED PROCESS ANALYSIS: MCFC Reference Model; Index Analysis of Models; Parameter Identification; Steady State Process Analysis; Hot spot formation and steady state multiplicities; Conceptual design an Reforming concepts. Part III - OPTIMIZATION AND ADVANCED CONTROL: Model reduction and State estimation; Optimal Control Strategies; Optimization of Reforming Catalyst Distribution.

Sundmacher, K.; Kienle, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Dynamik Komplexer Technischer Systeme, Magdeburg (Germany); Pesch, H.J. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurmathematik; Berndt, J.F. [IPF Beteiligungsgesellschaft Berndt KG, Reilingen (Germany); Huppmann, G. (eds.) [MTU CFC Solutions GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

2007-07-01

128

Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented.

Zardecki, A.

1994-08-01

129

Adaptive Control Algorithms, Analysis and Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adaptive Control (second edition) shows how a desired level of system performance can be maintained automatically and in real time, even when process or disturbance parameters are unknown and variable. It is a coherent exposition of the many aspects of this field, setting out the problems to be addressed and moving on to solutions, their practical significance and their application. Discrete-time aspects of adaptive control are emphasized to reflect the importance of digital computers in the ...

Landau, Ioan; Lozano, Rogelio; M Saad, Mohammed; Karimi, Alireza

2011-01-01

130

Multichannel spectrum analysis for a gamma-ray imaging camera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy's robotics for nuclear reactors programs include the development of a gamma-ray imaging camera to locate and identify radiation fields typical of commercial reactor environments. The raster scanning camera is a lead-shielded bismuth germanate scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube operated in pulse mode. The camera is mounted on a rotating, tilting platform to allow two-dimensional scanning and requires a movable shutter to subtract background radiation. While previous work produced monochromatic images, this paper discusses colored images now available through a multichannel spectrum analysis at each pixel location, and typical images are shown. Scanning operation is controlled by a personal computer-based system with an independent multichannel analyzer (MCA) board that allows for near-real-time spectrum analysis of a pixel position while the following position is being measured. The controlling routine operates the camera tilt, rotation, and shutter movement; acquires data from the MCA; and calls the peak search analysis routine

1991-06-02

131

Multichannel spectrum analysis for a gamma-ray imaging camera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy's robotics for nuclear reactors programs include the development of a gamma-ray imaging camera to locate and identify radiation fields typical of commercial reactor environments. The raster scanning camera is a lead-shielded bismuth germanate scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube operated in pulse mode. The camera is mounted on a rotating, tilting platform to allow two-dimensional scanning and requires a movable shutter to subtract background radiation. While previous work produced monochromatic images, this paper discusses colored images now available through a multichannel spectrum analysis at each pixel location, and typical images are shown. Scanning operation is controlled by a personal computer-based system with an independent multichannel analyzer (MCA) board that allows for near-real-time spectrum analysis of a pixel position while the following position is being measured. The controlling routine operates the camera tilt, rotation, and shutter movement; acquires data from the MCA; and calls the peak search analysis routine.

Dolin, D.L.; DeVol, T.A.; Wehe, D.K. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1991-01-01

132

Nonlinear Robustness Analysis Tools for Flight Control Law Validation & Verification  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of control in flight is among the highest aviation accident categories for both the number of accidents and the number of fatalities. The flight controls community is seeking an improved validation tools for safety critical flight control systems. Current validation tools rely heavily on linear analysis, which ignore the inherent nonlinear nature of the aircraft dynamics and flight control system. Specifically, current practices in validating the flight control system involve gridding the flight envelope and checking various criteria based on linear analysis to ensure safety of the flight control system. The analysis and certification methods currently applied assume the aircrafts' dynamics is linear. In reality, the behavior of the aircraft is always nonlinear due to its aerodynamic characteristics and physical limitations imposed by the actuators. This thesis develops nonlinear analysis tools capable of certifying flight control laws for nonlinear aircraft dynamics. The proposed analysis tools can handle both the aerodynamic nonlinearities and the physical limitations imposed by the actuators in the aircrafts' dynamics. This proposed validation technique will extend and enrich the predictive capability of existing flight control law validation methods to analyze nonlinearities. The objective of this thesis is to provide the flight control community with an advanced set of analysis tools to reduce aviation fatalities and accidents rate.

Chakraborty, Abhijit

133

Analysis and Control of the Pan System via Sliding Mode Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain new results for the analysis and control of the Pan system (2010 using sliding mode control (SMC. The stability results derived in this paper for the control of the Pan system to stabilize about its unstable equilibrium at the origin have been derived using sliding mode control and Lyapunovstability theory. Numerical simulations are depicted to demonstrate the control results derived in this paper.

Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

2012-09-01

134

Risk Analysis of Safety-Critical Control Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with problems associated with risks analysis of a safety-critical control system. In the paper there are introduced recommendations enabling practical enforceability of risk analysis by the assurance of sufficient objectivity level. In the initial phases of the system lifecycle risk analysis serves for a tolerable hazard rate definition for individual safety relevant functions. In the end of the control system development process the risk analysis (an analysis of failures consequences on system safety serves for the verification of system safety attributes.

Karol Rastocny

2008-01-01

135

INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by public entities. Internal Audit, along its evolution - characterized by complex dynamics and adaptability - created confusion regarding the concept of control. The research presented in this paper is based on works published to date regarding the conceptual boundaries of this notion.

MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU

2010-01-01

136

Stability Analysis for Car Following Model Based on Control Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Stability analysis is one of the key issues in car-following theory. The stability analysis with Lyapunov function for the two velocity difference car-following model (for short, TVDM) is conducted and the control method to suppress traffic congestion is introduced. Numerical simulations are given and results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

Meng, Xiang-Pei; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ge, Hong-Xia

2014-05-01

137

Analysis of Reconfigured Control Loop with a Virtual Actuator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control reconfiguration changes the control structure in response to a fault detected in the plant. This becomes necessary, because a major fault like loss of an actuator breaks the corresponding control loop and therefore renders the whole system inoperable.  An important aim of control reconfiguration is to change the control structure as little as possible, since every change bears the potential of practical problems. The proposed solution is to keep the original controller in the loop and to add an extension called virtual actuator that implements the necessary changes of the control structure. The virtual actuator translates between the signals of the nominal controller and the signal of the faulty plants. This paper is concerned with the analysis of reconfigured loop with a virtual actuator for the system with the faulty actuator. The proposed analysis is illustrated on numerical example.

Daniel Gontkovic

2011-01-01

138

Effect of the A-site cation on methane oxidation of perovskite-type (La1?xMx)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perovskite-type (La1?xMx)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) synthesized at 700 °C in air using the polymerizable complex method had a rhombohedral perovskite-type structure in the range of x?0.06. The oxygen content of the samples was 2.98–2.99, and the specific surface area was 3.5–8.3 m2/g regardless of the M ion or x. The Rietveld method indicated that the Co–O distance was also constant regardless of the M ion or x, and that the Co–O–Co angle between two CoO6 octahedra increased with an increase in the ionic radius of the M ion. The temperature corresponding to the 50% conversion (T1/2) of CH4 oxidation was almost constant for the samples with x=0.04, while the T1/2 of the samples with x=0.06 was linearly lowered with increases in the ionic radius of the M ion. - Graphical abstract: The conversion from CH4 to CO2 and H2O on (La0.94M0.06)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba). Highlights: ? (La1?xMx)CoO3 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) was synthesized using the polymerizable complex method. ? The Co–O distance was constant regardless of the M ion or x. ? The Co–O–Co angle increased with an increase in the ionic radius of the M ion. ? CH4 oxidation started above 300 °C and finished at 700 °C. ? The catalytic activity increased with increases in the ionic radius of the M ion.

2012-06-01

139

Stationary frame active power filter control based on multiresolution analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents an active power filter control method. The reference signal is generated in the stationary reference frame a-ß using multiresolution analysis and the controllers used are P-resonant controllers, suitable for this particular application due to the fact that the steady-state error is zero for sinusoidal references with the frequency corresponding to the resonant frequency of the controller.

Teodor DUMITRIU

2006-12-01

140

Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a model?based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “working memory” [1]. In order to investigate how mental workload in working memory influences standing posture control, we consider the feedback groups in the standing posture control mechanism w...

Seiji Naito; Youngwoo Kim; Goro Obinata

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Integration of Design and Control through Model Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A systematic computer aided analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. The process model equations are classified in terms of balance equations, constitutive equations and conditional equations. Analysis of the phenomena models representing the constitutive equations identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control. Furthermore, the analysis is able to identify a set of process (control) variables and design (manipulative) variables that may be employed with different objectives in design and control for the integrated problem. The computer aided model analysis is highlighted through illustrative examples, involving processes with mass and/or energy recycle, where the important design and control (structure selection) issues for the integrated problems are considered. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter

2002-01-01

142

Emissions reduction through analysis, modelling and control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of ERAMAC were to: - develop methods for the characterisation of organic emissions from coke-making and EAF steelmaking processes; - characterise air quality in the vicinity of steelworks; - identify priorities for emission control; - develop predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) for CO, NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions in coke making, of pollutant emissions in EAF steelmaking and for improved control of reheating furnaces; - investigate the use of an Amazone contactor for removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx in sintering emissions. The methods developed and applied to characterise organic emissions from coke plants revealed that fugitive emissions from coke oven doors and from by-products plant storage tanks were the main priorities for improved control measures. For ambient air monitoring, an Opsis differential optical absorption spectrometry system was used to carry out real-time measurements of benzene, toluene and xylene for reverse dispersion modelling estimates of releases. Predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) were developed for the measurement of CO, NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions in coke making and for predicting organic emissions from EAF steelmaking. Although PEMS were shown to be potentially useful for improving the control of reheating furnaces, implementation requires individual control of air/fuel flows to burners. The Amazone contactor was inadequate for the desulphurisation of sinter waste gas owing to massive evaporation losses of glycerol and the consequent fire risk. However, partial waste gas denitrification was feasible at low temperatures with ozone as an oxidant and aqueous sodium hydroxide as an absorbent. Strong recommendations are made for further work to implement and enhance techniques developed in ERAMAC. 75 refs., 180 figs., 116 tabs., 2 apps.

Anderson, D.R.; Aries, E.; Saiepour, M. [Corus - Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

143

Quality control guidance for sampling and analysis of air toxics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All environmental measurements require quality control to support the usability of analytical results, which is why effective and comprehensive quality control procedures are critical in performing accurate air toxics measurements. Lack of quality control can add significant error to environmental measurements. The US EPA has estimated that 95 percent of the total error in environmental measurements is due to sample collection and handling (85 percent from sample collection and 10 percent from subsampling in the laboratory) and that 5 percent is due to the laboratory analysis. Effective quality control measures help reduce analytical errors and produce meaningful analytical results. This paper provides quality control guidance for performing accurate air toxics measurements of ambient air and source emissions samples for volatile organic chemicals, including equipment handling, field sampling and laboratory analysis. The recommended frequency for quality control procedures as well as acceptance criteria are discussed. Quality control guidance for equipment handling includes checks on flow controllers, vacuum gauges, pressure gauges, manometers and canisters. Quality control guidance for field sampling covers sampling equipment checks, sample handling and quality control. Quality control guidance for laboratory analysis include certified standards, instrument calibration, laboratory control samples, blanks, duplicates, internal standards and surrogate standards. Also addressed are guidelines for field and laboratory documentation. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Farrell, P.; Rosecrance, A.; Naran, R. [Core Laboratories, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

144

Team One (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. Progress report for the two quarters ending March 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report covers progress by Team One of the DOE/OFE/D and T 12 Tesla Coil Development Program during the first and second quarters of fiscal 1981. General Atomic Company is the Team One leader, with Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) as industrial subcontractor. The basic mission of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and establish an engineering data base for utilizing bath cooled NbTi alloy to generate a peak toroidal field of 12 tesla in a tokamak reactor

1981-01-01

145

Team One (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. Progress report, April 1-September 30, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report covers progress by Team One of the DOE/OFE/D and T 12 Tesla Coil Development Program during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal 1981. General Atomic Company is the Team One leader, with Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) as industrial subcontractor. The basic mission of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and establish an engineering data base for utilizing bath-cooled NbTi alloy to generate a peak toroidal field of 12 tesla in a tokamak reactor

1981-01-01

146

Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eu{sup 2+} doped silicate glasses were prepared of the system 52SiO{sub 2}-48MO: xEu{sup 2+}(in molar ratio, M=Ca, Sr, Ba; x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9) by a high temperature melt-quenching method in a reducing atmosphere. Glass ceramics containing MSiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 2+}(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-phosphors were obtained after the heat treatment of the glass samples. The excitation, emission spectra and lifetime decay curves of 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1}{yields}4f{sup 7} of Eu{sup 2+} were measured and interpreted with respect to their crystal structures and multi-site occupations of divalent europium in the hosts. Their excitation bands mainly extend from 450 to 250 nm, which is adaptable to the main emission region of the UV LED chip. With UV light excitation, the Eu{sup 2+} emission in CaSiO{sub 3}, SrSiO{sub 3} and BaSiO{sub 3} shows blue, green and yellow colors centered at 440, 505 and 555 nm, respectively. The critical Eu{sup 2+}concentration was studied and determined to be x=5 for both CaSiO{sub 3} and SrSiO{sub 3} and x=7 for BaSiO{sub 3} phosphors. The results show that the Eu{sup 2+} doped glass ceramic phosphors containing MSiO{sub 3} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano-crystals can be used as potential matrix materials for a high power white LED pumped by the UV LED chip. - Highlights: > Glass ceramic containing MSiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors prepared. > Derived phosphors emit intensively blue, green and yellow colors. > Their luminescence properties and crystal structures have been investigated. > Concentration quenching effects observed and analyzed. > Potential application for UV chip exciting white LED evaluated.

Cui Zhiguang; Jia Guohua; Deng Degang; Hua Youjie; Zhao Shilong; Huang Lihui; Wang Huanping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ma Hongping [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Xu Shiqing, E-mail: sxucjlu@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

2012-01-15

147

Time Series Analysis Forecasting and Control  

CERN Document Server

A modernized new edition of one of the most trusted books on time series analysis. Since publication of the first edition in 1970, Time Series Analysis has served as one of the most influential and prominent works on the subject. This new edition maintains its balanced presentation of the tools for modeling and analyzing time series and also introduces the latest developments that have occurred n the field over the past decade through applications from areas such as business, finance, and engineering. The Fourth Edition provides a clearly written exploration of the key methods for building, cl

Box, George E P; Reinsel, Gregory C

2011-01-01

148

Information Control Analysis of Business Group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implementation of modern enterprise strategy needs the support of information system and networked information technology. This study confirms the importance of business group information construction by the analysis of information technology dynamics and the result of information technology development effected industry. Besides, it discussed the common features of Executive Information Systems (EIS and the balanced scorecard application in the exploitation of Executive Information Systems. What’s more, this study probe further into the demand and analysis tools of business group information system and put forward the key issues to structure the group integrated information system.

Wang Wen-Sheng

2013-01-01

149

Robot Manipulators: Modeling, Performance Analysis and Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book presents the most recent research results about the modeling and control of robot manipulators. - Chapter 1 gives unified tools to derive direct and inverse geometric, kinematic and dynamic models of serial robots and addresses the issue of identification of the geometric and dynamic parameters of these models. - Chapter 2 describes the main features of parallel robots, the different architectures and the methods used to obtain direct and inverse geometric, kinematic and dynamic mod...

Dombre, Etienne; Khalil, Wisama

2007-01-01

150

Dynamic analysis for robot arm control  

Science.gov (United States)

Explicit state equations provide detailed analytic insight into the dynamic behavior of a robot arm and facilitate the understanding of the control problem. The analytic strength of explicit state equations is exemplified for a given robot arm. In fact, for the quoted example, the explicit and exact state equations involve considerably less computation than the use of the known most efficient general-purpose computational algorithm for robot arm dynamics.

Bejczy, A. K.

1983-01-01

151

The sensitivity analysis of error-driven PI control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various robust and adaptive control algorithms have been identified as candidates for electric-powered vehicle propulsion applications. However, conventional adaptive controls are difficult to implement in actual systems in real time. Fuzzy logic control may provide the solution, but knowledge is incomplete with regard to fuzzy logic system stability analysis and design. Error-driven proportional and integral (PI) control is proposed as a means to developing advance controllers. Computer simulation showed this system to be less sensitive to system parameter variations than conventional PI control. This paper extends the work done previously and presents the theoretical foundations and some practical results of the sensitivity analysis of the error-driven PI control method. Simulation study and laboratory test results were found to correlate well with theoretical expectations. 7 refs., 10 figs.

Huang, H.; Chang, L. [New Brunswick Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

1998-10-01

152

Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems  

CERN Multimedia

Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

2012-01-01

153

STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available      The performance of pressure control system and stability analysis was studied for different types of controllers. A theoretical model for closed-loop system is developed and dynamic behavior of the control system was studied by introducing a step change in the pressure of the inlet stream. The results show that the theoretical response is faster than the experimental response due to the lags of the control valve and measuring elements. The pressure control system is stable for all conditions and for different control action because the real parts of roots of characteristics equation are negative but the response at PID controller is oscillatory stable. when PID controller used the response is improve due to eliminate the offset and stabilizing effect of derivative allow the proportional gain to be increased and increasing the speed of response compared to proportional and proportional-integral controllers.  

Duraid F. Ahmed

2013-05-01

154

Causal analysis of case-control data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In a series of papers, Robins and colleagues describe inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) estimation in marginal structural models (MSMs), a method of causal analysis of longitudinal data based on counterfactual principles. This family of statistical techniques is similar in concept to weighting of survey data, except that the weights are estimated using study data rather than defined so as to reflect sampling design and post-stratification to an external popul...

Newman Stephen C

2006-01-01

155

Neutronics analysis of Browns Ferry 3 partial control rod insertion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article summarizes results of a reactor neutronic analysis of the incomplete control rod insertion at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3. The analysis focuses primarily on the power distribution in the core and on reactor criticality following failure of some control rods to insert fully after the first scram actuation. The analysis of the incident is based on the established sequence of events, the plant data, and the interpretation of instrumentation responses. The analysis also addresses the effects of initial core-power level on this transient

1982-01-01

156

Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategies for an Inverted pendulum system model are presented for stabilized controlling such as Proportional-Integral-Derivatives (PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC Controllers. Matlab Simulation has been performed on Simulink platform shows that both controllers successfully controls Multi-output Inverted pendulum system. However PID is more efficient and has a better time response characteristics than FLC control strategy.

Aleem Ahmed Khan

2012-10-01

157

Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brushless DC motors (BLDC find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease of implementation, these controllers pose difficulties where there are some control complexity such as nonlinearity, load disturbances and parametric variations. Moreover PI controllers require precise linear mathematical models. In this paper, the analysis and mathematical modeling of BLDC motor is implemented. Also, speed control of three phase BLDC motor drive using power electronic device is projected by using matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows the improved performance of developed Brushless DC motor drive.

Mr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

2013-09-01

158

Impact of Sheep EID on Disease Control: Additional Analysis  

Defra commissioned Risk Solutions to carry out an analysis of the impact that \\various movement control .... In order to inform policy making, it wishes to \\understand better what benefits such systems ..... band/regional movement matrix \\and the.

159

Applications of functional analysis to optimal control problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some basic concepts in functional analysis, a general norm, the Hoelder inequality, functionals and the Hahn-Banach theorem are described; a mathematical formulation of two optimal control problems is introduced by the method of functional analysis. The problem of time-optimal control systems with both norm constraints on control inputs and on state variables at discrete intermediate times is formulated as an L-problem in the theory of moments. The simplex method is used for solving a non-linear minimizing problem inherent in the functional analysis solution to this problem. Numerical results are presented for a train operation. The second problem is that of optimal control of discrete linear systems with quadratic cost functionals. The problem is concerned with the case of unconstrained control and fixed endpoints. This problem is formulated in terms of norms of functionals on suitable Banach spaces. (author)

1974-09-11

160

COMQC, Quality Control Statistical Analysis for Means, Errors, Skewness, Kurtosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: COMQC is a quality control data analysis statistical program that calculates mean, standard deviation, range, skewness and kurtosis. Tolerance limits, confidence limits on the percent defective, and a one-way analysis of variance are also provided. 2 - Method of solution: The program consists of four subroutines which produce the following: histograms, control charts, group comparisons, and process capability study. Standard statistical methods and techniques are employed

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Error control variability in pathway-based microarray analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivation: The decision to commit some or many false positives in practice rests with the investigator. Unfortunately, not all error control procedures perform the same. Our problem is to choose an error control procedure to determine a P-value threshold for identifying differentially expressed pathways in high-throughput gene expression studies. Pathway analysis involves fewer tests than differential gene expression analysis, on the order of a few hundred. We discuss and compare methods for...

2009-01-01

162

Analysis and Design of PLL Motor Speed Control System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phase-locked technology in motor speed control system has a wide range of applications, Especially for high accuracy in the motor steady speed operation situation, more and more use of phase-locked servo control system. This paper describes the block diagram and mathematical model of phase-locked control system, Shows the circuit parameter calculation method This and combined with design example analysis of phase-locked control system, Indicated through the theory and practice, using PLL can obtain good speed control precision.

Qi Chao Zhang

2013-10-01

163

Discrete Mechanics and Optimal Control: an Analysis  

CERN Document Server

The optimal control of a mechanical system is of crucial importance in many realms. Typical examples are the determination of a time-minimal path in vehicle dynamics, a minimal energy trajectory in space mission design, or optimal motion sequences in robotics and biomechanics. In most cases, some sort of discretization of the original, infinite-dimensional optimization problem has to be performed in order to make the problem amenable to computations. The approach proposed in this paper is to directly discretize the variational description of the system's motion. The resulting optimization algorithm lets the discrete solution directly inherit characteristic structural properties from the continuous one like symmetries and integrals of the motion. We show that the DMOC approach is equivalent to a finite difference discretization of Hamilton's equations by a symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta scheme and employ this fact in order to give a proof of convergence. The numerical performance of DMOC and its relationsh...

Ober-Bloebaum, S; Marsden, J E

2008-01-01

164

Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

2009-01-01

165

Design and Analysis of a Flipping Controller for RHex.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the design and analysis of a controller that can achieve dynamical self-righting of our hexapedal robot, RHex. We present an empirically tuned controller that works reasonably well on indoor surfaces, using a hybrid energy pumping strategy to...

U. Saranli D. E. Koditschek

2003-01-01

166

Cognitive Task Analysis of Prioritization in Air Traffic Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cognitive task analysis was performed to analyze the key cognitive components of the en route air traffic controllers' jobs. The goals were to ascertain expert mental models and decision-making strategies and to identify important differences in controller knowledge, skills, and mental models as a function of expertise. Four groups of…

Redding, Richard E.; And Others

167

Resonance analysis in parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation inverters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thanks to the fast responses of the inner voltage and current control loops, the dynamic behaviors of parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverters not only relies on the stability of load sharing among them, but subjects to the interactions between the voltage control loops of the inverters and the remaining system dynamics. This paper addresses the later interactions and the consequent resonances through the frequency-domain analysis of the inverters output impedances an...

Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Weimin

2013-01-01

168

A performance requirements analysis of the SSC control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of analysis of the performance requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider Control System. We quantify the performance requirements of the system in terms of response time, throughput and reliability. We then examine the effect of distance and traffic patterns on control system performance and examine how these factors influence the implementation of the control network architecture and compare the proposed system against those criteria. (author)

1992-12-01

169

Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis for Herbal Medicines : A Quality Control Tool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality control of herbal medicines is a tedious and difficult job. Herbal medicines differ from that of the conventional drugs and so some innovative methods are coming into being for the sake of quality assessment of herbal drugs. Fingerprint analysis approach using chromatography has become the most potent tools for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication and quality control of herbal drugs.

2008-01-01

170

Control of precious-metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis is included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1983-07-01

171

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic ''how to'' approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1986-01-01

172

Using the Prony Analysis for Assessing Servo Drive Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Prony Analysis is already used in different fields of science and industries. The described new approach intends assessing the performance of Servo Drive Control. The basic approach is, that two important dynamic parameters of closed loop behavior, damping and frequency, are estimated by the Prony method. Hence analyzing a control loop in this way leads to a statement concerning the quality of control and allows comparing different parameter sets. The paper presents results achieved by us...

Reimund Neugebauer; Ruben Schönherr; Holger Schlegel

2011-01-01

173

Failure Mode Effects Analysis for an Accelerator Control System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) has been used in industry for design, manufacturing and assembly process quality control. It describes a formal approach for categorizing how a process may fail and for prioritizing failures based on their severity, frequency and likelihood of detection. Experience conducting a partial FMEA of an accelerator subsystem and its related control system will be reviewed. The applicability of the FMEA process to an operational accelerator control system will be discussed.

Hartman, Steven M [ORNL

2009-01-01

174

Analysis of supplementary controls in damping subsynchronous oscillations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis and damping of torsional oscillations through thyristor control reactor (TCR) is presented in this paper. The reactive power control is achieved through TCR at the machine terminals. Generator speed deviation signal is used as auxiliary signal and terminal voltage feed back signal as main control signal for TCR. The following control strategies for auxiliary control to TCR have been analyzed. Case 1: Analysis of basic system without damping controls. Case 2: Proportional control (P). Case 3: Proportional control with filter (P+filter). Case 4: Proportional plus derivative control with filter (P+D+filter). Case 5: Proportional plus integral plus derivative control with filter (P+I+D+filter). The main objective of this paper is to discuss the performance of different control strategies for damping torsional oscillations when a generator is connected to an infinite bus via double circuit 400kV transmission line, in which one circuit is series compensated. This configuration is similar to IEEE benchmark two model.

Balasubramanyam, P.V.; Murty, A.S.R.; Sarkar, B.N. [Central Power Research Inst., Bangalore (India). Central Research and Testing Lab.

1995-12-31

175

Contamination control - the analysis of things as they should be  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination can be controlled in chemical analyses by the use of suitable containers, cleanliness, appropriate apparatus design, isolation of the analysis process from air, and in-situ analysis. Examples based on analyses of organic reactor coolant, metals, and underground natural waters are given. (LL)

1979-06-01

176

Data Analysis and Decision Trees for Analysis and B2C Controls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study uses a two-step procedure for the evaluation of B2C controls, first, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model, second, decision trees. The results of the DEA model indicate that retail firms and information service providers implement B2C controls more effectively than financial firms do. Controls for system continuity are implemented more effectively than entry controls. In financial firms, controls for system continuity, communication controls and entry controls, in a dropping order, are effectively followed in B2C approaches. Every company can determine its relative level of reduction in each part of controls in order to make the control system effective. The firms that effectively implement B2C controls are determined using a decision tree model. The decision tree model issued to suggest the level of controls and argued rules for controls guidance. This state the possibility of using decision trees for controls evaluation in B2C approaches.

Mohammad Nazaripour

2012-09-01

177

Power system small signal stability analysis and control  

CERN Document Server

Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

2014-01-01

178

Schedulability analysis for systems with data and control dependencies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Is this paper we present an approach to schedulability analysis for hard real-time systems with control and data dependencies. We consider distributed architectures consisting of multiple programmable processors, and the scheduling policy is based on a static priority preemptive strategy! Our model of the system captures bath data and control dependencies, and the schedulability approach is able to reduce the pessimism of the analysis by using the knowledge about control ann data dependencies. Extensive experiments as well as a real life example demonstrate the efficiency of our approach.

Pop, Paul

2000-01-01

179

Analysis of design control values for TEP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) Performance Requirements Report (USITER-13201-TD0005-R00), date May 29, 2007 defined feed sources for TEP quantities and approximate flow rate of gases from these individual sources. In addition, the report identified the approximate periods of time (during Burn and Dwell, 'Silent Shift', etc.) that these gases would be transferred to TEP. This report did not take into account the detailed, time dependent, sequencing options for receiving gases from these feed sources. Sequencing is critical in defining the actual design basis values (flow rates, etc.) for TEP. This report analyzes the time dependent sequencing of feed flows to TEP and defines the ,design basis values. This analysis is based on the values presented in the TEP Performance Requirements Report (TEP PRR), and indicates that the ITER Burn and Dwell, Silent Shift Following 16 hours of Burn and Dwell, Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC), and Silent Shift following 100 hours of GDC scenarios are the limiting scenarios from which the design basis values will be defined.

Carlson, Bryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

180

Certification, accreditation, and quality control in behavior analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Implementing quality control measures in the discipline and professional practice of behavior analysis is a challenging, but nevertheless important, step in the evolution of our field. The Association for Behavior Analysis currently seeks to ensure quality in behavior analysis by sponsoring an accreditation program for graduate academic programs and by promoting certification of individual practitioners. The accreditation reviews are conducted by ABA, whereas certification status is awarded b...

Moore, J.; Shook, G. L.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-11

182

Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO2 cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO2 Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO2 pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO2 Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO2 heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO2 cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO2 loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO2 cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO2 Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO2 cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow the dynamic simulation of the ABTR. The code modifications have r

2011-01-01

183

Defect flow analysis of control-rod-drive operational events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A defect flow analysis of License Event Report data involving control-rod (CR) and control-rod-drive mechanism (CRDM) operational events was conducted to extract the lessons to be learned from the past experience of light water nuclear reactors operating in the United States. The results of the analysis are used to formulate characteristics of CR/CRDM defects. Among those formulated are (1) the leading direct causes of defects are inadequate design and inadequate operator training, (2) a relatively large number of defects are systematic, and (3) defects that result in system failure are rare. The analysis results indicate that most defects could easily have been prevented

1981-01-01

184

Resonance analysis in parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation inverters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thanks to the fast responses of the inner voltage and current control loops, the dynamic behaviors of parallel voltage-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverters not only relies on the stability of load sharing among them, but subjects to the interactions between the voltage control loops of the inverters and the remaining system dynamics. This paper addresses the later interactions and the consequent resonances through the frequency-domain analysis of the inverters output impedances and the remaining equivalent network impedance. Furthermore, impacts of the virtual output impedance loop and the voltage feedforward loop in the current controller are evaluated based on such an impedance interactions analysis. Simulation results are presented to confirm the validity of the theoretical analysis.

Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

2013-01-01

185

LOFT PSMG Speed Control System frequency response analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis was done to gain insight into the shape of the open loop frequency response of the PSMG Speed Control System. The results of the analysis were used as a guide to groom the proportional band and reset time settings of the 2 mode controller in the speed control system. The analysis shows that when an actuator with a timing of 90 degrees per 60 seconds is installed in the system the proportional band and reset time should be 316% and 1 minute. Whereas when grooming the system a proportional band and reset time of 150% and 1.5 minutes were found to be appropriate. The closeness of the settings show that even though a linear model was used to describe the non-linear PSMG Speed Control System, it was accurate enough to be used as a guide to groom the proportional band and reset time settings

1977-01-01

186

Analysis of water heater data from Athens load control experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes water heater load control experiments on the Athens Utilities Board distribution system in Athens, Tennessee. Data from experimental days are compared to data from days of normal operation to assess the effects of the control experiments. Plots are presented to describe water heater operation. Water heater models are used to estimate water usage. Results indicate that water heater control reduces energy demand but may have adverse effects on daily load patterns. Analysis also shows that the operation of load control receivers deteriorates as the time duration of the control period is increased. Methods used to improve data integrity are presented. The results are based on the filtered data set. The problems of identifying the associated time skew in the data and the timing-out of load control receivers are addressed. These results should be of interest to utilities performing similar load control management.

Reed, J.H.; Thompson, J.C.; Broadwater, R.P.; Chandrasekaran, A.

1989-04-01

187

Analysis of water heater data from Athens load control experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes water heater load control experiments on the Athens Utilities Board distribution system in Athens, Tennessee. Data from experimental days are compared to data from days of normal operation to assess the effects of the control experiments. Plots are presented to describe water heater operation. Water heater models are used to estimate water usage. Results indicate that water heater control reduces energy demand but may have adverse effects on daily load patterns. Analysis also shows that the operation of load control receivers deteriorates as the time duration of the control period is increased. Methods used to improve data integrity are presented. The results are based on the filtered data set. The problems of identifying the associated time skew in the data and the timing-out of load control receivers are addressed. These results should be of interest to utilities performing similar load control management. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reed, J.H.; Thompson, J.C.; Broadwater, R.P.; Chandrasekaran, A.

1988-01-01

188

Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating. (author)

Tian, Jian; Feng, Quanke; Zhu, Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-05-15

189

Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating.

Tian Jian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)], E-mail: tjian@mailst.xjtu.edu.cn; Feng Quanke; Zhu Ruiqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-05-15

190

Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

1999-10-26

191

Safety analysis in conceptual design of process control  

Science.gov (United States)

The conceptual design of process control systems, and the problem of safety requirements determination are investigated. Safety analysis methods of process design are applied. A two phase method Safe Control Requirements Analysis Method (SCRAM) was applied for analyzing the safety aspects of large processes within reasonable time. The first phase studies potential accidents on the basis of materials handled in the process circumstances. The second phase studies ways in which the process is led to unsafe states and how accidents may subsequently develop. The basic idea is to find the hazardous states of the process, the critical process parameters, and the accident chains. The desired operating conditions and parameters to be controlled are determined. The results show that the method identifies safety critical parameters and control actions and can be used for control system designers' purposes.

Toola, Arja

1992-10-01

192

Control of Spatially Heterogeneous and Time-Varying Cellular Reaction Networks A New Summation Law  

CERN Document Server

A hallmark of a plethora of intracellular signaling pathways is the spatial separation of activation and deactivation processes that potentially results in precipitous gradients of activated proteins. The classical Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA), which quantifies the influence of an individual process on a system variable as the control coefficient, cannot be applied to spatially separated protein networks. The present paper unravels the principles that govern the control over the fluxes and intermediate concentrations in spatially heterogeneous reaction networks. Our main results are two types of the control summation theorems. The first type is a non-trivial generalization of the classical theorems to systems with spatially and temporally varying concentrations. In this generalization, the process of diffusion, which enters as the result of spatial concentration gradients, plays a role similar to other processes such as chemical reactions and membrane transport. The second summation theorem is completely ...

Peletier, M A; Kholodenko, B N; Peletier, Mark A.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Kholodenko, Boris N.

2002-01-01

193

Nonlinear analysis and control of a continuous fermentation process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Different types of nonlinear controllers are designed and compared for a simple continuous bioreactor operating near optimal productivity. This operating point is located close to a fold bifurcation point. Nonlinear analysis of stability, controllability and zero dynamics is used to investigate open-loop system properties, to explore the possible control difficulties and to select the system output to be used in the control structure. A wide range of controllers are tested including pole placement and LQ controllers, feedback and inputâ??output linearization controllers and a nonlinear controller based on direct passivation. The comparison is based on time-domain performance and on investigating the stability region, robustness and tuning possibilities of the controllers. Controllers using partial state feedback of the substrate concentration and not directly depending on the reaction rate are recommended for the simple fermenter. Passivity based controllers have been found to be globally stable, not very sensitive to the uncertainties in the reaction rate and controller parameter but they require full nonlinear state feedback.

Szederkényi, G.; Kristensen, Niels Rode

2002-01-01

194

Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

Schoenwald, D.A.

1993-07-01

195

Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

1985-01-01

196

REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems

1999-01-01

197

REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems.

D.W. Markman

1999-09-17

198

Performance Analysis of PCFICH and PDCCH LTE Control Channels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control channels play a key role in the evaluation of mobile system performance. The purpose of our paper is to evaluate the performance of the control channels implementation in the Long Term Evolution (LTE system. The paper deals with the simulation of the complete signal processing chain for Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH and Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH in the LTE system, Release 8. We implemented a complete signal processing chain for downlink control channels as an extension of the existing MATLAB LTE downlink simulator. The paper presents results of PCFICH and PDCCH control channel computer performance analysis in various channel conditions. The results can be compared with the performance of data channels.

J. Milos

2014-04-01

199

Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of Fuzzy Control Systems. Mechatronics Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of fuzzy control systems is usually performed by heuristicmeans, incorporating human skills, the drawback being in the lack of general-purposedevelopment methods. A major problem, which follows from this development, is theanalysis of the structural properties of the control system, such as stability, controllabilityand robustness. Here comes the first goal of the paper, to present a stability analysismethod dedicated to fuzzy control systems with mechatronics applications based on the useof Popov’s hyperstability theory. The second goal of this paper is to perform the sensitivityanalysis of fuzzy control systems with respect to the parametric variations of the controlledplant for a class of servo-systems used in mechatronics applications based on theconstruction of sensitivity models. The stability and sensitivity analysis methods provideuseful information to the development of fuzzy control systems. The case studies concerningfuzzy controlled servo-systems, accompanied by digital simulation results and real-timeexperimental results, validate the presented methods.

Radu-Emil Precup

2006-01-01

200

Stability Analysis Method for Fuzzy Control Systems Dedicated Controlling Nonlinear Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new stability analysis method for nonlinear processes withTakagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs. The design of the FLCs is based onheuristic fuzzy rules. The stability analysis of these fuzzy control systems is performed usingLaSalle’s invariant set principle with non-quadratic Lyapunov candidate function. Thispaper proves that if the derivative of Lyapunov function is negative semi-definite in theactive region of each fuzzy rule, then the overall system will be asymptotically stable in thesense of Lyapunov (ISL. The stability theorem suggested in the paper ensures sufficientstability conditions for fuzzy control systems controlling a class of nonlinear processes. Theend of the paper contains an illustrative example that describes an application of thestability analysis method.

Marius-Lucian Tomescu

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Cluster Analysis of A Tobacco Control Data Set  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of theoretical and methodological frameworks in data analysis is fundamental for modeling complex tobacco control systems. Following this idea, a new optimization based approach was introduced in the paper through two distinct methods: the modified linear least square fit and a heuristic algorithm for feature selection based on optimization techniques. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, optimization-based methods have the potential to detect nonlinearity, and therefore to be more effective analysis tools of complex data set. In this study we evaluate the modified global k-means clustering algorithm by applying it to a massive set of real-time tobacco control survey data. Cluster analysis identified fixed and stable clusters in the studied data. These clusters correspond to groups of smokers with similar behavior and the identification of these clusters may allow us to give recommendations on modification of existing tobacco control systems and on the design of future data acquisition surveys.

Z. Dzalilov

2010-12-01

202

REACTOR ANALYSIS AND VIRTUAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT (RAVEN) FY12 REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RAVEN is a complex software tool that will have tasks spanning from being the RELAP-7 user interface, to using RELAP-7 to perform Risk Informed Safety Characterization (RISMC), and to controlling RELAP-7 calculation execution. The goal of this document is to: 1. Highlight the functional requirements of the different tasks of RAVEN 2. Identify shared functions that could be aggregate in modules so to obtain a minimal software redundancy and maximize software utilization. RAVEN is in fact a software framework that will allow exploiting the following functionalities: • Derive and actuate the control logic required to: o Simulate the plant control system o Simulate the operator (procedure guided) actions o Perform Monte Carlo sampling of random distributed events o Perform event three based analysis • Provide a GUI to: o Input a plant description to RELAP-7 (component, control variable, control parameters) o Concurrent monitoring of Control Parameters o Concurrent alteration of control parameters • Provide Post Processing data mining capability based on o Dimensionality reduction o Cardinality reduction In this document it will be shown how an appropriate mathematical formulation of the control logic and probabilistic analysis leads to have most of the software infrastructure leveraged between the two main tasks. Further, this document will go through the development accomplished this year, including simulation results, and priorities for the next years development

Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Joshua Cogliati; Diego Mandelli; Robert Kinoshita

2012-09-01

203

Contributions to fuzzy polynomial techniques for stability analysis and control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present thesis employs fuzzy-polynomial control techniques in order to improve the stability analysis and control of nonlinear systems. Initially, it reviews the more extended techniques in the field of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems, such as the more relevant results about polynomial and fuzzy polynomial systems. The basic framework uses fuzzy polynomial models by Taylor series and sum-of-squares techniques (semidefinite programming) in order to obtain stability guarantees...

Pitarch Pe?rez, Jose? Luis

2014-01-01

204

Validation and analysis of linear distillation models for controller design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is a nontrivial task to decide whether a model describes the main dynamic characteristics of a process and to determine which model is to be preferred for controller design. Techniques for examining lineal models for controller design are described in Section 2. One focus of this paper is on tools for analysing multivariable processes in the frequency domain, for example, condition number and dynamic relative gain array (RGA) analysis. The latter tool is extended by the phase information o...

1993-01-01

205

Stability analysis of fixed points via chaos control.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews recent advances in the application of chaos control techniques to the stability analysis of two-dimensional dynamical systems. We demonstrate how the system's response to one or multiple feedback controllers can be utilized to calculate the characteristic multipliers associated with an unstable periodic orbit. The experimental results, obtained for a single and two coupled diode resonators, agree well with the presented theory. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779684

Locher, M.; Johnson, G. A.; Hunt, E. R.

1997-12-01

206

Bequests, Control Rights, and Cost-Benefit Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consider a public project which produces a consumption good and which benefits future generations. Let a conventional cost-benefit analysis find that it gives higher benefits than projects it would dis-place in the private sector. Voters may nevertheless oppose the public project: the combination of a desire to control bequests and the lack of control over who gets benefits from a public project makes the public project unattractive. In contrast, private projects have owners, allowing parents...

Glazer, Amihai; Kanniainen, Vesa; Niskanen, Esko

2001-01-01

207

Frame-based safety analysis technique for digital control systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a novel frame-based safety analysis approach for digital control systems. First, an analytical framework Two Frame Model (TFM) is developed to study the working and failure mechanisms of computer controlled systems. In this model, a computerized system is separated into two subsystems: the logical frame and the physical frame, representing information processes and physical processes, respectively. Two important issues derived from TFM: loss of isomorphism failure mode and competing process effect. Frame-based fault tree analysis and event tree analysis techniques under TFM are then developed to analyze this failure mode and its critical effects. Conventional one-frame approach to safety analysis provides only a correctness-based viewpoint, which cannot attach a context for logical errors, and thus, can never predict any potential competing possibilities. The proposed approach overcomes these problems. Case study is given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our methods. (author)

1996-10-01

208

Crystal structures and chemistry of double perovskites Ba2M(II)M'(VI)O6 (M=Ca, Sr, M'=Te, W, U)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structures of the double perovskites Ba2M(II)M '(VI)O6 (M=Ca, Sr, M'=Te, W, U) at room temperature have been investigated by the Rietveld method using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. For double perovskites with M=Sr, the observed space groups are I2/m (M' =W) and R3-bar (M'=Te), respectively. In the case of M=Ca, the space groups are either monoclinic P21/n (M'=U) or cubic Fm3-bar m (M'=W and Te). The tetragonal and orthorhombic symmetry reported earlier for Ba2SrTeO6 and Ba2CaUO6, respectively, were not observed. In addition, non-ambient X-ray diffraction data were collected and analyzed for Ba2SrWO6 and Ba2CaWO6 in the temperature range between 80 and 723 K. It was found that the rhombohedral R3-bar structure exists in Ba2SrWO6 above room temperature between the monoclinic and the cubic structure, whereas the cubic Ba2CaWO6 undergoes a structural phase transition at low temperature to the tetragonal I4/m structure. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of structures as function of temperature in Ba2SrWO6 (left) and Ba2CaWO6 (right). The existence of two phase region in Ba2SrWO6 can be clearly seen by the progressive increase of the rhombohedral R3-bar phase marked by asterisk (*)

2008-09-01

209

Analysis and control of an anaerobic upflow Fixed bed bioreactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the bifurcation analysis in an anaerobic upflow fixed bed bioreactor, which is an anaerobic digestion system useful for wastewater treatment. In the dynamic analysis part, the equilibrium points, linear stability and bifurcation curves are studied, focusing in the washout condition. For the self tuning regulator the parameter estimation and control law are designed, and an integral action is introduced in order to address the disturbances. The simulation studies show the improvement of the performance when a disturbance appears.

2009-01-01

210

The TARA control, data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MIT tandem mirror (TARA) control, data acquisition and analysis system consists of two major parts: 1) a Gould 584 industrial programmable controller (PC) to control engineering functions; and 2) a VAX 11/750 based data acquisition and analysis system for physics analysis. The PC is designed for use in harsh industrial environments and has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective means for automated control. The PC configuration is dedicated to control tasks on the TARA magnet, vacuum, RF, neutral beam, diagnostics, and utility systems. The data transfer functions are used to download system operating parameters from menu selectable tables. Real time status reports are provided to video terminals and as blocks of data to the host computer for storage. The data acquisition and analysis system for TARA was designed to provide high throughput and ready access to data from earlier runs. The adopted design uses pre-existing software packages in a system which is simple, coherent, fast, and which requires a minimum of new software development. The computer configuration is a VAX 11/750 running VMS with 124 M byte massbus disk and 1.4 G byte unibus disk subsystem. The front end for the data system is a Kinetic Systems CAMAC serial highway interface, and the graphics I/O is done through a DMA terminal multiplexer. The data system provides a set of standard tools for use in user-written analysis programs. These tools allow access to current shot data as well as to past shots with a minimum of overhead. The acquisition, archival, basic analysis, and display of 1 M byte of data for every shot is accomplished once every 3-5 minutes, and any shot may be easily reanalyzed

1983-01-01

211

Analysis and design of nonlinear gain-scheduled control systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Although traditional gain-scheduling is intuitively appealing, its heuristic nature usually introduces limitations into its achievable performance, mainly due to two factors: (1) the introduction of approximation errors in the linearization phase, and (2) the negligence of future transitions between operating points during the design phase. In this dissertation, we consider analysis and design of nonlinear gain-scheduled control systems. Nonlinear control refers to nonlinear controllers for both linear and nonlinear systems. We first investigate stability analysis of nonlinear gain-scheduled control systems with slowly varying parameters, in which exponential stability may not be achievable and one has to design nonlinear controllers at local set points to achieve asymptotic stability and ?sp{infty} input-state stability. Conditions are given which guarantee that the parameter-varying systems maintain desired stability properties from the frozen-parameter designs. We then present a nonlinear gain-scheduled design using set-valued methods. This design approach differs from traditional gain-scheduling in several aspects: (1) linearization errors are accommodated as linear state-dependent disturbances, (2) constraints on systems states and controls are specified, and (3) rates of transitions among operating regions are explicitly addressed. As a consequence, even "local" point designs are nonlinear. We also demonstrate two extensive design examples, missile autopilot control and rotating stall and surge control for jet engines. Finally, we consider the utility of nonlinear gain-scheduled control design for adaptive control problems. We apply set-valued observers which provide non-divergent estimate sets for the unknown parameters. We use an "uncertainty equivalence" approach which accommodates estimation errors and guarantees transient performance.

Tu, Kuang-Hsuan

212

Soviet Coup: A Command, Control, and Communications Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis presents an analysis of the August 1991 Soviet coup from a command, control, and communications (C3) perspective. Through the use of C3 modeling and functional decomposition, the C3 systems developed by the State Committee for the State of the...

J. H. Herbert

1992-01-01

213

Methodology for financial analysis and controlling construction projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing need for efficient monitoring of project costs that derives from poorly predictable construction execution, frequent interruptions of work from the client’s side, poorly defined needs in the design phase, the uncertainty of sales and the current crisis in the construction industry dictates the development of methodology for financial analysis and control to be used during construction project execution.

Kuhar, Zoran

2011-01-01

214

A new TXRF vacuum chamber with sample changer for chemical analysis using silicon drift chamber detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Several TXRF spectrometers for chemical analysis as well as for wafer surface analysis are commercially available. But there is no one available for chemical analysis offering the possibility to measure the samples in vacuum conditions. Vacuum of 10-2 mbar in the sample environment helps to reduce the background due to scattering from air, thus to improve the detection limits as well as to reduce the absorption of low energy fluorescence radiation from low Z elements and extend the elemental range to be measured and removes the Ar lines from the spectrum. The x-ray group of the Atominstitut designed and fabricated a new vacuum chamber for TXRF equipped with a 12 position sample changer from Italstructures, Riva, Italy. The detector used was a 10 mm2 silicon drift detector (KETEK, Munich, Germany), offering the advantage of electrically cooling, so no LN2 is required. The chamber was designed to be attached to a diffraction tube housing, e.g. with a fine focus Mo-x-ray tube and uses a multilayer monochromator. Spectra are stored by a small AMTEK MCA and control between sample changer and MCA communication is done by a modified AMPTEK software. The performance is expressed in detection limits of 1 pg Rb for Mo Ka excitation with 50 kV, 40 mA excitation conditions, 1000 s lifetime, obtained from a sample containing 600 pg Rb as single element standard. Details on performance, reproducibility and light element excitation and detection are presented. (author)

2003-10-01

215

Control-pattern analysis of metabolic pathways. Flux and concentration control in linear pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic control analysis [Kacser and Burns (1973) Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 27, 65-104; Heinrich and Rapoport (1974) Eur. J. Biochem. 42, 89-95] leads to a description of the systemic properties of a metabolic system (expressed as control coefficients) in terms of the local kinetic properties of the individual enzyme-catalyzed reactions (expressed as elasticity coefficients). This paper describes a non-algebraic diagrammatic method which generates the mathematical expressions for flux or concentration-control coefficients in terms of elasticity coefficients. According to a set of simple rules, 'flux-control patterns' or 'concentration-control patterns' are drawn on a metabolic diagram. Each control pattern represents a product of elasticity coefficients that occurs as a term in the expression for a control coefficient. The rules also generate the correct sign that precedes each term. The control patterns are then used to build the expressions for control coefficients. The procedure was developed in such a way that each control pattern can be understood in terms of a 'chain of local effects' which shows how a perturbation in the activity of an enzyme is propagated through the metabolic pathway. PMID:2598934

Hofmeyr, J H

1989-12-01

216

Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model?based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “working memory” [1]. In order to investigate how mental workload in working memory influences standing posture control, we consider the feedback groups in the standing posture control mechanism which include the viscoelastic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system and sensory feedback. We use a centre of pressure (COP?based tracking task to investigate the influence of mental workload on voluntary (tracking movement. Maurer?Peterka’s model is applied to analyse the standing posture control mechanism, with respect to a change in the internal processes. The simulation results show the relationship of the feedback gain and its delay from the central nervous system with the standing posture control performance. The proposed model?based scheme provides a comprehensive view for physiological data analysis of human body movement in relation to mental workload.

Seiji Naito

2012-12-01

217

Control volume based hydrocephalus research; analysis of human data  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrocephalus is a neuropathophysiological disorder primarily diagnosed by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure within the brain. To date, utilization of clinical measurements have been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs enforce volume conservation principles in terms of pressure. Control volume analysis, through the integral mass and momentum conservation equations, ensures that pressure and volume are accounted for using first principles fluid physics. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians into a simple, direct and robust mechanics based framework. Clinical data obtained for analysis are discussed along with data processing techniques used to extract terms in the conservation equation. Control volume analysis provides a non-invasive, physics-based approach to extracting pressure information from magnetic resonance velocity data that cannot be measured directly by pressure instrumentation.

Cohen, Benjamin; Wei, Timothy; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Anor, Tomer

2010-11-01

218

Simulating labeling to estimate kinetic parameters for flux control analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important aspect of kinetic modeling is the ability to provide predictive information on network control and dynamic responses to genetic or environmental perturbations based on innate enzyme kinetics. In a top-down approach to model assembly, unknown kinetic parameters are calculated using experimental data such as metabolite pool concentrations and transient labeling patterns after supply of an isotopically labeled substrate. These kinetic parameters can then be used to calculate flux control coefficients for every reaction in a network, which aids in the identification of enzymatic reactions that exert the most control over the network as a whole. This chapter describes a modeling approach to estimate kinetic parameters which are then used to perform metabolic control analysis. An example is provided for the benzenoid network of Petunia hybrida; however, the methodologies can be applied to any small segment of metabolism. PMID:24222418

Marshall-Colon, Amy; Sengupta, Neelanjan; Rhodes, David; Morgan, John A

2014-01-01

219

Experimental Bifurcation Analysis By Control-based Continuation - Determining Stabilityâ??  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The newly developed control-based continuation technique has made it possible to perform experimental bifurcation analysis, e.g. to track stable as well as unstable branches of frequency responses directly in experiments. The method bypasses mathematical models, and systematically explores how vibration characteristics of dynamical systems change under variation of parameters. The method employs a control scheme to modify the response stability. While this facilitates exploration of the unstable branches of a bifurcation diagram, it unfortunately makes it impossible to distinguish previously stable and unstable equilibrium states. We present the ongoing work of developing and applying the control-based continuation method to an experimental mechanical test-rig, consisting of a harmonically forced nonlinear impact oscillator controlled by electromagnetic actuators. Furthermore we propose and test ideas on how to determine the stability of equilibria states during continuation.

Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar

2012-01-01

220

Ordinary differential equations analysis, qualitative theory and control  

CERN Multimedia

The book comprises a rigorous and self-contained treatment of initial-value problems for ordinary differential equations. It additionally develops the basics of control theory, which is a unique feature in the current textbook literature. The following topics are particularly emphasised: • existence, uniqueness and continuation of solutions, • continuous dependence on initial data, • flows, • qualitative behaviour of solutions, • limit sets, • stability theory, • invariance principles, • introductory control theory, • feedback and stabilization. The last two items cover classical control theoretic material such as linear control theory and absolute stability of nonlinear feedback systems. It also includes an introduction to the more recent concept of input-to-state stability. Only a basic grounding in linear algebra and analysis is assumed. Ordinary Differential Equations will be suitable for final year undergraduate students of mathematics and appropriate for beginning postgraduates in math...

Logemann, Hartmut

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bushlya, Anatoly V [ROSATOM, RUSSIA; Efimenko, Vladimir F [IPPE, RUSSIA; Ilyanstev, Anatoly [IPPE, RUSSIA; Regoushevsky, Victor I [IPPE, RUSSIA

2010-01-01

222

Controllability analysis of protein glycosylation in CHO cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To function as intended in vivo, a majority of biopharmaceuticals require specific glycan distributions. However, achieving a precise glycan distribution during manufacturing can be challenging because glycosylation is a non-template driven cellular process, with the potential for significant uncontrolled variability in glycan distributions. As important as the glycan distribution is to the end-use performance of biopharmaceuticals, to date, no strategy exists for controlling glycosylation on-line. However, before expending the significant amount of effort and expense required to develop and implement on-line control strategies to address the problem of glycosylation heterogeneity, it is imperative to assess first the extent to which the very complex process of glycosylation is controllable, thereby establishing what is theoretically achievable prior to any experimental attempts. In this work, we present a novel methodology for assessing the output controllability of glycosylation, a prototypical example of an extremely high-dimensional and very non-linear system. We first discuss a method for obtaining the process gain matrix for glycosylation that involves performing model simulations and data analysis systematically and judiciously according to a statistical design of experiments (DOE) scheme and then employing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the elements of process gain matrix from the resulting simulation data. We then discuss how to use the resulting high-dimensional gain matrix to assess controllability. The utility of this method is demonstrated with a practical example where we assess the controllability of various classes of glycans and of specific glycoforms that are typically found in recombinant biologics produced with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. In addition to providing useful insight into the extent to which on-line glycosylation control is achievable in actual manufacturing processes, the results also have important implications for genetically engineering cell lines design for enhanced glycosylation controllability. PMID:24498415

St Amand, Melissa M; Tran, Kevin; Radhakrishnan, Devesh; Robinson, Anne S; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A

2014-01-01

223

Pilot modeling, modal analysis, and control of large flexible aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues to be addressed are threefold. The first deals with the question of whether dynamic aeroelastic effects can significantly impact piloted flight dynamics. For example, if one were to explore this problem experimentally, what mathematical model would be appropriate to use in the simulation? What modes, for example, should be included in the simulation, or what linear model should be used in the control synthesis? The second question deals with the appropriate design criteria or design objectives. In the case of active control, for example, what would be the design objectives for the control synthesis if aeroelastic effects are a problem? The outline of the topics includes a description of a model analysis methodology aimed at answering the question of the significance of higher order dynamics. Secondly, a pilot vehicle analysis of some experimental data addresses the question of ""What's important in the task?'' The experimental data will be presented briefly, followed by the results of an open-loop modal analysis of the generic vehicle configurations in question. Finally, one of the vehicles will be augmented via active control and the results presented.

Schmidt, D. K.

1984-01-01

224

catmap: Case-control And TDT Meta-Analysis Package  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk for complex disease is thought to be controlled by multiple genetic risk factors, each with small individual effects. Meta-analyses of several independent studies may be helpful to increase the ability to detect association when effect sizes are modest. Although many software options are available for meta-analysis of genetic case-control data, no currently available software implements the method described by Kazeem and Farrall (2005, which combines data from independent family-based and case-control studies. Results I introduce the package catmap for the R statistical computing environment that implements fixed- and random-effects pooled estimates for case-control and transmission disequilibrium methods, allowing for the use of genetic association data across study types. In addition, catmap may be used to create forest and funnel plots and to perform sensitivity analysis and cumulative meta-analysis. catmap is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network http://www.r-project.org. Conclusion catmap allows researchers to synthesize data to assess evidence for association in studies of genetic polymorphisms, facilitating the use of pooled data analyses which may increase power to detect moderate genetic associations.

Nicodemus Kristin K

2008-02-01

225

Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

1989-01-01

226

Design analysis and microprocessor based control of a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this thesis is to design and test a microprocessor based controller, to a simulated nuclear reactor system. The mathematical model that describes the dynamics of a typical nuclear reactor of one group of delayed neutrons approximations with temperature feedback was chosen. A digital computer program has been developed for the design and analysis of a simulated model based on the concept of state-variable feedback in order to meet a desired system response with maximum overshoot of 3.4% and setting time of 4 sec. The state variable feedback coefficients are designed for the continuous system, then an approximation is used to obtain in the state variable feedback vector for the discrete system. System control was implemented utilizing Direct Digital Control (DDC) of a nuclear reactor simulated model through a control algorithm that was performed by means of a microprocessor based system. The controller performance was satisfactorily tested by exciting the reactor system with a transient reactivity disturbance and by a step change in power demand. Direct digital control, when implemented on a microprocessor adds versatility, flexibility in system design with the added advantage of possible use of optimal control algorithms. 6 tabs.; 30 figs.; 46 refs.; 6 apps

1988-01-01

227

Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable

2009-02-01

228

Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities

2011-08-01

229

Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

2008-01-01

230

The Tara control, monitoring, data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments at the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror utilize an integrated system for control, monitoring, data acquisition, physics analysis, and archiving. This system consists of two distinct parts with narrowly defined information interchange; one to provide automated control and real time monitoring of engineering functions and one to acquire, analyze, and display data for physics in near real time. Typical machine operation achieves a total cycle time of 3 to 8 minutes with 5 to 7 Mbytes of data stored and with approx. 160 individual signals displayed in hardcopy on approx. 10 pages. (author)

1986-01-01

231

The Tara control, monitoring, data acquisition and analysis system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments at the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror utilize an integrated system for control, monitoring, data acquisition, physics analysis, and archiving. This system consists of two distinct parts with narrowly defined information interchange; one to provide automated control and real time monitoring of engineering functions and one to acquire, analyze, and display data for physics in near real time. Typical machine operation achieves a total cycle time of 3 to 8 minutes with 5 to 7 Mbytes of data stored and with approx.160 individual signals displayed in hardcopy on approx.10 pages.

Sullivan, J.D.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Blanter, B.; Fredian, T.W.; Irby, J.H.; Karcher, C.A.; Rameriz, R.; Sevillano, E.; Stillerman, J.; Thomas, P.

1986-09-01

232

The Tara control, monitoring, data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments at the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror utilize an integrated system for control, monitoring, data acquisition, physics analysis, and archiving. This system consists of two distinct parts with narrowly defined information interchange; one to provide automated control and real time monitoring of engineering functions and one to acquire, analyze, and display data for physics in near real time. Typical machine operation achieves a total cycle time of 3 to 8 minutes with 5 to 7 Mbytes of data stored and with ?160 individual signals displayed in hardcopy on ?10 pages

1986-09-08

233

The Tara control, monitoring, data acquisition, and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments at the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror utilize an integrated system for control, monitoring, data acquisition, physics analysis, and archiving. This system consists of two distinct parts with narrowly defined information interchange; one to provide automated control and real time monitoring of engineering functions and one to acquire, analyze, and display data for physics in near real time. Typical machine operation achieves a total cycle time of 3 to 8 minutes with 5 to 7 Mbytes of data stored and with --160 individual signals displayed in hardcopy on --10 pages

1987-01-01

234

Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities.

Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15

235

Sneak circuit analysis of chemical and volume control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the chemical and volume control system (RCV) of nuclear power plant pipelines are very complex, there are many valve control nodes. These make the probabilistic risk of unexpected situation rather high in design and running. In order to increase the reliability and safety of the system in design and running, the sneak circuit analysis technology is applied in gas and liquid pipelines of RCV to find latent path and temporal sequence in design and running. Improvements and advices are given to avoid these latent risks in design and running. (authors)

2010-11-01

236

Analysis of Droop Controlled Parallel Inverters in Islanded Microgrids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three-phase droop controlled inverters are widely used in islanded microgrids to interface distributed energy resources and to provide for the loads active and reactive powers demand. The assessment of microgrids stability, affected by the control and line parameters, is a stringent issue. This paper shows a systematic approach to derive a closed loop model of the microgrid and then to perform an eigenvalues analysis that highlights how the systemâ??s parameters affect the stability of the network. It is also shown that by means of a singular perturbation approach the resulting reduced order system well approximate the original full order system.

Mariani, Valerio; Vasca, Francesco

2014-01-01

237

Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC) method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was...

Noskievic?ova?, Darja

2009-01-01

238

Autonomous miniaturised device with USB interface for pulse height analysis and multi-channel scaling (TUKAN-8K-USB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present autonomous a 8K-channel miniature device designed for spectroscopy or intensity vs. time measurements. The device (TUKAN-8K-USB) is based on the USB interface, and is contained in a screened separate box - it can be proved either directly from the USB port or from an external DC source (wall adapter of battery). The device may work in two independent operational modes: Multi-Channel Analysis (MCA) and Multi-Channel Scaling (MCS). The crucial MCA component - Peak detect and Hold circuitry - is featuring a novel architecture based on a diamond transistor. Its analog stage can accept analog pulses with front edges down to 100 ns and has a differential linearity below 0.5% (full scale sliding scale averaging). Automatic stops on count in Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and on preset live or real time are implemented. The MCS works at medium speed counting rates (up to 8 MHz), with preset dwell time, number of channels and multi-sweep mode. Each these parameters can also be controlled externally. Digital interfacing is based on four used configurable logical I/O lines. A single CYCLONE EP1C3 Altera FPGA provides all control functions. The USB communication is based on FYDI FIFO controller. The analyzer is equipped with advanced, user-friendly software, which is subjected of another publication. )author)

2005-09-07

239

A DISCIPLINED APPROACH TO ACCIDENT ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL SELECTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development and use of a Safety Input Review Committee (SIRC) process promotes consistent and disciplined Accident Analysis (AA) development to ensure that it accurately reflects facility design and operation; and that the credited controls are effective and implementable. Lessons learned from past efforts were reviewed and factored into the development of this new process. The implementation of the SIRC process has eliminated many of the problems previously encountered during Safety Basis (SB) document development. This process has been subsequently adopted for use by several Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities with similar results and expanded to support other analysis activities.

Ortner, T; Mukesh Gupta, M

2007-04-13

240

Typing Local Control and State Using Flow Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Programs written in scripting languages employ idioms that confound conventional type systems. In this paper, we highlight one important set of related idioms: the use of local control and state to reason informally about types. To address these idioms, we formalize run-time tags and their relationship to types, and use these to present a novel strategy to integrate typing with flow analysis in a modular way. We demonstrate that in our separation of typing and flow analysis, each component remains conventional, their composition is simple, but the result can handle these idioms better than either one alone.

Guha, Arjun; Saftoiu, Claudiu; Krishnamurthi, Shriram

 
 
 
 
241

Sneak circuit analysis of instrumentation and control systems. [technology transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolvement and implementation is presented of a systematic means for detecting the sneak prone designs of an electrical system which could result in such unplanned modes so that they can be prevented prior to occurrence. Sneak circuit analysis is shown to be a formalized approach based upon topological techniques. The trees employed are produced from manufacturing detail data processed by a computer to orderly completion. The analysis techniques applied on a variety of NASA programs are shown to be particularly applicable to industrial instrumentation and control systems.

Rankin, J. P.; Williams, A. M.

1974-01-01

242

Data Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. A self-appraisal helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. The material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) fault tree was developed to depict the failure of the MPC&A system as a result of poor practices and random failures in the MC&A system. It can also be employed as a basis for assessing deliberate threats against a facility. MSET uses fault tree analysis, which is a top-down approach to examining system failure. The analysis starts with identifying a potential undesirable event called a 'top event' and then determining the ways it can occur (e.g., 'Fail To Maintain Nuclear Materials Under The Purview Of The MC&A System'). The analysis proceeds by determining how the top event can be caused by individual or combined lower level faults or failures. These faults, which are the causes of the top event, are 'connected' through logic gates. The MSET model uses AND-gates and OR-gates and propagates the effect of event failure using Boolean algebra. To enable the fault tree analysis calculations, the basic events in the fault tree are populated with probability risk values derived by conversion of questionnaire data to numeric values. The basic events are treated as independent variables. This assumption affects the Boolean algebraic calculations used to calculate results. All the necessary calculations are built into the fault tree codes, but it is often useful to estimate the probabilities manually as a check on code functioning. The probability of failure of a given basic event is the probability that the basic event primary question fails to meet the performance metric for that question. The failure probability is related to how well the facility performs the task identified in that basic event over time (not just one performance or exercise). Fault tree calculations provide a failure probability for the top event in the fault tree. The basic fault tree calculations establish a baseline relative risk value for the system. This probability depicts relative risk, not absolute risk. Subsequent calculations are made to evaluate the change in relative risk that would occur if system performance is improved or degraded. During the development effort of MSET, the fault tree analysis program used was SAPHIRE. SAPHIRE is an acronym for 'Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations.' Version 1 of the SAPHIRE code was sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1987 as an innovative way to draw, edit, and analyze graphical fault trees primarily for safe operation of nuclear power reactors. When the fault tree calculations are performed, the fault tree analysis program will produce several reports that can be used to analyze the MPC&A system. SAPHIRE produces reports showing risk importance factors for all basic events in the operational MC&A system. The risk importance information is used to examine the potential impacts when performance of certain basic events increases or decreases. The initial results produced by the SAPHIRE program are considered relative risk values. None of the results can be interpreted as absolute risk values since the basic event probability values represent estimates of risk associated with the performance of MPC&A tasks throughout the material balance area (MBA). The RRR for a basic event represents the decrease in total system risk that would result from improvement of that one event to a perfect performance level. Improvement of the basic event with the greatest RRR value produces a greater decrease in total system risk than improvement of any other basic event. Basic events with the greatest potential for system risk reduction are assigned performance improvement values, and new fault tree calculations show the i

Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL

2011-01-01

243

Analysis of GPS Abnormal Conditions within Fault Tolerant Control Laws  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Position System (GPS) is a critical element for the functionality of autonomous flying vehicles. The GPS operation at normal and abnormal conditions directly impacts the trajectory tracking performance of the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) controllers. The effects of GPS parameter variation must be well understood and user-friendly computational tools must be developed to facilitate the design and evaluation of fault tolerant control laws. This thesis presents the development of a simplified GPS error model in Matlab/Simulink and its use performing a sensitivity analysis of GPS parameters effect under system normal and abnormal operation on different UAV trajectory tracking controllers. The model statistically generates position and velocity errors, simulates the effect of GPS satellite configuration on the position and velocity measurement accuracy, and implements a set of failures to the GPS readings. The model and its graphical user interface was integrated within the WVU UAV simulation environment as a masked Simulink block. The effects on the controllers' trajectory tracking performance of the following GPS parameters were investigated within normal operation ranges and outside: time delay, update rate, error standard deviation, bias, and major position and velocity failures. Several sets of control laws with fixed and adaptive parameters and of different levels of complexity have been used in this investigation. A complex performance index formulated in terms of tracking errors and control activity was used for control laws performance evaluation. The composition of various metrics within the performance index was performed using fixed and variable weights depending on the local characteristics of the commanded trajectory. This study has revealed that GPS error parameters have a significant impact on control laws performance. The proposed GPS model has proved to be a valuable, flexible tool for testing and evaluation of the fault tolerant capabilities of autonomous flight control laws.

Al-Sinbol, Gahssan

244

Sensitivity Analysis of Stoichiometric Networks An Extension of Metabolic Control Analysis to Non-equilibrium Trajectories  

CERN Document Server

A sensitivity analysis of general stoichiometric networks is considered. The results are presented as a generalization of Metabolic Control Analysis, which has been concerned primarily with system sensitivities at steady state. An expression for time-varying sensitivity coefficients is given, and the Summation and Connectivity Theorems are generalized. The results are compared to previous treatments. The analysis is accompanied by a discussion of the computation of the sensitivity coefficients and an application to a model of phototransduction.

Ingalls, B P; Ingalls, Brian P.; Sauro, Herbert M.

2002-01-01

245

Control room habitability Analysis and Testing for Wolsong Unit 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In response to this recommendation, KHNP has established CRH program and performed tracer gas in leakage tests. These activities are described herein including the emergency ventilation system analysis, acceptance criteria calculation for the test and Control Room Envelope (CRE) discrimination, and the results of the tracer gas tests are presented. CRH analysis including unfiltered in leakage tests according to the methodology in ASTM E741 was performed for Wolsong Unit 1. The results show that the integrity of the control room of Wolsong Unit 1 is in good condition to maintain the reactor in a safe condition under accident conditions, which complies with the US NRC regulatory guides 1.78, 1.196 and 1.197

2013-05-01

246

THE ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON LINEAR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face recognition represents an important computer vision domain that has been researched in the last decades. The objective of this research is to develop an Access Control System based on Face Recognition using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA method. The analysis is done by making an application of face recognition using LDA for extracting features of the face and the output for controlling relay as a simulation of a door using AVR Microcontroller. The result achieved by the application is a face recognition system using LDA can obtain excellent result that is 95% success rate in face recognition with the image of a face that was tested by 40 people, instead of the previously popular feature extraction methods such as PCA. Based on the experimental results, attendance system based on face recognition using LDA obtain better result compared with PCA based face recognition.

Widodo Budiharto

2014-01-01

247

Control room habitability Analysis and Testing for Wolsong Unit 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to this recommendation, KHNP has established CRH program and performed tracer gas in leakage tests. These activities are described herein including the emergency ventilation system analysis, acceptance criteria calculation for the test and Control Room Envelope (CRE) discrimination, and the results of the tracer gas tests are presented. CRH analysis including unfiltered in leakage tests according to the methodology in ASTM E741 was performed for Wolsong Unit 1. The results show that the integrity of the control room of Wolsong Unit 1 is in good condition to maintain the reactor in a safe condition under accident conditions, which complies with the US NRC regulatory guides 1.78, 1.196 and 1.197.

Lee, J. B. [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

248

Control System Dynamics Analysis Of TRIGA Mark II Bandung  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The root locus analysis of TRIGA MARK II reactor was performed. The parameters were calculated based from the experimental data. The experiment was performed between 100 kW to 1 MW of power, average fuel temperature was 189oC and water average temperature was 37.3oC to measure temperature and xenon poisoning feedback. On the design analysis of PID system the characteristic of the controller are gain K=2.72, tp=13.65 seconds, Mp=0.0075%, Ti=4.1 seconds and Td=0.24 seconds. The controller transient time is less than 30 seconds and the settling time is less than 2% as well

1996-06-01

249

Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis

1981-01-01

250

Domain-driven Probabilistic Analysis of Programmable Logic Controllers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Programmable Logic Controllers are widely used in industry. Reliable PLCs are vital to many critical applications. This paper presents a novel symbolic approach for analysis of PLC systems. The main components of the approach consists of: (1) calculating the uncertainty characterization of the PLC systems, (2) abstracting the PLC system as a Hidden Markov Model, (3) solving the Hidden Markov Model using domain knowledge, (4) integrating the solved Hidden Markov Model and the uncertainty chara...

Zhang, Hehua; Jiang, Yu; William N N, Hung; Song, Xiaoyu; Gu, Ming

2011-01-01

251

A Statistical Analysis of Certain Iterative Learning Control Algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Iterative Learning Control (ILC) is a technique used to improve the tracking performance of systems carrying out repetitive tasks, which are affected by deterministic disturbances. The achievable performance is greatly degraded, however, when non-repeating, stochastic disturbances are present. This paper aims to compare a number of different ILC algorithms, proposed to be more robust to the presence of these disturbances, firstly by a statistical analysis and th...

Butcher, Mark; Karimi, Alireza; Longchamp, Roland

2008-01-01

252

Electrical Power Distribution and Control Modeling and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the use of Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD&C) Modeling and how modeling can support analysis. The presentation discusses using the EASY5 model to simulate and analyze the Space Shuttle Electric Auxiliary Power Unit. Diagrams of the model schematics are included, as well as graphs of the battery cell impedance, hydraulic load dynamics, and EPD&C response to hydraulic load variations.

Fu, Johnny S.; Liffring, Mark; Mehdi, Ishaque S.

2001-01-01

253

Decentralized Control of Cooperative Systems: Categorization and Complexity Analysis  

CERN Document Server

Decentralized control of cooperative systems captures the operation of a group of decision makers that share a single global objective. The difficulty in solving optimally such problems arises when the agents lack full observability of the global state of the system when they operate. The general problem has been shown to be NEXP-complete. In this paper, we identify classes of decentralized control problems whose complexity ranges between NEXP and P. In particular, we study problems characterized by independent transitions, independent observations, and goal-oriented objective functions. Two algorithms are shown to solve optimally useful classes of goal-oriented decentralized processes in polynomial time. This paper also studies information sharing among the decision-makers, which can improve their performance. We distinguish between three ways in which agents can exchange information: indirect communication, direct communication and sharing state features that are not controlled by the agents. Our analysis s...

Goldman, C V; 10.1613/jair.1427

2011-01-01

254

System integration and control strategy analysis of PEMFC car  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new fuel car was designed according to the prototype LN2000 hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car. The new prototype consists of a compact fuel cell engine with separated fuel cell stack, nickel metal hydride battery, a motor with power of 30Kw/100Kw and an inverter with high efficiency. With in the powertrain, a two-shift Planet gear transmission was employed. The power performance was greatly improved. New battery with EMS, new self-developed fuel cell engine, the motor propulsion system and electronic controlled transmission make it feasible to control the whole fuel car automatically and efficiently with optimization. The presents the system integration and the control strategy analysis of the fuel cell car prototype. The paper can be used for reference for engineers in the field of fuel cell vehicle. (author)

2004-09-25

255

Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future

2007-01-01

256

Experimental Bifurcation Analysis Using Control-Based Continuation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable and unstable equilibria under variation of parameters. As a test case we demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity, controlled by electromagnetic actuators. The method requires the constitution of a non-invasive and locally stabilizing control scheme, which must be tuned without a-priori study of a model. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method. This experimental tuning procedure is applied to our test rig, resulting in a reliable non-invasive, locally stabilizing control. The use of stabilizing control makes it difficult to determine the stability of the underlying uncontrolled equilibrium. Based on the idea of momentarily modifying or disabling the control and study the resulting behavior, we propose and test three different methods for assessing stability of equilibrium states during experimental continuation. We show that it is possible to determine the stability without allowing unbounded divergence, and that it is under certain circumstances possible to quantify instability in terms of finite-time Lyapunov exponents. A software toolbox for the Matlab continuation platform COCO has been developed and will be made freely available. This toolbox implements functions necessary for interfacing a numerical continuation code with a real experiment, as well as provide means for simulating control-based continuation experiments. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the method for rotating machinery is discussed.

Bureau, Emil

2014-01-01

257

Analysis of TMT primary mirror control-structure interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary mirror control system (M1CS) keeps the 492 segments of the Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror aligned in the presence of disturbances. A global position control loop uses feedback from inter-segment edge sensors to three actuators behind each segment that control segment piston, tip and tilt. If soft force actuators are used (e.g. voice-coil), then in addition to the global position loop there will be a local servo loop to provide stiffness. While the M1 control system at Keck compensates only for slow disturbances such as gravity and thermal variations, the M1CS for TMT will need to provide some compensation for higher frequency wind disturbances in order to meet stringent error budget targets. An analysis of expected high-wavenumber wind forces on M1 suggests that a 1Hz control bandwidth is required for the global feedback of segment edge-sensorbased position information in order to minimize high spatial frequency segment response for both seeing-limited and adaptive optics performance. A much higher bandwidth is required from the local servo loop to provide adequate stiffness to wind or acoustic disturbances. A related paper presents the control designs for the local actuator servo loops. The disturbance rejection requirements would not be difficult to achieve for a single segment, but the structural coupling between segments mounted on a flexible mirror cell results in controlstructure interaction (CSI) that limits the achievable bandwidth. Using a combination of simplified modeling to build intuition and the full telescope finite element model for verification, we present designs and analysis for both the local servo loop and global loop demonstrating sufficient bandwidth and resulting wind-disturbance rejection despite the presence of CSI.

MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Sirota, Mark J.

2008-07-01

258

Arms control verification costs: the need for a comparative analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The end of the Cold War era has presented practitioners and analysts of international non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) the opportunity to focus more intently on the range and scope of NACD treaties and their verification. Aside from obvious favorable and well-publicized developments in the field of nuclear non-proliferation, progress also has been made in a wide variety of arenas, ranging from chemical and biological weapons, fissile material, conventional forces, ballistic missiles, to anti-personnel landmines. Indeed, breaking from the constraints imposed by the Cold War United States-Soviet adversarial zero-sum relationship that impeded the progress of arms control, particularly on a multilateral level, the post Cold War period has witnessed significant developments in NACD commitments, initiatives, and implementation. The goals of this project - in its final iteration - will be fourfold. First, it will lead to the creation of a costing analysis model adjustable for uses in several current and future arms control verification tasks. Second, the project will identify data accumulated in the cost categories outlined in Table 1 in each of the five cases. By comparing costs to overall effectiveness, the application of the model will demonstrate desirability in each of the cases (see Chart 1). Third, the project will identify and scrutinize 'political costs' as well as real expenditures and investment in the verification regimes (see Chart 2). And, finally, the project will offer some analysis on the relationship between national and multilateral forms of arms control verification, as well as the applicability of multilateralism as an effective tool in the verification of international non-proliferation, arms control, and disarmament agreements. (author)

1997-11-13

259

Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes a methodology that integrates quantitative and qualitative assessment. The methodology proposed combines conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) with multi-criteria analysis (MCA). The CBA methodology, based on welfare theory, assures that the project with the highest welfare for society is ranked uppermost. To compare the different impacts, it is necessary to have a common monetary unit. Theoretically, all benefits and all costs should be accounted for in socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. However, this is far from in practical the general case due to difficulties in a valuating all the criteria in monetary terms. Thus CBA does not meet the need for a comprehensive evaluation, for which reason MCA is introduced to overcome this problem. Not only does MCA provides an opportunity to include non-market impacts in the analysis, but MCA also provides a framework for breaking down a problem into its constituent parts in order to better understand the problem and consequently arrive at a decision. However, while MCA opens up for the possibility to include non-market impacts, it does not provide the decision makers with guidance combining the CBA with MCA. In the paper different methods for combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis are examined and compared and a software system is presented. The software system gives the decision makers some possibilities regarding preference analysis, sensitivity and risk analysis. The aim of the software is to facilitate a straightforward method to support decision making involving both quantitative and qualitative impacts. An outcome of this is that the methodology and the results on this basis are easily understood by the different stakeholders, which is seen as important. The methodology and software system are demonstrated by examining the decision problem of choosing between alternatives for a new airport to service the capital of Greenland, Nuuk. Three different alternatives are examined ranging in costs from 90m USD to 400m USD. Furthermore, three sets of different stakeholdersâ?? preferences (decision makers, citizens in Nuuk and other citizens in Greenland) are examined and compared. The cost-benefit analysis of the three airport alternatives includes impacts like travel time (for business and local travellers), waiting time, drawback of shifts, regularity, out of pocket costs, operating costs and not the least construction and maintenance costs. The MCA is made use of to assess noise, land use planning, business potential and tourism impacts for the three alternatives. More technically the software system offers a set of different features to undertake the MCA. Thus the users have two different methods to assess weights for the criteria, either by using the Swing Weight method or the more simple Rank Order Distribution (ROD) method. For evaluating the different alternatives with respect to each criterion the user has the possibility of making use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), REMBRANDT or Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranks (SMARTER) methods. Finally, a feature combining the CBA and MCA results can be provided by applying a trade off between the two methods or by means of the so called efficiency frontier is demonstrated. The presented multi-dimensional methodology and software system for CBA and MCA decision making is finally compared with other methods for combining the CBA and MCA. Ultimately, some conclusions are made and perspectives are drawn. Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Multi-criteria analysis, Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding, Transport infrastructure, Analytical Hierarchy Process, REMBRANDT, SMARTER, stakeholdersâ?? preferences and CBA&MCA Software system.

260

Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP). Series on River Blindness Control in West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume presents a cost-benefits analysis of the Onchocerciasis (Riverblindness) Control Program (OCP), based upon the Program's costs and the measurable economic benefits flowing from successful control of the disease. Cost-benefit analyses of health...

A. Kim B. Benton

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Analysis and control of thyristor controlled series compensator for power system oscillation damping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FACTS equipment can control the power flow and increase the loading on the existing lines to the thermal limits. This paper focuses on the ability of the thyristor controlled series compensator(TCSC) to increase the damping of the disturbed power system. For precise analysis of the effect of the TCSC on the power system stability, a linearized dynamic equation reflecting TCSC dynamics should be considered. In this paper, based on this model, a model based compensator is designed. The effect of the time constant of TSSC on the power system oscillation damping is analyzed. It is shown that simultaneous control of the auxiliary input of the exciter can increase the effect of the TCSC on the power system oscillation damping. Nonlinear system verification of the regulator shows the effectiveness of the TCSC with model based compensator for stability enhancement. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Son, Kwang Myoung; Park, Jong Keun; Park, Jong Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hak Guhn [Dong Yang Technical College (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Ha [Inchon University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-04-01

262

Economic analysis of HPAI control in the netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further. PMID:23206287

Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

2014-06-01

263

Ex post analysis of flood control: Benefit-cost analysis and the value of information  

Science.gov (United States)

Two analytical tools which aid decision making flood control design, ex post benefit-cost analysis and the ex post value of information, are presented for the case study of Rushford, Minnesota. The ex post analysis is conducted using a coincident frequency analysis which provides a more accurate description of discharge rates and flood levels. The ex post benefit-cost analysis shows that the Corps of Engineers substantially underestimated the value of potential property damage. The ex post value of information model provides an analysis of the project sensitivity to stream discharge. In addition, the optimum project size is determined under risk of project destruction. The results illustrate that net benefits are sensitive to changes in discharge information but less sensitive to project size and the risk of project destruction. This leads us to recommend more sensitivity analyses on information structures, project size, and the probability of project destruction in ex ante benefit-cost analysis.

Ramirez, Jorge; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.; Easter, K. William; Graham-Tomasi, Theodore

1988-08-01

264

New Applications of Variational Analysis to Optimization and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss new applications of advanced tools of variational analysis and generalized differentiation to a number of important problems in optimization theory, equilibria, optimal control, and feedback control design. The presented results are largely based on the recent work by the author and his collaborators. Among the main topics considered and briefly surveyed in this paper are new calculus rules for generalized differentiation of nonsmooth and set-valued mappings; necessary and sufficient conditions for new notions of linear subextremality and suboptimality in constrained problems; optimality conditions for mathematical problems with equilibrium constraints; necessary optimality conditions for optimistic bilevel programming with smooth and nonsmooth data; existence theorems and optimality conditions for various notions of Pareto-type optimality in problems of multiobjective optimization with vector-valued and set-valued cost mappings; Lipschitzian stability and metric regularity aspects for constrained and variational systems.

Mordukhovich, Boris S.

265

Multi-intersection Traffic Light Control Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis  

CERN Document Server

We address the traffic light control problem for multiple intersections in tandem by viewing it as a stochastic hybrid system and developing a Stochastic Flow Model (SFM) for it. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive on-line gradient estimates of a cost metric with respect to the controllable green and red cycle lengths. The IPA estimators obtained require counting traffic light switchings and estimating car flow rates only when specific events occur. The estimators are used to iteratively adjust light cycle lengths to improve performance and, in conjunction with a standard gradient-based algorithm, to obtain optimal values which adapt to changing traffic conditions. Simulation results are included to illustrate the approach.

Geng, Yanfeng

2012-01-01

266

Control rod drop transient analysis and incident recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A control rod drop incident is a relatively frequent transient over the lifetime of a pressurized water reactor. In order to distinguish this particular incident from other similar depressurized events, the transient nuclear and thermal hydraulic characteristics are identified so that the operator can immediately recognize and effectively confirm the incident. The results of this investigation can be used in operator training programs to identify various anticipated transients and, therefore, take proper actions to mitigate the consequences. The investigation of this incident uses the RETRAN system analysis computer code for the Nuclear Project Nos. 1 and 4 currently being constructed by the Washington Public Power Supply System. The dropped control rod transient is simulated by initiating a reactivity reduction at 0.001 seconds after steady-state initialization. A comparison of the transient parameters among a number of similar depressurized incidents is also included

1981-04-01

267

An Analysis of the PLLs With Secondary Control Path  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used in different areas of applications particularly for synchronization and control purposes in grid connected applications. A major challenge associated with the PLLs is how to improve their dynamic performance without jeopardizing their stability and filtering capability. Recently, some approaches based on adding a secondary control path (SCP) to the PLL structure have been proposed to deal with this challenge. The objective of this letter is to briefly analyze these approaches. The study starts with an overview of the PLLs with SCP. The letter proceeds with the small-signal modeling of some of these PLLs, which significantly simplifies the analysis. Using these models, the effects of adding the SCP on the PLL structure are studied. The obtained results show that the SCP may not be a practical approach to improve the PLL dynamic performance as it aggravates the stability problem.

Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek

2014-01-01

268

Design and Performance Analysis of ZBT SRAM Controller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Memory is an essential part of electronic industry. Since, the processors used in various high performancePCs, network applications and communication equipment require high speed memories. The type ofmemory used depends on system architecture, and its applications. This paper presents an SRAMarchitecture known as Zero Bus Turnaround (ZBT. This ZBT SRAM is mainly developed for networkingapplications where frequent READ/WRITE transitions are required. The other single data rate SRAMs areinefficient as they require idle cycles when they frequently switch between reading and writing to thememory. This controller is simulated on the Spartan 3 device. And the performance analysis is done on thebasis of area, speed and power.

Smriti Sharma

2013-07-01

269

Experimental sensitivity analysis for robustness studies of a controlled system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Active and adaptive systems consist of various components with different functionalities. As the complexity of the systems increases, reliability and robustness studies become a more complicated task. Sensitivity analysis helps system designers to understand interactions between the system components and to identify the important parameters with significant overall influences on the system performance. To analyze the complex interactions of the components and parameters of an active system with respect to system performance, a framework structure with active vibration damping in a lab scale test rig was set up. With this test rig an experimental sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influences of the system components and parameters on the vibration reduction. A higher robustness of the active system was achieved by using adaptive control. (paper)

2012-06-01

270

Multi-Pass Malware Sandbox Analysis with Controlled Internet Connection  

Science.gov (United States)

Malware sandbox analysis, in which a malware sample is actually executed in a testing environment (i.e. sandbox) to observe its behavior, is one of the promising approaches to tackling the emerging threats of exploding malware. As a lot of recent malware actively communicates with remote hosts over the Internet, sandboxes should also support an Internet connection, otherwise important malware behavior may not be observed. In this paper, we propose a multi-pass sandbox analysis with a controlled Internet connection. In the proposed method, we start our analysis with an isolated sandbox and an emulated Internet that consists of a set of dummy servers and hosts that run vulnerable services, called Honeypots in the Sandbox (HitS). All outbound connections from the victim host are closely inspected to see if they could be connected to the real Internet. We iterate the above process until no new behaviors are observed. We implemented the proposed method in a completely automated fashion and evaluated it with malware samples recently captured in the wild. Using a simple containment policy that authorizes only certain application protocols, namely, HTTP, IRC, and DNS, we were able to observe a greater variety of behaviors compared with the completely isolated sandbox. Meanwhile, we confirmed that a noticeable number of IP scans, vulnerability exploitations, and DoS attacks are successfully contained in the sandbox. Additionally, a brief comparison with two existing sandbox analysis systems, Norman Sandbox and CWSandbox, are shown.

Yoshioka, Katsunari; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

271

Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands I: epidemiological modelling to support economic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic analysis of control strategies for contagious diseases is a necessity in the development of contingency plans. Economic impacts arising from epidemics such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) consist of direct costs (DC), direct consequential costs (DCC), indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs (AC). Epidemiological models to support economic analysis need to provide adequate outputs for these critical economic parameters. Of particular importance for DCC, ICC and AC is the spatial production structure of a region. Spatial simulation models are therefore particularly suited for economic analysis; however, they often require a large number of parameters. The aims of this study are (i) to provide an economic rationale of epidemiological modelling in general, (ii) to provide a transparent description of the parameterization of a spatially based epidemiological model for the analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands and (iii) to discuss the validity and usefulness of this model for subsequent economic analysis. In the model, HPAI virus transmission occurs via local spread and animal movements. Control mechanisms include surveillance and tracing, movement restrictions and depopulation. Sensitivity analysis of key parameters indicated that the epidemiological outputs with the largest influence on the economic impacts (i.e. epidemic duration and number of farms in the movement restriction zone) were more robust than less influential indicators (i.e. number of infected farms). Economically relevant outputs for strategy comparison were most sensitive to the relative role of the different transmission parameters. The default simulation and results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with the general outcomes of known HPAI models. Comparison was, however, limited due to the absence of some economically relevant outputs. It was concluded that the model creates economically relevant, adequate and credible output for subsequent use in economic analysis. A detailed economic analysis is presented in a subsequent article. PMID:23066736

Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

2014-06-01

272

Validation of the REBUS-3/RTC methodologies for EBR-II core-follow analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operations and material control and accountancy (MCA) requirements for the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) will demand accurate prediction of the mass flow from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) into the facility. This will require validated calculational tools that can predict the burnup and isotopic distribution in irradiated binary- and ternary-fueled Mark III, Mark IV, and Mark V assemblies. The present study demonstrates that the REBUS-3/RCT methodologies can meet these requirements. Validation is achieved via a two-step procedure. First, a set of detailed core-follow depletion calculations using the REBUS-3/RCT codes is performed for an extensive series of EBR-II runs. Second, the results of this analysis are compared with experimental determinations of burnup and U and Pu isotopic weight fractions that have been measured in IFR fueled test assemblies irradiated in EBR-II. The results of these comparisons are very good and indicate that mass flow predictions based on the methods used in this study are adequate for operational and MCA requirements in FCF

1992-03-08

273

Analysis of HPGe Spectrometer Stability - Internal Quality Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory for Nuclear and Plasma Physics, Institute ''Vinea'' is authorized and accredited in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025 for measurements of radionuclide content in environmental samples. In accordance with a standards request and international recommendations, TCS No. 24, Quality System Implementation for Nuclear Analytical Techniques, permanent internal quality control of semiconductor HPGe spectrometer has been conducted. Periodical testing of spectrometer characteristics and creation of control charts are included in internal quality control processes. The evaluation of the measuring system can be performed by periodical testing as follows: FWHM chart provides evaluation of the resolution of a detector. Variation of the FWHM could be caused by electronic noise inside the detector, or might indicate a vacuum problem; FWTM chart allows to monitor tailing due to damage of the detection crystal, bad P/Z ration may indicate a leakage current; The ratio FWHM/FWTM for different gamma ray energies allows to monitor the quality of the detector; Activity chart allows to monitor the stability of the whole method; Background chart might discover contamination; Peak position chart provide indications for electronic stability and the influence of environmental conditions such as temperature or humidity. Point sources 60Co and 137Cs were used as a control sources for FWHM, FWTM, FWHM/FWTM ratio and peak position testing. Presented control charts, for a period June - December 2010, were used for an analysis of spectrometer stability. These charts show that performances of analyzed HPGe spectrometer were stable, meaning that measurements results for environmental samples could be considered as reliable, i.e. that the practice of Laboratory fully consists with an international recommendations. (author)

2011-04-13

274

Performance Analysis: Work Control Events Identified January - August 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded elements of an institutional work planning and control system. By the end of that year this system was documented and implementation had begun. In 2009, training of the workforce began and as of the time of this report more than 50% of authorized Integration Work Sheets (IWS) use the activity-based planning process. In 2010, LSO independently reviewed the work planning and control process and confirmed to the Laboratory that the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System was implemented. LLNL conducted a cross-directorate management self-assessment of work planning and control and is developing actions to respond to the issues identified. Ongoing efforts to strengthen the work planning and control process and to improve the quality of LLNL work packages are in progress: completion of remaining actions in response to the 2009 DOE Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) evaluation of LLNL's ISM System; scheduling more than 14 work planning and control self-assessments in FY11; continuing to align subcontractor work control with the Institutional work planning and control system; and continuing to maintain the electronic IWS application. The 24 events included in this analysis were caused by errors in the first four of the five ISMS functions. The most frequent cause was errors in analyzing the hazards (Function 2). The second most frequent cause was errors occurring when defining the work (Function 1), followed by errors during the performance of work (Function 4). Interestingly, very few errors in developing controls (Function 3) resulted in events. This leads one to conclude that if improvements are made to defining the scope of work and analyzing the potential hazards, LLNL may reduce the frequency or severity of events. Analysis of the 24 events resulted in the identification of ten common causes. Some events had multiple causes, resulting in the mention of 39 causes being identified for the 24 events. The most frequent cause was workers, supervisors, or experts believing they understood the work and the hazards but their understanding was incomplete. The s

De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R

2011-01-14

275

Bifurcation analysis of a Lyapunov-based controlled boost converter  

Science.gov (United States)

Lyapunov-based controlled boost converters have a unique equilibrium point, which is globally asymptotically stable, for known resistive loads. This article investigates the dynamic behaviors that appear in the system when the nominal load differs from the actual one and no action is taken by the controller to compensate for the mismatch. Exploiting the fact that the closed-loop system is, in fact, planar and quadratic, one may provide not only local but also global stability results: specifically, it is proved that the number of equilibria of the converter may grow up to three and that, in any case, the system trajectories are always bounded, i.e. it is a bounded quadratic system. The possible phase portraits of the closed-loop system are also characterized in terms of the selected bifurcation parameters, namely, the actual load value and the gain of the control law. Accordingly, the analysis allows the numerical illustration of many bifurcation phenomena that appear in bounded quadratic systems through a physical example borrowed from power electronics.

Spinetti-Rivera, Mario; Olm, Josep M.; Biel, Domingo; Fossas, Enric

2013-11-01

276

ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented

2008-07-01

277

Case-control association analysis of rheumatoid arthritis with candidate genes using related cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We performed a case-control association analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for several candidate genes using the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) data provided in Genetic Analysis Workshop 15. We conducted the case-control association analysis using all related cases and unrelated controls and compared the results with those from the analysis of samples using only one randomly selected case from each family and all unrelated controls. For both analy...

Yoo Yun; Gao Guimin; Zhang Kui

2007-01-01

278

Transient loss of voltage control of Ca2+ release in the presence of maurocalcine in skeletal muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In skeletal muscle, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release is controlled by the plasma membrane voltage through interactions between the voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptor (DHPr) and the ryanodine receptor (RYr) calcium release channel. Maurocalcine (MCa), a scorpion toxin peptide presenting some homology with a segment of a cytoplasmic loop of the DHPr, has been previously shown to strongly affect the activity of the isolated RYr. We injected MCa into mouse skeletal muscle fibers and measured intracellular calcium under voltage-clamp conditions. Voltage-activated calcium transients exhibited similar properties in control and in MCa-injected fibers during the depolarizing pulses, and the voltage dependence of calcium release was similar under the two conditions. However, MCa was responsible for a pronounced sustained phase of Ca(2+) elevation that proceeded for seconds following membrane repolarization, with no concurrent alteration of the membrane current. The magnitude of the underlying uncontrolled extra phase of Ca(2+) release correlated well with the peak calcium release during the pulse. Results suggest that MCa binds to RYr that open on membrane depolarization and that this interaction specifically alters the process of repolarization-induced closure of the channels. PMID:16782801

Pouvreau, Sandrine; Csernoch, Laszlo; Allard, Bruno; Sabatier, Jean Marc; De Waard, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Jacquemond, Vincent

2006-09-15

279

Transient Loss of Voltage Control of Ca2+ Release in the Presence of Maurocalcine in Skeletal Muscle  

Science.gov (United States)

In skeletal muscle, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release is controlled by the plasma membrane voltage through interactions between the voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptor (DHPr) and the ryanodine receptor (RYr) calcium release channel. Maurocalcine (MCa), a scorpion toxin peptide presenting some homology with a segment of a cytoplasmic loop of the DHPr, has been previously shown to strongly affect the activity of the isolated RYr. We injected MCa into mouse skeletal muscle fibers and measured intracellular calcium under voltage-clamp conditions. Voltage-activated calcium transients exhibited similar properties in control and in MCa-injected fibers during the depolarizing pulses, and the voltage dependence of calcium release was similar under the two conditions. However, MCa was responsible for a pronounced sustained phase of Ca2+ elevation that proceeded for seconds following membrane repolarization, with no concurrent alteration of the membrane current. The magnitude of the underlying uncontrolled extra phase of Ca2+ release correlated well with the peak calcium release during the pulse. Results suggest that MCa binds to RYr that open on membrane depolarization and that this interaction specifically alters the process of repolarization-induced closure of the channels.

Pouvreau, Sandrine; Csernoch, Laszlo; Allard, Bruno; Sabatier, Jean Marc; De Waard, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Jacquemond, Vincent

2006-01-01

280

Energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} in M{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl (M=Ca, Sr)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

M{sub 4.95?y}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl:0.05Eu{sup 2+}, yMn{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr) phosphors were synthesized at 1200 °C under a reductive atmosphere. The energy transfer mechanism and efficiency (?) from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} as well as the quantum efficiency (Q) of the Mn{sup 2+} emission were analyzed using PL spectra and decay curves. Least squares fittings of the Eu{sup 2+} decay curves indicate that the energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} follows the exchange mechanism in the Sr system, while besides exchange mechanism other complicated quenching processes are involved in the Ca system. Superficially the ? is high but the Q is low, which implies some energy loss. Two quenching models representative of an “inverse bottleneck process”, which is related to the lifetime mismatch between Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}, and a “charge transfer process“ in the Eu{sup 2+}–Mn{sup 2+} clusters, are proposed. The results may provide some clues for designing excellent sensitizer and activator co-doped phosphors in our further work. -- Highlights: • Energy transfer efficiency of Eu{sup 2+} is high and the emission efficiency of Mn{sup 2+} is low. • Inverse bottleneck effect related to Eu{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+} lifetime mismatch causes quenching. • Charge transfer process in Eu{sup 2+}–Mn{sup 2+} clusters also causes quenching.

Yang, Fengli [National Engineering Research Center for Rare Earth Materials, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, and Grirem Advanced Materials Co. Ltd., Beijing 100088 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000 (China); An, Wei [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhuang, Weidong, E-mail: wdzhuang@126.com [National Engineering Research Center for Rare Earth Materials, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, and Grirem Advanced Materials Co. Ltd., Beijing 100088 (China); Tian, Guang-Shan [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jing, Xi-Ping, E-mail: xpjing@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-02-15

 
 
 
 
281

Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

2000-12-01

282

Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

Kim, Myung-Ro; Park, Seong-Kyu [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Yongin (Korea)

2000-07-01

283

LSAP-DIGLIB, Linear Control System Design, Analysis, Plotting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LSAP (Linear Systems Analysis Program) is an interactive program with graphics capability provided through DIGLIB (Device Independent Graphics Library) that can be used for the analysis and design of linear control systems. Nearly all the classical design tools are available, including manipulation of transfer functions and generation of root locus, time response, and frequency response plots. The program is capable of working with continuous time systems and sampled data systems. For continuous time systems, the Laplace transform is used and for sampled data systems, the Z-transform is used. The capability to convert from a Laplace to a Z-transform is provided. The program is intended primarily for the analysis of feedback control systems. The system configuration or parameters can be changed easily, allowing the user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in a very convenient manner. DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with RT-11, RSX-11M, and VMS and readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting. DIGLIB has device drivers for Tektronix 4010, 4012, 4014, 4025, and 4027 terminals; VT100 terminals with the retro-graphics option; GIGI terminals, CalComp 1012 plotters, and Lexidata 3400 color graphics systems. 2 - Method of solution: LSAP performs its modeling by defining and operating upon polynomial fraction representations of transfer functions. It is a command oriented program. A command is entered, together with any necessary data, and then executed. The program is then ready for the next command. The MAIN procedure accepts a command and calls the appropriate command procedure, until the program is halted. Each command procedure uses any utilities required for the execution of the command. The commands interact with global data in two basic ways. All defined transfer functions are global records, which exist in a linked list. All commands except HALT and HELP operate upon these records. Also included in global data are switches, flags, pointers, and scalars which describe the state of the program and control the operations performed by the commands. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program can only be applied to systems which can be described by a collection of rational transfer functions that are either Laplace or Z-transforms. The order of the numerator or denominator polynomials cannot exceed 20

1985-01-01

284

Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design--such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I and C system designs--makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I and C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development

2007-01-01

285

Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design – such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I&C system designs – makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I&C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development.

Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani

2007-01-31

286

Control and inhibition analysis of complex formation processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM is a key event in tumour metastasis and invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of endopeptidases that degrade most of the components of the ECM. Several broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors (MMPIs have been developed, but have had little success due to side effects. Thus, it is important to develop mathematical methods to provide new drug treatment strategies. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 activation occurs via a mechanism involving complex formation that consists of membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2 and MMP2. Here, we focus on developing a method for analysing the complex formation process. Results We used control analysis to investigate inhibitor responses in complex formation processes. The essence of the analysis is to define the response coefficient which measures the inhibitory efficiency, a small fractional change of concentration of a targeting molecule in response to a small fractional change of concentration of an inhibitor. First, by using the response coefficient, we investigated models for general classes of complex formation processes: chain reaction systems composed of ordered steps, and chain reaction systems and site-binding reaction systems composed of unordered multi-branched steps. By analysing the ordered step models, we showed that parameter-independent inequalities between the response coefficients held. For the unordered multi-branched step models, we showed that independence of the response coefficients with respect to equilibrium constants held. As an application of our analysis, we discuss a mathematical model for the MMP2 activation process. By putting the experimentally derived parameter values into the model, we were able to conclude that the TIMP2 and MMP2 interaction is the most efficient interaction to consider in selecting inhibitors. Conclusions Our result identifies a new drug target in the process of the MMP2 activation. Thus, our analysis will provide new insight into the design of more efficient drug strategies for cancer treatment.

Saitou Takashi

2012-08-01

287

Anomaly and error detection in computerized materials control & accountability databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unites States Department of Energy sites use computerized material control and accountability (MC&A) systems to manage the large amounts of data necessary to control and account for their nuclear materials. Theft or diversion of materials from these sites would likely result in anomalies in the data, and erroneous information greatly reduces the value of the information to its users. Therefore, it is essential that MC&A data be periodically assessed for anomalies or errors. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been developing expert systems to provide efficient, cost-effective, automated error and anomaly detection. Automated anomaly detection can provide assurance of the integrity of data, reduce inventory frequency, enhance assurance of physical inventory, detect errors in databases, and gain a better perspective on overall facility operations. The Automated MC&A Database Assessment Project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in MC&A databases and increasing confidence in the data. We are working with data from the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, the Facility`s near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This paper describes progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on our results.

Whiteson, R.; Hoffbauer, B.; Yarbro, T.F. [and others

1997-09-01

288

Analysis and modernization of the INR DTL frequency control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the INR DTL frequency control system modeling are described. Methods of the control system quality improving by means of right choice of the heater and the control valve parameters are presented. The ways of the existing control system up-grade with using of the up-to-date microprocessor controller for the heater and control valve operation are selected

2008-01-01

289

An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modeling of the CMS Detector Control System  

CERN Multimedia

The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviors and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and c...

Ling Hwong, Yi

2010-01-01

290

Analysis of a controlled phase gate using circular Rydberg states  

CERN Document Server

We propose and analyze the implementation of a two qubit quantum gate using circular Rydberg states with maximum orbital angular momentum. The intrinsic quantum gate error is limited by the finite Rydberg lifetime and finite Rydberg blockade shift. Circular states have much longer radiative lifetimes than low orbital angular momentum states and are therefore candidates for high fidelity gate operations. We analyze the dipole-dipole interaction of two circular state Rydberg atoms and present numerical simulations of quantum process tomography to find the intrinsic fidelity of a Rydberg blockade controlled phase gate. Our analysis shows that the intrinsic gate error can be less than $9 \\times10^{-6}$ for circular Cs atoms in a cryogenic environment.

Xia, T; Saffman, M

2013-01-01

291

Analysis of a controlled phase gate using circular Rydberg states  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose and analyze the implementation of a two-qubit quantum gate using circular Rydberg states with maximum orbital angular momentum. The intrinsic quantum gate error is limited by the finite Rydberg lifetime and finite Rydberg blockade shift. Circular states have much longer radiative lifetimes than low orbital angular momentum states and are therefore candidates for high-fidelity gate operations. We analyze the dipole-dipole interaction of two circular state Rydberg atoms and present numerical simulations of quantum process tomography to find the intrinsic fidelity of a Rydberg blockade-controlled phase gate. Our analysis shows that the intrinsic gate error can be less than 9×10-6 for circular Cs atoms in a cryogenic environment.

Xia, T.; Zhang, X. L.; Saffman, M.

2013-12-01

292

Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

2010-06-01

293

Analysis of errors of radioisotope absorption methods of control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three approaches to the problem solution of measuring condition optimization during control of material density, are considered. The first approach is based on the choice of optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the conditions of providing minimum relative statistical error of measuring with the source given activity. The second approach consists in chosing optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the condition of providing equality of errors at the ends of the measured magnitude range. The third approach suggests determination of optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the condition of providing minimum error during measuring the given limiting value of the registered counting rate taking into account the possibility of chosing a source of the corresponding activity. Comparative analysis of the three mentioned methods is conducted. Dependences of relative statistical error of measuring on attenuation multiplicity factor are given

1979-01-01

294

Oil and hydrocarbon spills, modelling, analysis and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of oil from production centres to worldwide markets is usually carried out by tankers and pipelines. With the occurrence of many oil spills in recent years has come a growing awareness of the need for prevention measures and makes oil spill research one of the most difficult challenges in the present day. At the first International Conference on oil and hydrocarbon spills, modelling analysis and control, held in July 1998, 32 papers were presented to researchers, engineers and managers from all over the world. A wide range of subjects, including applied modelling techniques, contingency and response plans, resource rehabilitation methods, laboratory and field experiments, and case studies were presented. The papers are abstracted here. (UK)

1998-07-01

295

Computer-controlled particle collection and surface analysis system for tokamak scrape-of-layer analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microcomputer controlled collection probe system has been designed and is currently in use at the TEXTOR tokamak in Juelich. The system enables a time and space resolved determination of the particle flux in five directions in the limiter shadow of the tokamak. Several series of measurements have been performed during the test of different limiter and heating experiments at TEXTOR, as well as for the evaluation of a wall cleaning program. A completing system for the surface analysis of the probes has been constructed at the Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm. By means of a 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator, Rutherford back scattering, nuclear reaction analysis and proton induced X-ray emission analysis of the probe surface is possible. With the help of a computer, programmed for automatic target scanning, data acquisition and storage, remote controlled analyses of exposed probes can now be done routinely with this new system. Recently, this analysis station has also been employed for samples exposed in the JET tokamak at Culham. We present here descriptions of the particle collection device as well as the automatic analysis system. Finally, a few examples of results from experiments with plasma exposed samples are presented. (orig.).

Saetherblom, H.E.; Braun, M.; Emmoth, B.; Fried, T.; Hilke, J.; Holmstroem, P.A.; Waelbrock, F.; Wienhold, P.; Winter, J.

1985-10-01

296

Computer-controlled particle collection and surface analysis system for tokamak scrape-of-layer analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microcomputer controlled collection probe system has been designed and is currently in use at the TEXTOR tokamak in Juelich. The system enables a time and space resolved determination of the particle flux in five directions in the limiter shadow of the tokamak. Several series of measurements have been performed during the test of different limiter and heating experiments at TEXTOR, as well as for the evaluation of a wall cleaning program. A completing system for the surface analysis of the probes has been constructed at the Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm. By means of a 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator, Rutherford back scattering, nuclear reaction analysis and proton induced X-ray emission analysis of the probe surface is possible. With the help of a computer, programmed for automatic target scanning, data acquisition and storage, remote controlled analyses of exposed probes can now be done routinely with this new system. Recently, this analysis station has also been employed for samples exposed in the JET tokamak at Culham. We present here descriptions of the particle collection device as well as the automatic analysis system. Finally, a few examples of results from experiments with plasma exposed samples are presented.

Saetherblom, H.E.; Braun, M.; Emmoth, B.; Fried, T.; Hilke, J.; Holmstroem, P.A.; Waelbrock, F.; Wienhold, P.; Winter, J.

1985-10-01

297

Analysis of Control Strategies for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of various Pulse Width Modulation (PWM strategies for the three phase Diode Clamped Multi Level Inverter (DCMLI. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of new modulation schemes with Variable Amplitude (VA and various new schemes adopting the constant switching frequency and also variable switching frequency multicarrier control freedom degree combination concepts are developed and simulated for the chosen three phase DCMLI. The three phase DCMLI, is controlled in this paper with Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM reference along with triangular carriers and analysis is made among both without carrier overlapping and with Carrier Overlapping (CO techniques to choose the better strategy by performing simulation using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The variation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD and fundamental RMS output voltage is observed for various modulation indices. It is observed that among the various equal amplitude PWM strategies, COPWM-C provides less THD and higher RMS voltage. It is recognized that among the various variable amplitude PWM strategies, VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. By comparing the equal amplitude PWM strategies with the variable amplitude PWM strategies it is inferred that VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. It is also inferred that carrier overlapping techniques provides better results compared to the without carrier overlapping techniques.

C. R. Balamurugan

2013-05-01

298

Analysis of Fuzzy PID and Immune PID Controller for Three Tank Liquid Level Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In industrial control systems the liquid level iscarrying its significance as the control action for level control intanks containing different chemicals or mixtures is essential forfurther control linking set points. The three level control modelsare considered in our work. The conventional control algorithm isdifficult to reach required control quality with more strictrestriction on overshoot. Design a parameter self-tuningPID-controller based on fuzzy control, which can adjustPID-parameter...

2011-01-01

299

Numerical stability analysis in respiratory control system models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stability of the unique equilibrium in two mathematical models (based on chemical balance dynamics of human respiration is examined using numerical methods. Due to the transport delays in the respiratory control system these models are governed by delay differential equations. First, a simplified two-state model with one delay is considered, then a five-state model with four delays (where the application of numerical methods is essential is investigated. In particular, software is developed to perform linearized stability analysis and simulations of the model equations. Furthermore, the Matlab package DDE-BIFTOOL v.~2.00 is employed to carry out numerical bifurcation analysis. Our main goal is to study the effects of transport delays on the stability of the model equations. Critical values of the transport delays (i.e., where Hopf bifurcations occur are determined, and stable periodic solutions are found as the delays pass their critical values. The numerical findings are in good agreement with analytic results obtained earlier for the two-state model.

Laszlo E. Kollar

2005-04-01

300

Gamma spectrum analysis including NAA with SAMPO for windows  

Science.gov (United States)

SAMPO for Windows is a high performance gamma spectrum analysis program. All the measurement, analysis and neutron activation analysis (NAA) phases can be done either under full interactive user control or user defined tasks can be used for automated measurement and analysis sequences including control of Multichannel Analyzers (MCA's) and sample changers. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy together with the possibility to resolve complex multiplets with high accuracy makes SAMPO very suitable for INAA. On the other hand, the possibility to automate analysis sequences allows its use effectively also all routine NAA measurements. NAA in SAMPO is accomplished using comparative methods. Spectra of standards, flux monitors, controls and actual samples are analyzed normally to obtain the peak areas which are optionally corrected for decay. In the comparison the flux monitor results are used to correct for variations in the effective neutron flux. An optional irradiation position correction can also be applied. The controls are used to alarm for possible deviations in the results. The sophisticated spectrum analysis methods used together with the comparative NAA and monitors give accurate results limited by the systematic effects only. The Windows environment provides ease of use and further processing power is available through the interface to expert system identification of nuclides.

Aarnio, P. A.; Nikkinen, M. T.; Routti, J. T.

 
 
 
 
301

Design and Analysis of LINAC Control System in FPGA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Control system is the key part of Medical linear accelerator (LINAC), as the system deals with controlled radiation exposure to human body. As this sort of system pass through different regulatory body approvals, control system should be able to handle different stringent parameters very precisely. Some of the important tasks for control system are measurement of delivered dose; energy stabilization through controlling voltage level, automatic frequency control (AFC) of magnetron, trigger gen...

2012-01-01

302

Design and Analysis of LINAC Control System in FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control system is the key part of Medical linear accelerator (LINAC, as the system deals with controlled radiation exposure to human body. As this sort of system pass through different regulatory body approvals, control system should be able to handle different stringent parameters very precisely. Some of the important tasks for control system are measurement of delivered dose; energy stabilization through controlling voltage level, automatic frequency control (AFC of magnetron, trigger generation, human safety and machine safety interlocks etc. Proposed approach to the above mentioned requirement is design of a control system based on FPGA.This project proposes a control and communication system for medical linear accelerator.

Sangita Shit,

2012-02-01

303

4f and 5d energy levels of the divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions in M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optical data of Sm, Tb and Yb doped Ca2Si5N8 and Sr2Si5N8 phosphors that have been prepared by solid-state synthesis, are presented. Together with luminescence data from literature on Ce3+ and Eu2+ doping in the M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) hosts, energy level schemes were constructed showing the energy of the 4f and 5d levels of all divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions relative to the valence and conduction band. The schemes were of great help in interpreting the optical data of the lanthanide doped phosphors and allow commenting on the valence stability of the ions, as well as the stability against thermal quenching of the Eu2+d–f emission. Tb3+ substitutes on both a high energy and a low energy site in Ca2Si5N8, due to which excitation at 4.77 eV led to emission from both the 5D3 and 5D4 levels, while excitation at 4.34 eV gave rise to mainly 5D4 emission. Doping with Sm resulted in typical Sm3+f–f line absorption, as well as an absorption band around 4.1 eV in Ca2Si5N8 and 3.6 eV in Sr2Si5N8 that could be identified as the Sm3+ charge transfer band. Yb on the other hand was incorporated in both the divalent and the trivalent state in Ca2Si5N8. - Graphical abstract: Energy level schemes showing the 4f ground states of the trivalent (?) and divalent (?) lanthanide ions and lowest energy 5d states of the trivalent (?) and divalent (?) ions with respect to the valence and conduction bands of Ca2Si5N8 (left) and Sr2Si5N8 (right). Highlights: ? Construction of energy level schemes of all lanthanides within the M2Si5N8 hosts. ? Construction was done by analyzing existing as well as new spectroscopic data. ? Tb3+d–f emission from two different Ca sites in Ca2Si5N8 has been observed. ? Observation of the Sm3+ charge transfer band in Ca2Si5N8 and Sr2Si5N8. ? Ytterbium has been found in the divalent and trivalent state in Ca2Si5N8.

2013-01-01

304

Stability Analysis and Control of Nonlinear Phenomena in Buck Converters Using Variable Structure Control Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time varying, nonlinear nature of the power switches and several other sources of nonlinearities in DC-DC Converters deviates its performance from the theoretical prediction of stability. The switching nature necessitates a study of the stability and their periodic orbit rather than the equilibrium point. The closed loopoperation exhibits several types of nonlinear phenomena including bifurcation, chaos and quasi-periodicity. This paper is oriented with the analysis of such nonlinear phenomena in buck converter and attempts to coin a new strategy that can control chaos and significantly extend the parameter range for nominal period-I operation, in its mission to enhance the operating range of the converter.

Dr. S. R. PARANJOTHI,

2011-01-01

305

Criteria for Determination of Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a test bed for implementation of the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based approach to Material Control & Accountability (MC&A) requirements. The Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Strategies (COMPASS) model is used to determine the effectiveness of MC&A systems under SFPI. Under this model, MC&A is divided into nine primary elements. Each element is divided into sub-elements. Then each sub-element is assigned two values, effectiveness and contribution, that are used to calculate the rating. Effectiveness is a measure of subelement implementation and how well it meets requirements. Contribution is a relative measure of the importance, and functions as a weighting factor. The COMPASS model provides the methodology for calculation of sub-element and element ratings, but not the actual criteria. Each site must develop its own criteria. For the rating to be meaningful, the effectiveness criteria must be objective and based on explicit, measurable criteria. Contribution (weights) must reflect the importance within the MC&A program. This paper details the NTS approach to system effectiveness and contribution values, and will cover the following: the basis for the ratings, an explanation of the contribution “weights,” and the objective, performance based effectiveness criteria. Finally, the evaluation process will be described.

John Wright

2008-03-01

306

Model-based analysis of control performance in sewer systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Design and assessment of control in wastewater systems has to be tackled at all levels, including supervisory and regulatory level. We present here an integrated approach to assessment of control in sewer systems based on modelling and the use of process control tools to assess the controllability of the process. A case study of a subcatchment area in Copenhagen (Denmark) is used to illustrate the combined approach in modelling of the system and control assessment.

Mollerup, Ane Høyer; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel

2012-01-01

307

Application analysis of servo-control system based on PMAC with feed-forward control  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of traditional PID algorithm, the paper analyzes the improvements of control algorithm of PMAC (Programmable Multiple-Axis Controller) with feedforward control, and presents the computational model of the control algorithm. The debugging results of motors are analyzed in combination with PMAC as the controller. The problems and the final graphics data that appear throughout debugging process are analyzed in detail, which proves that there are better steady characteristics and dynamic performance for the servo-control system based on PMAC with feedforward control. The control system is rebuilded by parameter-adaptive PID+feedforward control for higher machining accuracy.

Lin, Rongkun; Yao, Bin; Chen, Minghui; Li, Fei; Peng, Liwen

2011-12-01

308

Supervised hierarchical bayesian model-based electomyographic control and analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work suggests a supervised hierarchical Bayesian model for surface electromyography (sEMG)-based motion classification and its strategy analysis. The proposed model unifies the optimal feature extraction and classification through probabilistic inference and learning by identifying the latent neural states (LNSs) that govern a collection of sEMG signals. In addition, the inference step provides an approach to identify distinct muscle activation strategies according to sEMG patterns based on LNSs. To validate the model, nine-class classification using four sEMG sensors on the limb motions is tested. The model performance is evaluated with relatively high and low activation levels, generalized classification across subjects and online classification. The model, based on LNSs to capture various motions, is assessed with respect to activation levels, individual subjects and transition during online classification. Our approach cannot only classify sEMG patterns, but also provide the interpretation of sEMG strategic patterns. This work supports the potential of the proposed model for sEMG control-based applications. PMID:24108752

Han, Hyonyoung; Jo, Sungho

2014-07-01

309

CMS centres for control, monitoring, offline operations and prompt analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CMS experiment is about to embark on its first physics run at the LHC. To maximize the effectiveness of physicists and technical experts at CERN and worldwide and to facilitate their communications, CMS has established several dedicated and inter-connected operations and monitoring centres. These include a traditional 'Control Room' at the CMS site in France, a 'CMS Centre' for up to fifty people on the CERN main site in Switzerland, and remote operations centres, such as the 'LHC at FNAL' centre at Fermilab. We describe how this system of centres coherently supports the following activities: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, prompt sub-detector calibrations, and time-critical data analysis of express-line and calibration streams; and (2) operation of the CMS computing systems for processing, storage and distribution of real CMS data and simulated data, both at CERN and at offsite centres. We describe the physical infrastructure that has been established, the computing and software systems, the operations model, and the communications systems that are necessary to make such a distributed system coherent and effective

2008-07-01

310

Automation of low energy gamma spectrometric analysis of mineral samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An interface device to perform the automatic operation of a multichannel analyser CANBERRA S30 from a COMODORE 64 microcomputer was developed. The interface also allows the manual control of the MCA and fulfills the requirements of low cost and simplicity

1996-01-01

311

Analysis of Fuzzy PID and Immune PID Controller for Three Tank Liquid Level Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In industrial control systems the liquid level iscarrying its significance as the control action for level control intanks containing different chemicals or mixtures is essential forfurther control linking set points. The three level control modelsare considered in our work. The conventional control algorithm isdifficult to reach required control quality with more strictrestriction on overshoot. Design a parameter self-tuningPID-controller based on fuzzy control, which can adjustPID-parameters according to error and change in error.Biological immune system is a control system that has strongrobusticity and self-adaptability in complex disturbance andindeterminacy environments. The artificial intelligence techniqueof fuzzy logic and immune controller is adopted for more reliableand precise control action which incorporate the uncertain factorsalso. In this work the comparison of the conventional model, fuzzymodel and immune feedback mechanism is clarified.

Sharad Kumar Tiwari

2011-09-01

312

Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

1998-05-13

313

Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author)

1981-01-01

314

Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter c...

2008-01-01

315

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

2010-01-01

316

Analysis and design of controllers for a double inverted pendulum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A physical control problem is studied with the μ methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the chart. It is shown how these performance limitation will effect the design of a μ controller for the system.

Niemann, Hans Henrik

2003-01-01

317

Biological control of invasive plant species: A stochastic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological control agents are regarded as a relatively safe method to control weeds. However, their impact on weeds can be relatively low and unpredictable. The aims of this article were to: (i) assess whether or not a weevil (Apion onopordi) and a mycoherbicide (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) are desirable as biological agents for the control of Californian thistle (Cirsium arvense) in New Zealand despite their uncertain effectiveness; (ii) identify the combination of control options that is opti...

Chalak, S. M.; Ruijs, A. J. W.; Ierland, E. C.

2011-01-01

318

[Analysis of a control system for speech movements].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzing the control quality in autonomic contour of articulation control system an account is made for the nonlinearities of the type of the zone ofunsensitivity, limitation and logarithmic response of the receptor. Regions of stablity and autooscillation frequency are determined. The role of recontrolling value is stated as a criterion of the control quality. It is suggested that the mechanisms of some stammering forms are concerned with the initiation of autooscillations in the articulation control system. PMID:1201309

Sorokin, V N

1975-01-01

319

Performance Analysis of Batch Reactor Temperature Control Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this project was to investigate the performance of a number of key control strategies in the temperature control of batch reactors. A bench scale model was built and a batch production system was then implemented on this model. As there was no a priori knowledge of the system a number of common system identification methods were investigated. The system was controlled using a Mitsubishi FX(2)N Programmable Logic Controller which was interfaced with a PC running ICONICS, a Supervis...

2011-01-01

320

Simulation of the treat-upgrade automatic reactor control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design of the Automatic Reactor Control System (ARCS) for the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Upgrade. A simulation was used to facilitate the ARCS design, and to completely test and verify its operation before installation at the TREAT facility. The ARCS is a microprocessor network based closed loop control system that provides a position demand control signal to the transient rod hydraulic drive system. There are four identical servo-hydraulic rod drives and each operates as a position control system. The ARCS updates its position demand control signal every 1 msec and its function is to control the transient rods so that the reactor follows a prescribed power-time profile (planned transient). The Main Control Algorithm (MCA) for the ARCS is an optimal reactivity demand algorithm. At each time step, the MCA generates a set of reference reactor functions, e.g., power, period, energy, and delayed neutron power. These functions are compared to plant measurements and estimated values at each time step and are operated on by appropriate algorithms to generate the reactivity demand function. The data necessary to calculate the reference functions is supplied from a Transient Prescription Control Data Set (TPCDS). The TPCDS specifies the planned transient as a fixed number of simply connected independent power profile segments. The developed simulation code models the TREAT reactor kinetics, the hydraulic rod drive system, the plant measurement system, and the ARCS control processor MCA. All of the models operate as continuous systems with the exception of the MCA which operates as a discrete time system at fixed multiples of 1 msec. The study indicates that the ARCS will meet or exceed all of its design specifications

1985-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

USB apply to field X-ray fluorescence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article analyzes the feasibility of application USB and GPS to field X-ray fluorescence analysis, and focuses on the hardware and firmware design of USB and multi-channel analyzer (MCA), then simply discusses the device driver design and the PC application software design. (authors)

2004-09-01

322

Operational analysis and limitations of the VSI-Based multi-line FACTS controllers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the operational analysis and the main limitations of the VSI-based multi-line FACTS controllers, namely: the GIPFC (Generalized Interline Power Flow Controller) and the IPFC (Interline Power Flow Controller), are analyzed. The GIPFC & IPFC are amongst the newest devices within the FACTS technology. By utilizing these devices an enhanced and nearly instantaneous controllability over independent transmission systems, can be obtained. The steady-state analysis of a GIPFC & IPFC co...

2006-01-01

323

Quality control analysis of imported fertilizers used in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty three (23) imported fertilizer samples of 5 fertilizer types have been analysed to determine their quality. The main objective of this research was to validate specifications indicated by manufacturers' on their fertilizer products. To achieve this objective, the fertilizer samples were analysed using five analytical techniques (INAA, AAS, flame photometer, kjeldahl method and UV-visible spectroscopy) to determine the concentrations of macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca and S), micronutrients (Cu, Na, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Hg and Pd) in the fertilizer samples. Results obtained from analysis were compared with certified values obtained from the companies and with standard values obtained from MOFA to establish whether the imported fertilizers met standards. Two reference materials (IAEA Soil-7 and SRM 1646a Estuarine Sediment) were used to validate the quantitative methods employed in the INAA and AAS techniques. Good agreements (98%) were obtained between the measured and verified concentrations for most of the elements. Analytical results revealed that the concentrations of the primary macronutrients (N, P and K) claimed by the manufacturers were valid. In contrast, manufacturers' claims for micronutrient concentrations did not agree with analytical results. The concentrations recorded were far below the minimum plant nutrient guarantees. For instance, the highest values recorded for Cu and Zn were 0.0265% and 0.00305% respectively, whiles the minimum guaranteed values were set at 0.05%. Heavy metal levels recorded in the fertilizers were insignificant and therefore do not present possible contamination problems during fertilizer application. In conclusion, not all the nutrient requirements expected of imported fertilizers were met. There is therefore the need for a good quality control system to monitor the chemical compositions of fertilizers imported into Ghana (au).

2010-01-01

324

Analysis and Control of Flora in Cream Vegetarian Salad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of microbial pollution and health quality change was conducted during the process of the production and refrigeration of Cream Vegetarian Salad food, to provide a basic reference for the catering industry to carry out HACCP management system for food like this and ensure the safety of food. Then a basic formula of Cream Vegetarian Salad was made according to the literature, further the total number of bacteria, pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacter, cocci and microzyme was tested in the main raw material and finished product detection according to the national standard method, Without changing the taste of the finished production, the raw materials were blanched, to measure the reduced bacteria rate, and determine the improved formula; the salad was stored at 4°C, then the number of bacteria was counted according to the time sequence and flora analysis was made to draw up the date of minimum durability. The total bacterial count of the Cream Vegetarian Salad by the basic formula is 2.3×104 CFU/g, among which coriander occupies 87%, sweetbell 7%, the rest is of small scale. Thus, the Cream Vegetarian Salad made in kitchen can be seriously polluted by microbial, mainly due to parsley, sweetbell red pepper and other raw materials, through the method of sterilization, storage in low temperature secondary pollution can be avoided, and the bacterial count can be controlled effectively, then the shelf life was extended and the risk of food poisoning was reduced, which did a lot of benefit to the food safety management of the catering industry.

Yang Yuan

2014-02-01

325

Design, analysis and presentation of factorial randomised controlled trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of more than one intervention in the same randomised controlled trial can be achieved using a parallel group design. However this requires increased sample size and can be inefficient, especially if there is also interest in considering combinations of the interventions. An alternative may be a factorial trial, where for two interventions participants are allocated to receive neither intervention, one or the other, or both. Factorial trials require special considerations, however, particularly at the design and analysis stages. Discussion Using a 2 × 2 factorial trial as an example, we present a number of issues that should be considered when planning a factorial trial. The main design issue is that of sample size. Factorial trials are most often powered to detect the main effects of interventions, since adequate power to detect plausible interactions requires greatly increased sample sizes. The main analytical issues relate to the investigation of main effects and the interaction between the interventions in appropriate regression models. Presentation of results should reflect the analytical strategy with an emphasis on the principal research questions. We also give an example of how baseline and follow-up data should be presented. Lastly, we discuss the implications of the design, analytical and presentational issues covered. Summary Difficulties in interpreting the results of factorial trials if an influential interaction is observed is the cost of the potential for efficient, simultaneous consideration of two or more interventions. Factorial trials can in principle be designed to have adequate power to detect realistic interactions, and in any case they are the only design that allows such effects to be investigated.

Little Paul

2003-11-01

326

Screening of conditions controlling spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its potential benefits over univariate, chemometrics is rarely utilized for optimizing sequential injection analysis (SIA methods. Specifically, in previous vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods, chemometrically optimized conditions were confined within flow rate and reagent concentrations while other conditions were ignored. Results The current manuscript reports, for the first time, a comprehensive screening of conditions controlling vis-spectrophotometric SIA. A new diclofenac assay method was adopted. The method was based on oxidizing diclofenac by permanganate (a major reagent with sulfuric acid (a minor reagent. The reaction produced a spectrophotometrically detectable diclofenac form. The 26 full-factorial design was utilized to study the effect of volumes of reagents and sample, in addition to flow rate and concentrations of reagents. The main effects and all interaction order effects on method performance, i.e. namely sensitivity, rapidity and reagent consumption, were determined. The method was validated and applied to pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, injection and gel. Conclusions Despite 64 experiments those conducted in the current study were cumbersome, the results obtained would reduce effort and time when developing similar SIA methods in the future. It is recommended to critically optimize effective and interacting conditions using other such optimization tools as fractional-factorial design, response surface and simplex, rather than full-factorial design that used at an initial optimization stage. In vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods those involve developing reactions with two reagents (major and minor, conditions affecting method performance are in the following order: sample volume > flow rate ? major reagent concentration >> major reagent volume ? minor reagent concentration >> minor reagent volume.

Idris Abubakr M

2011-02-01

327

Analysis and Control of Bulgaria Onion Cold Soup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of microbial pollution and health quality change was conducted during the process of the production and refrigeration of Onion Cold Soup to provide a basic reference for the catering industry for the implementation of HACCP management system for food and to ensure the safety of food. A basic formula of Onion Cold Soup was made according to the literature, then the total number of bacteria, pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacter, cocci and microzyme were tested in the main raw material and finished product detection according to the national standard method; hot boiling water to wash the main raw materials, statistical reduction in strain rate, in order to determine improvement formula. The finished cold soup at 4°C refrigerator made flora analysis, and drew up the date of minimum durability. The total bacterial count of the Onion Cold Soup by the basic formula is 2.4?104cfu/g, among which coriander occupied 53%, egg 24%, onion and lemonade 17% and 6%; respectively; and after blanching, the total number of colonies in the improved formulation is 1.1?103, the sterilization rate reaches 95.4%, and the effect is slightly obvious. The Onion Cold Soup made in kitchen can be seriously polluted by microbial, hot boiling water to wash the main raw materials and avoid secondary pollution, thus the bacterial count can be controlled effectively, then the shelf life was extended and the risk of food poisoning was reduced, which did a lot of benefit to the catering industry the food safety management.

Yunsheng Jiang

2014-02-01

328

Empirical Analysis of Interactive Control’s Effectiveness: A Parent-Subsidiary Company’s Interdependence Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the increasingly complex business environment and the principal-agent relationship, the enterprise group should establish a control system to prevent agency risk. Besides traditional system control, the parent company tends to adopt an interactive control including decentralized decision making, process communication and target incentive to guide and govern the subsidiaries. As an elastic control mechanism, the interactive control’s effectiveness could be influenced by the resources dependence relationship which is objective existence between the parent and subsidiary company. Based on the classical literature review, this study analyzes the effects of interaction control to the performance (“interactive control ? performance” and the interdependence’s regulating role by a total sample and a multiple-group structural equation analysis based on Chinese groups’ data, the results show that the interactive control could improve the subsidiaries’ performance, but different control process has its particular applicable interdependence situation. In the conclusions, we proposed some suggestions to promote the interactive control’s effectiveness in the enterprise group’s management practices.

Biao Luo

2012-09-01

329

Gain-phase margin analysis of dynamic fuzzy control systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we apply some effective methods, including the gain-phase margin tester, describing function and parameter plane, to predict the limit cycles of dynamic fuzzy control systems with adjustable parameters. Both continuous-time and sampled-data fuzzy control systems are considered. In general, fuzzy control systems are nonlinear. By use of the classical method of describing functions, the dynamic fuzzy controller may be linearized first. According to the stability equations and parameter plane methods, the stability of the equivalent linearized system with adjustable parameters is then analyzed. In addition, a simple approach is also proposed to determine the gain margin and phase margin which limit cycles can occur for robustness. Two examples of continuous-time fuzzy control systems with and without nonlinearity are presented to demonstrate the design procedure. Finally, this approach is also extended to a sampled-data fuzzy control system. PMID:15503509

Perng, Jau-Woei; Wu, Bing-Fei; Chin, Hung-I; Lee, Tsu-Tian

2004-10-01

330

Analysis of buffering process of control rod hydraulic absorber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control Rod Hydraulic Drive Mechanism(CRHDM) is a newly invented build-in control rod drive mechanism. Hydraulic absorber is the key part of this mechanism, and is used to cushion the control rod when the rod scrams. Thus, it prevents the control rod from being deformed and damaged. In this paper dynamics program ANSYS CFX is used to calculate all kinds of flow conditions in hydraulic absorber to obtain its hydraulic characteristics. Based on the flow resistance coefficients obtained from the simulation results, fluid mass and momentum equations were developed to get the trend of pressure change in the hydraulic cylinder and the displacement of the piston rod during the buffering process of the control rod. The results obtained in this paper indicate that the hydraulic absorber meets the design requirement. The work in this paper will be helpful for the design and optimization of the control rod hydraulic absorber. (author)

2011-10-24

331

MODELLING, SIMULATION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE PROCESS CONTROL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processes characterized by large time constant, such as those with temperature control systems, are found in a large number of industrial applications. To control such systems, the appropriate mathematical models identification is needed, considering the uncertainties modeling, handling in dynamic operating regime and proposing control solutions. The paper presents a control system used in a part of a complex plant where is needed to maintain temperature at a set point. The controlled installation consists from two connected tanks, for which a simplified mathematical model based on transfer functions are determined, considering additive uncertainties and classical cascade PI control structures are proposed. Developed models and solutions are analyzed by simulation in Matlab environment.

Mircea Dulau

2012-11-01

332

Control software analysis, Part I Open-loop properties  

CERN Document Server

As the digital world enters further into everyday life, questions are raised about the increasing challenges brought by the interaction of real-time software with physical devices. Many accidents and incidents encountered in areas as diverse as medical systems, transportation systems or weapon systems are ultimately attributed to "software failures". Since real-time software that interacts with physical systems might as well be called control software, the long litany of accidents due to real-time software failures might be taken as an equally long list of opportunities for control systems engineering. In this paper, we are interested only in run-time errors in those pieces of software that are a direct implementation of control system specifications: For well-defined and well-understood control architectures such as those present in standard textbooks on digital control systems, the current state of theoretical computer science is well-equipped enough to address and analyze control algorithms. It appears tha...

Feron, Eric

2008-01-01

333

An evaluation of cusum analysis and control charts applied to quantitative gamma-camera uniformity parameters for automated quality control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-camera uniformity is often monitored for quality control of performance. Many parameters can be derived from computer analysis of the image of a uniform (flood) source to obtain quantitative measures of uniformity. To compare the various parameters and assess two techniques used for their analysis, a series of Tc-99m flood images were obtained consecutively. After establishing a baseline from repeated images, uniformity was degraded by offsetting the PHA window by a small amount. Nine non-uniformity parameters were calculated for each flood image and the uniformity index and the percentage of pixels more than 5% from the mean. All parameters were calculated for both central field-of-view (CFOV) and useful field-of-view (UFOV). Eighty such trials were carried out on two gamma-cameras. The PHA offsets ranged from 1-10 keV. The two techniques used for analysis were the control chart and cusum analysis. Decision levels were set for each parameter, as multiples of SD for the control charts or by varying the dimensions of a truncated V-mask for cusum analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were then used for an objective comparison of the parameters and of the analysis techniques. The area under the ROC curve was used to rank the parameters in order of sensitivity to change in uniformity. The uniformity index and NEMA integral non-uniformity were found to be the most sensitive. Cusum analysis improved the sensitivity of those parameters that appeared to have low sensitivity to change when subjected to control chart analysis. However, there was little difference between the two analysis techniques for the more sensitive parameters. The ROC curves could also be used to provide a method for selecting decision levels, hence establishing an automated method for gamma-camera quality control. (orig.)

1992-01-01

334

Dynamic Analysis and Path Control of a Snake like Robot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a modular wheel less snake-like robot by considering viscous friction is modeled. The motion equations of the robot are derived. Then by imitating a real snake motion, the robot is controlled on the way that tracks the predefined trajectory. The controller controls the center of mass and global orientation. The motion of the robot is simulated for tracking a line and a sine curve. It is shown that the robot tracks the trajectories smoothly.

Navid Negahbani; Mostafa Ghayour

2009-01-01

335

Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then tested using a no...

1998-01-01

336

Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then tested using a no...

2005-01-01

337

Analysis of control rod worth in experimental fast reactor JOYO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In JOYO, the measurement of control rod worths have been carried out in the beginning of the each cycle, using both period method and neutron source multiplication method. In this paper, the calculational method of control rod worths in the design stage and the comparison with the design values and measured ones are shown. The reasons that the control rod worths change slightly in each cycle, are also investigated. (author). 13 figs, 12 tabs

1988-12-01

338

Simulation Based Analysis of Two Different Control Strategies for PMSM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In low power application generally permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are used. Because of their high performance/cost ratio, the attention toward PMSM in variable speed application, is greater. Control of torque, rotation speed and position for four quadrants and low speed operation, with high-performance dynamic behaviour, are often required in industrial applications but they are sensitive from the standpoint of the control strategies reliability. Vector control based on fieldorient...

2013-01-01

339

Analysis and control of transitional shear flows using global modes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis direct numerical simulations are used to investigate two phenomenain shear flows: laminar-turbulent transition over a flat plate and periodicvortex shedding induced by a jet in cross flow. The emphasis is on understanding and controlling the flow dynamics using tools from dynamical systems and control theory. In particular, the global behavior of complex flows is describedand low-dimensional models suitable for control design are developed; this isdone by decomposing the flow i...

Bagheri, Shervin

2010-01-01

340

Probabilistic Analysis of Reactive Power Control Strategies for Wind Farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing wind power penetration in electrical power systems across Europe has led to rising grid code requirements concerning reactive power control by wind farms in order to meet the upcoming challenges for system stability, control and operation. Some of the important factors for the reactive power control strategy are the stochastic variations of wind and grid voltage which affect both the reactive power capabilities of wind farms and the reactive power support demanded by the grid c...

Hethey, Ja?nos; Leweson, Sofie

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Control, stability analysis and grid integration of wind turbines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Chapters 2 and 3 of the thesis we propose a self-scheduled control method for a doublyfed induction generator driven by a wind turbine (DFIGWT), whose rotor is connected to the power grid via two back-to-back PWM power converters. We design a controller for this system using the linear matrix inequality based approach to linear parameter varying (LPV) systems, which takes into account the nonlinear dynamics of the system. We propose a two-loop hierarchical control structure....

Wang, Chen

2008-01-01

342

Seismic analysis of hydraulic control rod driving system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simplified mathematical model was developed for the Hydraulic Control Rod Driving System (HCRDS) of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor, which incorporated the design of its chamfer-hole step cylinder, to analyze its seismic response characteristics. The control rod motion was analyzed for different sine-wave vibration loadings on platform vibrator. The vibration frequency domain and the minimum acceleration amplitude of the control rod needed to cause the control rod to step to its next setting were compared with the design acceleration amplitude spectrum. The system design was found to be safety within the calculated limits. The safety margin increased with increasing frequency. (author)

2002-12-01

343

Design and Analysis of Controllers for an Double Inverted Pendulum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A physical control problem is studied with the H_inf and the SSV methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the cart. It is shown how these performance limitations will effect the design of H_inf and SSV controllers for the system.

Niemann, Hans Henrik

2005-01-01

344

Reliability analysis of digital instrumentation and control systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NUREG-CR/6942 technical report proposed a Markov state transition model for the main feedwater valve (MFV) controller system as part of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Digital Feedwater Control System (DFWCS). The proposed model extends the Markov model to allow the use of non-exponential distribution in the time to next output of the controller system responsible for maintaining the water level. This case study demonstrates the general application of semi-Markov process model for digital instrumentation and control systems. System failure probability and mission reliability measures are determined. (author)

Veeramany, A.; Pandey, M.D., E-mail: aveerama@uwaterloo.ca [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

2011-07-01

345

Simulation Based Analysis of Two Different Control Strategies for PMSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In low power application generally permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM are used. Because of their high performance/cost ratio, the attention toward PMSM in variable speed application, is greater. Control of torque, rotation speed and position for four quadrants and low speed operation, with high-performance dynamic behaviour, are often required in industrial applications but they are sensitive from the standpoint of the control strategies reliability. Vector control based on fieldoriented control (FOC is one of the methods most investigated and discussed by many researcher and now it is an industry standard. Traditional control methods based on FOC use position sensors result to be very expensive in electrical drive with low power. The aim of this paper is to show that sensorless control strategy based on MRAS approach can be applied successfully in PMSM drives with low cost. The results are obtained from comparison of two algorithms of vector control of PMSM: traditional FOC using position sensor and model reference adaptive system (MRAS approach based on sensorless vector control .Based on results obtained, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed control structures will be discussed.

Lindita Dhamo#1 , Aida Spahiu

2013-04-01

346

El control de convencionalidad: análisis en derecho comparado / The control of conventionality: analysis in comparative law  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el caso Almonacid (2006), por primera vez, la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos enunció la doctrina del control de convencionalidad. El control de convencionalidad ha generado un gran debate académico, especialmente en la doctrina constitucional latinoamericana. Una pregunta que surge en e [...] ste escenario es cuál es la relación entre el control de constitucionalidad y el control de convencionalidad. El derecho comparado nos permitirá aportar argumentos y criterios para abordar esta cuestión. Abstract in english In the Almonacid case (2006), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights enounced for the first time the doctrine of the control of conventionality. The control of conventionality has propelled a significant academic debate, especially between Latin-American constitutional scholars. One question that [...] arises in this scenario is about the relationship between the control of constitutionality and the control of conventionality. The comparative law brings arguments and criteria to address this question.

Gonzalo Aguilar, Cavallo.

347

Robust Control Analysis using Real-Time Implementation of a Hybrid Fuel Cell Power Generation System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a complete robustness analysis is performed for a hybrid Fuel Cell/Supercapacitor generation system with power management, realized through the control of two identical boost power converters. For the closed-loop control a previously proposed multivariable robust control is considered. The robust control strategy analyzed consists of a multivariable Proportional-Integral controller found using an algorithm with a Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) formulation proposed by the autho...

Hernandez-torres, David; Riu, Delphine; Sename, Olivier; Druart, Florence

2011-01-01

348

Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

Chen, Hong

2009-01-01

349

DQDB Media Access Control Protocol: performance evaluation and unfairness analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on an extended simulation analysis of the Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) MAC protocol. The simulation analysis is aimed at catching the most relevant protocol mechanisms (requests, empty and busy slots, distributed queue, etc.) which are responsible for the DQDB behaviour. First, the results obtained under several levels and characterization of the offered load to each station of a MAN made up of 50 stations are shown. The DQDB analysis is then complemented by extending ...

Conti, Marco; Gregori, Enrico; Lenzini, Luciano

1989-01-01

350

Simulation Analysis of Computer-Controlled pressurization for Mixture Ratio Control  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedural code (C++) simulation was developed to investigate potentials for mixture ratio control of pressure-fed spacecraft rocket propulsion systems by measuring propellant flows, tank liquid quantities, or both, and using feedback from these measurements to adjust propellant tank pressures to set the correct operating mixture ratio for minimum propellant residuals. The pressurization system eliminated mechanical regulators in favor of a computer-controlled, servo- driven throttling valve. We found that a quasi-steady state simulation (pressure and flow transients in the pressurization systems resulting from changes in flow control valve position are ignored) is adequate for this purpose. Monte-Carlo methods are used to obtain simulated statistics on propellant depletion. Mixture ratio control algorithms based on proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller methods were developed. These algorithms actually set target tank pressures; the tank pressures are controlled by another PID controller. Simulation indicates this approach can provide reductions in residual propellants.

Alexander, Leslie A.; Bishop-Behel, Karen; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Kelley, Anthony; Woodcock, Gordon R.

2005-01-01

351

Project analysis and environmental pollution control for the expansion project of the Shanghai aluminum plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic analysis of environmental pollution control for a project focuses on the costs and benefits of controlling pollution. The economic analysis of environmental pollution control starts from the production processes and assesses the emissions, then identifies the pollution-control technology and the standards, estimates the costs of pollution control and applies the financial and economic analysis techniques to analyze the cost/benefit of pollution control for the project. An acceptable social discount rate, differing from the applied discount rate for the financial and economic analysis, may be applied for the analysis of pollution control. The conclusions from the case study of project analysis and environmental pollution control for the Expansion Project of the Shanghai Aluminum Plant indicate that: (1) The appropriate choice of technology transfer options between imported advanced technology and utilization of abundant labor will increase total factor productivity in China; (2) A rational price system will ensure that prices reflect cost efficiency and socially beneficial production of profit and loss from investment in a project; (3) Labor hiring flexibility will allow the enterprise to dismiss idle or negligent workers and link wages with labor productivity; and (4) An incentive pollution control policy will encourage the industry to internalize pollution control costs or to consider possible cost reduction options.

Chang, J.C.

1986-01-01

352

Comparative analysis of some aspects of mitochondrial metabolism in differentiated and undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to clarify some aspects of the mechanisms of regulation of mitochondrial metabolism in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Experiments were performed on murine Neuro-2a (N2a) cell line, and the same cells differentiated by all-trans-retinoic acid (dN2a) served as in vitro model of normal neurons. Oxygraphy and Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) were applied to characterize the function of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in NB cells. Flux control coefficients (FCCs) for components of the OXPHOS system were determined using titration studies with specific non-competitive inhibitors in the presence of exogenously added ADP. Respiration rates of undifferentiated Neuro-2a cells (uN2a) and the FCC of Complex-II in these cells were found to be considerably lower than those in dN2a cells. Our results show that NB is not an exclusively glycolytic tumor and could produce a considerable part of ATP via OXPHOS. Two important enzymes - hexokinase-2 and adenylate kinase-2 can play a role in the generation of ATP in NB cells. MCA has shown that in uN2a cells the key sites in the regulation of OXPHOS are complexes I, II and IV, whereas in dN2a cells complexes II and IV. Results obtained for the phosphate and adenine nucleotide carriers showed that in dN2a cells these carriers exerted lower control over the OXPHOS than in undifferentiated cells. The sum of FCCs for both types of NB cells was found to exceed significantly that for normal cells suggesting that in these cells the respiratory chain was somehow reorganized or assembled into large supercomplexes. PMID:24072403

Klepinin, Aleksandr; Chekulayev, Vladimir; Timohhina, Natalja; Shevchuk, Igor; Tepp, Kersti; Kaldma, Andrus; Koit, Andre; Saks, Valdur; Kaambre, Tuuli

2014-02-01

353

Analysis of a control rod ejection accident with ARROTTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A control rod ejection accident is initiated by the hypothetical rupture of the control rod drive housing, forcing the rapid ejection of the drive shaft and attached control rod by the resulting hydraulic forces. This accident was analysed for a four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor rated at 3411 MW(thermal) with ARROTTA, a three-dimensional reactor simulator with kinetics abilities developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. This was the first use of ARROTTA that has received a safety evaluation report from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

1993-06-20

354

Analysis of a control rod ejection accident with ARROTTA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A control rod ejection accident is initiated by the hypothetical rupture of the control rod drive housing, forcing the rapid ejection of the drive shaft and attached control rod by the resulting hydraulic forces. This accident was analysed for a four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor rated at 3411 MW(thermal) with ARROTTA, a three-dimensional reactor simulator with kinetics abilities developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. This was the first use of ARROTTA that has received a safety evaluation report from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

Seeburger, G.D. (Duke Power Company, Charlotte, NC (United States))

1993-01-01

355

Control, stability analysis and grid integration of wind turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Chapters 2 and 3 of the thesis we propose a self-scheduled control method for a doubly-fed induction generator driven by a wind turbine (DFIGWT), whose rotor is connected to the power grid via two back-to-back PWM power converters. We design a controller for this system using the linear matrix inequality based approach to linear parameter varying (LPV) systems, which takes into account the nonlinear dynamics of the system. We propose a two-loop hierarchical control structure. The inner-loo...

2011-01-01

356

Instrumentation of Java program code for control flow analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we describe an approach and introduce a new tool, called JDeTEx, to extract decision tables from Java programs in order to give the maintenance engineer a better understanding of the control flow of the program. Decision tables are a compact, yet precise way to model the control flow of computer programs. In order to extract the decision tables the explicit and implicit control flow of Java programs needs to be analyzed by the tool. Firstly, the tool uses static byte code analy...

Lo?sch, Felix

2005-01-01

357

Control system analysis and design approach for 500 MWe PHWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design approach for automatic feedback control of the spatial power distribution in a reactor. The problem is stated as, for a given mathematical description of large size nuclear reactor (500 MWe) and flux distribution as a function of space and time, find the optimum control signals to be feedback to each one of the fourteen light water zone control units so as to give good response to transient spatial phenomena and the xenon oscillations in particular. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

1992-01-01

358

Qantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then evaluated using a nonlinear simulation.

Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

1998-01-01

359

Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then tested using a nonlinear simulation.

Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

1998-01-01

360

Analysis of Model Predictive Current Control for Voltage Source Inverter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Model predictive control has become a promising control technology in power converter, because of the good dynamic response and accurate current tracking capability. This study mainly analyzes and verifies the Model Predictive Current control (MPC of a three-phase voltage sources converter. The MPC controller predicts the behavior of the converter for each possible voltage vector on each sampling interval. And a cost function is used to evaluate the voltage vector for the next sampling interval based the predicted load behavior. According to the assessment, an optimal voltage vector is selected and the corresponding switching state is applied to the converter during the next sampling interval. Finally, simulation and experimental results are demonstrated to validate the steady-state and dynamic performance of the proposed system.

Jingang Han

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Institutional and technological shifts: interrrelation analysis and control studies ????????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????: ?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses relations between institutional and technological changes and their differences, and some main principles of control for their interactions. Axiology of institutional shifts and its connection to agents’ utility functions are under consideration.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ????, ? ????? ?...

2012-01-01

362

Convergence Analysis of Genetic Algorithms for Topology Control in MANETs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe and verify convergence properties of our forced-based genetic algorithm (FGA) as a decentralized topology control mechanism distributed among software agents. FGA uses local information to guide autonomous mobile nodes over an unknown geograph...

C. S. Sahin E. Urrea M. Conner M. U. Uyar S. Gundry

2009-01-01

363

Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech.

Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri

364

Analysis of Lyapunov Method for Control of Quantum States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The natural trajectory tracking problem is studied for generic quantum states represented by density operators. A control design based on the Hilbert-Schmidt distance as a Lyapunov function is considered. The control dynamics is redefined on an extended space where the LaSalle invariance principle can be correctly applied even for non-stationary target states. LaSalle's invariance principle is used to derive a general characterization of the invariant set, which is shown to ...

Wang, Xiaoting; Schirmer, Sonia

2009-01-01

365

Analysis of Series Resonant Inverter using Hysteresis Current Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze a series resonant inverter for industrial induction heating application. It is a process used for heat conductive materials, bond, harden, and soften metals. Resonant inverters which operate at high frequency preferable for induction heating. Series resonant inverters which is made up of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. Power control is obtained by Hysteresis Current Control (HCC. Soft switching techniques is performed which minimizes switching losses.

R.Nithya

2014-02-01

366

Control/fault diagnosis interactions analysis for structured bilinear systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is dedicated to the study of control/fault diagnosis interactions for structured bilinear systems using a graph-theoretic approach. According to the fact that constant control inputs make possible the representation of a bilinear system by a linear one, some propositions provide the sufficient conditions for active-bfprg (Bilinear Fundamental Problem of Residual Generation) in this particular case. These conditions are easy to check because they are based on the comparison of expres...

Canitrot, Se?bastien; Boukhobza, Taha; Hamelin, Fre?de?ric; Martinez-martinez, Sinuhe?

2007-01-01

367

Game Analysis of Internal Control and Risk Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on examining links and differences between internal control and risk management from their definition,this paper mainly analyzes their relation with game theory. A complete information static game model isestablished and payoff functions for managers and investors are designed. The result shows that the decrease ofbusiness risk cannot be realized by severe penalties, instead, the frequency of internal control in risk monitoringmust be taken into consideration, and otherwise it will stim...

Yanhong Pang; Qing Li

2013-01-01

368

Extracting Chaos Control Parameters from Time Series Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a simple method to analyze time series, and estimate the parameters needed to control chaos in dynamical systems. Application of the method to a system described by the logistic map is also shown. Analyzing only two 100-point time series, we achieved results within 2% of the analytical ones. With these estimates, we show that OGY control method successfully stabilized a period-1 unstable periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor.

Santos, R B B [Centro Universitario da FEI, Avenida Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco 3972, 09850-901, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Graves, J C, E-mail: rsantos@fei.edu.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

2011-03-01

369

Analysis of a sliding-mode controlled SEPIC converter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, different sliding surfaces are analyzed for the SEPIC converter. The simplest discontinuity surface leading to a stable equilibrium point corresponds to the constant input current. A fast transient response is obtained when a linear combination of the input and the output voltage is used to control the converter. Other sliding surfaces providing adaptative control schemes are also investigated to attenuate perturbation effects in the input voltage or in the output load. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Hernanz, J.; Poveda, A.; Fossas, E. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martinerz, L. [Universitat Rovira Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

1996-10-20

370

The Analysis on Financial Cooperative Controlling Mechanism of Enterprise Group  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the core of modern market economy, enterprise group is an advanced form of organization after productive forces reached to a certain stage. For the reason of complexity and specificity of organizational form of enterprise group, the issue of financial cooperative control has been widespread concerned by theorists. Although many researches have been done, but there are still lacking of systematic research results especially in the fields of mechanism of financial cooperative control. After ...

Ziqin Feng

2010-01-01

371

An Analysis of the PLLs With Secondary Control Path  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used in different areas of applications particularly for synchronization and control purposes in grid connected applications. A major challenge associated with the PLLs is how to improve their dynamic performance without jeopardizing their stability and filtering capability. Recently, some approaches based on adding a secondary control path (SCP) to the PLL structure have been proposed to deal with this challenge. The objective of this letter is to bri...

Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

2014-01-01

372

Economic Analysis of the Birth-Control Law in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the two approaches of governments’ population policy: command-and-control regulation and market-oriented incentive. From both the micro and macro perspective, this paper draws a conclusion that the population market has its own autonomous principles and too much government intervention like the birth-control law in China is harmful. Policy-makers should provide guarantee from the political regime. And in case of market failure, the government should adopt the market-orie...

Chenhao Zhu

2009-01-01

373

Analysis on electronic control unit of continuously variable transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuously variable transmission system can ensure that the engine work along the line of best fuel economy, improve fuel economy, save fuel and reduce harmful gas emissions. At the same time, continuously variable transmission allows the vehicle speed is more smooth and improves the ride comfort. Although the CVT technology has made great development, but there are many shortcomings in the CVT. The CVT system of ordinary vehicles now is still low efficiency, poor starting performance, low transmission power, and is not ideal controlling, high cost and other issues. Therefore, many scholars began to study some new type of continuously variable transmission. The transmission system with electronic systems control can achieve automatic control of power transmission, give full play to the characteristics of the engine to achieve optimal control of powertrain, so the vehicle is always traveling around the best condition. Electronic control unit is composed of the core processor, input and output circuit module and other auxiliary circuit module. Input module collects and process many signals sent by sensor and , such as throttle angle, brake signals, engine speed signal, speed signal of input and output shaft of transmission, manual shift signals, mode selection signals, gear position signal and the speed ratio signal, so as to provide its corresponding processing for the controller core.

Cao, Shuanggui

374

Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

2008-01-01

375

DESCRIBING FUNCTION METHOD FOR PI-FUZZY CONTROLLED SYSTEMS STABILITY ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper proposes a global stability analysis method dedicated to fuzzy control systems containing Mamdani PI-fuzzy controllers with output integration to control SISO linear / linearized plants. The method is expressed in terms of relatively simple steps, and it is based on: the generalization of the describing function method for the considered fuzzy control systems to the MIMO case, the approximation of the describing functions by applying the least squares method. The method is applied to the stability analysis of a class of PI-fuzzy controlled servo-systems, and validated by considering a case study.

Stefan PREITL

2004-12-01

376

Analysis of Nonlinear Speed-Torque Performance of SRM with Fuzzy Based Nonlinear Controller  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By the use of linear controller the analysis of performance of SRM is not sufficient because of stator inductance of stator winding of SRM is function of rotor position, so here proposed to be design the nonlinear controller i.e. fuzzy based controller which converge the comparison analysis of SRM based on speed error and its change with respect time domain specification. Neural network and fuzzy logic technique are unique technique in which process the information specify by mathematical equ...

2013-01-01

377

A strategic analysis of future growth options for an established process control company  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project speaks to the prevailing business environment presently encountered at WESTCOAST Controls Ltd (WESTCOAST), a leading process control company in British Columbia, Canada. The scope of the project covers topics such as company overview, external industry analysis, and internal company analysis including strategic tools such as Porter's 5 Forces. The project concludes with a recommendation for the restructuring of the control systems & solutions division for improved performan...

Levesque, Sheila Lynne

2007-01-01

378

Tsetse Fly Control in Kenya's Spatially and Temporally Dynamic Control Reservoirs: A Cost Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) are significant health concerns throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Funding for tsetse fly control operations has decreased since the 1970s, which has in turn limited the success of campaigns to control the disease vector. To maximize the effectiveness of the limited financial resources available for tsetse control, this study develops and analyzes spatially and temporally dynamic tsetse distribution maps of Gloss...

Mccord, Paul F.; Messina, Joseph P.; Campbell, David J.; Grady, Sue C.

2012-01-01

379

Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed

1981-01-01

380

Voltage sag ride-through of AC drives : control and analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis focuses on controller design and analysis for induction motor (IM) drives, flux control for electrically excited synchronous motors with damper windings (EESMs), and to enhance voltage sag ride-through ability and analysis for a wind turbine application with a full-power grid-connected active rectifier. The goal is to be able to use the existing equipment, without altering the hardware. Further, design and analysis of the stabilization of DC-link voltage oscillations for DC system...

Pietila?inen, Kai

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Active Control Analysis for Aeroelastic Instabilities in Turbomachines  

Science.gov (United States)

Turbomachines onboard aircraft operate in a highly complex and harsh environment. The unsteady flowfield inherent to turbomachines leads to several problems associated with safety, stability, performance and noise. In-flight surge or flutter incidents could be catastrophic and impact the safety and reliability of the aircraft. High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF), on the other hand, can significantly impact safety, readiness and maintenance costs. To avoid or minimize these problems generally a more conservative design method must be initiated which results in thicker blades and a loss of performance. Actively controlled turbomachines have the potential to reduce or even eliminate the instabilities by impacting the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. By modifying the unsteady aerodynamics, active control may significantly improve the safety and performance especially at off-design conditions, reduce noise, and increase the range of operation of the turbomachine. Active control can also help improve reliability for mission critical applications such as the Mars Flyer. In recent years, HCF has become one of the major issues concerning the cost of operation for current turbomachines. HCF alone accounts for roughly 30% of maintenance cost for the United States Air-Force. Other instabilities (flutter, surge, rotating-stall, etc.) are generally identified during the design and testing phase. Usually a redesign overcomes these problems, often reducing performance and range of operation, and resulting in an increase in the development cost and time. Despite a redesign, the engines do not have the capabilities or means to cope with in-flight unforeseen vibration, stall, flutter or surge related instabilities. This could require the entire fleet worldwide to be stood down for expensive modifications. These problems can be largely overcome by incorporating active control within the turbomachine and its design. Active control can help in maintaining the integrity of the system in unforeseen events and provide for more aggressive designs to reduce the weight and improve efficiency of the turbomachine. Another area where active control can be useful is in controlling and suppressing rotating stall and surge in compressors, thereby increasing its operating range. Although some of these benefits will be offset by the added cost and weight penalty of the control system, the potential benefits in safety, reliability, performance, and noise characteristics are significant enough to warrant research in the area of active control of turbomachines. There is renewed interest within industry to understand unsteady aerodynamic behavior. This improved understanding not only leads to better design of turbomachines, which avoid instabilities but also which helps in understanding the controllability of the instabilities. The proliferation of micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) devices has made available new tools to designers for employing feedback controls at reasonable costs. MEMS have also made the control devices small and unobtrusive enough to be implemented within the turbomachine without significant obstruction to the flow path. This has made active-control very attractive especially for systems requiring extreme confidence.

Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

2002-01-01

382

Performance analysis of sequential tests in process control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on quality control of industrial processes. In particular, numerous statistical techniques exist which are designed to continually check an industrial process for machine or component failure, thereby determining if the process is under control, or if it is becoming out of control. In this study, the authors consider a very powerful class of quality control techniques known as sequential tests. Sequential tests classify a set of observations in a manner similar to statistical hypothesis tests, but are characterized by a random sample size. Perhaps the best known sequential test is Wald`s sequential probability ratio test. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a log likelihood ratio based test for simple or composite hypotheses. After taking each observation, the SPRT decides whether to accept the null hypothesis, reject the null hypothesis, or continue sampling. For the purpose of quality control, an SPRT can be conducted repeatedly over time as incoming observations are received. In the following section, the authors reviews the sequential probability ratio test and state some of its properties. In Section 3, they formulate a Markov additive model which allows them to study the sequential probability ratio test under various types of process behavior. Section 4 develops the theoretical results and the methodological approach that allows them to bound the first passage time distributions of their model. Section 5 illustrates their techniques through numerical examples.

Hoyer, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering/Management Science

1994-04-01

383

Analysis of Fusion Burn Control Approaches Using METIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling the fusion power through regulation of the plasma density and temperature is one of the most fundamental problems in fusion reactors and will be critical to the success of burning plasma experiments like ITER. In this work, a volume averaged model for the evolution of the density of energy, deuterium and tritium fuel ions, alpha-particles, and impurity ions is used to synthesize nonlinear feedback controllers for stabilizing and modulating the burn condition. Adaptive control techniques are used to account for modeling uncertainty. The control approaches make use of the different possible methods for altering the fusion power, including adjusting the temperature through auxiliary heating, modulating the density or isotopic mix through fueling, and altering the impurity density through impurity injection. The different methods are simulated and compared using a simulation framework based around METIS, a module of the CRONOS code. The simulations include the effects of 1D plasma profiles and particle recycling, and the framework allows for testing the robustness and performance of the controllers in various scenarios, including confinement changes, impurity content changes, and actuators faults.

Boyer, Mark; Schuster, Eugenio; Bremond, Sylvain; Nouailletas, Remy; Artaud, Jean-Francois

2012-10-01

384

Control system model for the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general control system model has been coupled with SASSYS-1 one-dimensional liquid-metal reactor (LMR) thermal-hydraulics code to provide an integrated treatment for LMRs similar to the general control system/thermal-hydraulics treatment available for light water reactors in RETRAN. With the development of innovative reactor design concepts, the emphasis on LMR safety has shifted away from the consideration of hypothetical whole-core disruptive accidents (HCDAs) to transients with much milder consequences and of much longer time scale. This increase in time scale, rendered possible by the incorporation of a number of inherently safe design features, makes it important to consider the possibility of control system action in the long-term response of the plant and to ascertain that inadvertent aggravation of the transient by control action is not possible. As a step in this direction, the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) LMR system transient code SASSYS-1, which evolved from the ANL LMR HCDA code, SAS4A, was modified to include a control system simulation module

1986-06-15

385

Seismic analysis of control and safety rod drive mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control rod and its driving mechanism for a Fast Breeder Reactor is to facilitate safe shutdown of the reactor in case of emergency. A theoretical study on the seismic qualification of control and safety rod driving mechanism is carried out. Earthquake excitations under Operational Basis (ORE) and Safe Shutdown condition (SSE) are considered. The time required for the control rod to reach the bottom position in order to shut down the reaction under excited condition is traced out. The maximum displaced positions and extreme stresses in various parts of the system under excitations are evaluated. The system modeled using beam elements. The connections between different parts are modeled through rigid elements. The interaction between various parts are modeled using GAP elements. (author)

2003-02-01

386

Bifurcation Analysis of the Voltage Controlled Photosensitive Chaotic Oscillator  

Science.gov (United States)

A photosensitive chaotic oscillator which can be controlled with light illumination under various control voltage levels is proposed. The oscillator consists of a photodiode for the light input, clock switches and capacitors for the sample and hold function, a nonlinear function that creates an adjustable chaos map, and a voltage shifter that adjusts the output voltage for feedback. After optimizing the photodiode sub-circuit by using an available photodiode model in PC-based simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis to obtain a suitable output, the full chaotic circuit is verified with standard 0.6-?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor parameters. Chaotic dynamics are analyzed as a function of the light intensity under different control voltage levels. The time series, frequency spectra, transitions in state spaces, bifurcation diagrams and the largest Lyapunov exponent are improved.

Van, Ha Nguyen; Han, Jung Song

2013-06-01

387

Fracture analysis for controlled blasting demolition of reinforced concrete structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toward establishing a design method for controlled blasting demolition used for the designed dismantling of large reinforced concrete (RC) structures, this study is intended to prove the overall suitability and efficiency of this method. The previous paper (Controlled Blasting for Demolition of Biological Shield Concrete Wall: Part 2) described an application of controlled blasting demolition to an inner part of the radioactive RC biological shield in the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). Through this experience, it was confirmed that the partial demolition of the structure was carried out safely and rationally using this method. In order to clarify the characteristics of blasting effect, an RC cylinder blasting test was performed and the results of this test were compared with analytical simulation of this test using the discrete element method (DEM) and the finite element method (FEM). This paper outlines the test, the analyses and the comparison. (author)

1995-11-01

388

Analysis of Thermal Control Coatings on MISSE for Aerospace Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment. Engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center have analyzed a number of these materials, including: Zinc oxide/potassium silicate coating, Zinc oxide/potassium silicate/silicone coating, Zinc orthotitanate/potassium silicate coating, Electrically conductive thermal control coatings and Various coatings for part marking, automated rendezvous and capture, and astronaut visual aids These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atormc oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was very limited for some samples. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. The effect of contamination from an active space station on the performance of white thermal control coatings is discussed.

Finckenor, Miria; Kenny, Mike

2007-01-01

389

Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials or Observational Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observational analytical studies, especially retrospective case-control studies, are considered methodologically suspect by many investigators. In general, there are a number of limitations to the value of the results of case-control studies, and in assessing the validity of included cases and controls, a first question would be: To what extent would further follow-up alter the estimate of the association between a postulated risk factor and studied disease? In case of cohort studies, there is no bias of misclassification of individuals into exposed and unexposed. Because of their prospective nature, cohort studies are stronger than case-control studies when well executed but they also are more expensive. Moreover, cohort studies are unsuitable for uncommon diseases or diseases with low incidence in the population, and usually involve a large number of people. In theory, well designed randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs avoid most of pitfalls of observational studies and categorized as level II or even level I evidence in case of large multicentric RCTs. It is surprising that nearly all systematic reviews, including Cochrane Collaboration reviews, concentrate on clinical trials. Little attention has been withdrawn towards the importance of pooling observational studies as cohort, case-control and ecological studies. Combining RCTs may provide more evidence; however combining data from observational studies is sometimes desirable, especially in studying the treatment of a chronic disease. In addition, identification of chronic diseases risk factors is currently the most crucial problem in the epidemiology of non-infectious diseases and calls for pooling the results of dispersed observational studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 269-270

Mohamed Farouk Allam

2010-08-01

390

Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

2011-09-26

391

Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth  

Science.gov (United States)

This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

Su, Chien-Hao; Chen, Hao; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Albert T.

2011-09-01

392

Computational Analysis of Control Systems Using Dynamic Optimization  

CERN Multimedia

Several concepts on the measure of observability, reachability, and robustness are defined and illustrated for both linear and nonlinear control systems. Defined by using computational dynamic optimization, these concepts are applicable to a wide spectrum of problems. Some questions addressed include the observability based on user-information, the determination of strong observability vs. weak observability, partial observability of complex systems, the computation of $L^2$-gain for nonlinear control systems, and the measure of reachability in the presence of state constraints. Examples on dynamic systems defined by both ordinary and partial differential equations are shown.

Kang, Wei

2009-01-01

393

Economic Analysis of the Birth-Control Law in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the two approaches of governments population policy: command-and-control regulation and market-oriented incentive. From both the micro and macro perspective, this paper draws a conclusion that the population market has its own autonomous principles and too much government intervention like the birth-control law in China is harmful. Policy-makers should provide guarantee from the political regime. And in case of market failure, the government should adopt the market-oriented approach to complement.

Chenhao Zhu

2009-02-01

394

Jitterbug and TrueTime: Analysis Tools for Real-Time Control Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents two recently developed, Matlab-based analysis tools for realtime control systems. The first tool, called Jitterbug, is used to compute a performance criterion for a control loop under various timing conditions. The tool makes it easy to quickly judge how sensitive a controller is to implementation effects such as slow sampling, delays, jitter, etc. The second tool, called TrueTime, allows detailed co-simulation of process dynamics, control task execution, and network commun...

Cervin, Anton; Henriksson, Dan; Lincoln, Bo; A?rze?n, Karl-erik

2002-01-01

395

Analysis, Modeling and Neural Network Traction Control of an Electric Vehicle without Differential Gears  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents system analysis, modeling and simulation of an EV with two independent rear wheel drives. The traction control system is designed to guarantee the EV dynamics and stability in case of no differential gears. Using two electrics in-wheel motors give the possibility to have a torque and speed control in each wheel. This control level improves the EV stability and the safety. The proposed traction control system uses the vehicle speed, which is different from wheels speed char...

Haddoun, Abdelhakim; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Diallo, Demba; Abdessemed, Rachid; Ghouili, Jamel; Srairi, Kamel

2007-01-01

396

Modeling, Analysis, and Neural Network Control of an EV Electrical Differential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents system modeling, analysis, and simulation of an electric vehicle (EV) with two independent rear wheel drives. The traction control system is designed to guarantee the EV dynamics and stability when there are no differential gears. Using two in-wheel electricmotorsmakes it possible to have torque and speed control in each wheel. This control level improves EV stability and safety. The proposed traction control system uses the vehicle speed, which is different from wheel spe...

Haddoun, Abdelhakim; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Diallo, Demba; Abdessemed, Rachid; Ghouili, Jamel; Srairi, Kamel

2008-01-01

397

GEOPLEX: Control and analysis of GSSA and VSS models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two studies about a full-bridge boost rectifier are reported in this deliverable. In the first one the converter is analysed in the frame of Variable Structure Systems and Sliding Mode. In the section 2 of the deliverable, the converter is analyzed in the frame of PCHS and controlled using IDA-PBC. The later includes experimental results.

Batlle Arnau, Carles; Fossas Colet, Enric; Gaviria, Ce?sar; Grin?o? Cubero, Robert

2004-01-01

398

Analysis of the position control system of ASDEX Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique for determing the location of the plasma centre in a Tokamak using magnetic flux and field measurements outside the plasma to extrapolate to the plasma boundary is presented and its implimentation as a feedback control system is discussed. Magnetic field distributions computed from toroidal equilibrium calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the technique as installed on the ASDEX Tokamak. (orig.)

1980-01-01

399

Homotopy Methods in Control System Design and Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this research is to extend and develop homotopy algorithms for a variety of computational problems in control. In addition, these problems are being examined in the context of the algebraic and differential geometry on which the h...

L. T. Watson

1992-01-01

400

Modelling and Analysis of Tiltrotor Aircraft for Flight Control Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As known that flight control design and real-time simulation is very important in the aircraft system, in order to realize linear/nonlinear flight control design and real-time simulation, this study presents the full nonlinear flight dynamic model of tiltrotor aircraft. Primary dynamic equations of the model are developed considering nacelles tilting dynamics. The force and the moment in primary equations are decomposed and calculated by multi-body aerodynamic models, including the aerodynamic effect of rotor wake on the wing/elevator/rudder. Rotor dynamic model is developed based on the blade element theory and the gyroscopic moment caused by nacelles tilting is introduced into the blade flapping dynamics. By the linearization of full nonlinear equations of motion, a family of linear state-space models in the whole flight envelop is obtained. For the velocity control of the aircraft in hover or low speed, the nacelle angle is derived as a new control input. Because the number of unknown parameters is bigger than that of equations, two different algorithms are applied to trim the mathematical model. The results by these trimming methods are in co