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Sample records for control analysis mca

  1. Defect Analysis of MCA Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Anita; Pulecio, Javier F.; Bhanja, Sanjukta

    2010-01-01

    As devices continue to scale, imperfections in the fabrication process will have a more substantial impact on the reliability of a system. In Magnetic Cellular Automata (MCA) data is transferred through the coupling of neighboring cells via magnetic force fields. Due to the size of the switching cells, usually of the order of nanometers or smaller, MCA can be sensitive to inherent fabrication defects such as irregular spacing and non-uniform cell structures. Here we investig...

  2. Performance analysis of morphological component analysis (MCA) method for mammograms using some statistical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Kamel, Nidal; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Hussain, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Early detection of breast cancer helps reducing the mortality rates. Mammography is very useful tool in breast cancer detection. But it is very difficult to separate different morphological features in mammographic images. In this study, Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) method is used to extract different morphological aspects of mammographic images by effectively preserving the morphological characteristics of regions. MCA decomposes the mammogram into piecewise smooth part and the texture part using the Local Discrete Cosine Transform (LDCT) and Curvelet Transform via wrapping (CURVwrap). In this study, simple comparison in performance has been done using some statistical features for the original image versus the piecewise smooth part obtained from the MCA decomposition. The results show that MCA suppresses the structural noises and blood vessels from the mammogram and enhances the performance for mass detection.

  3. Dual function of the McaS small RNA in controlling biofilm formation : Genes Dev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Mikkel Girke; Thomason, Maureen K.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate gene expression through base-pairing with mRNAs, and it has been assumed that these sRNAs act solely by this one mechanism. Here we report that the multicellular adhesive (McaS) sRNA of Escherichia coli uniquely acts by two different mechanisms: base-pairing and protein titration. Previous work established that McaS base pairs with the mRNAs encoding master transcription regulators of curli and flagella synthesis, respectively, resulting in down-regulation and up-regulation of these important cell surface structures. In this study, we demonstrate that McaS activates synthesis of the exopolysaccharide beta-1,6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) by binding the global RNA-binding protein CsrA, a negative regulator of pgaA translation. The McaS RNA bears at least two CsrA-binding sequences, and inactivation of these sites compromises CsrA binding, PGA regulation, and biofilm formation. Moreover, ectopic McaS expression leads to induction of two additional CsrA-repressed genes encoding diguanylate cyclases. Collectively, our study shows that McaS is a dual-function sRNA with roles in the two major post-transcriptional regulons controlled by the RNA-binding proteins Hfq and CsrA.

  4. MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCA) FOR EVALUATION OF INTELLIGENT ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Haluza; Jan Machacek

    2011-01-01

    Because the electrical installations are nowadays a lot of options and variants, it is necessary to evaluate these complex installation process from several perspectives and objectively. Due to the complexity of evaluation of electrical installation is design a methodology that uses multi-criteria analysis - MCA.

  5. Design and implementation of an MCA card with double ADC for nuclear radiation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid development of technology has triggered several interesting trends in nuclear instrumentation. In particular, the introduction of add-on cards that can serve as multichannel analyzer and offer adequate performance for most of the nuclear applications. The purpose of this thesis has been the design of a multichannel analyser inserted into microcomputer. The originality of this prototype MCA card with its innovative concept is the use of two analog digital converters or ADC of which the objective is to reduce to minima the lost of pulses during the acquisition and the signals processing. The first ADC works as the main converter (or master) and the second ADC the slave converter. The first ADC begins the first signals acquisition, while it will be busy for the processing, the second ADC continues the acquisition, thus there will be no lost pulses or precisely lost of pulses will be reduced to minima.The three main points for a multichannel analyzer will be studied such a the pile-up, the differential non-linearity or 'DNL' and the dead time. In the first part of this thesis the function of the MCA has been described and the different roles of the composed modules have been developed. In the second part, spectra analysis has been done with the MCA prototype as well the comparison with other MCAs such as MCAs S100, TISA, MCA35+, and the Inspector.

  6. Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability : combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsma, Frans J.,

    2006-01-01

    General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about the positive and negative aspects of using the main judgement-oriented evaluation tools of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) together in the context of sustainability...

  7. Development of 8K-MCA Add-on based on FPGA technique with a control of VB6 software application under windows environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multichannel analyzer is the heart of most experimental measurements. Today, it becomes popular and convenient. It can play a role of getting, processing data and easily interfacing to PC. Some standard-alone multichannel analysis systems can be replaced by Add-on MCA card. Especially, MCA card is necessary for application in nuclear physics research. The main aim of this sub-project is to focus on a design and construction of an 8K-MCA Add-on served for studying nuclear structure, for development of Gamma spectroscopy system, and for a production of low-cost electronics instruments as well. Some experimental results were obtained through the aforementioned card combining with other needed functional analog units. A multichannel data processing (MCD) circuit for nuclear spectroscopy application was developed using a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) as the central processing element. In addition to the first role, A 13-bit analog-to-digital converter (8k ADC) circuit for nuclear spectroscopy application was also developed using a successive approximation ADC with a control of FPGA technology. The FPGA operates a program that builds the distributed functions of data collected by the ADC and then corrects the ADC differential non-linearity (DNL) via the sliding scale method. The acquisition routine runs in 3.7? s. the conversion time is approximated 2.2? s, and the integral non-linearity ? 0.14%. (author)

  8. Determination of Steady-State and Faulty Regimes of Overhead Lines by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guglielmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase positive sequence modelling is often used in power systems when power flows and short circuit analysis are assessed. Of course, the use of single-phase positive sequence modelling assumes purely three-phase configurations and perfectly symmetrical ones so that single-phase modelling considers that all the phase conductors behave in the same way. When considering the physical reality of power networks, this assumption can be questionable and the behaviors of all the system conductors including the passive ones (earth wires for overhead lines, metallic screens and armours for cables and enclosures for gas insulated lines is completely unknown. Therefore, the present multiconductor cell analysis (MCA becomes necessary, since it allows one to achieve great precision results on the regimes of both phase conductors and passive conductors. MCA offers a powerful tool in order to validate (or less approximated and simplified computation methods. In particular, for single and double circuit overhead lines (OHLs, the current phasors induced in the earth wires and the ground return current alongside the line can be directly computed by MCA in steady state and faulty regimes. It is worth noting that, for faulty regimes, MCA allows also evaluating the approximation degree and validity field of screening factors k.

  9. The analysis of MCA effects on the CANDU supercells with advanced fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to compare the effects, on thermal flux and reactivity, of introducing a Mechanical Control Absorber inside a CANDU 600 super-cell respectively inside an ACR supercell. The Mechanical Control Absorber is a reactivity control device by means of which the reactor neutrons flux is adapted to the needs of the operator. In order to determine these effects we used the DRAGON code which solved the 3-D differential transport equations giving information on neutron fluxes, absorption ratio and neutron dispersal and transport ratio. A model of supercell form of two elementary cells with a MCA bar between them was used. The study of this effect will show the way that differences concerning the fuel, the cooling agent and the moderator, affect the Mechanical Control Absorber impact into the active lattice. For studying these effects we considered three-dimensional CANDU 600 and ACR supercells, with an ensemble of 5 blocks. The first block is moderator, the second block is fuel, the third block is the absorber in case the Mechanical Control Absorber is in the supercell, while if not, its place is occupied by the moderator, the next block is fuel and the last block is moderator. The supercell model is presented. This study showed that comparing the results obtained in the case of the super-cell without absorber with the results obtained in the case of the super-cell with the absorber inside, one can conclude: - The Mechanical Control Absorber effects inside a CANDU 6 Control Absorber effects inside a CANDU 600 super-cell are more evident on the thermal neutron flux then on the fast neutron one; - The introduction of an absorbent rod inside a CANDU 600 super-cell has the effect of reducing the thermal neutron flux leading to a diminution of super-cell's reactivity; - The absorption ratio at a CANDU 600 super-cell with an absorbent rod inside is higher then at the super-cell without the absorber. (authors)

  10. System of accounting and control of nuclear materials (MCA) relative to IAEA safeguards and improvement of radioecological situation of the Joint Stock Company ULBA Metallurgical Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following goals must be accomplished following this Project : - Develop computerized and automated MCA data system; - Provide up-to-date and reliable accounting and control of availability and transfer of nuclear materials, detect loss or theft of nuclear materials; - Improve book keeping of nuclear materials, provide paperwork for raw materials and finished products sales and purchase control, process nuclear materials shipment data; - Reduce sampling error and to obtain precise measure of nuclear materials to obtain ESADRA target values; - Thorium concentrates transfer preliminary released from raw Beryllium to the new storage to prevent environment radiation pollution and obvious fire accidents; - Improve radioecological situation of the territory caused by old storage dismantling and decontamination of site; - Improve accounting, storing and Physical Protection of Thorium Following is the proposal to obtain goals of the Project : - Develop accounting and control systems - Develop basic standards and procedures for MCA system - Develop users specifications of MCA data system - Develop software of MCA data system - Assembly and adjustment of local network at the production facilities - Automated MCA data system personnel training - Develop measurement system - Determination of the mistakes in sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content - Develop the procedures of sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content providing ESADRA target values - Develop measure control program covering scales and analytical equipment and measuring methods - Develop software for measure control program support - Thorium shipment, decontamination and improvement of Physical Protection of Thorium storage - Accounting of Thorium containing materials when transferring to the new storage - Arrange storage decontamination - Develop new systems of Thorium Containment/Surveillance and Physical Protection

  11. The hardware design of digital MCA based on FPGA and USB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An digital MCA (multi-channel analyzer) based on FPGA and USB2.0 technology is introduced. FPGA is the main processor. The nuclear signal through the amplifier circuit and AD converter is processed in FPGA. then the result is transferred to host computer through USB2.0 interface. The design achieves full digital control. Verilog HDL is used for FPGA programming and the interface software on the host computer is written in QT. The software on the host computer accomplishes the acquisition and display of the input signal and the MCA spectrum. The MCA pulse-amplitude analysis is achieved digitally in FPGA. (authors)

  12. NTS MC&A History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Alice Price; Kim Young

    2008-07-01

    Within the past three and a half years, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has progressed from a Category IV to a Category I nuclear material facility. In accordance with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Administrator, NTS received shipments of large quantities of special nuclear material from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and other sites in the DOE complex. December 2004 was the first occurrence of Category I material at the NTS, with the exception of two weeks of sub-critical underground testing in 2001, since 1992. The Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program was originally a jointlab effort by LANL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Bechtel Nevada, but in March 2006 the NNSA Nevada Site Office appointed the NTS Management and Operations contractor with sole responsibility. This paper will discuss the process and steps taken to transition the NTS MC&A program from multiple organizations to a single entity and from a Category IV to a Category I program. This transition flourished as MC&A progressed from the 2004 Office of Assessment (OA) rating of “Significant Weakness” to the 2007 OA assessment rating of “Effective Performance.” The paper will provide timelines, funding and staffing issues, OA assessment findings and corrective actions, and future expectations. The process has been challenging, but MC&A’s innovative responses to the challenges have been very successful.

  13. Stochastic Control Analysis for Biochemical Reaction Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how stochastic reaction processes are affected by external perturbations. We describe an extension of the deterministic metabolic control analysis (MCA) to the stochastic regime. We introduce stochastic sensitivities for mean and covariance values of reactant concentrations and reaction fluxes and show that there exist MCA-like summation theorems among these sensitivities. The summation theorems for flux variances are shown to depend on the size...

  14. mcaGUI: microbial community analysis R-Graphical User Interface (GUI)

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Wade K.; Krishnan, Vandhana; Beck, Daniel; Settles, Matt; Foster, James A.; Cho, Kyu-Chul; Day, Mitch; Hickey, Roxana; Schütte, Ursel M.E.; Xia ZHOU; Williams, Christopher J; Forney, Larry J; Abdo, Zaid

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Microbial communities have an important role in natural ecosystems and have an impact on animal and human health. Intuitive graphic and analytical tools that can facilitate the study of these communities are in short supply. This article introduces Microbial Community Analysis GUI, a graphical user interface (GUI) for the R-programming language (R Development Core Team, 2010). With this application, researchers can input aligned and clustered sequence data to create custom abundance ...

  15. Rapid and accurate identification of isolates of Candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decat, Ellen; Van Mechelen, Els; Saerens, Bart; Vermeulen, Stefan J T; Boekhout, Teun; De Blaiser, Steven; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Deschaght, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. We evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA) as an identification tool for distinguishing between 16 Candida spp., i.e. Candida albicans, Candida bracarensis, Candida dubliniensis, Candida famata, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida inconspicua, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida lipolytica, Candida lusitaniae, Candida nivariensis, Candida norvegensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida sojae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one species pair, i.e. Candida metapsilosis/Candida orthopsilosis. Starting from a cultured isolate, ITS2-MCA led to differentiation of these species within 6 h. According to our findings, ITS2-MCA offers a simple, rapid and cost-effective method for identification of cultured isolates of the clinically most relevant and prevalent Candida species. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate how it performs on mixed samples and clinical samples. PMID:23142490

  16. After the super MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Government in Bonn walked into the trap. Enthusiastic about the chance to blame the Soviet Union for bad reactor designs and even worse an information policy, our Government voluntarily drew a two-faced picture of inadequacy and danger (threatening the East) and of better standards and performance (shielding the Western world). To get out of the contradiction it created, the Government now starts a policy intended to calm down excitements, trying to cure the shock by sounding the all-clear signal. This book is aimed at disturbing this therapy. It presents the antedote: Information on - the presumed MCA scenario at Chernobyl, the Soviet nuclear energy programme, the chaotic information policy observed in the FRG, the hazards of prolonged radiation exposure, radioactivity, its nature and effects, reactions of people affected, the chances of local initiatives and necessary and feasible strategies of opting out of the nuclear power programme. Erhard Eppler, Klaus Traube, Lutz Mez, Rainer Griesshammer and many other authors came forward with a variety of papers presenting their assessment of the new situation, after the Chernobyl disaster. One common judgment of all the contributions is: The Chernobyl accident has not added any new arguments in disproof of the dangerousness of nuclear energy - all the well-known facts against the utilisation of nuclear power remaining unshattered -, but instead revealed so-called experts as professional minimizers, and their soothing strategies as an institutionalized lack of responsibility. (orig./HP)

  17. A Study of MCA Learning Algorithm for Incident Signals Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many signal subspace-based approaches have already been proposed for determining the fixed Direction of Arrival (DOA of plane waves impinging on an array of sensors. Two procedures for DOA estimation based neural network are presented. Firstly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA is employed to extract the maximum eigenvalue and eigenvector from signal subspace to estimate DOA. Secondly, Minor component analysis (MCA is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will modify a MCA learning algorithm to enhance the Convergence, where a Convergence is essential for MCA algorithm towards practical applications. The learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Simulation results will be furnished to illustrate the theoretical results achieved.

  18. MCA Learning Algorithm for Incident Signals Estimation:A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been many works on adaptive subspace filtering in the signal processing literature. Most of them are concerned with tracking the signal subspace spanned by the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of the signal plus noise data. Minor Component Analysis (MCA is important tool and has a wide application in telecommunications, antenna array processing, statistical parametric estimation, etc. As an important feature extraction technique, MCA is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will present a MCA learning algorithm to extract minor component from input signals, and the learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Simulation results will be furnished to illustrate the theoretical results achieved.

  19. Mini-MCA: an intelligent inspection instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small portable multichannel analyzer (Mini-MCA) designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an intelligent safeguards instrument developed for the IAEA under the United States Aid Program. The Mini-MCA is a basic 1-k channel MCA that features a high degree of user friendliness and portability. Its history, use, and future applications are discussed. 5 figures, 3 tables

  20. ScoutTM, a portable MCA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantrad Sensor's hand-held multichannel analyzer (MCA), the ScoutTM, has evolved considerably from the initial licensing from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. DOE). The ScoutTM has grown into a flexible MCA system with alpha-, gamma-, X-ray and neutron detection capabilities with wide ranging applications. The development philosophy is discussed along with specific examples of design choices in areas such as manufacturability, upgradability, probe interchangability and software user interface. Recently introduced products include: software enhancements, additional probes, customized software and a second generation instrument, the Scout512TM, that boasts increased capabilities. Future developments are also discussed. (author)

  1. Improved MCA programmed by LabVIEW language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PC based Multichannel analyser (MCA) is a popular instrument in the nuclear physics experiment. The authors introduce one kind of improved MCA which is programmed by LabVIEW language. This MCA has many advantages such as powerful data processing capability, more friendly interface and is easy to use. The basic principle of this MCA and the core technology of its software are described. Some results of experiment are presented too

  2. Detectability of acute MCA infarctions by CT: appearance of signs of ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the detectability of acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions by CT with regard to the time interval after symptom onset and to the infarction size. Analysis of the chronological appearance of signs of ischaemia. Material and methods: Two examiners retrospectively and independently evaluated CT scans from 171 patients with acute MCA infarctions performed within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. Results: 92, respectively 87%, of the infarctions were correctly diagnosed. The detection rate did not increase after the first hour after onset of symptoms. All MCA infarctions involving the lentiform nucleus, but only 83% of the infarctions covering <33% of the MCA area, were recognised. The hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) was present in 75% of the infarctions in the first 90 minutes and in 15% from hour 12 to 24. Hypodensity of the lentiform nucleus appeared within 150 minutes, hypodensity of the convexity cortex at the earliest 60 minutes after onset of symptoms. Conclusions: The detection rate of acute MCA infarctions corresponds with the infarction size, but does not significantly change after the first hour after symptom onset. (orig.)

  3. A Simulation of Energy Storage System for Improving the Power System Stability with Grid-Connected PV using MCA Analysis and LabVIEW Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrich Stuchly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale penetration of distributed, Renewable power plants require transfers of large amounts of energy. This, in turn, puts a high strain on the energy delivery infrastructure. In particular, photovoltaic power plants supply energy with high intermittency, possibly affecting the stability of the grid by changing the voltage at the plant connection point. In this contribution, we summarize the main negative effects of selected and real-operated grid connected photovoltaic plant. Thereafter a review of suitable Energy storage systems to mitigate the negative effects has been carried out, compared and evaluated using Multi-criterion analysis. Based on this analysis, data collected at the plant and the grid, are used to design the energy storage systems to support connection of the plant to the grid. The cooperation of these systems is then analysed and evaluated using simulation tools created in LabVIEW for this purpose. The simulation results demonstrate the capability of energy storage system solutions to significantly reduce the negative feedback effects of Photovoltaic Power Plan to the low voltage grid.

  4. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

  5. Metabolic Control Analysis: A Tool for Designing Strategies to Manipulate Metabolic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Saavedra; Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez; Viridiana Olín-Sandoval; Rafael Moreno-Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    The traditional experimental approaches used for changing the flux or the concentration of a particular metabolite of a metabolic pathway have been mostly based on the inhibition or over-expression of the presumed rate-limiting step. However, the attempts to manipulate a metabolic pathway by following such approach have proved to be unsuccessful. Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) establishes how to determine, quantitatively, the ...

  6. The metacaspase (Mca1p) has a dual role in farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Ounissi, Marwa; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Camadro, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating the apoptotic response of Candida albicans may help in the control of this opportunistic pathogen. The metacaspase Mca1p has been described as a key protease for apoptosis in C. albicans but little is known about its cleavage specificity and substrates. We therefore initiated a series of studies to describe its function. We used a strain disrupted for the MCA1 gene (mca1?/?) and compared its proteome to that of a wild-type isogenic strain, in the presence and absence of a known inducer of apoptosis, the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol. Label-free and TMT labeling quantitative proteomic analyses showed that both mca1 disruption and farnesol treatment significantly affected the proteome of the cells. The combination of both conditions led to an unexpected biological response: the strong overexpression of proteins implicated in the general stress. We studied sites cleaved by Mca1p using native peptidomic techniques, and a bottom-up approach involving GluC endoprotease: there appeared to be a "K/R" substrate specificity in P1 and a "D/E" specificity in P2. We also found 77 potential substrates of Mca1p, 13 of which validated using the most stringent filters, implicated in protein folding, protein aggregate resolubilization, glycolysis, and a number of mitochondrial functions. An immunoblot assay confirmed the cleavage of Ssb1p, a member of the HSP70 family of heat-shock proteins, in conditions where the metacaspase is activated. These various results indicate that Mca1p is involved in a limited and specific proteolysis program triggered by apoptosis. One of the main functions of Mca1p appears to be the degradation of several major heat-shock proteins, thereby contributing to weakening cellular defenses and amplifying the cell death process. Finally, Mca1p appears to contribute significantly to the control of mitochondria biogenesis and degradation. Consequently, Mca1p may be a link between the extrinsic and the intrinsic programmed cell death pathways in C. albicans. PMID:25348831

  7. Performance Evaluation of the RSG-GAS Micronomad MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MicroNOMAD-MCA is a gamma spectrometer for radiation exposure measurement using matrix respond method. The equipment used NAI detector to produced pulse spectrum and then covert to quantities of dosimeter by a computer program. Performance evaluation of the MCA-MicroNOMAD has been done to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the measurement result. The evaluation was done by comparison test with standard survey meter. Measurement of gamma radiation was performed in the experimental Hall, Operation Hall of the RSG-GAS and outside of reactor building with 15 MW reactor power. The gamma radiation exposure measurement result in the Experimental Hall using the MicroNOMAD MCA and Ion Chamber survey meter are 92,4 x 10 exp 6 rad/hour and (62 ? 88) x 10 exp 6 rad/hour, respectively. The gamma radiation exposure in the Operation Hall using the MicroNOMAD MCA and Ion Chamber are 165,4 x 10 exp 6 rad/hour and (167 ? 194) x 10 exp 6 rad/hour, respectively. By means of this result it can concluded that the reading error of the MicroNOMAD MCA with standard survey meter is small enough. Beside the point the MicroNOMAD MCA has a good performance for gamma radiation measurement in the energy range of 0,2 - 9 MeV

  8. Metabolic control analysis indicates a change of strategy in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Quezada, Héctor; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2010-11-01

    Much of the search for the "magic cancer bullet" or "block buster" has followed the expectation of a single gene or protein as "the rate-limiting step" for tumor persistence. Examples continue to abound: EGFR, VEGFR, Akt/PI3K, HIF-1?, PHD, PDK, or FAS continue to be targeted individually. However, many such attempts to block a metabolic or signal transduction pathway by targeting, specifically, a single rate-limiting molecule have proven to be unsuccessful. Metabolic control analysis (MCA) of cancer cells has generated a generic explanation for this phenomenon: several steps share the control of energy metabolism (for glycolysis: glucose transporter, hexokinase, glycogen synthesis and ATP demand; for oxidative phosphorylation: respiratory complex I and ATP demand), i.e., there is no single "rate-limiting step". Targeting a type of step that does not exist is unlikely to be a successful paradigm for continued research into drug targeting of cancer. MCA establishes how to determine, quantitatively, the degrees of control that the various enzymes in the intracellular network exert on vital flux (or function) and on the concentration of important metabolites, substituting for the intuitive, qualitative and most often erroneous concept of single rate-limiting step. Moreover, MCA helps to understand (i) the underlying mechanisms by which a given enzyme exerts high or low control, (ii) why the control of the pathway is shared by several pathway enzymes and transporters and (iii) what are the better sets of drug targets. Indeed, by applying MCA it should now be possible to identify the group of proteins (and genes) that should be modified to achieve a successful modulation of the intracellular networks of biotechnological or clinical relevance. The challenge is to move away from the design of drugs that specifically inhibit a single controlling step, towards unspecific drugs or towards drug mixtures, which may have multiple target sites in the most exacerbated, unique and controlling pathways in cancer cells. Successful nonspecific drugs should still be specific for the networks of cancer cells over those of normal cells and to establish such cell-type specificity within molecular non-specificity will continue to require sophisticated analyses. Clinical practice has anticipated the latter strategy of mixtures of drugs: combinations of anti-neoplastic drugs are already administered with encouraging results. Therefore, the most promising strategy for cancer treatment seems to be that of a multi-targeted, MCA-advised, therapy. PMID:20599628

  9. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  10. MC&A software assistance to Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, T.; McWilliams, C.; Olson, A. [and others

    1997-09-01

    AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application that is being developed as part of the U.S. assistance program to Ukraine in Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A). The AIMAS software prototype was designed to provide a starting point for joint U.S./Ukraine system development. Computer systems with AIMAS prototypes have been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy & Industry (SINEI) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety database management system (RDBMS) and application development environment. It has been designed to be highly flexible and configurable, and to support a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration and security). Security measures include multilevel password access controls, all transactions logged with the user ID, and system administration controls. Interfaces to external modules are being designed to provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. 1 ref.

  11. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  12. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor a were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  13. Real-time PCR/MCA assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the genotyping of resistance related DHPS-540 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujardin Jean-Claude

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been abandoned as first- or second-line treatment by most African malaria endemic countries in favour of artemisinin-based combination treatments, but the drug is still used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. However, resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing in the past few years and, although the link between molecular markers and treatment failure has not been firmly established, at least for pregnant women, it is important to monitor such markers. Methods This paper reports a novel sensitive, semi-quantitative and specific real-time PCR and melting curve analysis (MCA assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET for the detection of DHPS-540, an important predictor for SP resistance. FRET/MCA was evaluated using 78 clinical samples from malaria patients and compared to PCR-RFLP. Results Sixty-two samples were in perfect agreement between both assays. One sample showed a small wild type signal with FRET/MCA that indicates a polyclonal infection. Four samples were not able to generate enough material in both assays to distinguish mutant from wild-type infection, six samples gave no signal in PCR-RFLP and five samples gave no amplification in FRET/MCA. Conclusion FRET/MCA is an effective tool for the identification of SNPs in drug studies and epidemiological surveys on resistance markers in general and DHPS-540 mutation in particular.

  14. A 256 channel portable MCA for field application [Paper No.:I3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ gamma-spectrometry is a very important tool to characterise the contamination resulting due to radioactive fall out. Even in reactor environment this technique is helpful in analysing contaminations and the leakages on the spot. A battery powered 256 channel portable pulse height analyser has been developed to meet this requirement. The analyser consists of a single card Wilkinson type 8 bit ADC cum linear amplifier interfaced to an 8085 based micro computer. The MCA uses 2x2 inch NaI(Tl) detector and provides minimal necessary front panel controls for field use. A built-in DC to DC converter generates EHT for detector system and all the necessary DC voltages (+5V, ± 12V) from a 6V (7AH) battery. The MCA is capable of storing around 60 spectrums sequentially which can be down-loaded into a PC for further processing through built in serial RS-232 port. The paper describes the hardware and software developed for the system, and its performance evaluations. (author). 3 figs

  15. Serum CA549 in primary breast cancer: comparison with CA15.3 and MCA.

    OpenAIRE

    Gion, M; Plebani, M; Mione, R.; Penzo, C.; Meo, S.; Burlina, A.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a comparison of three commonly used mucin markers, CA549, CA15.3 and MCA. Serum samples from 184 healthy women and 237 patients with primary breast cancer were evaluated. The markers were measured using commercially available immunometric assays. Like CA15.3 and MCA, CA549 was significantly associated with tumour size and lymph node status, being an effective indicator of tumour bulk. CA549 was significantly correlated with both CA15.3 and MCA. Positive/negative concordance rat...

  16. Implementation of MCA Method for Identification of Factors for Conceptual Cost Estimation of Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Micha?; Le?niak, Agnieszka; Zima, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    Conceptual cost estimation is important for construction projects. Either underestimation or overestimation of building raising cost may lead to failure of a project. In the paper authors present application of a multicriteria comparative analysis (MCA) in order to select factors influencing residential building raising cost. The aim of the analysis is to indicate key factors useful in conceptual cost estimation in the early design stage. Key factors are being investigated on basis of the elementary information about the function, form and structure of the building, and primary assumptions of technological and organizational solutions applied in construction process. The mentioned factors are considered as variables of the model which aim is to make possible conceptual cost estimation fast and with satisfying accuracy. The whole analysis included three steps: preliminary research, choice of a set of potential variables and reduction of this set to select the final set of variables. Multicriteria comparative analysis is applied in problem solution. Performed analysis allowed to select group of factors, defined well enough at the conceptual stage of the design process, to be used as a describing variables of the model.

  17. In-house development of an FPGA-based MCA8K for gamma-ray spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanh, Dang; Son, Pham Ngoc; Son, Nguyen An

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is domestic development of electronics instruments. It used for measuring ionization radiation and practical training at Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The aim of this work is to study and develop a novel MCA8k for Gamma-ray spectrometer concerning experimental nuclear physics. An approach for design and construction of the aforementioned instrument is to apply logic integrating techniques via Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) under Max?+?PlusII, Altera. The instrument allows interfacing to PC with self-developed application software. Scientific significance of this work is partly to contribute to opening a research direction in the field of nuclear electronics science for design and construction of radiation measurement instruments with the advanced IC technology in Vietnam. Practical significance of this work is partly to contribute to enhancement of capabilities in developing radiation measurement instruments for experimental research as well as practical training in nuclear physics. The advantages of FPGA: overcoming ballistic deficit, decrement of serial and parallel noise, flexible in programming, control of the system by software without an interfere of hardware. The disadvantages of FPGA: requirement of good knowledge of VHDL and professional tools for development of a expected project. A new electronics module of MCA8k has been achieved. Some main results obtained from the experimental testing are as follows: differential nonlinearity (DNL) of FPGA-MCA8k approximately 1.27%, integral nonlinearity (INL) = 0.607%, time conversion???2.2 ?s, deadtime (DT) is 0.75%. Data Acquisition Program MCANRI written in VC (+ +)6.0, self-executed under Windows XP environment. PMID:25485201

  18. Applications of a portable MCA in nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DSD-2056-4K portable multi-channel analyzer (PMCA) is a standard tool used in both international and domestic safeguards. This tool and the built-in user programs have been field proven. For applications where the manpower to program built-in programs is not available, programs in external computers can control the PMCA. A set of general purpose setup and analysis subroutines have been written in BASIC to be used directly or as a guide in the external applications. While safeguards and the nuclear industry are just beginning to make use of the present PMCA, we are looking into ways of making it easier to write internal programs for the PMCA and into replacing its current 8-bit processor with a 16-bit processor to give it the capability to do very involved analysis such as peak fitting and detailed plutonium isotopic analysis. 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Linking least-cost energy system costs models with MCA: An assessment of the EU renewable energy targets and supporting policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several technoeconomic modeling approaches that provide quantitative results such as costs and the level of achievement of certain renewable energy (RE) policy targets. These approaches often do not consider other important factors for policy implementation (such as socio-political aspects and stakeholders' preferences). Recent multicriteria analysis (MCA) approaches attempt to integrate these multiple aspects in decision making process. In this respect, aim of this paper is to combine technoeconomic modeling and MCA approaches in a general analytical framework incorporating multiple aspects. Each method in an RE policy interaction problem can feed in the necessary policy information for the subsequent steps of an ex-ante and an ex-post assessment in a decision tree, starting from recognizing the need for implementing a new policy in parallel to the incumbent ones, assessing the actual policy costs and finally identifying the social acceptability of these RE policies.

  20. Improving petroleum contaminated land remediation decision-making through the MCA weighting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Anopama; Boyle, Alexander Rohan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Internationally petroleum contamination is widespread, posing serious environmental risks including surface and groundwater contamination, thus remediation is essential. The implementation of remediation options is becoming more complex with the increasing influence of stakeholders on the outcome of decision-making processes. Acceptance of remediation schemes during implementation can be increased by involving stakeholders and the public in the decision-making stage. In petroleum remediation involving multiple stakeholders, Multicriteria Analysis has been employed due to its ability to incorporate the preferences of each stakeholder through weighting. The research focused on investigating ways to improve the weighting process. The study demonstrated the utility of SWING, and determined which type of participant and how many participants to include in the decision process, through the application of ELECTRE III and Weighted Summation. It was recommended that a mixture of stakeholders, the public and experts be involved. The total number of participants will be limited by the choice of participatory and weighting methods. The careful selection of participants, as well as the choice of participatory and weighting methods, can minimize the subjectivity involved in MCA weighting, thereby lending decisions in petroleum remediation greater legitimacy. PMID:16872666

  1. Construction of a reasonable multi channel analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In resent years, the performances of new electronic devices, for example FPGA or so on, have been improved, and these devices become more cost-effective ones year by year. Moreover, prices of personal computers have become less expensive, and the programming environment on PC becomes much user-friendly and easy to operate in this decimal year. These advancements have possibilities to provide a great help for self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments, which needed huge cost and work to construct in the past. Then, I tried to construct a reasonable Mulch Channel Analyzer (MCA) with an educational FPGA board named EDX-005 (HuMANDATA ltd.), and conduct test measurements of the MCA. The MCA was constructed in a short period, and its cost was just under 50 thousands yen. The MCA normally works at 200 [cps/ch] count rate with a NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The description of the MCA and some points of self-constructions of radiation measurement equipments are provided in this paper. (author)

  2. MCA and CA-125 tumor markers in diagnosis and follow-up of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical information content in determination of MCA and CA-125 tumor markers at the stages of diagnosis and treatment was considered on a basis of examination results of 320 health women and 85 patients with breast cancer. The method of combined treatment of patients consisted in large-fraction preoperative gamma-therapy with integral foci dose of 24 Gy and polychemotherapy. It was concluded that MCA could be used for diagnosis of breast cancer with rather significance. Increase of Ca-125 concentration in blood was observed in progression of the process more than in 60% of cases. Simultaneous determination of MCA and Ca-125 in blood permits to diagnose the process progression more than in 90% of cases

  3. Correlação de três variáveis na descrição da permeabilidade nasal (HD, MCA, escala NOSE de pacientes saudáveis Correlation of three variables describing nasal patency (HD, MCA, NOSE score in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Braun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rinoresistometria e rinometria acústica são dois métodos utilizados na avaliação da função respiratória nasal. Ambos utilizam variáveis diferentes para descrever a permeabilidade nasal: o diâmetro hidráulico, HD, na rinoresistometria; e as áreas mínimas da seção transversal, MCA1 (istmo nasal e MCA2 (cabeça do corneto inferior e corpo cavernoso do septo nasal, na rinometria acústica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre HD e MCA em pacientes sem afecções nasais e identificar se tais variáveis objetivas apresentam correlação com a escala NOSE, uma ferramenta validada para avaliar a percepção subjetiva de permeabilidade nasal. MÉTODO: Coleta estruturada dos dados de 24 indivíduos saudáveis sem afecções nasais. RESULTADOS: Correlações estatisticamente significativas de fracas a moderadas foram identificadas entre HD e MCA2 antes do descongestionamento. Foi identificada correlação moderada entre HD, MCA2 e escala NOSE no lado mais estreito. CONCLUSÃO: Na avaliação de permeabilidade nasal, parece ser recomendável determinar HD, MCA1 e MCA2, bem como uma variável subjetiva como a escala NOSE, que não aparentam ser variáveis completamente redundantes. Estudos futuros devem avaliar a correlação destas variáveis em pacientes com afecções nasais.Rhinoresistometry and acoustic rhinometry are two established apparative methods to objectify the respiratory function of the nose. Both methods use different variables to describe nasal patency: "hydraulic diameter", HD, in rhinoresistometry, and "minimal cross-sectional area", MCA1 (nasal isthmus and MCA2 (head of the inferior turbinate and cavernous body of the nasal septum, in acoustic rhinometry. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the mutual correlation of HD and MCA as a pilot study in patients without nasal pathologies. Additionally, we investigated if these objective variables correlate with the NOSE score, a validated tool to measure subjective perception of nasal patency. METHOD: Planned data collection in a collective of 24 healthy subjects without nasal pathologies. RESULTS: Statistically significant, weak to moderate correlations were found between HD and MCA2 before decongestion. A moderate correlation was found between both HD and MCA2 and the NOSE score on the narrower side. CONCLUSION: In the assessment of nasal patency, it seems advisable to determine HD, MCA1 and MCA2, but also a subjective variable such as the NOSE score, which all seem to be not fully redundant variables. In further studies, the correlation of the variables should be assessed in patients with nasal pathologies.

  4. Correlação de três variáveis na descrição da permeabilidade nasal (HD, MCA, escala NOSE) de pacientes saudáveis / Correlation of three variables describing nasal patency (HD, MCA, NOSE score) in healthy subjects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thomas, Braun; Maria, Rich; Matthias F., Kramer.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rinoresistometria e rinometria acústica são dois métodos utilizados na avaliação da função respiratória nasal. Ambos utilizam variáveis diferentes para descrever a permeabilidade nasal: o diâmetro hidráulico, HD, na rinoresistometria; e as áreas mínimas da seção transversal, MCA1 (istmo nasal) e MCA [...] 2 (cabeça do corneto inferior e corpo cavernoso do septo nasal), na rinometria acústica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre HD e MCA em pacientes sem afecções nasais e identificar se tais variáveis objetivas apresentam correlação com a escala NOSE, uma ferramenta validada para avaliar a percepção subjetiva de permeabilidade nasal. MÉTODO: Coleta estruturada dos dados de 24 indivíduos saudáveis sem afecções nasais. RESULTADOS: Correlações estatisticamente significativas de fracas a moderadas foram identificadas entre HD e MCA2 antes do descongestionamento. Foi identificada correlação moderada entre HD, MCA2 e escala NOSE no lado mais estreito. CONCLUSÃO: Na avaliação de permeabilidade nasal, parece ser recomendável determinar HD, MCA1 e MCA2, bem como uma variável subjetiva como a escala NOSE, que não aparentam ser variáveis completamente redundantes. Estudos futuros devem avaliar a correlação destas variáveis em pacientes com afecções nasais. Abstract in english Rhinoresistometry and acoustic rhinometry are two established apparative methods to objectify the respiratory function of the nose. Both methods use different variables to describe nasal patency: "hydraulic diameter", HD, in rhinoresistometry, and "minimal cross-sectional area", MCA1 (nasal isthmus) [...] and MCA2 (head of the inferior turbinate and cavernous body of the nasal septum), in acoustic rhinometry. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the mutual correlation of HD and MCA as a pilot study in patients without nasal pathologies. Additionally, we investigated if these objective variables correlate with the NOSE score, a validated tool to measure subjective perception of nasal patency. METHOD: Planned data collection in a collective of 24 healthy subjects without nasal pathologies. RESULTS: Statistically significant, weak to moderate correlations were found between HD and MCA2 before decongestion. A moderate correlation was found between both HD and MCA2 and the NOSE score on the narrower side. CONCLUSION: In the assessment of nasal patency, it seems advisable to determine HD, MCA1 and MCA2, but also a subjective variable such as the NOSE score, which all seem to be not fully redundant variables. In further studies, the correlation of the variables should be assessed in patients with nasal pathologies.

  5. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on MCA102 tumor cell immunogenicity and sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelik, E.; Begovic, M.; Duty, L.; Herberman, R.B. (Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, PA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The ability of UV irradiation to induce immunogenicity of the nonimmunogenic major histocompatibility complex-negative MCA102 fibrosarcoma was studied. In parallel, the effect of short wavelength UVC light on the sensitivity of tumor cells to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was also investigated. MCA102 fibrosarcoma cells were irradiated in vitro twice with UVC light (610 and 457 J/m2). Surviving cells were expanded and maintained in vitro as the MCA102UV subline. UV treatment changed tumor cell morphology and increased their in vitro rate of proliferation. However, after inoculation of 1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(6) MCA102UV cells into C57BL/6 mice, growth of these cells was completely prevented. Lyt2.2 and not L3T4 lymphocytes were responsible for the rejection of these tumor cells. To determine the minimal and optimal dose of UV irradiation capable of increasing tumor cell immunogenicity, MCA102 cells were irradiated once or twice with different doses (76 to 610 J/m2) of UV light. After a single dose of UV treatment, tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice was inhibited, particularly with lines irradiated at the highest doses (610 or 457 J/m2). After a second round of irradiation, tumor cells became more immunogenic, and the level of tumor growth inhibition increased with higher doses of UV irradiation. Thus, cells irradiated twice with 610 and 457 J/m2 became rejectable in all immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. The increase in tumor cell immunogenicity induced by UV light was not associated with the appearance of Class I H-2 antigens. In parallel with the induction of tumor cell immunogenicity, UV irradiation made tumor cells more sensitive to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity and to lysis by TNF.

  6. An easily extendable interpreter comprising MCA and CAMAC commands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A BASIC interpreter is a useful tool for writing small programs in a quick and easy way. For the control of experiments, however, it lacks a number of essential features. A BASIC-like command interpreter BACO has therefore been developed. It runs on PDP-11 computers with the RSX-11M operating system. Its major advantages over BASIC are: (1) new FORTRAN routines can be implemented simply, and (2) interrupts can be processed at interpreter level. As an application the implementation is described of routines to control a CAMAC system and of a multichannel analyzer simulation. The CAMAC commands follow the line proposed by the ESONE committee. Since an interpreter is inherently rather slow, the commands are intended for moderately fast data transfer and interrupt handling, which suffices for the control of many experiments. (orig.)

  7. An unexpected evolution of symptomatic mild middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis: asymptomatic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malferrari Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it has been reported more frequently in Asians and African-American people, but the finding of intracranial stenosis as a cause of ischemic stroke is relatively common also in Caucasians. The prognosis of patients with stroke due to intracranial steno-occlusion is strictly dependent on the time of recanalization. Moreover, the course of the vessel involvement is highly dynamic in both directions, improvement or worsening, although several data are derived from the atherosclerotic subtype, compared to other causes. Case description We report the clinical, neurosonological and neuroradiological findings of a young woman, who came to our Stroke Unit because of the abrupt onset of aphasia during her work. An urgent neurosonological examination showed a left M1 MCA stenosis, congruent with the presenting symptoms; magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding and identified an acute ischemic lesion on the left MCA territory. The past history of the patient was significant only for a hyperinsulinemic condition, treated with metformine, and a mild overweight. At this time a selective cerebral angiography was not performed because of the patient refusal and she was discharged on antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy, having failed to identify autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Within 1 month, she went back to our attention because of the recurrence of aphasia, lasting about ten minutes. Neuroimaging findings were unchanged, but the patient accepted to undergo a selective cerebral angiography, which showed a mild left distal M1 MCA stenosis. During the follow-up the patient did not experienced any recurrence, but a routine neurosonological examination found an unexpected evolution of the known MCA stenosis, i.e. left M1 MCA occlusion. Neuroradiological imaging did not identify new lesions of the brain parenchyma and a repeated selective cerebral angiography confirmed the left M1 MCA occlusion. Conclusions Regardless of the role of metabolic and/or inflammatory factors on the aetiology of the intracranial stenosis in this case, the course of the vessel disease was unexpected and previously unreported in the literature at our knowledge.

  8. A cell line (MCA-B1) derived from a canine oral acanthomatous epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priosoeryanto, B P; Tateyama, S; Yamaguchi, R; Uchida, K; Ogawa, H; Nakai, M

    1995-01-01

    A canine oral acanthomatous epulis cell line designated MCA-B1 was established in culture. Immunohistochemically the cells reacted intensely with anti-keratin antibody and mildly with anti-vimentin antibody. An ultrastructural examination of the cells confirmed their epithelial nature. The modal chromosome number was 72 and the cloning efficiency in soft agar culture ranged from 3.4 to 16.1 per cent with a population doubling time of nine hours. MCA-B1 has since been passaged more than 70 times and maintained in culture for more than a year. Most of the characteristics of the original canine tumour cells were retained in the isolated cell line. PMID:7709052

  9. Performance Evaluation of Two Different Industrial Foam Filters with LiMCA II Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Martin; Bao, Sarina

    2015-04-01

    Plant-scale filtration experiments with molten aluminum have been carried out with two different types of 10 × 10 × 2 in, 30 ppi ceramic foam filters. The filters were produced in the same production line where the only difference was the composition of the ceramic slurry used for the filter production. The inclusion contents in the aluminum melt before and after the filters were measured with two constantly running liquid metal cleanliness analyzer (LiMCA) II units. Three methods for analyzing the recorded data are presented. A significant difference in the filtration performance as function of time was found when settling of inclusions in the melt was taken into account. Statistical treatment of the time dependent LiMCA II data was performed.

  10. An Auto sequence Code to Integrate a Neutron Unfolding Code with thePC-MCA Accuspec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a neutron spectrometry using proton recoil method, the neutronunfolding code is needed to unfold the measured proton spectrum to become theneutron spectrum. The process of the unfolding neutron in the existingneutron spectrometry which was successfully installed last year was doneseparately. This manuscript reports that the auto sequence code to integratethe neutron unfolding code UNFSPEC.EXE with the software facility of thePC-MCA Accuspec has been made and run successfully so that the new neutronspectrometry become compact. The auto sequence code was written based on therules in application program facility of PC-MCA Accuspec and then it wascompiled using AC-EXE. Result of the test of the auto sequence code showedthat for binning width 20, 30, and 40 giving a little different spectrumshape. The binning width around 30 gives a better spectrum in mean of givingsmall error compared to the others. (author)

  11. NuSTAR ground calibration: The Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5-80 keV ) telescope to orbit. The ground calibration of the three flight optics was carried out at the Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility (RaMCaF) built for this purpose. In this article we present the facility and its use for the ground calibration of the three optics.

  12. Data transfer among Apple-II microcomputer, S-80 MCA and PDP-11 computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data communication method described in this paper is designed to facilitate the data transfer among S-80 MCA, MS-900 Moessbauer spectrometer based on Apple-II microcomputer and PDP-11 computer system. Some simple processing for spectral data is available in the microcomputer. The least square fitting for spectral data is performed in PDP-11 computer system while the microcomputer is used as a terminal

  13. Multiferroicity in Geometrically Frustrated \\alpha-MCr_2O_4 systems (M=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Li; Lan, Tian-Wey; Wang, Kuen-Jen; Chien, Chia-Hua; Hung, Tsu-Lien; Luo, Jiu-Yong; Chao, Wei-Hsiang; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Chen, Yang-Yuan; Wu, Maw-Kuen; Martin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized three quasi-2D geometrically frustrated magnetic compounds (\\alpha-MCr_2O_4, M=Ca, Sr, Ba) using the spark-plasma-sintering technique. All these members of the \\alpha-MCr_2O_4 family consist of the stacking planar triangular lattices of Cr$^{3+}$ spins (${\\rm S}=3/2$), separated by non-magnetic alkaline earth ions. Their corresponding magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, dielectric permittivity and ferroelectric polarization are systematic...

  14. NATO-ASTEC-matrix-research environment, information sharing and MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful implementations of the NATO-ASTECMATRIX project in Armenia are essential contribution into security, stability and solidarity among regional nations, by applying the best technical expertise to problem solving. Collaboration, networking and capacity-building are means used to accomplish these goals. A further aim is to promote the co-operation with new partners and the ASTEC are creating links between scientists and organizations in formerly separated communities, developing new strategy concentrating support on security related collaborative projects and finding answers to critical questions and a way of connecting nations. The NATO-ASTECMATRIX within Armenia leads to a network of high standards laboratories that will drastically improve the overview and the technical infrastructure for monitoring, accounting and control of CBRN materials in the Armenia. This new infrastructure will enhance the exchange of information on this vital issue via the IRIS. In follow-up phases, it will also help to better define the needs and requirements for a policy to enhance legal tools for the management of these materials, and for the creation of one or several agencies aiming at dealing with wastes or no longer useful materials containing CBRN components in Armenia

  15. Detection of methylation in promoter sequences by melting curve analysis-based semiquantitative real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázcoz Paula

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present two melting curve analysis (MCA-based semiquantitative real time PCR techniques to detect the promoter methylation status of genes. The first, MCA-MSP, follows the same principle as standard MSP but it is performed in a real time thermalcycler with results being visualized in a melting curve. The second, MCA-Meth, uses a single pair of primers designed with no CpGs in its sequence. These primers amplify both unmethylated and methylated sequences. In clinical applications the MSP technique has revolutionized methylation detection by simplifying the analysis to a PCR-based protocol. MCA-analysis based techniques may be able to further improve and simplify methylation analyses by reducing starting DNA amounts, by introducing an all-in-one tube reaction and by eliminating a final gel stage for visualization of the result. The current study aimed at investigating the feasibility of both MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in the analysis of promoter methylation, and at defining potential advantages and shortcomings in comparison to currently implemented techniques, i.e. bisulfite sequencing and standard MSP. Methods The promoters of the RASSF1A (3p21.3, BLU (3p21.3 and MGMT (10q26 genes were analyzed by MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in 13 astrocytoma samples, 6 high grade glioma cell lines and 4 neuroblastoma cell lines. The data were compared with standard MSP and validated by bisulfite sequencing. Results Both, MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth, successfully determined promoter methylation. MCA-MSP provided information similar to standard MSP analyses. However the analysis was possible in a single tube and avoided the gel stage. MCA-Meth proved to be useful in samples with intermediate methylation status, reflected by a melting curve position shift in dependence on methylation extent. Conclusion We propose MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth as alternative or supplementary techniques to MSP or bisulfite sequencing.

  16. Open GENIE - Analysis and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, S I; Moreton-Smith, C M

    2002-01-01

    Open GENIE is the successor to the widely used and high successful GENIE program that is used as the principal front-end neutron data analysis tool at the ISIS spallation neutron source. In this paper, the background and motivation for the Open GENIE project are briefly reviewed, as is the progress to date. Some of the ideas and concepts making Open GENIE unique are demonstrated. Emphasis is given to how Open GENIE is being used as an integral component of the new ISIS control system and how it is expected to develop in the future and how they will impact the field of neutron scattering data analysis.

  17. Photolith analysis and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Usha; Sundararajan, Srikanth

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes an expert system that assists photolithography inspectors during IC fabrication process. Strict control of the process line is required, lack of control often results in costly errors. In photolithography, flaws that occur during the IC patterning process should be correctable within the same step. The diagnosis and trouble shooting of these flaws are done using the Photolith Analysis and Control (PAC). It is assumed that the readers have a good knowledge of IC processing and are familiar with the technical terminology prevalent in the field. The paper is arranged as follows, section 2 described the chief motivating factors for PAC. This is followed by a description of the user and video interfaces in section 3. Section 4 describes the PAC system in detail, section 5 contains performance and evaluation data and is followed by a conclusion.

  18. BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report concerns an analysis of the benefits anticipated from control of combined sewer overflows. The subject of benefit analysis is uniquely important to anyone contemplating combined sewer overflow controls because of the nature of the overflows themselves, the distribution...

  19. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Directional Solidification Process of Turbine Blade Casting with MCA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyan; Zhang, Hang; Qi, Xiang; Liu, Baicheng

    2014-04-01

    Nickel-based superalloy turbine blade castings are widely used as a key part in aero engines. However, due to the complex manufacturing processes, the complicated internal structure, and the interaction between different parts of the turbine blade, casting defects, such as stray grains, often happen during the directional solidification of turbine blade castings, which causes low production yield and high production cost. To improve the quality of the directionally solidified turbine blade castings, modeling and simulation technique has been employed to study the microstructure evolution as well as to optimize the casting process. In this article, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) method was used to simulate the directional solidification of turbine blade casting. The MCA method was coupled with macro heat transfer and micro grain growth kinetics to simulate the microstructure evolution during the directional solidification. In addition, a ray tracing method was proposed to calculate the heat transfer, especially the heat radiation of multiple blade castings in a Bridgman furnace. A competitive mechanism was incorporated into the grain growth model to describe the grain selection behavior phenomena of multiple columnar grains in the grain selector. With the proposed models, the microstructure evolution and related defects could be simulated, while the processing parameters optimized and the blade casting quality guaranteed as well. Several experiments were carried out to validate the proposed models, and good agreement between the simulated and experimental results was achieved.

  20. Particle discrimination in water based LiMCA (liquid metal cleanliness analyzer) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model has been developed to predict the motion of particles in a water based version of the LiMCA system - APS II (Aqueous Particle Sensor) system. The fluid field entering the electric sensing zone (ESZ) was obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the trajectories of particles by equations for the motion of particles. The results showed that the motions of the particles inside the parabolic shaped orifice are affected by particle density and size. Entrained micro-bubbles lead the fluid flow, travelling faster than latex micro-spheres, which are slightly denser than the fluid and lag only slightly behind the flow. Silica particles, which are much denser than the fluid, lag significantly behind the flow, accelerating more slowly than latex micro-spheres and much more slowly than bubbles. The relative velocities between the entrained particles and the inflowing water decrease with decreasing particle size. The experimental results showed that 1) larger particles have longer transit times than do smaller ones, 2) bubbles have shorter transit times than do latex spheres and much shorter than do silica particles of the same size and 3) differences in transit times are more pronounced for larger particles in keeping with theoretical predictions. The results prove that inclusion discrimination on the basis of density difference is realizable in water based LiMCA systems. (author)

  1. Pathway kinetics and metabolic control analysis of a high-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum during fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pissarra, Pedro de N.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    A kinetic model representing the pathway for the biosynthesis of penicillin by P. chrysogenum has been developed. The model is capable of describing the flux through the biosynthetic pathway, and model simulations correspond well with measurements of intermediates and end products. One feature of the present model structure is that it assumes the kinetics of the enzyme isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) to be first order with respect to the dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0.070 to 0.18 mM (25% to 70% saturation with air). Thus, it indicates the importance that molecular oxygen has on the rate of the reaction catalyzed by this enzyme, and consequently as an enhancer of the specific rate of penicillin production. Using the kinetic model, metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the pathway was performed. The determined flux control coefficients suggested that, during the production phase, the flux is controlled by IPNS as this enzyme becomes saturated with tripeptide delta-(L-alpha-amino-adipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (LLD-ACV). In the simulations, oxygen was shown to be a bottleneck alleviator by stimulating the rate of IPNS which prevents the accumulation of LLD-ACV. As a consequence of this stimulation, the rate-controlling step was moved to another place in the pathway.

  2. Detection of focal hypoxic-ischemic injury and neuronal stress in a rodent model of unilateral MCA occlusion/reperfusion using radiolabeled annexin V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we wished to determine whether technetium-99m annexin V, an in vivo marker of cellular injury and death, could be used to noninvasively monitor neuronal injury following focal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion injury. Sixteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (along with four controls) underwent left (unilateral) MCA intraluminal beaded thread occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion. One hour following tail vein injection of 5-10 mCi of 99mTc-annexin V, animals underwent either single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or autoradiography followed by immunohistochemical analyses. There was abnormal, bilateral, multifocal uptake of 99mTc-annexin V in each cerebral hemisphere as seen by both SPECT and autoradiography at 4 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after initiation of occlusion. The average maximal annexin V uptake at 4 h was 310%±85% and 365%±151% above control values (P<0.006) within the right and left hemispheres, respectively, peaking on day 3 with values of 925%±734% and 1,194%±643% (P<0.03) that decreased by day 7 to 489%±233% and 785%±225% (P<0.01). Total lesional volume of the left hemisphere was 226%, 261%, and 451% (P<0.03) larger than the right at 4, 24, and 72 h after injury, respectively. Annexin V localized to the cytoplasm of injured neurons ipsilateral to the site of injury as well as to otherwise normal-appearing neurons of the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by dual fluorescent micas confirmed by dual fluorescent microscopy. It is concluded that there is abnormal bilateral, multifocal annexin V uptake, greater on the left than on the right side, within 4 h of unilateral left MCA ischemic injury and that the uptake peaks at 3 days and decreases by 7 days after injury. This pattern suggests that neuronal stress may play a role in the response of the brain to focal injury and be responsible for annexin V uptake outside the region of ischemic insult. (orig.)

  3. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) and Insolves LLC

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  4. Controllability analysis of decentralised linear controllers for polymeric fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Aguado, Joaquin; Ansede, Xavier; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-10

    This work deals with the control of polymeric fuel cells. It includes a linear analysis of the system at different operating points, the comparison and selection of different control structures, and the validation of the controlled system by simulation. The work is based on a complex non linear model which has been linearised at several operating points. The linear analysis tools used are the Morari resiliency index, the condition number, and the relative gain array. These techniques are employed to compare the controllability of the system with different control structures and at different operating conditions. According to the results, the most promising control structures are selected and their performance with PI based diagonal controllers is evaluated through simulations with the complete non linear model. The range of operability of the examined control structures is compared. Conclusions indicate good performance of several diagonal linear controllers. However, very few have a wide operability range. (author)

  5. Synthesis and luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} doped MWO{sub 4} (M=Ca, Sr and Ba) microcrystalline phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabre, K.V. [Department of Physics, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Koradi, Nagpur (India); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Lochab, Jyoti [Radiotherapy Department, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2014-05-01

    The Ce{sup 3+} doped and undoped samples of alkali earth metal tungstate MWO{sub 4} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) phosphors are synthesized by a co-precipitation method in controlled pH environment. The resulting phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL). XRD pattern and SEM micrographs reveal the formation of agglomerated microcrystalline phosphor. FTIR spectra show the strong absorption around 821 cm{sup ?1} due to characteristic vibrations of (WO{sub 4}){sup 2?} complex. PL excitation spectra show broadband in the UV region having peak at 280 nm, and the emission spectrum shows broadband in the visible region with peak in the blue region. The PL emission intensity increases with Ce{sup 3+} concentration with the most effective concentration at 5 mol%. The complex TL glow curve of Ce{sup 3+} doped phosphors is deconvoluted by using a TLAnal computer program. The trap parameters obtained by TLAnal were compared with those calculated by Chen's method and a possible model for TL is discussed. - Highlights: • M{sub 1?x}WO{sub 4}:Ce{sub x} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) phosphors are synthesized by the co-precipitation method in controlled pH environment. • Phosphor exhibits broad emission band with maximum in the blue region. • Enhancement of PL emission intensity due to doping of Ce in a host lattice. • The complex TL glow curves were deconvoluted by TLAnal. • FTIR spectra show the main transmittance peaks related to v{sub 3} and v{sub 4} vibration modes of W–O bonds.

  6. Four sibs with dislocated elbows, bowed tibiae, scoliosis, deafness, cataract, microcephaly, and mental retardation: a new MCA/MR syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Me?garbane?, A.; Kharrat, K.; Kreichati, G.

    1998-01-01

    We report four sibs with an MCA/MR syndrome whose parents were first cousins. The sibs had mental retardation, microcephaly, hearing problems, cataract, and multiple osseous malformations, such as dislocated elbows, bowed tibiae, and scoliosis. Review of published reports and the use of the London Dysmorphology Database suggest that this family presents a new syndrome.

  7. Modular Control Flow Analysis for Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2002-01-01

    One problem in analyzing object oriented languages is that the exact control flow graph is not known statically due to dynamic dispatching. However, this is needed in order to apply the large class of known interprocedural analysis. Control Flow Analysis in the object oriented setting aims at determining run-time types of variables, thus allowing to possibly targeted method implementations. We present a flow sensitive analysis that allows separate handling of libraries and thereby efficient analysis of whole programs.

  8. Rent control: a comparative analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Maass.

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders - and consequential homelessness - on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do [...] not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socioeconomic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

  9. RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Mari Maass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socio-economic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease should not be imposed in an absolutist fashion but rather place a

  10. Multivariable control system analysis of a drum level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown how multivariable analysis and design techniques can be applied effectively to the steam drum level control system of the Prototype Fast Reactor. The drum level control system is shown to be strongly multivariable in nature and as such requires the use of multivariable analysis and design methods. The characteristic locus method was used for the initial analysis. The transmission response method was developed to check these results. The application of multivariable design techniques provided a new insight into the physical behaviour of the system and led to an improved choice of controller parameters for the existing control topology. The design was checked using a detailed simulation model of the whole plant which had been validated against plant data. Simulation results confirmed that the proposed design eliminated drum level oscillations, suffered previously, and yielded significantly better control of drum level during a plant manoeuvre or following disturbances. (author)

  11. Quality control analysis at the hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control analysis is an integral part of quality assurance. In a system as with radiopharmaceuticals where part of the finishing of the product takes place at individual hospitals, the need for quality control analysis at the hospital can be discussed. Data are presented that stresses the importance of quality control by the manufacturer as a basis for limitation of such work at hospitals. A simplified programme is proposed

  12. LANMAS Gap Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, C.; Yee, W.; Okuda, V.; Watson, B.; Storch, N

    2000-08-25

    In July, 2000, the Controlled Materials Accountability and Tracking System (COMATS) Team, with the assistance of a representative of the Local Area Network Materials Accountability System (LANMAS) development team from Savannah River, performed an evaluation to enumerate and qualify differences between the current LANMAS functionality and LLNL requirements as implemented by COMATS. The differences found range from minor to serious deficiencies of LANMAS in relation to current LLNL MC&A practice. Therefore, we recommend a gradual integration of LANMAS into a hybrid system which uses LANMAS to satisfy DOE/NNSA MC&A and reporting requirements and uses COMATS to satisfy LLNL-specific MC&A and operational requirements.

  13. MCA4climate - a practical framework for pro-development climate policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevor, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Climate is an inordinate challenge but also an inordinate opportunity to transform economies onto a low-carbon, resourcee !cient Green Economy path. Catalyzing clean energy will not only cut greenhouse-gas emissions as part of e”orts to limit a global temperature rise to under 2 degrees C or more, it also represents a way of curbing healthhazardous air pollution while o”ering a rapid path to address energy poverty, especially in rural areas of developing economies. Meanwhile enhancing ecosystems such as forests, mangroves and seagrasses in order to conserve their carbon stocks can also trigger multiple benefits from boosting water supplies and improving agriculture to maintaining natural sea defences and nurseries for fish. The 17th Conference of the Parties meeting in Durban, South Africa, later this year presents the world with another opportunity to advance the climate agenda and co-operative action under the UN Climate Convention. It is crucial that those actions are designed within a coherent and robust policy-planning framework to ensure that they are both cost-e”ective and compatible with broader social, economic and environmental goals. For developing countries, sound climatepolicy planning will also enhance access to climate finance from the developed ones. Climate-policy planning is a complex undertaking. Many developing countries are only just starting to consider how to go about it and some require improved access to the requisite knowledge, expertise and technical skills. Drawing upon best practices, tried and tested in other parts of the world, is clearly an advantage. The MCA4climate, a new UNEP initiative, is designed to assist policymakers, particularly in the developing world, in that endeavour. It o”ers concrete guidance and recommendations on a number of critical issues and proposes a formal framework for evaluating climate mitigation and adaptation policies, paving a practical way forward so that countries evolve sustainably and grow their economies in a way that keeps humanity’s footprint within planetary boundaries. It draws on the work of leading experts on climate policymaking from around the world and uses an innovative approach to assessing policies that ensures that climate policies and strategies take full account of developmental concerns and objectives. The MCA4climate initiative reflects UNEP’s mission to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations—issues at the centre of Rio+20 next year in Brazil as governments look to scale-up and accelerate the implementation of the agreements, including those relating to climate change, established in Rio in 1992.

  14. The macroscopic analysis of radio – control problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Bychkovskyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary stage technique’s development is to characterize of radio – control systems broad application. Analysis radio – control systems is based usually on microscopic principle. Actual task is macroscopic point of view in radio – control problem. Problem statement. For radio control problem decision it is necessary describe the dynamics of process in generalize form. It is possible in conditions when macroscopic analysis is principal method. In this method it is actual the discount of probability of task fulfillment and information quantity. It is necessary find out the dependence between information quantity, relative error and dynamic characters of systems. Theoretical results. The regularities of task probability fulfillment in radio – control problem were consideration in dependence from control information quantity, information ability and relative error of radio – control system. Time of task fulfillment was determined for radio – control. The influence of speed increase coefficient of task fulfillment was determined. Typical substitution models for radio- control systems and relative errors were considerate. The information abilities of substitution models with discount of time constants and belated time were determined. For task fulfillment probability of radio – control were determine the dependences from time constants, belated time and speed increase coefficient of task fulfillment probability. Conclusion. Achieve results permit transfer the analysis of radio – control process on new quality level. Information, probability and characters of radio – control systems were taken into consideration. The ability for determination of task fulfillment time was open.

  15. Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Mn2+-activated M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mn2+-doped M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors have been prepared by a solid-state reaction method at high temperature and their photoluminescence properties were investigated. The Mn2+-activated M2Si5N8 phosphors exhibit narrow emission bands in the wavelength range of 500-700 nm with peak center at about 599, 606 and 567 nm for M=Ca, Sr, Ba, respectively, due to the 4T1(4G)?6A1(6S) transition of Mn2+. The long-wavelength emission of Mn2+ ion in the host of M2Si5N8 is attributed to the effect of a strong crystal-field of Mn2+ in the nitrogen coordination environment. Also it is observed that there exists energy transfer between M2Si5N8 host lattice and activator (Mn2+). The potential applications of these phosphors have been pointed out. - Graphical abstract: The luminescence properties of Mn2+ in M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) have been investigated. All M2Si5N8:Mn2+ phosphors show narrow symmetric bands in the wavelength range of 500-700 nm with peak center at about 599, 606 and 567 nm for M=Ca, Sr, Ba, respectively. The observed band emission is ascribed to the 4T1(4G)?6A14G)?6A1(6S) transition of Mn2+ in M2Si5N8 host lattice

  16. A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Lolla

    2012-01-01

    A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the cou...

  17. Pharmacological Effects of the Ruthenium Complex NAMI-A Given Orally to CBA Mice With MCa Mammary Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zorzet, Sonia; Sorc, Alenka; Casarsa, Claudia; Cocchietto, Moreno; Sava, Gianni

    2001-01-01

    NAMI-A, imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethylsulfoxidetetrachlororuthenate, is a ruthenium based compounds capable of inhibiting the growth of lung metastases of solid tumours in a number of experimental conditions.The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of NAMI-A by the oral route to treat lung metastases of MCa mammary carcinoma in the CBA mouse. treatment of mice, carrying intramuscular tumours in advanced stage of growth, for 11 consecutive days caused a signi...

  18. In-house development of an FPGA-based MCA8K for gamma-ray spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Lanh, Dang; Son, Pham Ngoc; Son, Nguyen An

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is domestic development of electronics instruments. It used for measuring ionization radiation and practical training at Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The aim of this work is to study and develop a novel MCA8k for Gamma-ray spectrometer concerning experimental nuclear physics. An approach for design and construction of the aforementioned instrument is to apply logic integrating techniques via Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) under Max?+?...

  19. Orion Orbit Control Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark; Gonzalez, Rodolfo; Sims, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of candidate thruster configurations for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is presented. Six candidate configurations were considered for the prime contractor baseline design. The analysis included analytical assessments of control authority, control precision, efficiency and robustness, as well as simulation assessments of control performance. The principles used in the analytic assessments of controllability, robustness and fuel performance are covered and results provided for the configurations assessed. Simulation analysis was conducted using a pulse width modulated, 6 DOF reaction system control law with a simplex-based thruster selection algorithm. Control laws were automatically derived from hardware configuration parameters including thruster locations, directions, magnitude and specific impulse, as well as vehicle mass properties. This parameterized controller allowed rapid assessment of multiple candidate layouts. Simulation results are presented for final phase rendezvous and docking, as well as low lunar orbit attitude hold. Finally, on-going analysis to consider alternate Service Module designs and to assess the pilot-ability of the baseline design are discussed to provide a status of orbit control design work to date.

  20. The specific binding of transferrin to the murine fibroblast cell lines AKR-2B and its malignant counterpart AKR-MCA may be related to the transformed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific binding of radiolabelled transferrin to AKR-2B and AKR-MCA murine fibroblasts was studied. The binding of radioligand to both cell lines was specific, being displaced by excess of unlabelled transferrin but not myoglobin, or lactoperoxidase. Under equilibrium conditions the transformed line AKR-MCA bound significantly more radioactive transferrin (22.5 ± 3.5 fmol/?g DNA) than the parental line AKR-2B (14.5 ± 1.5 fmol/?g DNA). The differences in the amount of ligand bound was due to altered receptor numbers. Treatment of AKR-MCA and AKR-2B cells with DMF eliminated the difference in transferrin binding capacities. The maximum decrease in specific ligand binding to AKR-MCA cells brought about by polar solvent was observed after 48 h. These data suggest an association between transferrin binding and the transformed state of AKR-2B fibroblasts. (author) 15 refs

  1. Stray light analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fest, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Stray light is defined as unwanted light in an optical system, a familiar concept for anyone who has taken a photograph with the sun in or near their camera's field of view. This book addresses stray light terminology, radiometry, and the physics of stray light mechanisms, such as surface roughness scatter and ghost reflections. The most-efficient ways of using stray light analysis software packages are included. The book also demonstrates how the basic principles are applied in the design, fabrication, and testing phases of optical system development.

  2. Analysis and control of underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choukchou-Braham, Amal; Djemaï, Mohamed; Busawon, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides readers with tools for the analysis, and control of systems with fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom to be controlled, i.e., underactuated systems. The text deals with the consequences of a lack of a general theory that would allow methodical treatment of such systems and the ad hoc approach to control design that often results, imposing a level of organization whenever the latter is lacking. The authors take as their starting point the construction of a graphical characterization or control flow diagram reflecting the transmission of generalized forces through the degrees of freedom. Underactuated systems are classified according to the three main structures by which this is found to happen—chain, tree, and isolated vertex—and control design procedures proposed. The procedure is applied to several well-known examples of underactuated systems: acrobot; pendubot; Tora system; ball and beam; inertia wheel; and robotic arm with elastic joint. The text is illustrated with MATL...

  3. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  4. PROMETHEE Method and Sensitivity Analysis in the Software Application for the Support of Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Moldrik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PROMETHEE is one of methods, which fall into multi-criteria analysis (MCA. The MCA, as the name itself indicates, deals with the evaluation of particular variants according to several criteria. Developed software application (MCA8 for the support of multi-criteria decision-making was upgraded about PROMETHEE method and a graphic tool, which enables the execution of the sensitivity analysis. This analysis is used to ascertain how a given model output depends upon the input parameters. The MCA8 software application with mentioned graphic upgrade was developed for purposes of solving multi-criteria decision tasks. In the MCA8 is possible to perform sensitivity analysis by a simple form – through column graphs. We can change criteria significances (weights in these column graphs directly and watch the changes of the order of variants immediately.

  5. Precious metal analysis by controlled potential coulometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrar, J.E.; Waggoner, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Controlled potential coulometry is an electrochemical technique of high accuracy and precision and is especially suitable to the analysis of precious metals. Only approx. 5 mg of metal are required for each determination, and an accuracy and precision within 0.1% can be achieved routinely. The technique and its application to the analysis of gold and silver plating solutions are described. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Ex...

  7. Control of switching systems by invariance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fribourg , Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This book presents correct-by-design control techniques for switching systems, using different methods of stability analysis. Switching systems are increasingly used in the electronics and mechanical industries; in power electronics and the automotive industry, for example. This is due to their flexibility and simplicity in accurately controlling industrial mechanisms. By adopting appropriate control rules, we can steer a switching system to a region centered at a desired equilibrium point, while avoiding "unsafe" regions of parameter saturation. The authors explain various correct-by-desig

  8. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  9. A Report on the Mock Interviews Conducted for Students of MCA IV Semester in April 2011 at the ELTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Lolla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A mock interview was conducted for students of MCA IV Semester, University of Hyderabad on 9, 10 Apr-2011 with the help of the management and experts from outside. The Interview panel assessed the technical and communication competence of the students and gave them individual and group feedback on their performances. Students found it to be a good rehearsal for actual job interview. it was treated as a part of placement related training and continuous assessment of the students during the course.

  10. Residence Hall Damage: Analysis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Thomas A.

    The problems of residence hall damage and vandalism are examined in this booklet. An analysis and control program is proposed to provide a systematic method of dealing with the problem. A list of basic assumptions held by students and staff on residence hall damage is presented for discussion. Problems created by damage to residence halls are also…

  11. Safety analysis of control rod drive computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the most significant user programmes revealed no errors in these programmes. The evaluation of approximately 82 cumulated years of operation demonstrated that the operating system of the control rod positioning processor has a reliability that is sufficiently good for the tasks this computer has to fulfil. Computers can be used for safety relevant tasks. The experience gained with the control rod positioning processor confirms that computers are not less reliable than conventional instrumentation and control system for comparable tasks. The examination and evaluation of computers for safety relevant tasks can be done with programme analysis or statistical evaluation of the operating experience. Programme analysis is recommended for seldom used and well structured programmes. For programmes with a long, cumulated operating time a statistical evaluation is more advisable. The effort for examination and evaluation is not greater than the corresponding effort for conventional instrumentation and control systems. This project has also revealed that, where it is technologically sensible, process controlling computers or microprocessors can be qualified for safety relevant tasks without undue effort. (orig./HP)

  12. General Analysis Tool Box for Controlled Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Osbild, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of reliable and efficient geometric algorithms is a challenging task. The reason is the following conflict: On the one hand, computing with rounded arithmetic may question the reliability of programs while, on the other hand, computing with exact arithmetic may be too expensive and hence inefficient. One solution is the implementation of controlled perturbation algorithms which combine the speed of floating-point arithmetic with a protection mechanism that guarantees reliability, nonetheless. This paper is concerned with the performance analysis of controlled perturbation algorithms in theory. We answer this question with the presentation of a general analysis tool box. This tool box is separated into independent components which are presented individually with their interfaces. This way, the tool box supports alternative approaches for the derivation of the most crucial bounds. We present three approaches for this task. Furthermore, we have thoroughly reworked the concept of controlled per...

  13. Application of dimensional analysis in systems modeling and control design

    CERN Document Server

    Balaguer, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Dimensional analysis is an engineering tool that is widely applied to numerous engineering problems, but has only recently been applied to control theory and problems such as identification and model reduction, robust control, adaptive control, and PID control. Application of Dimensional Analysis in Systems Modeling and Control Design provides an introduction to the fundamentals of dimensional analysis for control engineers, and shows how they can exploit the benefits of the technique to theoretical and practical control problems.

  14. Flexible space structure model reduction by modal cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, R. E.; Hughes, P. C.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that reduced models and reduced controllers for flexible space structures are obtained by retaining those modes which make the greatest contribution to quadratic control objectives. Attention is given to the relative importance of damping, frequency and mode shapes in the mode truncation decisions for the following control objectives: attitude control, vibration suppression and figure control. It is also shown that using Modal Cost Analysis (MCA) on the closed loop modes of the optimally controlled system allows the construction of reduced control policies which feedback only those closed loop coordinates which are most critical to the quadratic control performance criterion. In this manner, the modes which need to be controlled are deduced from truncations of the optimal controller.

  15. Statistical quality control through overall vibration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, M. a. Carmen; González-Palma, Rafael; Almorza, David; Mayorga, Pedro; López-Escobar, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The present study introduces the concept of statistical quality control in automotive wheel bearings manufacturing processes. Defects on products under analysis can have a direct influence on passengers' safety and comfort. At present, the use of vibration analysis on machine tools for quality control purposes is not very extensive in manufacturing facilities. Noise and vibration are common quality problems in bearings. These failure modes likely occur under certain operating conditions and do not require high vibration amplitudes but relate to certain vibration frequencies. The vibration frequencies are affected by the type of surface problems (chattering) of ball races that are generated through grinding processes. The purpose of this paper is to identify grinding process variables that affect the quality of bearings by using statistical principles in the field of machine tools. In addition, an evaluation of the quality results of the finished parts under different combinations of process variables is assessed. This paper intends to establish the foundations to predict the quality of the products through the analysis of self-induced vibrations during the contact between the grinding wheel and the parts. To achieve this goal, the overall self-induced vibration readings under different combinations of process variables are analysed using statistical tools. The analysis of data and design of experiments follows a classical approach, considering all potential interactions between variables. The analysis of data is conducted through analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data sets that meet normality and homoscedasticity criteria. This paper utilizes different statistical tools to support the conclusions such as chi squared, Shapiro-Wilks, symmetry, Kurtosis, Cochran, Hartlett, and Hartley and Krushal-Wallis. The analysis presented is the starting point to extend the use of predictive techniques (vibration analysis) for quality control. This paper demonstrates the existence of predictive variables (high-frequency vibration displacements) that are sensible to the processes setup and the quality of the products obtained. Based on the result of this overall vibration analysis, a second paper will analyse self-induced vibration spectrums in order to define limit vibration bands, controllable every cycle or connected to permanent vibration-monitoring systems able to adjust sensible process variables identified by ANOVA, once the vibration readings exceed established quality limits.

  16. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  17. Analysis and control of Boolean networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Daizhan; Li, Zhiqiang

    2010-01-01

    ""Analysis and Control of Boolean Networks"" presents a systematic new approach to the investigation of Boolean control networks. The fundamental tool in this approach is a novel matrix product called the semi-tensor product (STP). Using the STP, a logical function can be expressed as a conventional discrete-time linear system. In the light of this linear expression, certain major issues concerning Boolean network topology - fixed points, cycles, transient times and basins of attractors - can be easily revealed by a set of formulae. This framework renders the state-space approach to dynamic co

  18. Control Analysis of flexible Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephanie J.; Paluszek, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Future solar sail missions will require sails with dimensions on the order of 100 m to l km. At these sizes, given the gossamer nature of the sail supporting structures, flexible modes may be low enough to interact with the control system. This paper develops a practical analysis of the flexible interactions using state-space systems and modal data from standard finite element models of the sail sub- system. The modal data is combined with a rigid core bus to create a modal coordinate state-space plant, which can be analyzed for stability with a state-space controller. Results are presented for an 80 m sail for both collocated actuation and control by actuators mounted at the sail tips.

  19. Analysis of routine pilot-controller communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Lee, Alfred; Rodvold, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    Although pilot-controller communication is central to aviation safety, this area of aviation human factors has not been extensively researched. Most research has focused on what kinds of communication problems occur. A more complete picture of communication problems requires understanding how communication usually works in routine operations. A sample of routine pilot-controller communication in the TRACON environment is described. After describing several dimensions of routine communication, three kinds of communication problems are treated: inaccuracies such as incorrect readbacks, procedural deviations such as missing callsigns and readbacks, and nonroutine transactions where pilot and controller must deal with misunderstandings or other communication problems. Preliminary results suggest these problems are not frequent events in daily operations. However, analysis of the problems that do occur suggest some factors that may cause them.

  20. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  1. Large scale systems approximation: Analysis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns the study of the approximation of high dimensional systems by low order models. This approximation is defined by aggregation methods, the method based on singular perturbations and a relatively recent method. This later one is formulated in a particular representation of the system and is called balanced realisation method. The application of the approximation is then studied in the case of suboptimal control theory for the several defined models. The results of numerical simulation for the analysis and control are carried on two examples defined by a model of a nuclear reactor core of order nine and a steam generator of a fuel station of order twenty and permitted to develop a comparative study of the performances of the different methods analysed in the case of open loop and closed loop models

  2. Radioactivity analysis of food and accuracy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the fact that radioactive substances have been detected from the foods such as agricultural and livestock products and marine products due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stipulated new standards geared to general foods on radioactive cesium by replacing the interim standards up to now. Various institutions began to measure radioactivity on the basis of this instruction, but as a new challenge, a problem of the reliability of the data occurred. Therefore, accuracy control to indicate the proof that the quality of the data can be retained at an appropriate level judging from an objective manner is important. In order to consecutively implement quality management activities, it is necessary for each inspection agency to build an accuracy control system. This paper introduces support service, as a new attempt, for establishing the accuracy control system. This service is offered jointly by three organizations, such as TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd., Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, and Japan Chemical Analysis Center. This service consists of the training of radioactivity measurement practitioners, proficiency test for radioactive substance measurement, and personal authentication. (O.A.)

  3. IMPROVING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS BY FLOW CONTROL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Poznanski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using agile methods during the implementation of the system that meets mission critical requirements can be a real challenge. The change in the system built of dozens or even hundreds of specialized devices with embedded software requires the cooperation of a large group of engineers. This article presents a solution that supports parallel work of groups of system analysts and software developers. Deployment of formal rules to the requirements written in natural language enables using formal analysis of artifacts being a bridge between software and system requirements. Formalism and textual form of requirements allowed the automatic generation of message ?ow graph for the (sub system, called the “big-picture-model”. Flow diagram analysis helped to avoid a large number of defects whose repair cost in extreme cases could undermine the legitimacy of agile methods in projects of this scale. Retrospectively, a reduction of technical debt was observed. Continuous analysis of the “big picture model” improves the control of the quality parameters of the software architecture. The article also tries to explain why the commercial platform based on UML modeling language may not be su?cient in projects of this complexity.

  4. Decision-tree analysis of control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Romann M; Fajen, Brett R

    2015-06-01

    A major focus of research on visually guided action is the identification of control strategies that map optical information to actions. The traditional approach has been to test the behavioral predictions of a few hypothesized strategies against subject behavior in environments in which various manipulations of available information have been made. While important and compelling results have been achieved with these methods, they are potentially limited by small sets of hypotheses and the methods used to test them. In this study, we introduce a novel application of data-mining techniques in an analysis of experimental data that is able to both describe and model human behavior. This method permits the rapid testing of a wide range of possible control strategies using arbitrarily complex combinations of optical variables. Through the use of decision-tree techniques, subject data can be transformed into an easily interpretable, algorithmic form. This output can then be immediately incorporated into a working model of subject behavior. We tested the effectiveness of this method in identifying the optical information used by human subjects in a collision-avoidance task. Our results comport with published research on collision-avoidance control strategies while also providing additional insight not possible with traditional methods. Further, the modeling component of our method produces behavior that closely resembles that of the subjects upon whose data the models were based. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that data-mining techniques provide powerful new tools for analyzing human data and building models that can be applied to a wide range of perception-action tasks, even outside the visual-control setting we describe. PMID:25316047

  5. Strategic Planning and Decision Analysis: Presentation of the COSIMA Software System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper presents a composite decision support system, COSIMA, programmed in MS Excel. COSIMA provides assistance to the decision maker as concerns complex decisions and strategic planning. The COSIMA software is designed as interconnected modules which make it possible to conduct Cost-Benefit Analysis and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) either in combination or separated. The MCA module is based on the AHP and SMARTER techniques. COSIMA also handles risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Intensive post-operative follow-up of breast cancer patients with tumour markers: CEA, TPA or CA15.3 vs MCA and MCA-CA15.3 vs CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel in the early detection of distant metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Anselmi Loretta; Ferrari Paola; Metelli Maria; Carpi Angelo; Tartarelli Gianna; Nicolini Andrea; Conte Massimo; Berti Piero; Miccoli Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In breast cancer current guidelines do not recommend the routine use of serum tumour markers. Differently, we observed that CEA-TPA-CA15.3 (carcinoembryonic (CEA) tissue polypeptide (TPA) and cancer associated 115D8/DF3 (CA15.3) antigens) panel permits early detection and treatment for most relapsing patients. As high sensitivity and specificity and different cut-off values have been reported for mucin-like carcinoma associated antigen (MCA), we compared MCA with the above...

  7. MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd), Luminomagnetic Nanophosphors with Optical and Magnetic Features for Multimodal Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightsell, Chris; Mimun, Lawrence C.; Kumar, Ajith G.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Nanomaterials with multiple functionalities play a very important role in several high technology applications. A major area of such applications is the biomedical industry, where contrast agents with multiple imaging modalities can provide better results than conventional materials. Many of the contrast agents available now have drawbacks such as toxicity, photobleaching, low contrast, size restrictions, and overall cost of the imaging system. Rare-earth doped inorganic nanophosphors are alternatives to circumvent several of these issues, together with the added advantage of super high resolution imaging due to the excellent near infrared sensitivity of the phosphors. In addition to optical imaging features, by adding a magnetic ion such as Gd3+ at suitable lattice positions, the phosphor can be made magnetic, yielding dual imaging functionalities. In this research, we are presenting the optical and magnetic imaging features of sub-nanometer size MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd) phosphors for the potential application of these nanophosphors as multimodal contrast agents. Cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo imaging, penetration depth etc. are studied for various phosphor compositions, and optimized compositions are explored. Nanomaterials with multiple functionalities play a very important role in several high technology applications. A major area of such applications is the biomedical industry, where contrast agents with multiple imaging modalities can provide better results than conventional materials. Many of the contrast agents available now have drawbacks such as toxicity, photobleaching, low contrast, size restrictions, and overall cost of the imaging system. Rare-earth doped inorganic nanophosphors are alternatives to circumvent several of these issues, together with the added advantage of super high resolution imaging due to the excellent near infrared sensitivity of the phosphors. In addition to optical imaging features, by adding a magnetic ion such as Gd3+ at suitable lattice positions, the phosphor can be made magnetic, yielding dual imaging functionalities. In this research, we are presenting the optical and magnetic imaging features of sub-nanometer size MPO4:Nd3+ (M=Ca, Gd) phosphors for the potential application of these nanophosphors as multimodal contrast agents. Cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo imaging, penetration depth etc. are studied for various phosphor compositions, and optimized compositions are explored. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-PREM) Grant N0-DMR-0934218.

  8. A microprocessor controlled multichannel analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D. M.; Pereira, A. S.; Lopes, J. S.

    A microprocessor controlled MCA, in which direct memory access techniques are used to allow fast acquisition rates, is presented. The hardware, assembled around an Intel Corp. 8086 central processing unit, is briefly described. Operating commands to the MCA are given through front panel switches and through a keyboard; the command structure and the various software implemented functions are discussed. Among these there are functions for scale selection, comparison and transfer of spectra, mmrking of areas of interest, arithmetic operations, differentiation and integration of spectra. The corresponding programs and subroutines are described and their source and object codes are made available.

  9. Some chaotic behaviors in a MCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas's minor component analysis algorithm with a constant learning rate has both stability and chaotic dynamical behavior under some conditions. The paper explores such dynamical behavior of this algorithm. Certain stability and chaos of this algorithm are derived. Waveform plots, Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams are presented to illustrate the existence of chaotic behavior

  10. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  11. Structurally constrained controllers analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sojoudi, Somayeh; Aghdam, Amir G

    2011-01-01

    Explains and investigates recent cutting edge applications including such topics as formation flyingComplete coverage of robust control in structurally constrained controllersDiscusses the performance evaluation of decentralized controllersExplains how to use new LMI method to solve traditional constrained control problems

  12. Design and Simulation of Seido Buffer for Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) on Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of our electronic equipment has buffer, thus this make buffer as one of importance in electronic gadget. This paper introduced Single Ended Input Differential Output (SEIDO) buffer to predict the bias at approximately 2.5 V. For this purpose, the input range between -1 mV to 4 V was implemented. The software used to cascade SEIDO buffer is called LTspice IV; an open source software developed by Linear Technology Incorporation. The component involve in this development was Operational Amplifier (OP AMP) AD826 from Analog Devices Incorporation, capacitor and resistor. Kirchhoffs Current Law and Kirchhoffs Voltage Law was applied to calculated voltage gain and biasing voltage. All design has been verified by LTspice IV. The result produced from simulation was between -0.3 V to 6.3 V with bias roughly at 2.5 V. These results prove that it was capable to drive Analog Digital Converter (ADC) that can subsequently apply for Multichannel Analyzer (MCA). (author)

  13. Energy transfer from Eu2+ to Mn2+ in M5(PO4)3Cl (M=Ca, Sr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M4.95?y(PO4)3Cl:0.05Eu2+, yMn2+ (M=Ca, Sr) phosphors were synthesized at 1200 °C under a reductive atmosphere. The energy transfer mechanism and efficiency (?) from Eu2+ to Mn2+ as well as the quantum efficiency (Q) of the Mn2+ emission were analyzed using PL spectra and decay curves. Least squares fittings of the Eu2+ decay curves indicate that the energy transfer from Eu2+ to Mn2+ follows the exchange mechanism in the Sr system, while besides exchange mechanism other complicated quenching processes are involved in the Ca system. Superficially the ? is high but the Q is low, which implies some energy loss. Two quenching models representative of an “inverse bottleneck process”, which is related to the lifetime mismatch between Eu2+ and Mn2+, and a “charge transfer process“ in the Eu2+–Mn2+ clusters, are proposed. The results may provide some clues for designing excellent sensitizer and activator co-doped phosphors in our further work. -- Highlights: • Energy transfer efficiency of Eu2+ is high and the emission efficiency of Mn2+ is low. • Inverse bottleneck effect related to Eu2+/Mn2+ lifetime mismatch causes quenching. • Charge transfer process in Eu2+–Mn2+ clusters also causes quenching

  14. Analysis of Controller Communication in En Route Air Traffic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; And Others

    To contribute to an understanding of the elements of good air traffic controller communication with the objective of providing recommendations to improve controller communication training, two studies analyzed team communication, ground-air communication, and ground-line communication. The simulated and live traffic analyses examined established…

  15. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secon...

  16. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation can now be analytically studied, and specialized optimization in the upper level control can also be made accordingly. Case studies on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation are carried out using proposed power flow analysis.

  17. Control and Analysis of Droop and Reverse Droop Controllers for Distributed Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses control and analysis of droop and reverse droop control for distributed generations (DG). The droop control is well known applied to the voltage control mode (VCM) DG units, but has limitation when implemented on the current control mode (CCM) units. Therefore, this paper gives a more complete primary control for DG systems that integrates with both VCM and CCM units. The power management can be uniformly achieved by designing proportional droop and reverse droop parameters. And the power sharing effect among CCM and VCM DG units is discussed. Finally, hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out to validate the proposed control and analysis.

  18. Control design and analysis for underactuated robotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed considerable progress in the study of underactuated robotic systems (URSs). Control Design and Analysis for Underactuated Robotic Systems presents a unified treatment of control design and analysis for a class of URSs, which include systems with multiple-degree-of-freedom and/or with underactuation degree two. It presents novel notions, features, design techniques, and strictly global motion analysis results for these systems. These new materials are shown to be vital in studying the control design and stability analysis of URSs. Control Design and Analysis for Underactuated Robotic Systems includes the modelling, control design, and analysis presented in a systematic way particularly for the following examples: l  directly and remotely driven  Acrobots l  Pendubot l  rotational pendulum l  counter-weighted Acrobot 2-link underactuated robot with flexible elbow joint l  variable-length pendulum l  3-link gymnastic robot with passive first joint l  n-link planar robo...

  19. Plasma membrane protein OsMCA1 is involved in regulation of hypo-osmotic shock-induced Ca2+ influx and modulates generation of reactive oxygen species in cultured rice cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurusu Takamitsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanosensing and its downstream responses are speculated to involve sensory complexes containing Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive channels. On recognizing osmotic signals, plant cells initiate activation of a widespread signal transduction network that induces second messengers and triggers inducible defense responses. Characteristic early signaling events include Ca2+ influx, protein phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Pharmacological analyses show Ca2+ influx mediated by mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels to influence induction of osmotic signals, including ROS generation. However, molecular bases and regulatory mechanisms for early osmotic signaling events remain poorly elucidated. Results We here identified and investigated OsMCA1, the sole rice homolog of putative Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive channels in Arabidopsis (MCAs. OsMCA1 was specifically localized at the plasma membrane. A promoter-reporter assay suggested that OsMCA1 mRNA is widely expressed in seed embryos, proximal and apical regions of shoots, and mesophyll cells of leaves and roots in rice. Ca2+ uptake was enhanced in OsMCA1-overexpressing suspension-cultured cells, suggesting that OsMCA1 is involved in Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Hypo-osmotic shock-induced ROS generation mediated by NADPH oxidases was also enhanced in OsMCA1-overexpressing cells. We also generated and characterized OsMCA1-RNAi transgenic plants and cultured cells; OsMCA1-suppressed plants showed retarded growth and shortened rachises, while OsMCA1-suppressed cells carrying Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin showed partially impaired changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt induced by hypo-osmotic shock and trinitrophenol, an activator of mechanosensitive channels. Conclusions We have identified a sole MCA ortholog in the rice genome and developed both overexpression and suppression lines. Analyses of cultured cells with altered levels of this putative Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive channel indicate that OsMCA1 is involved in regulation of plasma membrane Ca2+ influx and ROS generation induced by hypo-osmotic stress in cultured rice cells. These findings shed light on our understanding of mechanical sensing pathways.

  20. Analysis and Control of the Pan System via Sliding Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain new results for the analysis and control of the Pan system (2010) using sliding mode control (SMC). The stability results derived in this paper for the control of the Pan system to stabilize about its unstable equilibrium at the origin have been derived using sliding mode control and Lyapunovstability theory. Numerical simulations are depicted to demonstrate the control results derived in this paper.

  1. Analysis of Reconfigured Control Loop with a Virtual Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gontkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Control reconfiguration changes the control structure in response to a fault detected in the plant. This becomes necessary, because a major fault like loss of an actuator breaks the corresponding control loop and therefore renders the whole system inoperable.  An important aim of control reconfiguration is to change the control structure as little as possible, since every change bears the potential of practical problems. The proposed solution is to keep the original controller in the loop and to add an extension called virtual actuator that implements the necessary changes of the control structure. The virtual actuator translates between the signals of the nominal controller and the signal of the faulty plants. This paper is concerned with the analysis of reconfigured loop with a virtual actuator for the system with the faulty actuator. The proposed analysis is illustrated on numerical example.

  2. Risk Analysis of Safety-Critical Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems associated with risks analysis of a safety-critical control system. In the paper there are introduced recommendations enabling practical enforceability of risk analysis by the assurance of sufficient objectivity level. In the initial phases of the system lifecycle risk analysis serves for a tolerable hazard rate definition for individual safety relevant functions. In the end of the control system development process the risk analysis (an analysis of failures consequences on system safety serves for the verification of system safety attributes.

  3. Analysis and control design of two cascaded boost converter

    OpenAIRE

    Moutabir A.; Abouloifa A.; Abdelmounim E.; Aboulfatah M.; Majdoul R.; Touati A.

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to study a cascade of two BOOST converters. First, a non- linear model of the whole controlled system is developed. Then, a robust non-linear controller of currents is synthesized using a backstepping design technique. A formal analysis based on Lyapunov stability and average theory is developed to describe the control currents loops performances. A classical PI controller is used for the voltages loops. The study of the stability of the system will also be discussed. Simulated...

  4. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptorcy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

  5. The use of multiple correspondence analysis to explore associations between categories of qualitative variables in healthy ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício Soares Costa; Nadine Correia Santos; Pedro Cunha; Jorge Cotter; Nuno Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Population studies are often characterized by a plethora of data that includes quantitative to qualitative variables. The main focus of this study was to illustrate the applicability of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) in detecting and representing underlying structures in large datasets used to investigate cognitive ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain main cognitive dimensions (based on the continuous neurocognitive test variables) and MCA to detect and explor...

  6. Control of Spatially Heterogeneous and Time-Varying Cellular Reaction Networks A New Summation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, M A; Kholodenko, B N; Peletier, Mark A.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2002-01-01

    A hallmark of a plethora of intracellular signaling pathways is the spatial separation of activation and deactivation processes that potentially results in precipitous gradients of activated proteins. The classical Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA), which quantifies the influence of an individual process on a system variable as the control coefficient, cannot be applied to spatially separated protein networks. The present paper unravels the principles that govern the control over the fluxes and intermediate concentrations in spatially heterogeneous reaction networks. Our main results are two types of the control summation theorems. The first type is a non-trivial generalization of the classical theorems to systems with spatially and temporally varying concentrations. In this generalization, the process of diffusion, which enters as the result of spatial concentration gradients, plays a role similar to other processes such as chemical reactions and membrane transport. The second summation theorem is completely ...

  7. Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented

  8. Adaptive Control Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Ioan; Lozano, Rogelio; M'Saad, Mohammed; Karimi, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Control (second edition) shows how a desired level of system performance can be maintained automatically and in real time, even when process or disturbance parameters are unknown and variable. It is a coherent exposition of the many aspects of this field, setting out the problems to be addressed and moving on to solutions, their practical significance and their application. Discrete-time aspects of adaptive control are emphasized to reflect the importance of digital computers in the ...

  9. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  10. The Importance of Variance Analysis for Costs Control in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh, L. O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aimed at examining the importance of variance analysis for cost control in organizations. The study x-rayed the concept of variance analysis, types, sources, objectives and its significance. The study reported that variance analysis has significant influence in evaluating individual performance in organizations, assignment of responsibilities to individuals and assisting management to rely on the principle of management by exception and recommended among others, variances analysis should be based upon scientifically established standards.

  11. Tests for the MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam isolating valves are designed to shut off outside the containment the steam pipe penetrating the containment of the reactor building in case of a pipe break of the primary circuit. There are described experimental facilities at the hot steam reactor HDR, given examples for experiments as well as type and design of the SULZER steam isolating valves applied. (GL) 891 GL/GL 892 MKO

  12. Systems with delays analysis, control, and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, A V

    2015-01-01

    The edition introduces a new class of invariant derivatives  and shows their relationships with other derivatives, such as the Sobolev generalized derivative and the generalized derivative of the distribution theory. This is a new direction in mathematics.   i-Smooth analysis is the branch of functional analysis that considers the theory and applications of the invariant derivatives of functions and functionals. The important direction of i-smooth analysis is the investigation of the relation of invariant derivatives with the Sobolev generalized derivative and the generalized derivative o

  13. Proposed design for a high quality PC-MCA add on card with reduced electronic hardware [Paper No.: I4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and construction of an 8 k personal computer analyser (PCA), used for nuclear pulse height analysis. The complete PCA uses a single card that can be mounted in a slot of personal computer. The PCA circuit consists of an interface memory circuit and an 8-K nuclear ADC along with its associated controls giving differential non-linearity (DNL) of ? ± 1% with conversion time of nearly 15 micro sec. All standard facilities like selection of conversion gain, digital offset etc. are provided. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  14. Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Ahmed Khan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategies for an Inverted pendulum system model are presented for stabilized controlling such as Proportional-Integral-Derivatives (PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC Controllers. Matlab Simulation has been performed on Simulink platform shows that both controllers successfully controls Multi-output Inverted pendulum system. However PID is more efficient and has a better time response characteristics than FLC control strategy.

  15. Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brushless DC motors (BLDC find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease of implementation, these controllers pose difficulties where there are some control complexity such as nonlinearity, load disturbances and parametric variations. Moreover PI controllers require precise linear mathematical models. In this paper, the analysis and mathematical modeling of BLDC motor is implemented. Also, speed control of three phase BLDC motor drive using power electronic device is projected by using matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows the improved performance of developed Brushless DC motor drive.

  16. INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by public entities. Internal Audit, along its evolution - characterized by complex dynamics and adaptability - created confusion regarding the concept of control. The research presented in this paper is based on works published to date regarding the conceptual boundaries of this notion.

  17. Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System

    OpenAIRE

    Aleem Ahmed Khan; Kashan Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategies fo...

  18. The Analysis on Financial Cooperative Controlling Mechanism of Enterprise Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqin Feng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the core of modern market economy, enterprise group is an advanced form of organization after productive forces reached to a certain stage. For the reason of complexity and specificity of organizational form of enterprise group, the issue of financial cooperative control has been widespread concerned by theorists. Although many researches have been done, but there are still lacking of systematic research results especially in the fields of mechanism of financial cooperative control. After exploring the relationship of value effect and financial control, this paper puts forword a system model of financial cooperative control. It also gives a system analysis including system hierarchy analysis, synergy analysis and coupling analysis. All of these can provide a decision making support for the collaborative mana- gement of enterprise group.

  19. COMQC, Quality Control Statistical Analysis for Means, Errors, Skewness, Kurtosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: COMQC is a quality control data analysis statistical program that calculates mean, standard deviation, range, skewness and kurtosis. Tolerance limits, confidence limits on the percent defective, and a one-way analysis of variance are also provided. 2 - Method of solution: The program consists of four subroutines which produce the following: histograms, control charts, group comparisons, and process capability study. Standard statistical methods and techniques are employed

  20. Control theoretic analysis and design of numerical algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Many iterative numerical algorithms can be considered as dynamical systems. Since control theory deals with the study of dynamical systems, it has the potential to provide new insight, analysis tools and even new algorithms to the field of numerical analysis. Although the early knowledge of this observation, the research in this application area is scarce. In this thesis we use control theoretic ideas to study and design numerical algorithms. We will focus on developing analys...

  1. Emissions reduction through analysis, modelling and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Aries, E.; Saiepour, M. [Corus - Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The main objectives of ERAMAC were to: - develop methods for the characterisation of organic emissions from coke-making and EAF steelmaking processes; - characterise air quality in the vicinity of steelworks; - identify priorities for emission control; - develop predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) for CO, NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions in coke making, of pollutant emissions in EAF steelmaking and for improved control of reheating furnaces; - investigate the use of an Amazone contactor for removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx in sintering emissions. The methods developed and applied to characterise organic emissions from coke plants revealed that fugitive emissions from coke oven doors and from by-products plant storage tanks were the main priorities for improved control measures. For ambient air monitoring, an Opsis differential optical absorption spectrometry system was used to carry out real-time measurements of benzene, toluene and xylene for reverse dispersion modelling estimates of releases. Predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) were developed for the measurement of CO, NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions in coke making and for predicting organic emissions from EAF steelmaking. Although PEMS were shown to be potentially useful for improving the control of reheating furnaces, implementation requires individual control of air/fuel flows to burners. The Amazone contactor was inadequate for the desulphurisation of sinter waste gas owing to massive evaporation losses of glycerol and the consequent fire risk. However, partial waste gas denitrification was feasible at low temperatures with ozone as an oxidant and aqueous sodium hydroxide as an absorbent. Strong recommendations are made for further work to implement and enhance techniques developed in ERAMAC. 75 refs., 180 figs., 116 tabs., 2 apps.

  2. Updated Meta-Analysis of Learner Control within Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karich, Abbey C.; Burns, Matthew K.; Maki, Kathrin E.

    2014-01-01

    Giving a student control over their learning has theoretical and intuitive appeal, but its effects are neither powerful nor consistent in the empirical literature base. This meta-analysis updated previous meta-analytic research by Niemiec, Sikorski, and Walberg by studying the overall effectiveness of providing learner control within educational…

  3. Cognitive Task Analysis of Prioritization in Air Traffic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    A cognitive task analysis was performed to analyze the key cognitive components of the en route air traffic controllers' jobs. The goals were to ascertain expert mental models and decision-making strategies and to identify important differences in controller knowledge, skills, and mental models as a function of expertise. Four groups of…

  4. Time Series Analysis Forecasting and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Box, George E P; Reinsel, Gregory C

    2011-01-01

    A modernized new edition of one of the most trusted books on time series analysis. Since publication of the first edition in 1970, Time Series Analysis has served as one of the most influential and prominent works on the subject. This new edition maintains its balanced presentation of the tools for modeling and analyzing time series and also introduces the latest developments that have occurred n the field over the past decade through applications from areas such as business, finance, and engineering. The Fourth Edition provides a clearly written exploration of the key methods for building, cl

  5. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Galhardo, C. E. C.; Penna, T. J. P.; de Menezes, M. Argollo; Soares, P. P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics...

  6. A performance requirements analysis of the SSC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of analysis of the performance requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider Control System. We quantify the performance requirements of the system in terms of response time, throughput and reliability. We then examine the effect of distance and traffic patterns on control system performance and examine how these factors influence the implementation of the control network architecture and compare the proposed system against those criteria. (author)

  7. Team One (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. Progress report for the two quarters ending March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers progress by Team One of the DOE/OFE/D and T 12 Tesla Coil Development Program during the first and second quarters of fiscal 1981. General Atomic Company is the Team One leader, with Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) as industrial subcontractor. The basic mission of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of, and establish an engineering data base for utilizing bath cooled NbTi alloy to generate a peak toroidal field of 12 tesla in a tokamak reactor

  8. Magnetic field regulation control system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badelt, S.W. [Lawrence Livremore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This study comprises (1) an analytical characterization of the Cameca ion microscope`s magnetic field regulation circuitry and (2) comparisons between the analytical predictions and the measured performance of the control system. It is the first step in a project to achieve routine field regulation better than 10ppm. The control loop was decomposed into functional subcircuits and simulated in SPICE to determine DC, AC, and transient response. Transfer functions were extracted from SPICE, simplified, and analyzed in MATLAB. Both SPICE and MATLAB simulations were calculated for step inputs, and these results were compared to actual measurements. Magnetic field fluctuations were measured at high mass resolving power. The frequency spectrum of the fluctuations was analyzed by FFT. Difficulties encountered and implications for future work are discussed.

  9. Analysis and design of networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    You, Keyou; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    This monograph focuses on characterizing the stability and performance consequences of inserting limited-capacity communication networks within a control loop. The text shows how integration of the ideas of control and estimation with those of communication and information theory can be used to provide important insights concerning several fundamental problems such as: ·         minimum data rate for stabilization of linear systems over noisy channels; ·         minimum network requirement for stabilization of linear systems over fading channels; and ·         stability of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations. A fundamental link is revealed between the topological entropy of linear dynamical systems and the capacities of communication channels. The design of a logarithmic quantizer for the stabilization of linear systems under various network environments is also extensively discussed and solutions to many problems of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations are de...

  10. Controlled time of arrival feasibility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smedt, David de; Bronsvoort, Jesper; McDonald, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research studies and operational trials have shown that using the airborne Required Time of Arrival (RTA) function, an aircraft can individually achieve an assigned time to a metering or merge point accurately. This study goes a step further and investigates the application of RTA to a real sequence of arriving aircraft into Melbourne Australia. Assuming that the actual arrival times were Controlled Time of Arrivals (CTAs) assigned to each aircraft, the study examines if the airborne...

  11. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 120.8 Section 120.8 ...HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120...Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) HACCP plan. Each...

  12. Contamination control - the analysis of things as they should be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination can be controlled in chemical analyses by the use of suitable containers, cleanliness, appropriate apparatus design, isolation of the analysis process from air, and in-situ analysis. Examples based on analyses of organic reactor coolant, metals, and underground natural waters are given. (LL)

  13. Discontinuous control systems frequency-domain analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Boiko, Igor

    2008-01-01

    This book provides new insight on the problem of closed-loop performance and oscillations in discontinuous control systems, covering the class of systems that do not necessarily have low-pass filtering properties. The author provides a practical, yet rigorous and exact approach to analysis and design of discontinuous control systems via application of a novel frequency-domain tool: the locus of a perturbed relay system. Presented are a number of practical examples applying the theory to analysis and design of discontinuous control systems from various branches of engineering, including electro

  14. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  15. Stability Analysis for Car Following Model Based on Control Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability analysis is one of the key issues in car-following theory. The stability analysis with Lyapunov function for the two velocity difference car-following model (for short, TVDM) is conducted and the control method to suppress traffic congestion is introduced. Numerical simulations are given and results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Stability analysis of Static Synchronous Compensator with reactive current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, S. [M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, M.S.R.I.T. Post, Bangalore 560054 (India)

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents stability analysis of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) (with detailed model) with reactive current controller. The discrete time model of the system is derived. The stability region in the parameter space is obtained for different values of reactive current. The analysis is done for type II controller where the parameters are the proportional and integral gains. It is found that increase in integral gain results in period doubling bifurcation and increase in proportional gain results in border collision bifurcation. The stability analysis is compared with that for simplified STATCOM model neglecting harmonics. The condition for stability for simplified STATCOM model (neglecting harmonics) with losses being ignored, is derived. (author)

  17. Application of hazard analysis and critical control points in shipbuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putilina Ekaterina Yurievna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP in the shipbuilding is considered. HACCP definitions are presented; the system origin is described and HACCP principles are characterized. It is noted that HACCP principles accepted nowadays are used only in food industry but cannot be applied in shipbuilding. The suggestions on adaptation and integration of the given principles at realization of shipbuilding projects within risk analysis are given. There has been made a conclusion on the possibility of application of the system and the principles of the hazard analysis and critical control points in shipbuilding under conditions of adaptation of the given system to the shipbuilding project.

  18. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation. To this end, four distinct modes of operation are identified (dry weather, filling, saturation and emptying) and for each of these the process gain matrix is found. Based on the gain matrices a controllability analysis is performed, to screen for suitable pairings between measurements and actuators in the case study area of Copenhagen. The analysis effectively reduces the number of potential controlled variables, by considering the sensitivity of the measurements towards changes in the manipulated variables. Several potential pairings are generated and the best alternative is chosen for closed-loop testing. The methodology is a promising tool for systematic generation of solutions for sewer system control.

  19. Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating

  20. Anti-surge control : Control theoretic analysis of existing anti-surge control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kvangardsnes, Terje

    2009-01-01

    This report on compressor anti-surge control closes some of the gaps related to the significant properties of control strategies. Anti-surge control is an important issue in operation of e.g. oil and gas processing plants. However, control strategies have not previously been studied thoroughly from a control theoretic viewpoint. Special attention is given to the input-output relationship between recycle valve opening and control variable when changing the compressor speed. The properties are ...

  1. Controllability analysis of modified Petlyuk structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo-Galvan, V.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.; Hernandez, S.; Hernandez, H. [Guanajuato Univ. (Mexico). Faculty of Chemistry

    2008-02-15

    Distillation columns can consume a large portion of energy in chemical industry processes. Integrated Petlyuk columns have been shown to improve energy efficiencies by between 20 and 40 per cent, and thermally coupled distillation columns can serve as an alternative to conventional distillation sequences in multicomponent mixture separation processes. Until recently, operational difficulties have limited the wider introduction of Petlyuk columns in industrial applications. Alternative Petlyuk-type schemes have now been developed to provide improved operation properties. This paper discussed, evaluated, and compared the theoretical control properties of 6 different Petlyuk schemes. Computations were performed using a singular value decomposition (SVD) technique in the frequency domain. Dynamic closed-loop responses for set point tracking, and disturbance rejections were derived in order to support each scheme's theoretical control properties. Results of the comparative evaluation demonstrated that reductions in the number of interconnections and the use of unidirectional flows impacted the dynamic properties of the schemes, and led to operational improvements in thermally coupled distillation sequences. It was concluded that Petyluk properties can be improved through the correction of the bidirectionality of interconnecting streams. 30 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs.

  2. Nonlinear analysis and control of a continuous fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szederkényi, G.; Kristensen, Niels Rode

    2002-01-01

    Different types of nonlinear controllers are designed and compared for a simple continuous bioreactor operating near optimal productivity. This operating point is located close to a fold bifurcation point. Nonlinear analysis of stability, controllability and zero dynamics is used to investigate open-loop system properties, to explore the possible control difficulties and to select the system output to be used in the control structure. A wide range of controllers are tested including pole placement and LQ controllers, feedback and input–output linearization controllers and a nonlinear controller based on direct passivation. The comparison is based on time-domain performance and on investigating the stability region, robustness and tuning possibilities of the controllers. Controllers using partial state feedback of the substrate concentration and not directly depending on the reaction rate are recommended for the simple fermenter. Passivity based controllers have been found to be globally stable, not very sensitive to the uncertainties in the reaction rate and controller parameter but they require full nonlinear state feedback.

  3. Analysis and control design of two cascaded boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutabir A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study a cascade of two BOOST converters. First, a non- linear model of the whole controlled system is developed. Then, a robust non-linear controller of currents is synthesized using a backstepping design technique. A formal analysis based on Lyapunov stability and average theory is developed to describe the control currents loops performances. A classical PI controller is used for the voltages loops. The study of the stability of the system will also be discussed. Simulated results are displayed to validate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  4. Performance Analysis and FPGA Implementation of Digital PID Controller for Speed Control of DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charul Agarwal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance analysis and implementation of PID(Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller on FPGA platform.The hardware implementation has been done on Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA board.The software implementation has been done using Xilinx ISE 8.1i as a tool and simulation is performed using ModelSim 5.4a as a simulator.The PWM signal is generated by FPGA board,which further given to dc motor for its speed control. A new technique has been introduced for the generation of the control input as a PWM signal for controlling the motor driver circuit and decoding the optical encoder data for using it for the speed feedback in the PID control loop. The VHDL algorithm for the proposed implementation has been presented in this paper. Performance analysis of PID controller using MATLAB software shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems

  6. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Markman

    1999-09-17

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control systems approved for use in the nuclear power industry by the NRC. (3) Identify and discuss key design issues, features, benefits, and limitations of these NRC approved digital control systems that can be applied as design guidance and correlated to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design requirements. (4) Identify codes and standards used in the design of these NRC approved digital control systems and discuss their possible applicability to the design of a subsurface nuclear waste repository. (5) Evaluate the NRC approved digital control system's safety, reliability and maintainability features and issues. Apply these to MGR design methodologies and requirements. (6) Provide recommendations for use in developing design criteria in the System Description Documents for the digital control systems of the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (7) Develop recommendations for applying NRC approval methods for digital control systems for the subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will focus on the development of the issues, criteria and methods used and required for identifying the appropriate requirements for digital based control systems. Attention will be placed on development of recommended design criteria for digital controls including interpretation of codes, standards and regulations. Attention will also focus on the use of digital controls and COTS (Commercial Off-the-shelf) technology and equipment in selected NRC approved digital control systems, and as referenced in applicable codes, standards and regulations. The analysis will address design issues related to COTS technology and how they were dealt with in previous NRC approved digital control systems.

  7. Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

  8. Fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of the low temperature forms of the MAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of Europium-doped MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) are reinvestigated and discussed on the basis of the propensity of an activator to agglomerate with an oxygen vacancy. Due to a stronger attraction of the anion vacancy towards Eu2+ cations going from BaAl2Si2O8 to SrAl2Si2O8 and CaAl2Si2O8 host lattices, the interpretation of the fluorescence spectra turns out to be less trivial in the Ca and Sr host lattices than in the Ba one and requests the account for Eu2+ cations lying at alkaline-earth sites with or without vacancy in their neighborhood. Phosphorescence in these compounds is highlighted. - Graphical abstract: The Eu2+-doped MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) aluminosilicates exhibit a bluish white luminescence, which can last several minutes after the removal of the excitation. The account for Eu2+ cations coupled with defects is required to explain fluorescence spectra

  9. ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 2. AGRICULTURAL SEDIMENT CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely effects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting...

  10. Use of task analysis in control room evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responding to recently formulated regulatory requirements, the BWR Owners' Group, working in conjunction with General Electric, has formulated a method for performing human factors design reviews of nuclear power plant control rooms. This process incorporates task analyses to analyze operational aspects of panel layout and design. Correlation of operator functions defined by emergency procedures against required controls and displays has proven successful in identifying instrumentation required in the control room to adequately respond to transient conditions, and in evaluating the effectiveness of panel design and physical arrangement. Extensions of the analysis have provided information on operator response paths, frequency of use of instruments, and control room layout. The techniques used were based on a need to identify primary controls and indications required by the operator in performing each step of the applicable procedure. The relative locations of these instruments were then analyzed for information on the adequacy of the control room design for those conditions

  11. Performance Analysis of PCFICH and PDCCH LTE Control Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Milos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Control channels play a key role in the evaluation of mobile system performance. The purpose of our paper is to evaluate the performance of the control channels implementation in the Long Term Evolution (LTE system. The paper deals with the simulation of the complete signal processing chain for Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH and Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH in the LTE system, Release 8. We implemented a complete signal processing chain for downlink control channels as an extension of the existing MATLAB LTE downlink simulator. The paper presents results of PCFICH and PDCCH control channel computer performance analysis in various channel conditions. The results can be compared with the performance of data channels.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of optimal control measures for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paula; Silva, Cristiana J; Torres, Delfim F M

    2014-10-01

    We propose and analyze an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for tuberculosis that considers reinfection. The control functions represent the fraction of early latent and persistent latent individuals that are treated. Our aim was to study how these control measures should be implemented, for a certain time period, in order to reduce the number of active infected individuals, while minimizing the interventions implementation costs. The optimal intervention is compared along different epidemiological scenarios, by varying the transmission coefficient. The impact of variation of the risk of reinfection, as a result of acquired immunity to a previous infection for treated individuals on the optimal controls and associated solutions, is analyzed. A cost-effectiveness analysis is done, to compare the application of each one of the control measures, separately or in combination. PMID:25245395

  13. Moving shape analysis and control applications to fluid structure interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Moubachir, Marwan

    2006-01-01

    Problems involving the evolution of two- and three-dimensional domains arise in many areas of science and engineering. Emphasizing an Eulerian approach, Moving Shape Analysis and Control: Applications to Fluid Structure Interactions presents valuable tools for the mathematical analysis of evolving domains. The book illustrates the efficiency of the tools presented through different examples connected to the analysis of noncylindrical partial differential equations (PDEs), such as Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids in moving domains. The authors first provide all of the details of existence and uniqueness of the flow in both strong and weak cases. After establishing several important principles and methods, they devote several chapters to demonstrating Eulerian evolution and derivation tools for the control of systems involving fluids and solids. The book concludes with the boundary control of fluid-structure interaction systems, followed by helpful appendices that review some of the advanced m...

  14. Cluster Analysis of A Tobacco Control Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dzalilov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of theoretical and methodological frameworks in data analysis is fundamental for modeling complex tobacco control systems. Following this idea, a new optimization based approach was introduced in the paper through two distinct methods: the modified linear least square fit and a heuristic algorithm for feature selection based on optimization techniques. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, optimization-based methods have the potential to detect nonlinearity, and therefore to be more effective analysis tools of complex data set. In this study we evaluate the modified global k-means clustering algorithm by applying it to a massive set of real-time tobacco control survey data. Cluster analysis identified fixed and stable clusters in the studied data. These clusters correspond to groups of smokers with similar behavior and the identification of these clusters may allow us to give recommendations on modification of existing tobacco control systems and on the design of future data acquisition surveys.

  15. REACTOR ANALYSIS AND VIRTUAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT (RAVEN) FY12 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Joshua Cogliati; Diego Mandelli; Robert Kinoshita

    2012-09-01

    RAVEN is a complex software tool that will have tasks spanning from being the RELAP-7 user interface, to using RELAP-7 to perform Risk Informed Safety Characterization (RISMC), and to controlling RELAP-7 calculation execution. The goal of this document is to: 1. Highlight the functional requirements of the different tasks of RAVEN 2. Identify shared functions that could be aggregate in modules so to obtain a minimal software redundancy and maximize software utilization. RAVEN is in fact a software framework that will allow exploiting the following functionalities: • Derive and actuate the control logic required to: o Simulate the plant control system o Simulate the operator (procedure guided) actions o Perform Monte Carlo sampling of random distributed events o Perform event three based analysis • Provide a GUI to: o Input a plant description to RELAP-7 (component, control variable, control parameters) o Concurrent monitoring of Control Parameters o Concurrent alteration of control parameters • Provide Post Processing data mining capability based on o Dimensionality reduction o Cardinality reduction In this document it will be shown how an appropriate mathematical formulation of the control logic and probabilistic analysis leads to have most of the software infrastructure leveraged between the two main tasks. Further, this document will go through the development accomplished this year, including simulation results, and priorities for the next years development

  16. Autonomous miniaturised device with USB interface for pulse height analysis and multi-channel scaling (TUKAN-8K-USB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present autonomous a 8K-channel miniature device designed for spectroscopy or intensity vs. time measurements. The device (TUKAN-8K-USB) is based on the USB interface, and is contained in a screened separate box - it can be proved either directly from the USB port or from an external DC source (wall adapter of battery). The device may work in two independent operational modes: Multi-Channel Analysis (MCA) and Multi-Channel Scaling (MCS). The crucial MCA component - Peak detect and Hold circuitry - is featuring a novel architecture based on a diamond transistor. Its analog stage can accept analog pulses with front edges down to 100 ns and has a differential linearity below 0.5% (full scale sliding scale averaging). Automatic stops on count in Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and on preset live or real time are implemented. The MCS works at medium speed counting rates (up to 8 MHz), with preset dwell time, number of channels and multi-sweep mode. Each these parameters can also be controlled externally. Digital interfacing is based on four used configurable logical I/O lines. A single CYCLONE EP1C3 Altera FPGA provides all control functions. The USB communication is based on FYDI FIFO controller. The analyzer is equipped with advanced, user-friendly software, which is subjected of another publication. )author)

  17. Analysis of communication based distributed control of MMC for HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) has gained a lot of interest in industry in the recent years due to its modular design and easy adaption for applications that require different power and voltage level. However, the control and operation of a real MMC consisting of large number of sub modules for high power and high voltage application is a very challenging task. For the reason that distributed control architecture could maintain the modularity of the MMC, this control architecture will be investigated and a distributed control system dedicated for MMC will be proposed in this paper. The suitable communication technologies, modulation and control techniques for the proposed distributed control system are discussed and compared. Based on the frequency domain modeling and analysis of the distributed control system, the controllers of the different control loops are designed by analytical methods and Matlab tools. Finally, sensitiveness of the distributed control system to modulation effect (phase-shifted PWM), communication delay, individual carrier frequency and sampling frequency is studied through simulations that are made in Matlab Simulink and PLECS.

  18. Multi-intersection Traffic Light Control Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yanfeng; Cassandras, Christos G.

    2012-01-01

    We address the traffic light control problem for multiple intersections in tandem by viewing it as a stochastic hybrid system and developing a Stochastic Flow Model (SFM) for it. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive on-line gradient estimates of a cost metric with respect to the controllable green and red cycle lengths. The IPA estimators obtained require counting traffic light switchings and estimating car flow rates only when specific events occur. Th...

  19. Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis for Quasi-Dynamic Traffic Light Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Fleck, Julia L.; Cassandras, Christos G.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the traffic light control problem for a single intersection modeled as a stochastic hybrid system. We study a quasi-dynamic policy based on partial state information defined by detecting whether vehicle backlogs are above or below certain controllable thresholds. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive online gradient estimators of a cost metric with respect to these threshold parameters and use these estimators to iteratively adjust the thresh...

  20. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

  1. Validation and analysis of linear distillation models for controller design

    OpenAIRE

    Amrhein, Michael; Allgöwer, Frank; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    It is a nontrivial task to decide whether a model describes the main dynamic characteristics of a process and to determine which model is to be preferred for controller design. Techniques for examining lineal models for controller design are described in Section 2. One focus of this paper is on tools for analysing multivariable processes in the frequency domain, for example, condition number and dynamic relative gain array (RGA) analysis. The latter tool is extended by the phase information o...

  2. Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable

  3. Risk analysis in the critical pigmeat control points

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Ancuta

    2014-01-01

    The pig meat is of particular importance in human food due to the high content of vitamins and minerals. To prevent the hazard of microbial contamination, physical contamination, chemical contamination, etc., before slaughtering and during slaughter of animals has been developed and implemented the system Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP).

  4. Screening of conditions controlling spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Idris Abubakr M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite its potential benefits over univariate, chemometrics is rarely utilized for optimizing sequential injection analysis (SIA) methods. Specifically, in previous vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods, chemometrically optimized conditions were confined within flow rate and reagent concentrations while other conditions were ignored. Results The current manuscript reports, for the first time, a comprehensive screening of conditions controlling vis-spectrophotometric SIA. A n...

  5. Second Order Analysis for Control Constrained Optimal Control Problems of Semilinear Elliptic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnans, J. Frederic

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a second-order analysis for a simple model optimal control problem of a partial differential equation, namely a well-posed semilinear elliptic system with constraints on the control variable only. The cost to be minimized is a standard quadratic functional. Assuming the feasible set to be polyhedric, we state necessary and sufficient second order optimality conditions, including a characterization of the quadratic growth condition. Assuming that the second order sufficient...

  6. Chaos in electric drive systems analysis control and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T

    2011-01-01

    In Chaos in Electric Drive Systems: Analysis, Control and Application authors Chau and Wang systematically introduce an emerging technology of electrical engineering that bridges abstract chaos theory and practical electric drives. The authors consolidate all important information in this interdisciplinary technology, including the fundamental concepts, mathematical modeling, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and hardware implementation. The book provides comprehensive coverage of chaos in electric drive systems with three main parts: analysis, control and application. Corresponding drive systems range from the simplest to the latest types: DC, induction, synchronous reluctance, switched reluctance, and permanent magnet brushless drives.The first book to comprehensively treat chaos in electric drive systemsReviews chaos in various electrical engineering technologies and drive systemsPresents innovative approaches to stabilize and stimulate chaos in typical drivesDiscusses practical application of cha...

  7. An analysis of the control hierarchy modeling of the CMS detector control system

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Gerry P.; Paus, Christoph M. E.; Raginel, Olivier; Sumorok, Konstanty C.

    2011-01-01

    The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviours and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the C...

  8. Coarse-grained Dynamic Taint Analysis for Defeating Control and Non-control Data Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    Memory corruption attacks remain the primary threat for computer security. Information flow tracking or taint analysis has been proven to be effective against most memory corruption attacks. However, there are two shortcomings with current taint analysis based techniques. First, these techniques cause application slowdown by about 76% thereby limiting their practicality. Second, these techniques cannot handle non-control data attacks i.e., attacks that do not overwrite contr...

  9. Rapid and accurate control rod calibration measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the time needed to perform control rod calibrations and improve the accuracy of the results, a technique for a measurement, analysis, and tabulation of integral rod worths has been developed. A single series of critical rod positions are determined at constant low power to reduce the waiting time between positive period measurements and still assure true stable reactor period data. Reactivity values from positive period measurements and control rod drop measurements are used as input data for a non-linear fit to the expected control rod integral worth shape. With this method, two control rods can be calibrated in about two hours, and integral and differential calibration tables for operator use are printed almost immediately. Listings of the BASIC computer programs for the non-linear fitting and calibration table preparation are provided. (author)

  10. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis By Control-based Continuation - Determining Stability’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    The newly developed control-based continuation technique has made it possible to perform experimental bifurcation analysis, e.g. to track stable as well as unstable branches of frequency responses directly in experiments. The method bypasses mathematical models, and systematically explores how vibration characteristics of dynamical systems change under variation of parameters. The method employs a control scheme to modify the response stability. While this facilitates exploration of the unstable branches of a bifurcation diagram, it unfortunately makes it impossible to distinguish previously stable and unstable equilibrium states. We present the ongoing work of developing and applying the control-based continuation method to an experimental mechanical test-rig, consisting of a harmonically forced nonlinear impact oscillator controlled by electromagnetic actuators. Furthermore we propose and test ideas on how to determine the stability of equilibria states during continuation.

  11. Analysis on step action of hydraulic control rod driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The step action of the hydraulic control rod driving (HCRD) has been achieved by experiments. The author reveals the action mechanism of the HCRD, gives detail analysis of the relationship among its dynamic feature, the control rod and combined valve performance parameters, and the combined valve operation. The results indicate that the step process of the control rod is affected by output flow pulsation of the combined valve, pressure wave, and heavily damped pressure oscillation that is produced by the step cylinder movement. The performance parameters of the step cylinder limit the flow range in its stationary balanced state and also limit the capability of absorbing flow pulsation and pressure wave in its step process. The performance parameters of the combined valve decide the quantity values of stationary balance, delay balance, flowing pulsation and pressure wave. The relation of both parameters determines the step states of the control rod

  12. Stability Analysis and Design of Impulsive Control Lorenz Systems Family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz systems family unifying Lorenz system, Chen system and Lue system is a typical chaotic family. In this paper, we consider impulsive control Lorenz chaotic systems family with time-varying impulse intervals. By establishing an effective tool of a set of inequalities, we analyze the asymptotic stability of impulsive control Lorenz systems family and obtain some new less conservative conditions. Based on the stability analysis, we design a novel impulsive controller with time-varying impulse intervals. Illustrative examples are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. The obtained results not only can be used to design impulsive control for Lorenz systems family, but also can be extended to other chaotic systems. (general)

  13. Multilayer FeRh/MgO: controllable magnetocrystalline anisotropy for an antiferromagnetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohui; Dorj, Odkhuu; Ke, Sanhuang; Ramesh, Rammoorthy; Miao, Maosheng; Kioussis, Nickolas

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of ferromagnetic (FM) thin films by tunable strain and electric field has been pursued as an effective method of achieving low-power and highly scalable memory. Comparing with FM materials, AFM are much less sensitive to external magnetic field, a substantial advantage for memory devices. Inspired by recent work on AFM memory resistors based on FeRh, we carried out a systematic first principles study of the MCA of multi-layer FeRh, either stand alone, or combined with MgO layers. FeRh is a unique material that undergoes a transition from AFM (type-II) to FM at elevated temperature of 370 K. Our calculations for thin films of FeRh from 5-15 atomic layers reveal that AFM is always the most stable configuration for Fe terminated films; while for Rh terminated films, there is a transition from FM to a configuration featured AFM at the center layers and FM at the surface layers (reconstructed). While applying the spin-orbit interactions (SOI) for the valence electrons, we found Fe-terminated films exhibit a relatively small MCA that varies and may change sign with film thickness, substrate and strain, providing a possibility of spin reorientation via the control of strain and electric field. The k-resolved MCA values reveals that the region around Gamma point adds the major contribution to the MCA.

  14. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Stoichiometric Networks An Extension of Metabolic Control Analysis to Non-equilibrium Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Ingalls, B P; Ingalls, Brian P.; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of general stoichiometric networks is considered. The results are presented as a generalization of Metabolic Control Analysis, which has been concerned primarily with system sensitivities at steady state. An expression for time-varying sensitivity coefficients is given, and the Summation and Connectivity Theorems are generalized. The results are compared to previous treatments. The analysis is accompanied by a discussion of the computation of the sensitivity coefficients and an application to a model of phototransduction.

  16. Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper proposes a methodology that integrates quantitative and qualitative assessment. The methodology proposed combines conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) with multi-criteria analysis (MCA). The CBA methodology, based on welfare theory, assures that the project with the highest welfare for society is ranked uppermost. To compare the different impacts, it is necessary to have a common monetary unit. Theoretically, all benefits and all costs should be accounted for in socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. However, this is far from in practical the general case due to difficulties in a valuating all the criteria in monetary terms. Thus CBA does not meet the need for a comprehensive evaluation, for which reason MCA is introduced to overcome this problem. Not only does MCA provides an opportunity to include non-market impacts in the analysis, but MCA also provides a framework for breaking down a problem into its constituent parts in order to better understand the problem and consequently arrive at a decision. However, while MCA opens up for the possibility to include non-market impacts, it does not provide the decision makers with guidance combining the CBA with MCA. In the paper different methods for combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis are examined and compared and a software system is presented. The software system gives the decision makers some possibilities regarding preference analysis, sensitivity and risk analysis. The aim of the software is to facilitate a straightforward method to support decision making involving both quantitative and qualitative impacts. An outcome of this is that the methodology and the results on this basis are easily understood by the different stakeholders, which is seen as important. The methodology and software system are demonstrated by examining the decision problem of choosing between alternatives for a new airport to service the capital of Greenland, Nuuk. Three different alternatives are examined ranging in costs from 90m USD to 400m USD. Furthermore, three sets of different stakeholders’ preferences (decision makers, citizens in Nuuk and other citizens in Greenland) are examined and compared. The cost-benefit analysis of the three airport alternatives includes impacts like travel time (for business and local travellers), waiting time, drawback of shifts, regularity, out of pocket costs, operating costs and not the least construction and maintenance costs. The MCA is made use of to assess noise, land use planning, business potential and tourism impacts for the three alternatives. More technically the software system offers a set of different features to undertake the MCA. Thus the users have two different methods to assess weights for the criteria, either by using the Swing Weight method or the more simple Rank Order Distribution (ROD) method. For evaluating the different alternatives with respect to each criterion the user has the possibility of making use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), REMBRANDT or Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranks (SMARTER) methods. Finally, a feature combining the CBA and MCA results can be provided by applying a trade off between the two methods or by means of the so called efficiency frontier is demonstrated. The presented multi-dimensional methodology and software system for CBA and MCA decision making is finally compared with other methods for combining the CBA and MCA. Ultimately, some conclusions are made and perspectives are drawn. Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Multi-criteria analysis, Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding, Transport infrastructure, Analytical Hierarchy Process, REMBRANDT, SMARTER, stakeholders’ preferences and CBA&MCA Software system.

  17. Domain of attraction analysis of a controlled hybrid reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? We constructed a simple two dimensional nonlinear hybrid model of Paks Nuclear Power Plant. ? We computed analytically the domain of attraction (DOA). ? The DOA encapsulates the operating domain for any pressure controller feedback gain. ? The feedback gain should be above 350,000 to achieve fast convergence. - Abstract: A domain of attraction (DOA) analysis has been performed for a simplified model of the primary circuit of a pressurized water nuclear power plant, the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. A simple two dimensional autonomous hybrid differential equation model of the controlled primary circuit has been developed for the purpose of the stability analysis that contains both continuous and discrete variables. It has been shown that the DOA of the controlled system encapsulates the operating domain for any positive value of the considered feedback gain of the power controller and the reactor power. However, the gain has a great impact on the dynamics of the controlled system that is also investigated, and a practically advantageous domain of the gain has been determined.

  18. Multihop Medium Access Control for WSNs: An Energy Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haapola Jussi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an energy analysis technique applicable to medium access control (MAC and multihop communications. Furthermore, the technique's application gives insight on using multihop forwarding instead of single-hop communications. Using the technique, we perform an energy analysis of carrier-sense-multiple-access (CSMA- based MAC protocols with sleeping schemes. Power constraints set by battery operation raise energy efficiency as the prime factor for wireless sensor networks. A detailed energy expenditure analysis of the physical, the link, and the network layers together can provide a basis for developing new energy-efficient wireless sensor networks. The presented technique provides a set of analytical tools for accomplishing this. With those tools, the energy impact of radio, MAC, and topology parameters on the network can be investigated. From the analysis, we extract key parameters of selected MAC protocols and show that some traditional mechanisms, such as binary exponential backoff, have inherent problems.

  19. Nonsmooth optimization analysis and algorithms with applications to optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Makela, M M

    1992-01-01

    This book is a self-contained elementary study for nonsmooth analysis and optimization, and their use in solution of nonsmooth optimal control problems. The first part of the book is concerned with nonsmooth differential calculus containing necessary tools for nonsmooth optimization. The second part is devoted to the methods of nonsmooth optimization and their development. A proximal bundle method for nonsmooth nonconvex optimization subject to nonsmooth constraints is constructed. In the last part nonsmooth optimization is applied to problems arising from optimal control of systems covered by

  20. Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities

  1. Analysis of Droop Controlled Parallel Inverters in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Valerio; Vasca, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Three-phase droop controlled inverters are widely used in islanded microgrids to interface distributed energy resources and to provide for the loads active and reactive powers demand. The assessment of microgrids stability, affected by the control and line parameters, is a stringent issue. This paper shows a systematic approach to derive a closed loop model of the microgrid and then to perform an eigenvalues analysis that highlights how the system’s parameters affect the stability of the network. It is also shown that by means of a singular perturbation approach the resulting reduced order system well approximate the original full order system.

  2. Analysis of GPS Abnormal Conditions within Fault Tolerant Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sinbol, Gahssan

    The Global Position System (GPS) is a critical element for the functionality of autonomous flying vehicles. The GPS operation at normal and abnormal conditions directly impacts the trajectory tracking performance of the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) controllers. The effects of GPS parameter variation must be well understood and user-friendly computational tools must be developed to facilitate the design and evaluation of fault tolerant control laws. This thesis presents the development of a simplified GPS error model in Matlab/Simulink and its use performing a sensitivity analysis of GPS parameters effect under system normal and abnormal operation on different UAV trajectory tracking controllers. The model statistically generates position and velocity errors, simulates the effect of GPS satellite configuration on the position and velocity measurement accuracy, and implements a set of failures to the GPS readings. The model and its graphical user interface was integrated within the WVU UAV simulation environment as a masked Simulink block. The effects on the controllers' trajectory tracking performance of the following GPS parameters were investigated within normal operation ranges and outside: time delay, update rate, error standard deviation, bias, and major position and velocity failures. Several sets of control laws with fixed and adaptive parameters and of different levels of complexity have been used in this investigation. A complex performance index formulated in terms of tracking errors and control activity was used for control laws performance evaluation. The composition of various metrics within the performance index was performed using fixed and variable weights depending on the local characteristics of the commanded trajectory. This study has revealed that GPS error parameters have a significant impact on control laws performance. The proposed GPS model has proved to be a valuable, flexible tool for testing and evaluation of the fault tolerant capabilities of autonomous flight control laws.

  3. STANDARDIZATION FOR SUBGROUP ANALYSIS IN RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadhan, Ravi; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) emphasize the average or overall effect of a treatment (ATE) on the primary endpoint. Even though the ATE provides the best summary of treatment efficacy, it is of critical importance to know whether the treatment is similarly efficacious in important, predefined subgroups. This is why the RCTs, in addition to the ATE, also present the results of subgroup analysis for preestablished subgroups. Typically, these are marginal subgroup analysis in the sense that treatment effects are estimated in mutually exclusive subgroups defined by only one baseline characteristic at a time (e.g., men versus women, young versus old). Forest plot is a popular graphical approach for displaying the results of subgroup analysis. These plots were originally used in meta-analysis for displaying the treatment effects from independent studies. Treatment effect estimates of different marginal subgroups are, however, not independent. Correlation between the subgrouping variables should be addressed for proper interpretation of forest plots, especially in large effectiveness trials where one of the goals is to address concerns about the generalizability of findings to various populations. Failure to account for the correlation between the subgrouping variables can result in misleading (confounded) interpretations of subgroup effects. Here we present an approach called standardization, a commonly used technique in epidemiology, that allows for valid comparison of subgroup effects depicted in a forest plot. We present simulations results and a subgroup analysis from parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomized trials of antibiotics for acute otitis media. PMID:24392983

  4. Parameter Transient Behavior Analysis on Fault Tolerant Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor); Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2003-01-01

    In a fault tolerant control (FTC) system, a parameter varying FTC law is reconfigured based on fault parameters estimated by fault detection and isolation (FDI) modules. FDI modules require some time to detect fault occurrences in aero-vehicle dynamics. This paper illustrates analysis of a FTC system based on estimated fault parameter transient behavior which may include false fault detections during a short time interval. Using Lyapunov function analysis, the upper bound of an induced-L2 norm of the FTC system performance is calculated as a function of a fault detection time and the exponential decay rate of the Lyapunov function.

  5. Value-impact analysis for material control and accounting alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of Value-Impact analysis for the proposed material control and accounting upgrade rule for Category I fuel facilities. The analysis uses the Aggregated Systems Model (ASM), one of several assessment methodologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under the auspices of the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, to evaluate safeguards decisions. The evaluations are based on data gathered from representative facilities processing special nuclear material (SNM). The paper focuses on an objective of the MCandA upgrade rule of having a 90 percent probability of detecting within 24 hours any large discrepancy of SNM. 3 refs

  6. Coarse-grained Dynamic Taint Analysis for Defeating Control and Non-control Data Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    Memory corruption attacks remain the primary threat for computer security. Information flow tracking or taint analysis has been proven to be effective against most memory corruption attacks. However, there are two shortcomings with current taint analysis based techniques. First, these techniques cause application slowdown by about 76% thereby limiting their practicality. Second, these techniques cannot handle non-control data attacks i.e., attacks that do not overwrite control data such as return address, but instead overwrite critical application configuration data or user identity data. In this work, to address these problems, we describe a coarse-grained taint analysis technique that uses information flow tracking at the level of application data objects. We propagate a one-bit taint over each application object that is modified by untrusted data thereby reducing the taint management overhead considerably. We performed extensive experimental evaluation of our approach and show that it can detect all critic...

  7. Comparative analysis of PSO algorithms for PID controller tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štimac, Goranka; Braut, Sanjin; Žiguli?, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    The active magnetic bearing(AMB) suspends the rotating shaft and maintains it in levitated position by applying controlled electromagnetic forces on the rotor in radial and axial directions. Although the development of various control methods is rapid, PID control strategy is still the most widely used control strategy in many applications, including AMBs. In order to tune PID controller, a particle swarm optimization(PSO) method is applied. Therefore, a comparative analysis of particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithms is carried out, where two PSO algorithms, namely (1) PSO with linearly decreasing inertia weight(LDW-PSO), and (2) PSO algorithm with constriction factor approach(CFA-PSO), are independently tested for different PID structures. The computer simulations are carried out with the aim of minimizing the objective function defined as the integral of time multiplied by the absolute value of error(ITAE). In order to validate the performance of the analyzed PSO algorithms, one-axis and two-axis radial rotor/active magnetic bearing systems are examined. The results show that PSO algorithms are effective and easily implemented methods, providing stable convergence and good computational efficiency of different PID structures for the rotor/AMB systems. Moreover, the PSO algorithms prove to be easily used for controller tuning in case of both SISO and MIMO system, which consider the system delay and the interference among the horizontal and vertical rotor axes.

  8. Ringhals 2 steam control system reliability/thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the reliability of the proposed Westinghouse Distributed Processing Family (WDPF) control system and compares it to the reliability of the existing mechanical/ hydraulic control system at the Ringhals 2 nuclear power plant. The probabilities of the postulated failures in the existing control system are contrasted to those that would exist for the WDPF enhanced control and protection system. This paper is limited to a discussion about the reliability that relates to failures that have the potential to cause an overpressure in the moisture separator/reheaters (MSRs) of the Ringhals 2 plant. This power plant was built at a time when the requirements (in Sweden) did not include overpressure relief valves in the MSR. When the plant was originally constructed, the mechanical/ hydraulic control system was designed to be, and was used as, a method to prevent an overpressure condition in the MSR. The control system response time was fast enough to close the MSR inlet lines in the event that one or more discharge line valves was closed or failed closed. The authors also include a thermal-hydraulic analysis of some of the postulated (very low probability) secondary-side transients

  9. Pressure Control in Distillation Columns: A Model-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of pressure control in distillation columns is presented, including the consequences for composition control and energy consumption. Two types of representative control structures are modeled, analyzed, and benchmarked. A detailed simulation test, based on a real industrial distillation column, is used to assess the differences between the two control structures and to demonstrate the benefits of pressure control in the operation. In the second part of the article, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to establish the influence of pressure on relative volatility for (pseudo)binary mixtures. A simple criterion is found, based on the difference in the scaled heats of vaporization of the light and heavy compounds: A large difference indicates that relative volatility is sensitive to pressure changes, whereas no a priori conclusion can be made for small differences. Depending on the sensitivity of relative volatility to pressure, it is shown that controlling the bottom-tray pressure instead of the top-tray pressure leads to operation at the minimum possible average column pressure, so that significant energy savings can be achieved.

  10. Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis

  11. Control room habitability Analysis and Testing for Wolsong Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to this recommendation, KHNP has established CRH program and performed tracer gas in leakage tests. These activities are described herein including the emergency ventilation system analysis, acceptance criteria calculation for the test and Control Room Envelope (CRE) discrimination, and the results of the tracer gas tests are presented. CRH analysis including unfiltered in leakage tests according to the methodology in ASTM E741 was performed for Wolsong Unit 1. The results show that the integrity of the control room of Wolsong Unit 1 is in good condition to maintain the reactor in a safe condition under accident conditions, which complies with the US NRC regulatory guides 1.78, 1.196 and 1.197

  12. Analysis of control relevant nonlinear coupled nonlinear oscillatory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, I.D.; Bouziani, Fethi; Bitmead, Robert; Voda, Alina

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes and analyzes two prototype structures of coupled generalized van der Pol equations able to describe self-excitation of simultaneous oscillations with distinct frequencies. These structures are relevant for describing oscillations phenomena which may be encountered on systems subject to control. These structures are analyzed using the Krylov-Bogoliubov averaging method. This analysis allows to establish conditions for the occurrence of the various operation regimes. The usef...

  13. Harmonic Characteristic Analysis of Magnetically Saturation Controlled Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Ming Xing; Yuan Dong Sheng; Yan Hong

    2013-01-01

    As the magnetically saturation controlled reactor’s (MSCR) operation is based on the saturation characteristic of the core, so its harmonic characteristic should be valued. According to the structural characteristic and working principle, the mathematical model of MSCR is derived. And the harmonic components of physical quantities such as current, voltage and magnetic field parameters are analyzed by function characteristic analysis. Then, it concludes that MSCR’s working current is an odd ha...

  14. Interference control in low-level analysis of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyses the integration of several steps applied to control potentials sources of error in the determination of 129I and prevent spurious results in order to achieve the minimum detection limit. The procedure of pre and post-irradiation purification, neutron irradiation, radioactive counting and data analysis are needed. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used for detection and measurement of low level interferences. (author)

  15. System integration and control strategy analysis of PEMFC car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new fuel car was designed according to the prototype LN2000 hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car. The new prototype consists of a compact fuel cell engine with separated fuel cell stack, nickel metal hydride battery, a motor with power of 30Kw/100Kw and an inverter with high efficiency. With in the powertrain, a two-shift Planet gear transmission was employed. The power performance was greatly improved. New battery with EMS, new self-developed fuel cell engine, the motor propulsion system and electronic controlled transmission make it feasible to control the whole fuel car automatically and efficiently with optimization. The presents the system integration and the control strategy analysis of the fuel cell car prototype. The paper can be used for reference for engineers in the field of fuel cell vehicle. (author)

  16. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, C. E. C.; Penna, T. J. P.; Argollo de Menezes, M.; Soares, P. P. S.

    2009-10-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  17. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  18. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  19. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, C E C; Penna, T J P; Argollo de Menezes, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Soares, P P S [Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Prof. Hernani Melo n. 101, 24210-130, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcio@mail.if.uff.br

    2009-10-15

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  20. Robust Stability Analysis with Time Delay Using PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursewak Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, real time implementation of PI and PID controllers is Investigated for stabilizing an arbitrary-order plant or system. Simple closed loop feedback ,PI controller can overcome all the problems of uncertainties like time delay in LTI (Linear Time Invariant system.This paper will give us an implortant alogorithm to be imlemented in MATLAB for achieving the robust stability in LTI plant in presence of any type of perturbations or external disturbances. In this paper, a single input and single output (LTI linear time invariant plant under perturbed conditions with additive uncertainity weight senstivity is considered. In this paper especially, I have found all set of PI gains Kp,Ki which will promise us for the stability in a given disturbed (SISO (LTI system by achieving the robust stability constraint ? <=1 can be found by obtaining the PI controller gains Kp,Ki using frequency domain analysis .

  1. Survey on Challenges in Analysis Research of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Feng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the past and current issues involved in the design of decentralized networked control systems (NCSs are reviewed. The NCSs has got deeply into all aspects of modern society, especially in control system, the NCSs can reduce system cost and size, minish design difficulty, and increase flexibility of system. The main research works are focused on time-delay, packet dropouts, quantization and schedule which are included in the time-driven design of LTI control system with network. The stability and performance of such system is analysis. The overview is concentrated on some fundamental problems of the NCSs in the previous research work, on the basis of a brief review of representative research, summaries a number of problems and solutions faced of the NCSs, the future directions in NCSs are pointed out.

  2. Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  3. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  4. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  5. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis Using Control-Based Continuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable and unstable equilibria under variation of parameters. As a test case we demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity, controlled by electromagnetic actuators. The method requires the constitution of a non-invasive and locally stabilizing control scheme, which must be tuned without a-priori study of a model. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method. This experimental tuning procedure is applied to our test rig, resulting in a reliable non-invasive, locally stabilizing control. The use of stabilizing control makes it difficult to determine the stability of the underlying uncontrolled equilibrium. Based on the idea of momentarily modifying or disabling the control and study the resulting behavior, we propose and test three different methods for assessing stability of equilibrium states during experimental continuation. We show that it is possible to determine the stability without allowing unbounded divergence, and that it is under certain circumstances possible to quantify instability in terms of finite-time Lyapunov exponents. A software toolbox for the Matlab continuation platform COCO has been developed and will be made freely available. This toolbox implements functions necessary for interfacing a numerical continuation code with a real experiment, as well as provide means for simulating control-based continuation experiments. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the method for rotating machinery is discussed.

  6. Spatial Analysis for Flood Control by Using Environmental Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Gharagozlou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To create the final spatial information and analysis, flood hazard maps and land development priority maps and information, data for the flood events to 2009 in north of Iran were incorporated with using Geo-spatial Information System data of physiographic divisions, geologic divisions, land cover classification, elevation, drainage network, administrative districts and population density and environmental parameters modeling. Special analysis also attention was paid to population density for the construction of the land development priority map and using satellite image analysis to determine land use changes and analysis of geo-spatial information, because highly dense populated areas represent the highly important urban and industrial areas. While geo-information technology offers an opportunity to support flood management adequate geo-spatial information is a prerequisite for sustainable development, but many parts of the world lack adequate information on environmental resources. Such information providing, which serves as an important tool for decision-making in land use planning, can help provide effective information to natural disaster management. This paper develops a framework for flood control and begins with some general comments on the importance of land use planning and outlines some current environmental issues and then presenting environmental models to use in disaster management plan by using GIS and remote sensing results. Flood control is a complex problem that requires cooperation of many scientists in different fields. The article also discusses the role that geo-information and environmental planning and GIS and remote sensing technology play in disaster management control to reduce negative impacts of flood and present proper alternatives for developing of Gorganrood in the north of Iran. Advanced high-resolution sensor technology has provided immense scope to the decision makers for analysis of flood and damages details using GIS and remote sensing.

  7. Motor Vehicle Crashes in Diabetic Patients with Tight Glycemic Control: A Population-based Case Control Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Kenshole, Anne B.; Ray, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    Using a population-based case control analysis, Donald Redelmeier and colleagues found that tighter glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c, is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash.

  8. Modal cost analysis for linear matrix-second-order systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, R. E.; Hughes, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Reduced models and reduced controllers for systems governed by matrix-second-order differential equations are obtained by retaining those modes which make the largest contributions to quadratic control objectives. Such contributions, expressed in terms of modal data, used as mode truncation criteria, allow the statement of the specific control objectives to influence the early model reduction from very high order models which are available, for example, from finite element methods. The relative importance of damping, frequency, and eigenvector in the mode truncation decisions are made explicit for each of these control objectives: attitude control, vibration suppression and figure control. The paper also shows that using modal cost analysis (MCA) on the closed loop modes of the optimally controlled system allows the construction of reduced control policies which feedback only those closed loop modal coordinates which are most critical to the quadratic control performance criterion. In this way, the modes which should be controlled (and hence the modes which must be observable by choice of measurements), are deduced from truncations of the optimal controller.

  9. Fault-tolerant Supervisory Control : System Analysis and Logic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been to achieve active fault-tolerance in control systems, defined as a methodology where fault detection and isolation techniques are combined with supervisory control to achieve autonomous accommodation of faults before they develop into failures. The aim of this work has been to develop and employ concepts and methods that are suitable for use in different automation processes, with applicability in various industrial fields. The requirements for high productivity and quality has resulted in employing additional instrumentation and use of more sophisticated control algorithms. The drawback is, however, that these control systems have become more vulnerable to even simple faults in instrumentation. On the other hand, due to cost-optimality requirements, an extensive use of hardware redundancy has been prohibited. Nevertheless, the dependency and availability could be increased through enhancing control systems' ability to on-line perform fault detection and reconfiguration when a fault occurs and before a safety system shuts-down the entire process. The main contributions of this research effort are development and experimentation with methodologies for systematic analysis of reconfiguration and design of supervisor logic. In addition, useful experience is obtained through implementation of a fault-tolerant control scheme against a simulated ship and its propulsion system. A development methodology, which was suggested in the Control Engineering Department, is extended to cope with the important reconfiguration problem. In order to enable a designer to acquire knowledge about reconfiguration possibilities, the structural analysis method is added as an extension to the existing methodology. This extension builds upon the earlier method where fault propagation and severity analysis are the essential parts. Structural analysis (SA) enables the designer to distinguish between the parts of the systems with no redundant information and the parts with possible redundant information. This method, hence, provides the designer with information, which is necessary during the selection of remedial actions. Furthermore, it is shown how sensor information fusion is obtained by using the SA method. The construction of the supervisor's decision logic is essential for the active form of fault-tolerant control. In this regard, two approaches has been presented. The first aims at constructing the decision logic in form of a ``language''. This language is obtained as a direct result of the component based approach, presented in this thesis. This approach is based on the definition of a functional component, components placement in a control system hierarchy and the definition of system level hierarchy. The supervisor language includes all valid strings, representing the combination of valid components, that keep the system functional. This approach is simple and can be automated. In the second approach, implementation of supervisor functionality is realized on the basis of an extension to the traditional state-event machines. Due to parallelity (inherent modularity) the supervisor logic is more easily modified, updated, maintained, and tested. A salient feature is that a change in one task only necessitates redesign of essentially one corresponding state-event machine (SEM). A heuristic guideline is provided for designing the logic in form of SEMs. A ship propulsion system benchmark has been designed and used as a case study. This includes experimentation with the above methodologies and implementation of a fault-tolerant control against the simulation. Four generic faults have been considered. It has been shown how the SA method is easily employed to generate analytical redundancy relations, which in turn are then used for FDI purposes. Three different methods are used to generate residuals. These methods are: simple numerical calculation, a non-linear observer, and a Neuro-Fuzzy method. Employment of each method follows the assumption about the available system information. The results show that it is p

  10. Application of on-line laboratory computer analysis to fast neutron activation oxygen determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an on-line laboratory computer analysis system designed for routine high volume oxygen determinations is discussed. The system is based on the detection of 16N photopeaks from the 16O(n,p) 16N reaction occurring during fast neutron irradiation. A system interface has been designed and constructed which is capable of controlling the Kaman 710 neutron generator, the sample transfer system, switching the BF3 beam monitor detector or NaI(T1) detector outputs as required to a multichannel scaling MCA, and proper sequencing of the procedure. In addition, specific software has been developed for the control of the system during acquisition as well as evaluation of the MCS spectra generated

  11. Component-based analysis of embedded control applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelov, Christo K.; Guan, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of embedded systems requires the creation of industrial software technology that will make it possible to engineer systems being correct by construction. That can be achieved through the use of validated (trusted) components, verification of design models, and automatic configuration of applications from validated design models and trusted components. This design philosophy has been instrumental for developing COMDES—a component-based framework for distributed embedded control systems. A COMDES application is conceived as a network of embedded actors that are configured from instances of reusable, executable components—function blocks (FBs). System actors operate in accordance with a timed multitasking model of computation, whereby I/O signals are exchanged with the controlled plant at precisely specified time instants, resulting in the elimination of I/O jitter. The paper presents an analysis technique that can be used to validate COMDES design models in SIMULINK. It is based on a transformation of the COMDES design model into a SIMULINK analysis model, which preserves the functional and timing behaviour of the application. This technique has been employed to develop a feasible (light-weight) analysis method based on runtime observers. The latter are conceived as special-purpose actors running in parallel with the application actors, while checking system properties specified in Linear Temporal Logic. Observers are configured from reusable FBs that can be exported to SIMULINK in the same way as application components, making it possible to analyze system properties via simulation. The discussion is illustrated with an industrial case study—a Medical Ventilator Control System, which has been used to validate the developed design and analysis methods.

  12. Arms control verification costs: the need for a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War era has presented practitioners and analysts of international non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) the opportunity to focus more intently on the range and scope of NACD treaties and their verification. Aside from obvious favorable and well-publicized developments in the field of nuclear non-proliferation, progress also has been made in a wide variety of arenas, ranging from chemical and biological weapons, fissile material, conventional forces, ballistic missiles, to anti-personnel landmines. Indeed, breaking from the constraints imposed by the Cold War United States-Soviet adversarial zero-sum relationship that impeded the progress of arms control, particularly on a multilateral level, the post Cold War period has witnessed significant developments in NACD commitments, initiatives, and implementation. The goals of this project - in its final iteration - will be fourfold. First, it will lead to the creation of a costing analysis model adjustable for uses in several current and future arms control verification tasks. Second, the project will identify data accumulated in the cost categories outlined in Table 1 in each of the five cases. By comparing costs to overall effectiveness, the application of the model will demonstrate desirability in each of the cases (see Chart 1). Third, the project will identify and scrutinize 'political costs' as well as real expenditures and investment in the verification regimes (see Chart 2). And,e verification regimes (see Chart 2). And, finally, the project will offer some analysis on the relationship between national and multilateral forms of arms control verification, as well as the applicability of multilateralism as an effective tool in the verification of international non-proliferation, arms control, and disarmament agreements. (author)

  13. Assessment of quality control approaches for metagenomic data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Ning, Kang

    2014-11-01

    Currently there is an explosive increase of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects and related datasets, which have to be processed by Quality Control (QC) procedures before they could be utilized for omics analysis. QC procedure usually includes identification and filtration of sequencing artifacts such as low-quality reads and contaminating reads, which would significantly affect and sometimes mislead downstream analysis. Quality control of NGS data for microbial communities is especially challenging. In this work, we have evaluated and compared the performance and effects of various QC pipelines on different types of metagenomic NGS data and from different angles, based on which general principles of using QC pipelines were proposed. Results based on both simulated and real metagenomic datasets have shown that: firstly, QC-Chain is superior in its ability for contamination identification for metagenomic NGS datasets with different complexities with high sensitivity and specificity. Secondly, the high performance computing engine enabled QC-Chain to achieve a significant reduction in processing time compared to other pipelines based on serial computing. Thirdly, QC-Chain could outperform other tools in benefiting downstream metagenomic data analysis.

  14. Assessment of quality control approaches for metagenomic data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Ning, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is an explosive increase of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects and related datasets, which have to be processed by Quality Control (QC) procedures before they could be utilized for omics analysis. QC procedure usually includes identification and filtration of sequencing artifacts such as low-quality reads and contaminating reads, which would significantly affect and sometimes mislead downstream analysis. Quality control of NGS data for microbial communities is especially challenging. In this work, we have evaluated and compared the performance and effects of various QC pipelines on different types of metagenomic NGS data and from different angles, based on which general principles of using QC pipelines were proposed. Results based on both simulated and real metagenomic datasets have shown that: firstly, QC-Chain is superior in its ability for contamination identification for metagenomic NGS datasets with different complexities with high sensitivity and specificity. Secondly, the high performance computing engine enabled QC-Chain to achieve a significant reduction in processing time compared to other pipelines based on serial computing. Thirdly, QC-Chain could outperform other tools in benefiting downstream metagenomic data analysis. PMID:25376098

  15. Control assembly ejection accident analysis for WWER-440 (Armenian NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Assembly ejection in WWER-440 initiated by the loss of integrity of the Control Assemblies drive housing has been analyzed. This event causes a very rapid reactivity insertion to the core and small break LOCA which potentially could lead to rapid power increase and redistribution of heat release in the core resulting in a fuel, cladding and coolant temperature rise; primary pressure increase, radiological consequences due to loss of primary coolant and potential loss of cladding integrity and fuel disintegration (if applicable). Methodology of the analysis is based on conservative assumptions as well as on deterministic approach for selection of functioning logic of systems and equipment's to maximize reactor core power and minimize power decreasing reactivity feedback. Computational analyses were performed by 3D kinetics PARCS-RELAP coupled code. WWER-440 fuel cross-section libraries, diffusion coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated by HELOS code. In this paper analysis of accident for Hot Full Power was presented. Results of analysis show that ANPP WWER-440 reactor design meets acceptance criteria prescribed for RIA type design based accidents (Authors)

  16. Measurement precision and biological variation of cranial arteries using automated analysis of 3 T magnetic resonance angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Lundholm, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has facilitated repeated measurements of human cranial arteries in several headache and migraine studies. To ensure comparability across studies the same automated analysis software has been used, but the intra- and interobserver, day-to-day and side-to-side variations have not yet been published. We hypothesised that the observer related, side-to-side, and day-to-day variations would be less than 10%. METHODS: Ten female participants were studied using high-resolution MRA on two study days separated by at least one week. Using the automated LKEB-MRA vessel wall analysis software arterial circumferences were measured by blinded observers. Each artery was analysed twice by each of the two different observers. The primary endpoints were to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and intra- an inter-observer, the day-to-day, and side-to-side variations of the circumference of the middle meningeal (MMA) and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. RESULTS: We found an excellent intra- and interobserver agreement for the MMA (ICC: 0.909-0.987) and for the MCA (ICC: 0.876-0.949). The coefficient of variance within observers was ?1.8% for MMA and ?3.1% for MCA; between observers ?3.4% (MMA) and ?4.1% (MCA); between days ?6.0% (MMA) and ?8.0% (MCA); between sides ?9.4% (MMA) and ?6.5% (MCA). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates a low (<5%) inter- and intraobserver variation using the automated LKEB-MRA vessel wall analysis software. Furthermore, the study also suggests that the day-to-day and side-to-side variations of the MMA and MCA circumferences are less than 10%.

  17. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their kinetic properties were characterized. For the other enzymes of the pathway the kinetic data were available from the literature. The metabolic model was used to analyze flux and metabolite concentration control of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway. The model demonstrated that flux control does not reside at the enzyme following the intermediate with the highest concentration, L-arabitol, but is distributed over the first three steps in the pathway, preceding and following L-arabitol. Flux control appeared to be strongly dependent on the intracellular L-arabinose concentration. At 5 mM intracellular L-arabinose, a level that resulted in realistic intermediate concentrations in the model, flux control coefficients forL-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and L-xylulose reductase were 0.68, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The analysis can be used as a guide to identify targets for metabolic engineering aiming at either flux or metabolite level optimization of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway of A. niger. Faster L-arabinose utilization may enhance utilization of readily available organic waste containing hemicelluloses to be converted into industrially interesting metabolites or valuable enzymes or proteins.

  18. Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT) is an interactive computer-based management system developed for the Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security, to assist in defining and prioritizing measurement upgrades programs for Material Control and Accountancy (MC ampersand A). The accountancy upgrades options evaluated by SAMCAT in this study are: (1) improvement of the uncertainties in the SNM measurement methods, (2) reduction of throughputs and/or inventories of SNM, and (3) reduction of the material balance accounting period. The goals of the MC ampersand A upgrades program are reduced inventory differences and associated uncertainties, improved detection probabilities for theft/diversion, decreased operating costs, and enhanced material traceability. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Multi-intersection Traffic Light Control Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    We address the traffic light control problem for multiple intersections in tandem by viewing it as a stochastic hybrid system and developing a Stochastic Flow Model (SFM) for it. Using Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA), we derive on-line gradient estimates of a cost metric with respect to the controllable green and red cycle lengths. The IPA estimators obtained require counting traffic light switchings and estimating car flow rates only when specific events occur. The estimators are used to iteratively adjust light cycle lengths to improve performance and, in conjunction with a standard gradient-based algorithm, to obtain optimal values which adapt to changing traffic conditions. Simulation results are included to illustrate the approach.

  20. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) design analysis status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The propulsion flight control integration technology (PROFIT) program was designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The preliminary design, analysis, and feasibility studies conducted in support of the PROFIT program are reported. The PROFIT system was built around existing IPCS hardware. In order to achieve the desired system flexibility and capability, additional interfaces between the IPCS hardware and F-15 systems were required. The requirements for additions and modifications to the existing hardware were defined. Those interfaces involving the more significant changes were studied. The DCU memory expansion to 32K with flight qualified hardware was completed on a brassboard basis. The uplink interface breadboard and a brassboard of the central computer interface were also tested. Two preliminary designs and corresponding program plans are presented.

  1. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  2. Cost and schedule control systems for safety analysis report projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of its waste management program at Savannah River site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is performing safety analyses and providing safety documentation in support of construction in support of construction and operation of nuclear process facilities. The safety documentation includes a major document, the safety analyses report (SAR), which requires a detailed safety analysis of the facility. It is with the control of cost and schedule of SAR projects that this paper is concerned. The cost and schedule control system (CSCS) models developed for SAR projects comply with the principles and requirements of the US Department of Energy's project management system and criteria. The models apply to the SAR structure and allow calculation of key project performance parameters for the SAR as a whole and for individual chapters and sections. The models are based on the concept of earned value, which represents the periodic, consistent measurement of work performed in terms of the budget assigned to that work

  3. Application of Control Volume Analysis to Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Timothy; Cohen, Benjamin; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is among the most common birth defects and may not be prevented nor cured. Afflicted individuals face serious issues, which at present are too complicated and not well enough understood to treat via systematic therapies. This talk outlines the framework and application of a control volume methodology to clinical Phase Contrast MRI data. Specifically, integral control volume analysis utilizes a fundamental, fluid dynamics methodology to quantify intracranial dynamics within a precise, direct, and physically meaningful framework. A chronically shunted, hydrocephalic patient in need of a revision procedure was used as an in vivo case study. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements within the patient's aqueduct were obtained in four biomedical state and were analyzed using the methods presented in this dissertation. Pressure force estimates were obtained, showing distinct differences in amplitude, phase, and waveform shape for different intracranial states within the same individual. Thoughts on the physiological and diagnostic research and development implications/opportunities will be presented.

  4. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

  5. Temporal and spectral optimization course analysis of coherent control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an optimization course analysis of two coherent control experiments optimizing the ion yield in NaK and the isotope ratio of 39,39K2/39,41K2 with shaped laser pulses. As most evolutionary algorithms converge first to the most relevant parameters qualitative information about their importance can be extracted. Additional information is gained by comparing the fitness course with the evolution of temporal subpulses and spectral peaks. The presented general overview allows to select and measure certain solutions to provide theory with more information about the ionization paths than only the last, 'optimal' pulse can offer

  6. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  7. Experimental sensitivity analysis for robustness studies of a controlled system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active and adaptive systems consist of various components with different functionalities. As the complexity of the systems increases, reliability and robustness studies become a more complicated task. Sensitivity analysis helps system designers to understand interactions between the system components and to identify the important parameters with significant overall influences on the system performance. To analyze the complex interactions of the components and parameters of an active system with respect to system performance, a framework structure with active vibration damping in a lab scale test rig was set up. With this test rig an experimental sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influences of the system components and parameters on the vibration reduction. A higher robustness of the active system was achieved by using adaptive control. (paper)

  8. Process control analysis of IMRT QA: implications for clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: first is to investigate the process of IMRT QA using control charts and second is to compare control chart limits to limits calculated using the standard deviation (?). Head and neck and prostate IMRT QA cases from seven institutions in both academic and community settings are considered. The percent difference between the point dose measurement in phantom and the corresponding result from the treatment planning system (TPS) is used for analysis. The average of the percent difference calculations defines the accuracy of the process and is called the process target. This represents the degree to which the process meets the clinical goal of 0% difference between the measurements and TPS. IMRT QA process ability defines the ability of the process to meet clinical specifications (e.g. 5% difference between the measurement and TPS). The process ability is defined in two ways: (1) the half-width of the control chart limits, and (2) the half-width of ±3? limits. Process performance is characterized as being in one of four possible states that describes the stability of the process and its ability to meet clinical specifications. For the head and neck cases, the average process target across institutions was 0.3% (range: -1.5% to 2.9%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 7.2% (range: 5.3% to 9.8%) compared to 6.7% (range: 5.3% to 8.2%) using standard deviation limits. For the prostate cases, the average processthe prostate cases, the average process target across the institutions was 0.2% (range: -1.8% to 1.4%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 4.4% (range: 1.3% to 9.4%) compared to 5.3% (range: 2.3% to 9.8%) using standard deviation limits. Using the standard deviation to characterize IMRT QA process performance resulted in processes being preferentially placed in one of the four states. This is in contrast to using control charts for process characterization where the IMRT QA processes were spread over three of the four states with none of the processes in the ideal state. Control charts may be used for IMRT QA in clinical trials to categorize process performance, minimize protocol variation and guide process improvements. For the duration of an institution's participation in a protocol, updated control charts can be periodically sent to the protocol QA center to document continued process performance to protocol specifications

  9. Process control analysis of IMRT QA: implications for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Yoo, Sua; Court, Laurence E; McMillan, Sharon K; Rice, Roger K; Russell, J Donald; Pacyniak, John M; Woo, Milton K; Basran, Parminder S; Boyer, Arthur L; Bonilla, Claribel

    2008-09-21

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: first is to investigate the process of IMRT QA using control charts and second is to compare control chart limits to limits calculated using the standard deviation (sigma). Head and neck and prostate IMRT QA cases from seven institutions in both academic and community settings are considered. The percent difference between the point dose measurement in phantom and the corresponding result from the treatment planning system (TPS) is used for analysis. The average of the percent difference calculations defines the accuracy of the process and is called the process target. This represents the degree to which the process meets the clinical goal of 0% difference between the measurements and TPS. IMRT QA process ability defines the ability of the process to meet clinical specifications (e.g. 5% difference between the measurement and TPS). The process ability is defined in two ways: (1) the half-width of the control chart limits, and (2) the half-width of +/-3sigma limits. Process performance is characterized as being in one of four possible states that describes the stability of the process and its ability to meet clinical specifications. For the head and neck cases, the average process target across institutions was 0.3% (range: -1.5% to 2.9%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 7.2% (range: 5.3% to 9.8%) compared to 6.7% (range: 5.3% to 8.2%) using standard deviation limits. For the prostate cases, the average process target across the institutions was 0.2% (range: -1.8% to 1.4%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 4.4% (range: 1.3% to 9.4%) compared to 5.3% (range: 2.3% to 9.8%) using standard deviation limits. Using the standard deviation to characterize IMRT QA process performance resulted in processes being preferentially placed in one of the four states. This is in contrast to using control charts for process characterization where the IMRT QA processes were spread over three of the four states with none of the processes in the ideal state. Control charts may be used for IMRT QA in clinical trials to categorize process performance, minimize protocol variation and guide process improvements. For the duration of an institution's participation in a protocol, updated control charts can be periodically sent to the protocol QA center to document continued process performance to protocol specifications. PMID:18728311

  10. Multi-Pass Malware Sandbox Analysis with Controlled Internet Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

    Malware sandbox analysis, in which a malware sample is actually executed in a testing environment (i.e. sandbox) to observe its behavior, is one of the promising approaches to tackling the emerging threats of exploding malware. As a lot of recent malware actively communicates with remote hosts over the Internet, sandboxes should also support an Internet connection, otherwise important malware behavior may not be observed. In this paper, we propose a multi-pass sandbox analysis with a controlled Internet connection. In the proposed method, we start our analysis with an isolated sandbox and an emulated Internet that consists of a set of dummy servers and hosts that run vulnerable services, called Honeypots in the Sandbox (HitS). All outbound connections from the victim host are closely inspected to see if they could be connected to the real Internet. We iterate the above process until no new behaviors are observed. We implemented the proposed method in a completely automated fashion and evaluated it with malware samples recently captured in the wild. Using a simple containment policy that authorizes only certain application protocols, namely, HTTP, IRC, and DNS, we were able to observe a greater variety of behaviors compared with the completely isolated sandbox. Meanwhile, we confirmed that a noticeable number of IP scans, vulnerability exploitations, and DoS attacks are successfully contained in the sandbox. Additionally, a brief comparison with two existing sandbox analysis systems, Norman Sandbox and CWSandbox, are shown.

  11. The value of standards. Essay on a cost-benefit analysis of environmental policy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In practice, societal cost-benefit analysis (MKBA in Dutch), multicriteria analysis (MCA) and cost effectiveness analysis are applied to compare the costs and beneficial effects of governmental policies. In this report attention is paid to the societal benefits and the economic impacts of environmental standards

  12. Strain control magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Ta/FeCo/MgO heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P. V.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Amiri, P. Khalili; Wang, K. L.; Carman, Gregory P.

    2015-05-01

    Using ab initio electronic structure calculations, we have investigated the effect of epitaxial strain on magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Ta/FeCo/MgO heterostructure. At small expansive strains on the FeCo layer, the system exhibits perpendicular MCA (PMA). Strain not only has a profound effect on the value of MCA but also induces a switching of magnetic easy axis. Analysis of the energy- and k-resolved distribution of orbital characters of the minority-spin band reveals that a significant contribution to PMA at zero strain arises from the spin-orbit coupling between occupied dx2-y2 and unoccupied dxy states, derived from Fe at the FeCo/MgO interface. The strain effect is attributed to strain-induced shifts of spin-orbit coupled d-states. Our work demonstrates that strain engineering can open a viable pathway towards tailoring magnetic properties for spintronic applications.

  13. Crystal structure and properties of the new vanadyl(IV)phosphates Na2MVO(PO4)2, M=Ca and Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new complex vanadyl(IV)phosphates Na2MVO(PO4)2 (M=Ca, Sr) were synthesized in evacuated quartz ampoules and investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, DTA, ESR and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystal structure of Na2SrVO(PO4)2 was solved ab initio from X-ray powder diffraction data. Both compounds are isostructural: a=10.5233(3) A, b=6.5578(2) A, c=10.0536(3) A and a=10.6476(3) A, b=6.6224(2) A, c=10.2537(3) A for Ca and Sr, respectively; S.G. Pnma, Z=4. The compounds have a three-dimensional structure consisting of V4+O6 octahedra connected by PO4 tetrahedra via five of the six vertexes forming a framework with cross-like channels. The strontium and sodium atoms are located in the channels in an ordered manner. Electron diffraction as well as high-resolution electron microscopy confirmed the structure solution. The new vanadylphosphates are Curie-Weiss paramagnets in a wide temperature range down to 2 K with ?=12 and 5 K for Ca and Sr phases, respectively

  14. Crystal structure and properties of the new vanadyl(IV)phosphates Na 2MVO(PO 4) 2, M=Ca and Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaya, Victoria V.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Shpanchenko, Roman V.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Gippius, Andrei A.; Morozova, Elena N.; Dyakov, Valentin; Hadermann, Joke; Kaul, Enrique E.; Geibel, Christoph

    2004-08-01

    Two new complex vanadyl(IV)phosphates Na 2MVO(PO 4) 2 ( M=Ca, Sr) were synthesized in evacuated quartz ampoules and investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, DTA, ESR and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystal structure of Na 2SrVO(PO 4) 2 was solved ab initio from X-ray powder diffraction data. Both compounds are isostructural: a=10.5233(3) Å, b=6.5578(2) Å, c=10.0536(3) Å and a=10.6476(3) Å, b=6.6224(2) Å, c=10.2537(3) Å for Ca and Sr, respectively; S.G. Pnma, Z=4. The compounds have a three-dimensional structure consisting of V 4+O 6 octahedra connected by PO 4 tetrahedra via five of the six vertexes forming a framework with cross-like channels. The strontium and sodium atoms are located in the channels in an ordered manner. Electron diffraction as well as high-resolution electron microscopy confirmed the structure solution. The new vanadylphosphates are Curie-Weiss paramagnets in a wide temperature range down to 2 K with ?=12 and 5 K for Ca and Sr phases, respectively.

  15. Photocatalytic property and electronic structure of triple-layered perovskite tantalates, MCa2Ta3O10 (M = Cs, Na, H, and C6H13NH3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masato; Mitsuyama, Tomohiro; Ikeue, Keita; Matsushima, Shigenori; Arai, Masao

    2005-04-28

    The Dion-Jacobson series of triple-layered perovskite tantalates (MCa2Ta3O10, M = Cs, Na, H, and C6H13NH3) were synthesized to evaluate their photocatalytic activity for overall water splitting to evolve H2/O2 under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic activity was susceptible to the hydration of interlayer space. The hydrous Na phase exhibited much higher activity (H2: 308 micromol.h(-1)) compared to the anhydrous Cs phase (24 micromol.h(-1)) and the hydrous H phase (22 micromol.h(-1)) in the presence of 0.5 wt % Ni impregnated. H2O/D2O isotopic experiment suggested that the hydrated interlayer plays as an active site for water splitting, where the high mobility of water molecule in the interlayer should correlate with the total photocatalytic activity. The FLAPW electronic structure calculation demonstrated that the terminating oxygen site, O4, which faces to the interlayer space, contributes largely to the top of the valence band. Judging from comparison with the double-layered tantalates, MLaTa2O7, in our previous study, the contribution of terminating oxygen site to the band structure is supposed to depend on the number of perovskite layers. PMID:16851907

  16. Endohedral and exohedral metalloborospherenes: M@B40 (M=Ca, Sr) and M&B40 (M=Be, Mg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-01-12

    The recent discovery of the all-boron fullerenes or borospherenes, D(2d) B40(-/0), paves the way for borospherene chemistry. Here we report a density functional theory study on the viability of metalloborospherenes: endohedral M@B40 (M=Ca, Sr) and exohedral M&B40 (M=Be, Mg). Extensive global structural searches indicate that Ca@B40 (1, C(2v), (1)A1) and Sr@B40 (3, D(2d), (1)A1) possess almost perfect endohedral borospherene structures with a metal atom at the center, while Be&B40 (5, C(s), (1)A') and Mg&B40 (7, C(s), (1)A') favor exohedral borospherene geometries with a ?(7)-M atom face-capping a heptagon on the waist. Metalloborospherenes provide indirect evidence for the robustness of the borospherene structural motif. The metalloborospherenes are characterized as charge-transfer complexes (M(2+)B40(2-)), where an alkaline earth metal atom donates two electrons to the B40 cage. The high stability of endohedral Ca@B40 (1) and Sr@B40 (3) is due to the match in size between the host cage and the dopant. Bonding analyses indicate that all 122 valence electrons in the systems are delocalized as ? or ? bonds, being distributed evenly on the cage surface, akin to the D(2d) B40 borospherene. PMID:25418022

  17. Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Marcia S; Martins, Virginia C A; Gomez, Santiago; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Soares, Gloria A

    2013-10-01

    3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ~10nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. PMID:23910332

  18. Performance Analysis: Work Control Events Identified January - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R

    2011-01-14

    This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded elements of an institutional work planning and control system. By the end of that year this system was documented and implementation had begun. In 2009, training of the workforce began and as of the time of this report more than 50% of authorized Integration Work Sheets (IWS) use the activity-based planning process. In 2010, LSO independently reviewed the work planning and control process and confirmed to the Laboratory that the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System was implemented. LLNL conducted a cross-directorate management self-assessment of work planning and control and is developing actions to respond to the issues identified. Ongoing efforts to strengthen the work planning and control process and to improve the quality of LLNL work packages are in progress: completion of remaining actions in response to the 2009 DOE Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) evaluation of LLNL's ISM System; scheduling more than 14 work planning and control self-assessments in FY11; continuing to align subcontractor work control with the Institutional work planning and control system; and continuing to maintain the electronic IWS application. The 24 events included in this analysis were caused by errors in the first four of the five ISMS functions. The most frequent cause was errors in analyzing the hazards (Function 2). The second most frequent cause was errors occurring when defining the work (Function 1), followed by errors during the performance of work (Function 4). Interestingly, very few errors in developing controls (Function 3) resulted in events. This leads one to conclude that if improvements are made to defining the scope of work and analyzing the potential hazards, LLNL may reduce the frequency or severity of events. Analysis of the 24 events resulted in the identification of ten common causes. Some events had multiple causes, resulting in the mention of 39 causes being identified for the 24 events. The most frequent cause was workers, supervisors, or experts believing they understood the work and the hazards but their understanding was incomplete. The s

  19. Parametric analysis of a passive cyclic control device for helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study of a passive device which provides a cyclic longitudinal control moment for a helicopter rotor was performed. It utilizes a rotor blade tip which is structurally decoupled from the blade inboard section. This rotor configuration is generally called the Free-Tip Rotor. A two dimensional numerical model was used to review the Constant Lift Tip Rotor, a predecessor of the current configuration, and then the same model was applied to the Passive Cyclic Control Device. The Constant Lift Tip was proven to have the ability to suppress the vibratory lift loading on the tip around the azimuth and to eliminate a significant negative lift peak on the advancing tip. The Passive Cyclic Control Device showed a once-per-revolution lift oscillation with a large amplitude, while minimizing the higher harmonic terms of the lift oscillation. This once-per-revolution oscillation results in the cyclic moment to trim the rotor longitudinally. A rotor performance analysis was performed by a three dimensional numerical model. It indicated that the vortices shed from the junction between the tip and the inboard section has a strong influence on the tip, and it may severely limit the tip performance. It was also shown that the Free-Tip allows the inboard section to have a larger twist, which results in a better performance.

  20. The value of 18F-FDG MCD-SPECT and 99Tcm-ECD SPECT imaging in patients of ischemic cerebrovascular disease with STA-MCA bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of brain glucose metabolism and perfusion imaging in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease before and after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery. Methods: A comparative study of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain metabolism and 99Tcm-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion imaging was performed in 5 normal persons and 15 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease before and after STA-MCA bypass surgery. Results: The glucose metabolism of ischemic cerebral tissues in 15 patients had three (increased, unchanged or decreasing) forms different with the course of disease before surgery. The ratio of the impaired area to the opposite normal area showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in glucose metabolism before and after STA-MCA bypass surgery. But the patients with high glucose metabolism before surgery improved significantly after surgery. In 99Tcm-ECD imaging, there was decreased perfusion of the affected vessels territory in 15 patients before surgery and it increased after surgery except one unsuccessful case. Except the frontal area, the ratio of the impaired area to the opposite normal area in brain perfusion imaging was significantly different (P<0.01) before and after STA-MCA bypass surgery. Conclusions: The hemodynamic change of the ischemic brain tissue can be better reflected by cerebral blood flow perfusionreflected by cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging before and after surgery. Although the change of brain glucose metabolism in ischemic brain tissue is not significant, it plays an important role in observing cerebral function and predicting the effect of surgery. (authors)

  1. Second-Order Analysis for Control Constrained Optimal Control Problems of Semilinear Elliptic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a second-order analysis for a simple model optimal control problem of a partial differential equation, namely, a well-posed semilinear elliptic system with constraints on the control variable only. The cost to be minimized is a standard quadratic functional. Assuming the feasible set to be polyhedric, we state necessary and sufficient second-order optimality conditions, including a characterization of the quadratic growth condition. Assuming that the second-order sufficient condition holds, we give a formula for the second-order expansion of the value of the problem as well as the directional derivative of the optimal control, when the cost function is perturbed. Then we extend the theory of second-order optimality conditions to the case of vector-valued controls when the feasible set is defined by local and smooth convex constraints. When the space dimension n is greater than 3, the results are based on a two norms approach, involving spaces L2(?) and Ls(?) , with s>n/2

  2. Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

  3. Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design--such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I and C system designs--makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I and C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development

  4. Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani

    2007-01-31

    This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design – such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I&C system designs – makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I&C development process. Section 6 describes an ACSL model that Westinghouse started but suspended developing for the moment. ACSL is an old simulation language that Westinghouse used on many projects. It may (or may not) offer some advantages during the later stages of detailed plant design and analysis, but supporting the ACSL model does not appear to be necessary at this time. Section 7 summarizes our expectations for future development.

  5. LSAP-DIGLIB, Linear Control System Design, Analysis, Plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: LSAP (Linear Systems Analysis Program) is an interactive program with graphics capability provided through DIGLIB (Device Independent Graphics Library) that can be used for the analysis and design of linear control systems. Nearly all the classical design tools are available, including manipulation of transfer functions and generation of root locus, time response, and frequency response plots. The program is capable of working with continuous time systems and sampled data systems. For continuous time systems, the Laplace transform is used and for sampled data systems, the Z-transform is used. The capability to convert from a Laplace to a Z-transform is provided. The program is intended primarily for the analysis of feedback control systems. The system configuration or parameters can be changed easily, allowing the user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in a very convenient manner. DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with RT-11, RSX-11M, and VMS and readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting. DIGLIB has device drivers for Tektronix 4010, 4012, 4014, 4025, and 4027 terminals; VT100 terminals with the retro-graphics option; GIGI terminals, CalComp 1012 plotters, and Lexidata 3400 color graphics systems. 2 - Method of solution: LSAP performs its modeling by defining and operating ms its modeling by defining and operating upon polynomial fraction representations of transfer functions. It is a command oriented program. A command is entered, together with any necessary data, and then executed. The program is then ready for the next command. The MAIN procedure accepts a command and calls the appropriate command procedure, until the program is halted. Each command procedure uses any utilities required for the execution of the command. The commands interact with global data in two basic ways. All defined transfer functions are global records, which exist in a linked list. All commands except HALT and HELP operate upon these records. Also included in global data are switches, flags, pointers, and scalars which describe the state of the program and control the operations performed by the commands. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program can only be applied to systems which can be described by a collection of rational transfer functions that are either Laplace or Z-transforms. The order of the numerator or denominator polynomials cannot exceed 20

  6. Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author)

  7. Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and luding polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion coefficient. The inherent instability of high density suspensions instigated high speed analysis techniques capable of monitoring suspensions that were undergoing rapid change as well as suggesting novel methods for the evaluation of the state of sample dispersion. (author)

  8. Control of the boiling crisis: analysis of a model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling the transition between the low (nucleate) and high temperature (film) regimes of boiling is a serious challenge for a number of technological applications. Based on the theoretical analysis of a simplified reaction-diffusion model, it has recently been shown that the transition towards the dangerous situation where the high temperature phase tends to invade the whole system requires a higher power in a periodically spatially modulated system than in an homogeneous system. We show here that the transition mechanisms between the various boiling regimes depend on the ratio between the periodicity length along the wire and the characteristic thermal diffusion length. We analyse theoretically a simple experimental setup aimed at testing these ideas. The heater consists of a thin wire, with an applied electric current, with alternatively low resistance and high resistance sections. We determine the gain in stability for a set of realistic values of the parameters. (authors)

  9. Analysis of errors of radioisotope absorption methods of control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three approaches to the problem solution of measuring condition optimization during control of material density, are considered. The first approach is based on the choice of optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the conditions of providing minimum relative statistical error of measuring with the source given activity. The second approach consists in chosing optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the condition of providing equality of errors at the ends of the measured magnitude range. The third approach suggests determination of optimum thickness of the layer under radioscopy according to the condition of providing minimum error during measuring the given limiting value of the registered counting rate taking into account the possibility of chosing a source of the corresponding activity. Comparative analysis of the three mentioned methods is conducted. Dependences of relative statistical error of measuring on attenuation multiplicity factor are given

  10. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  11. Certain Application of GERT Network Analysis in Statistical Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique commonly known as GERT, is a network analysis technique effectively used in project management that allows probabilistic treatment of both network logic and estimation of activity duration. The technique was first discovered in 1966 by Dr. Alan B. Pritsker of Purdue University. Compared to other techniques, GERT is rarely used in complex systems. The GERT approach, addresses the majority of limitations associated with PERT/ CPM technique. The fundamental drawback associated with the GERT technique is the complex programme required to model the GERT system. Development in GERT includes Q- GERTS allowing the user to consider queuing within the system. Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique has been applied in modeling of sampling plans and promises to be value in encouraging statistical quality control. In this paper we analyze a sampling plan using GERT technique.

  12. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumie, M., E-mail: mroumie@cnrs.edu.l [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon); Nsouli, B. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon); Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M. [Banque du Liban, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2010-06-15

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  13. Root cause analysis to support infection control in healthcare premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A-G

    2015-04-01

    Infection control teams (ICTs) seek to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). They undertake surveillance and prevention, promote safety and quality of care, and evaluate and manage risk. Root cause analysis (RCA) can support this work but is not widely used by ICTs. This paper describes how ICTs can use RCA to enhance their day-to-day work. Many different tools and methods exist for RCA. Its primary aim is to identify the factors that have led to HCAI, but RCA can also be used for near-misses. A team effort and multidisciplinary work are usually required. Published accounts and personal experience in the field indicate that an ICT that correctly uses RCA implements more effective prevention measures, improves practice and collaborative working, enhances teamwork, and reduces the risk of HCAI. RCA should be promoted among ICTs because it adds value to their work and helps to develop a hospital culture that anticipates and pre-empts problems. PMID:25634490

  14. Establishment of analysis procedure for control rod reactivity worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As to the calculation method of control rod reactivity relating to hexagonal assembly, which are used generally in fast reactor, we have investigated the calculation method, the problems to rise during calculation, the degrees of calculation and the enhancement of calculation modeling so on, and estimated the application of calculation method through comparison and analysis of calculation result using the effective cross section generation system, TRANSX/TWODANT, and neutron flux calculation system, diffusion theory code DIF-3D, which are belonged to K-CORE System, and determined the basic calculation method, and extracted the present calculation problem in case of application in K-CORE System and the future improvement items so on

  15. Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

    2012-01-01

    In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

  16. An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modeling of the CMS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Hwong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviors and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and c...

  17. Magnetically controlled accretion onto a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhsanov, N. R.; Pustil'nik, L. A.; Beskrovnaya, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    An accretion scenario in which the material captured by a black hole from its environment is assumed to be magnetized (\\beta ~ 1) is discussed. We show that the accretion picture in this case is strongly affected by the magnetic field of the flow itself. The accretion power within this Magnetically Controlled Accretion (MCA) scenario is converted predominantly into the magnetic energy of the accretion flow. The rapidly amplified field prevents the accretion flow from forming...

  18. Introduction to time-delay systems analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century can be characterized as the ”time-delay boom” leading to numerous important results. The purpose of this book is two-fold, to familiarize the non-expert reader with time-delay systems and to provide a systematic treatment of modern ideas and techniques for experts. This book is based on the course ”Introduction to time-delay systems” for graduate students in Engineering and Applied Mathematics that the author taught in Tel Aviv University in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. The sufficient background to follow most of the material are the undergraduate courses in mathematics and an introduction to control. The book leads the reader from some basic classical results on time-delay systems to recent developments on Lyapunov-based analysis and design with applications to the hot topics of sampled-data and network-based control. The objective is to provide useful tools that will allow the reader not only to apply the existing methods, but also to develop new ones. It...

  19. Analysis of Control Strategies for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Balamurugan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of various Pulse Width Modulation (PWM strategies for the three phase Diode Clamped Multi Level Inverter (DCMLI. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of new modulation schemes with Variable Amplitude (VA and various new schemes adopting the constant switching frequency and also variable switching frequency multicarrier control freedom degree combination concepts are developed and simulated for the chosen three phase DCMLI. The three phase DCMLI, is controlled in this paper with Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM reference along with triangular carriers and analysis is made among both without carrier overlapping and with Carrier Overlapping (CO techniques to choose the better strategy by performing simulation using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The variation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD and fundamental RMS output voltage is observed for various modulation indices. It is observed that among the various equal amplitude PWM strategies, COPWM-C provides less THD and higher RMS voltage. It is recognized that among the various variable amplitude PWM strategies, VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. By comparing the equal amplitude PWM strategies with the variable amplitude PWM strategies it is inferred that VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. It is also inferred that carrier overlapping techniques provides better results compared to the without carrier overlapping techniques.

  20. USB apply to field X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes the feasibility of application USB and GPS to field X-ray fluorescence analysis, and focuses on the hardware and firmware design of USB and multi-channel analyzer (MCA), then simply discusses the device driver design and the PC application software design. (authors)

  1. Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Marcia S., E-mail: msader@metalmat.ufrj.br [Prog. Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, COPPE/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Virginia C.A. [Depto. de Química e Física Molecular, IQSC/USP, SP (Brazil); Gomez, Santiago [Dept. Anatomía Patológica, Universidad de Cádiz, Cadiz (Spain); LeGeros, Racquel Z. [Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry, NY (United States); Soares, Gloria A. [Prog. Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, COPPE/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ? 10 nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. Highlights: • 3D scaffolds of Mg-carbonate–apatite and anionic-collagen were produced. • The biomimetic approach and the cross-linking with 0.25% GA solution were employed. • The scaffolds showed open-porous structure and apatite crystals on collagen fibrils. • The cross-linked scaffolds exhibited integrity when immersed in culture medium. • SaOs2 cells adhered and proliferated on the cross-linked scaffolds confirming no cytotoxicity.

  2. Energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} in M{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl (M=Ca, Sr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fengli [National Engineering Research Center for Rare Earth Materials, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, and Grirem Advanced Materials Co. Ltd., Beijing 100088 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000 (China); An, Wei [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhuang, Weidong, E-mail: wdzhuang@126.com [National Engineering Research Center for Rare Earth Materials, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, and Grirem Advanced Materials Co. Ltd., Beijing 100088 (China); Tian, Guang-Shan [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jing, Xi-Ping, E-mail: xpjing@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-15

    M{sub 4.95?y}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl:0.05Eu{sup 2+}, yMn{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr) phosphors were synthesized at 1200 °C under a reductive atmosphere. The energy transfer mechanism and efficiency (?) from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} as well as the quantum efficiency (Q) of the Mn{sup 2+} emission were analyzed using PL spectra and decay curves. Least squares fittings of the Eu{sup 2+} decay curves indicate that the energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} follows the exchange mechanism in the Sr system, while besides exchange mechanism other complicated quenching processes are involved in the Ca system. Superficially the ? is high but the Q is low, which implies some energy loss. Two quenching models representative of an “inverse bottleneck process”, which is related to the lifetime mismatch between Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}, and a “charge transfer process“ in the Eu{sup 2+}–Mn{sup 2+} clusters, are proposed. The results may provide some clues for designing excellent sensitizer and activator co-doped phosphors in our further work. -- Highlights: • Energy transfer efficiency of Eu{sup 2+} is high and the emission efficiency of Mn{sup 2+} is low. • Inverse bottleneck effect related to Eu{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+} lifetime mismatch causes quenching. • Charge transfer process in Eu{sup 2+}–Mn{sup 2+} clusters also causes quenching.

  3. Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ? 10 nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. Highlights: • 3D scaffolds of Mg-carbonate–apatite and anionic-collagen were produced. • The biomimetic approach and the cross-linking with 0.25% GA solution were employed. • The scaffolds showed open-porous structure and apatite crystals on collagen fibrils. • The cross-linked scaffolds exhibited integrity when immersed in culture medium. • SaOs2 cells adhered and proliferated on the cross-linked scaffolds confirming no cytotoxicity

  4. Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Patel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay. Stabilized RED (SRED is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM. We also included the comparative analysis of loss rate having different bandwidth for these algorithms.

  5. Molecular analysis of the genera eremopyrum (ledeb). jaub. and spach and agropyron gaertner (poaceae) by pcr methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Post PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Melting Curve Analysis (MCA) have been used to investigate the pattern of genetic variation among some species in the genera Eremopyrum (Ledeb.) Jaub. and Spach and Agropyron Gaertner (Poaceae). Thirteen primers have been used in the study based on the RAPD-PCR and MCA analyses. Each species produced a distinct pattern of DNA fragments which have been used as a measure of the degree of relationship between species by means of using the RAPD-PCR results with three primers selected for identifying the genetic similarities. Polymorphic melting profiles have been obtained with Post PCR MCA method using three primers. Genetic similarities are calculated for all the species studied with RAPD-PCR and MCA methods, the dendrograms are obtained with the MVSP (Multi Variate Statistical Package) software using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages) and Jaccard's Coefficient. Polymorphism between 18 populations of Eremopyrum and 6 Agropyron populations and within the species are determined by using RAPD-PCR and Post PCR melting curve analysis (MCA) respectively. (author)

  6. Design and Analysis of LINAC Control System in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Shit,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Control system is the key part of Medical linear accelerator (LINAC, as the system deals with controlled radiation exposure to human body. As this sort of system pass through different regulatory body approvals, control system should be able to handle different stringent parameters very precisely. Some of the important tasks for control system are measurement of delivered dose; energy stabilization through controlling voltage level, automatic frequency control (AFC of magnetron, trigger generation, human safety and machine safety interlocks etc. Proposed approach to the above mentioned requirement is design of a control system based on FPGA.This project proposes a control and communication system for medical linear accelerator.

  7. Matrix transfer function analysis of JT-60 plasma equilibrium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control characteristics of plasma current, plasma position (center of the outermost magnetic surface), clearance between 30 degree limiter and outermost closed magnetic surface and width of the divertor throat in JT-60 are analyzed in the frequency domain. Recommended gains, maximum response frequency, responses to plasma parameter variations and mutual interactions between controllers are qualitatively determined. High response position control is realized by the hybrid control of F and V power supplies. The position controllability during plasma current rise and soft landing is improved by the hybrid control. The throat and clearance can be controlled by the decoupling control. (author)

  8. Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

  9. Control-flow analysis of function call and returns by abstract interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interproce- dural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack, effectively approximating where func- tion calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is sys- tematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine ...

  10. Control-flow analysis of function calls and returns by abstract interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack, effectively approximating where function calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is systematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Fla...

  11. Control Volume Analysis, Entropy Balance and the Entropy Production in Flow Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niven, Robert K.; Noack, Bernd R.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter concerns "control volume analysis", the standard engineering tool for the analysis of flow systems, and its application to entropy balance calculations. Firstly, the principles of control volume analysis are enunciated and applied to flows of conserved quantities (e.g. mass, momentum, energy) through a control volume, giving integral (Reynolds transport theorem) and differential forms of the conservation equations. Several definitions of steady state are discuss...

  12. Sensitivity analysis of an optimal control problem in greenhouse climate management.

    OpenAIRE

    Henten, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    Optimal control systems are based on a performance measure to be optimised and a model description of the dynamic process to be controlled. When on-line implementation is considered, the performance of optimally controlled processes will depend on the accuracy of the model description used. Sensitivity analysis offers insight into the impact of uncertainty in the model parameters on the performance of the optimally controlled process. Additionally, sensitivity analysis may reveal the mechanis...

  13. SICOMAT : a system for SImulation and COntrol analysis of MAchine Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Maxime; Pham, Minh Tu; Khalil, Wisama; Lemoine, Philippe; Poignet, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a software package for the simulation and the control analysis of machine tool axes. This package which is called SICOMAT (SImulation and COntrol analysis of MAchine Tools), provides a large variety of toolboxes to analyze the behavior and the control of the machine. The software takes into account several elements such as the flexibility of bodies, the interaction between several axes, the effect of numerical control and the availability to reduce models.

  14. Short-term control of the cardiovascular system: modelling and signal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, Alessandro; Me?digue, Claire; Sorine, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Our aim is to relate classical cardiovascular signal analysis to models of the cardiovascular (CV) and control systems taking into account its multiple feedback loop organisation. We discuss knowledges on the short-term control of CV system, focusing on the analysis of CV time-series and control of arterial pressure and RR-interval. In the first and second sections, we introduce modelling concepts which lead us to the definition of a possible decentralised control of CV system, with several b...

  15. Stability Analysis and Control of Nonlinear Phenomena in Buck Converters Using Variable Structure Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. R. PARANJOTHI,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The time varying, nonlinear nature of the power switches and several other sources of nonlinearities in DC-DC Converters deviates its performance from the theoretical prediction of stability. The switching nature necessitates a study of the stability and their periodic orbit rather than the equilibrium point. The closed loopoperation exhibits several types of nonlinear phenomena including bifurcation, chaos and quasi-periodicity. This paper is oriented with the analysis of such nonlinear phenomena in buck converter and attempts to coin a new strategy that can control chaos and significantly extend the parameter range for nominal period-I operation, in its mission to enhance the operating range of the converter.

  16. Direct Torque Control in presence of Current sensor failure in Variable Speed Wind System: Effect analysis, detection and control reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    Arbi, A. J.; Slama-belkhodja, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of current sensor failure in a Direct Torque Control applied to a Double Fed Induction Generator based Variable Speed Wind System. The effect of scaling and offset current sensor errors is discussed through sensibility analysis. A control reconfiguration is then proposed to remedy this sensor failure. Simulation results emphasize the good performances of the proposed current sensor fault tolerant control

  17. High Performance Flow Analysis and Control Tools for Aerial Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is to develop an open architecture, computer aided analysis and control design toolbox for distributed parameter systems, in...

  18. Bifurcation Tools for Flight Dynamics Analysis and Control System Design Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern bifurcation analysis methods have been proposed for investigating flight dynamics and control system design in highly nonlinear regimes and also for the...

  19. Control of interferences in the analysis of low-concentration I 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traces of uranium, cesium and tellurium interfere in the determination of I 129 by neutron activation analysis. The paper describes the procedures used to control or eliminate the interferences in the different steps of the analysis

  20. Analysis for Secondary Task in Advanced Main Control Room Using Soft Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze operator tasks using soft controls from the simulation data of an advanced MCR. In this study, the primary and secondary tasks of eighteen simulation data were analyzed. The results showed that secondary tasks were required to perform scenarios more than primary task needs. Among these secondary tasks, the 'switch screen' made up the largest portion. This indicates that operator workload would increase with an increase of the 'switch screen' task. To reduce operator workload, Cps designers put the screen link buttons in the Cps. According to an analysis of secondary tasks using the screen link buttons, it is recognized that using the screen link buttons of the Cps helps reduce the number of secondary tasks and reduce errors of the 'switch screen'. Therefore, although increased secondary tasks can affect the increase of operator workload according to the adapting soft controls in advanced MCRs, using supporting designs such as the screen link buttons helps to reduce operator workload and errors

  1. Cadmium and lead residue control in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan-Rodríguez, Doritza; O'Keefe, Margaret; Deyrup, Cindy; Zervos, Penny; Walker, Harry; Thaler, Alice

    2007-02-21

    In 2003-2004, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted an exploratory assessment to determine the occurrence and levels of cadmium and lead in randomly collected samples of kidney, liver, and muscle tissues of mature chickens, boars/stags, dairy cows, and heifers. The data generated in the study were qualitatively compared to data that FSIS gathered in a 1985-1986 study in order to identify trends in the levels of cadmium and lead in meat and poultry products. The exploratory assessment was necessary to verify that Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point plans and efforts to control exposure to these heavy metals are effective and result in products that meet U.S. export requirements. A comparison of data from the two FSIS studies suggests that the incidence and levels of cadmium and lead in different slaughter classes have remained stable since the first study was conducted in 1985-1986. This study was conducted to fulfill FSIS mandate to ensure that meat, poultry, and egg products entering commerce in the United States are free of adulterants, including elevated levels of environmental contaminants such as cadmium and lead. PMID:17249686

  2. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two methods. Closing remarks conclude the paper.

  3. Analysis and Design of Heat Energy Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Adu Poku, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    As technology progresses, many kinds of control systems are being developed using the concept of control theory to keep pace with modern day application requirements, ranging from simple to sophisticated types of control system. Control systems can be found in different practical application such as biological systems, robotic systems, space applications, home appliances and so many more. The thesis has been carried out to analyze the fundamental theory of control systems and its main el...

  4. MODELLING, SIMULATION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE PROCESS CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Dulau; Adrian Gligor; Horatiu-Stefan Grif

    2012-01-01

    Processes characterized by large time constant, such as those with temperature control systems, are found in a large number of industrial applications. To control such systems, the appropriate mathematical models identification is needed, considering the uncertainties modeling, handling in dynamic operating regime and proposing control solutions. The paper presents a control system used in a part of a complex plant where is needed to maintain temperature at a set point. The controlled install...

  5. Rapid microbiological methods with hazard analysis critical control point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M W

    1997-01-01

    The proactive approach to ensuring food safety termed hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) was introduced in the 1960s by the Pillsbury Company, in collaboration with the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to help guarantee that astronauts would not be incapacitated by the trauma of foodborne illness during space flights. The approach has subsequently been adopted as the standard food safety management system world-wide and is seen as forming the basis for harmonization of food inspection regulations necessitated by trade agreements such as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and North American Free Trade Agreement as the move toward globalization of trade in food products gains momentum. The new U.S. Department of Agriculture Mega-Reg requires mandatory introduction of HACCP, and the Food Safety Enhancement Program of Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, as well as the "due diligence" legislation of the European Union, is centered on HACCP principles. PMID:9419852

  6. Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasekhar Reddy, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Brushless DC motors (BLDC) find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI) controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease ...

  7. Numerical Analysis of Optimality-System POD for Constrained Optimal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Eva; Gubisch, Martin; Volkwein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this work linear-quadratic optimal control problems for parabolic equa- tions with control and state constraints are considered. Utilizing a Lavrentiev regu- larization we obtain a linear-quadratic optimal control problem with mixed control- state constraints. For the numerical solution a Galerkin discretization is applied uti- lizing proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Based on a perturbation method it is determined by a-posteriori error analysis how far the suboptimal control, com- pu...

  8. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) are applied to the evaluation matrix data set obtained by simulation of several control strategies applied to the plant-wide IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2). These techniques allow i) to determine natural groups or clusters of control strategies with a similar behaviour, ii) to find and interpret hidden, complex and casual relation features in the data set and iii) to identify important discriminant variables within the groups found by the cluster analysis. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariable statistical techniques for both analysis and interpretation of the complex multicriteria data sets and allows an improved use of information for effective evaluation of control strategies.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  10. Analysis and design of controllers for a double inverted pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, J K

    2003-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the ? methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the chart. It is shown how these performance limitation will effect the design of a ? controller for the system.

  11. Cost effectiveness analysis of optimal control measures for tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Paula; Silva, Cristiana J.; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyse an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for tuberculosis that considers reinfection. The control functions represent the fraction of early latent and persistent latent individuals that are treated. Our aim is to study how these control measures should be implemented, for a certain time period, in order to reduce the number of active infected individuals, while minimizing the interventions implementation costs. The op...

  12. Analysis and Synthesis of the SNS Superconducting RF Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.M.; Kwon, S. I.; Regan, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    The RF system for the SNS superconducting linac consists of a superconducting cavity, a klystron, and a low-level RF (LLRF) control system. For a proton linac like SNS, the field in each individual cavity needs to be controlled to meet the overall system requirements. The purpose of the LLRF control system is to maintain the RF cavity field to a desired magnitude and phase by controlling the klystron driver signal. The Lorentz force detuning causes the shift of the resonant ...

  13. Output controllability analysis of fixed speed wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Domi?nguez Garci?a, Jose? Lui?s; Garci?a Planas, Mari?a Isabel

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the concepts of output controllability and steady output controllability, it demonstrates that they are not equivalent of concepts. A linear system has been calculated from the nonlinear equations of the squirrel cage induction generator, supposing it connected directly to the grid and assuming a steady state operating point. The study of output controllability and steady-output controllability concepts of the introduced system is done.

  14. A stability analysis method for the fuzzy controller and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed to analyze the stability of a fuzzy controller and the method is applied to a fuzzy controller developed in this work to automatically control the steam generator water level in the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The stability analysis method is devised from the relationships between the fuzzy controller and the conventional PI (Proportional and Integral) controller. The relationships are derived from the theoretical analysis and modeling of the widely used fuzzy controller having two inputs (Error, Rate) and one output with triangular type membership functions. In addition, an analyzable 9-Rule fuzzy controller is designed and computer-simulated for the automatic control of the steam generator water level in the PWR to employ the developed stability analysis method. This study shows that the stability analysis method based on the comparison of the equivalent PI gain ranges of the fuzzy controller with that of a linear PI controller provides very meaningful ideas for the design of stable fuzzy controller through the computer simulations. Therefore, the method suggested in this work can be used in a confirmatory process to check the stability of a fuzzy controller designed with two inputs (error, rate) and also the method would be used as an useful guidance to efficiently design and tune the fuzzy controller

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of the Control Strategy for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinhThuyen Chau, VanBao Chau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the analysis of control strategies for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit (IHAPF. This analysis will be the basis of researches of the IHAPF in the future. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the control strategies.

  16. Quality control analysis of imported fertilizers used in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty three (23) imported fertilizer samples of 5 fertilizer types have been analysed to determine their quality. The main objective of this research was to validate specifications indicated by manufacturers' on their fertilizer products. To achieve this objective, the fertilizer samples were analysed using five analytical techniques (INAA, AAS, flame photometer, kjeldahl method and UV-visible spectroscopy) to determine the concentrations of macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca and S), micronutrients (Cu, Na, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Hg and Pd) in the fertilizer samples. Results obtained from analysis were compared with certified values obtained from the companies and with standard values obtained from MOFA to establish whether the imported fertilizers met standards. Two reference materials (IAEA Soil-7 and SRM 1646a Estuarine Sediment) were used to validate the quantitative methods employed in the INAA and AAS techniques. Good agreements (98%) were obtained between the measured and verified concentrations for most of the elements. Analytical results revealed that the concentrations of the primary macronutrients (N, P and K) claimed by the manufacturers were valid. In contrast, manufacturers' claims for micronutrient concentrations did not agree with analytical results. The concentrations recorded were far below the minimum plant nutrient guarantees. For instance, the highest values recorded for Cu and Zn were 0.0265% and 0.00305% respectively, whiere 0.0265% and 0.00305% respectively, whiles the minimum guaranteed values were set at 0.05%. Heavy metal levels recorded in the fertilizers were insignificant and therefore do not present possible contamination problems during fertilizer application. In conclusion, not all the nutrient requirements expected of imported fertilizers were met. There is therefore the need for a good quality control system to monitor the chemical compositions of fertilizers imported into Ghana (au).

  17. Screening of conditions controlling spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abubakr M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its potential benefits over univariate, chemometrics is rarely utilized for optimizing sequential injection analysis (SIA methods. Specifically, in previous vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods, chemometrically optimized conditions were confined within flow rate and reagent concentrations while other conditions were ignored. Results The current manuscript reports, for the first time, a comprehensive screening of conditions controlling vis-spectrophotometric SIA. A new diclofenac assay method was adopted. The method was based on oxidizing diclofenac by permanganate (a major reagent with sulfuric acid (a minor reagent. The reaction produced a spectrophotometrically detectable diclofenac form. The 26 full-factorial design was utilized to study the effect of volumes of reagents and sample, in addition to flow rate and concentrations of reagents. The main effects and all interaction order effects on method performance, i.e. namely sensitivity, rapidity and reagent consumption, were determined. The method was validated and applied to pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, injection and gel. Conclusions Despite 64 experiments those conducted in the current study were cumbersome, the results obtained would reduce effort and time when developing similar SIA methods in the future. It is recommended to critically optimize effective and interacting conditions using other such optimization tools as fractional-factorial design, response surface and simplex, rather than full-factorial design that used at an initial optimization stage. In vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods those involve developing reactions with two reagents (major and minor, conditions affecting method performance are in the following order: sample volume > flow rate ? major reagent concentration >> major reagent volume ? minor reagent concentration >> minor reagent volume.

  18. Analysis and Control of Bulgaria Onion Cold Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey of microbial pollution and health quality change was conducted during the process of the production and refrigeration of Onion Cold Soup to provide a basic reference for the catering industry for the implementation of HACCP management system for food and to ensure the safety of food. A basic formula of Onion Cold Soup was made according to the literature, then the total number of bacteria, pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacter, cocci and microzyme were tested in the main raw material and finished product detection according to the national standard method; hot boiling water to wash the main raw materials, statistical reduction in strain rate, in order to determine improvement formula. The finished cold soup at 4°C refrigerator made flora analysis, and drew up the date of minimum durability. The total bacterial count of the Onion Cold Soup by the basic formula is 2.4?104cfu/g, among which coriander occupied 53%, egg 24%, onion and lemonade 17% and 6%; respectively; and after blanching, the total number of colonies in the improved formulation is 1.1?103, the sterilization rate reaches 95.4%, and the effect is slightly obvious. The Onion Cold Soup made in kitchen can be seriously polluted by microbial, hot boiling water to wash the main raw materials and avoid secondary pollution, thus the bacterial count can be controlled effectively, then the shelf life was extended and the risk of food poisoning was reduced, which did a lot of benefit to the catering industry the food safety management.

  19. Analysis and Control of Flora in Cream Vegetarian Salad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey of microbial pollution and health quality change was conducted during the process of the production and refrigeration of Cream Vegetarian Salad food, to provide a basic reference for the catering industry to carry out HACCP management system for food like this and ensure the safety of food. Then a basic formula of Cream Vegetarian Salad was made according to the literature, further the total number of bacteria, pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacter, cocci and microzyme was tested in the main raw material and finished product detection according to the national standard method, Without changing the taste of the finished production, the raw materials were blanched, to measure the reduced bacteria rate, and determine the improved formula; the salad was stored at 4°C, then the number of bacteria was counted according to the time sequence and flora analysis was made to draw up the date of minimum durability. The total bacterial count of the Cream Vegetarian Salad by the basic formula is 2.3×104 CFU/g, among which coriander occupies 87%, sweetbell 7%, the rest is of small scale. Thus, the Cream Vegetarian Salad made in kitchen can be seriously polluted by microbial, mainly due to parsley, sweetbell red pepper and other raw materials, through the method of sterilization, storage in low temperature secondary pollution can be avoided, and the bacterial count can be controlled effectively, then the shelf life was extended and the risk of food poisoning was reduced, which did a lot of benefit to the food safety management of the catering industry.

  20. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  1. Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Kang, Taesam; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

  2. CFA2: a Context-Free Approach to Control-Flow Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vardoulakis, Dimitrios; Shivers, Olin

    2011-01-01

    In a functional language, the dominant control-flow mechanism is function call and return. Most higher-order flow analyses, including k-CFA, do not handle call and return well: they remember only a bounded number of pending calls because they approximate programs with control-flow graphs. Call/return mismatch introduces precision-degrading spurious control-flow paths and increases the analysis time. We describe CFA2, the first flow analysis with precise call/return matching ...

  3. Analysis of Nonlinear Speed-Torque Performance of SRM with Fuzzy Based Nonlinear Controller

    OpenAIRE

    BASANT KUMAR NAYAK; CH. RAVI KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    By the use of linear controller the analysis of performance of SRM is not sufficient because of stator inductance of stator winding of SRM is function of rotor position, so here proposed to be design the nonlinear controller i.e. fuzzy based controller which converge the comparison analysis of SRM based on speed error and its change with respect time domain specification. Neural network and fuzzy logic technique are unique technique in which process the information specify by mathematical equ...

  4. A strategic analysis of future growth options for an established process control company

    OpenAIRE

    Levesque, Sheila Lynne

    2007-01-01

    This project speaks to the prevailing business environment presently encountered at WESTCOAST Controls Ltd (WESTCOAST), a leading process control company in British Columbia, Canada. The scope of the project covers topics such as company overview, external industry analysis, and internal company analysis including strategic tools such as Porter's 5 Forces. The project concludes with a recommendation for the restructuring of the control systems & solutions division for improved performan...

  5. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W.; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Proces...

  6. Control-Flow Analysis of Function Calls and Returns by Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack, effectively approximating where function calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is systematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Flanagan et al. using a series of Galois connections. Abstract interpretation provides a unifying setting in which we 1) prove the analysis equivalent to the composition of a continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation followed by an abstract interpretation of a stack-less CPS machine, and 2) extract an equivalent constraint-based analysis formulation, thereby providing a rational reconstruction of a constraint-based control-flow analysis from abstract interpretation principles.

  7. Control software analysis, Part I Open-loop properties

    CERN Document Server

    Feron, Eric

    2008-01-01

    As the digital world enters further into everyday life, questions are raised about the increasing challenges brought by the interaction of real-time software with physical devices. Many accidents and incidents encountered in areas as diverse as medical systems, transportation systems or weapon systems are ultimately attributed to "software failures". Since real-time software that interacts with physical systems might as well be called control software, the long litany of accidents due to real-time software failures might be taken as an equally long list of opportunities for control systems engineering. In this paper, we are interested only in run-time errors in those pieces of software that are a direct implementation of control system specifications: For well-defined and well-understood control architectures such as those present in standard textbooks on digital control systems, the current state of theoretical computer science is well-equipped enough to address and analyze control algorithms. It appears tha...

  8. MODELLING, SIMULATION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE PROCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dulau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Processes characterized by large time constant, such as those with temperature control systems, are found in a large number of industrial applications. To control such systems, the appropriate mathematical models identification is needed, considering the uncertainties modeling, handling in dynamic operating regime and proposing control solutions. The paper presents a control system used in a part of a complex plant where is needed to maintain temperature at a set point. The controlled installation consists from two connected tanks, for which a simplified mathematical model based on transfer functions are determined, considering additive uncertainties and classical cascade PI control structures are proposed. Developed models and solutions are analyzed by simulation in Matlab environment.

  9. Architectures and Performance Analysis of Wireless Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, Burak

    2015-01-01

    Modern industrial control systems use a multitude of spatially distributed sensors and actuators to continuously monitor and control physical processes. Information exchange among control system components is traditionally done through physical wires. The need to physically wire sensors and actuators limits flexibility, scalability and reliability, since the cabling cost is high, cable connectors are prone to wear and tear, and connector failures can be hard to isolate. By replacing some of t...

  10. Analysis and design of controllers for a double inverted pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, J K

    2010-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the ? methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the chart. It is shown how these performance limitation will effect the design of a ? ...

  11. Simulation Based Analysis of Two Different Control Strategies for PMSM

    OpenAIRE

    Lindita Dhamo, Aida Spahiu

    2013-01-01

    In low power application generally permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are used. Because of their high performance/cost ratio, the attention toward PMSM in variable speed application, is greater. Control of torque, rotation speed and position for four quadrants and low speed operation, with high-performance dynamic behaviour, are often required in industrial applications but they are sensitive from the standpoint of the control strategies reliability. Vector control based on fieldorient...

  12. Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of Fuzzy Control Systems. Mechatronics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Radu-Emil Precup; Stefan Preitl

    2006-01-01

    The development of fuzzy control systems is usually performed by heuristicmeans, incorporating human skills, the drawback being in the lack of general-purposedevelopment methods. A major problem, which follows from this development, is theanalysis of the structural properties of the control system, such as stability, controllabilityand robustness. Here comes the first goal of the paper, to present a stability analysismethod dedicated to fuzzy control systems with mechatronics applications bas...

  13. Quantitative Characterization of Multicomponent Polymers by Sample-Controlled Thermal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sa?nchez-jime?nez, P. E.; Pe?rez-maqueda, Luis A.; Crespo-amoro?s, J. E.; Lo?pez-marti?nez, J.; Perejo?n, Antonio; Criado Luque, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA) in order to perform compositional analysis of multicomponent polymeric materials by means of thermogravimetric experiments. In SCTA experiments, the response of the sample to the temperature determines the evolution of the temperature by means of a feedback system; thus, what is controlled is not the temperature-time profile, as in conventional analysis, but rather the evolution of the reaction rate with time. The ...

  14. Stochastic analysis of dynamical systems with delayed control forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrotta, A.; Zingales, M.

    2006-07-01

    Reduction of structural vibration in actively controlled dynamical system is usually performed by means of convenient control forces dependent of the dynamic response. In this paper the existent studies will be extended to dynamical systems subjected to non-normal delta-correlated random process with delayed control forces. Taylor series expansion of the control forces has been introduced and the statistics of the dynamical response have been obtained by means of the extended Itô differential rule. Numerical application provided shows the capabilities of the proposed method to analyze stochastic dynamic systems with delayed actions under delta-correlated process contrasting statistics of response with estimates from Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation.

  15. Reliability analysis of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NUREG-CR/6942 technical report proposed a Markov state transition model for the main feedwater valve (MFV) controller system as part of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Digital Feedwater Control System (DFWCS). The proposed model extends the Markov model to allow the use of non-exponential distribution in the time to next output of the controller system responsible for maintaining the water level. This case study demonstrates the general application of semi-Markov process model for digital instrumentation and control systems. System failure probability and mission reliability measures are determined. (author)

  16. Reliability analysis of digital instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramany, A.; Pandey, M.D., E-mail: aveerama@uwaterloo.ca [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The NUREG-CR/6942 technical report proposed a Markov state transition model for the main feedwater valve (MFV) controller system as part of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Digital Feedwater Control System (DFWCS). The proposed model extends the Markov model to allow the use of non-exponential distribution in the time to next output of the controller system responsible for maintaining the water level. This case study demonstrates the general application of semi-Markov process model for digital instrumentation and control systems. System failure probability and mission reliability measures are determined. (author)

  17. Design and Analysis of Controllers for an Double Inverted Pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Jesper Kildegaard

    2005-01-01

    A physical control problem is studied with the H_inf and the SSV methodology. The issues of modelling, uncertainty modelling, performance specification, controller design and laboratory implementation are discussed. The laboratory experiment is a double inverted pendulum placed on a cart. The limitations in the system with respect to performance are the limitation in the control signal and the limitation of the movement of the cart. It is shown how these performance limitations will effect the design of H_inf and SSV controllers for the system.

  18. Seismic analysis of hydraulic control rod driving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified mathematical model was developed for the Hydraulic Control Rod Driving System (HCRDS) of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor, which incorporated the design of its chamfer-hole step cylinder, to analyze its seismic response characteristics. The control rod motion was analyzed for different sine-wave vibration loadings on platform vibrator. The vibration frequency domain and the minimum acceleration amplitude of the control rod needed to cause the control rod to step to its next setting were compared with the design acceleration amplitude spectrum. The system design was found to be safety within the calculated limits. The safety margin increased with increasing frequency. (author)

  19. El control de convencionalidad: análisis en derecho comparado / The control of conventionality: analysis in comparative law

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo, Aguilar Cavallo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el caso Almonacid (2006), por primera vez, la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos enunció la doctrina del control de convencionalidad. El control de convencionalidad ha generado un gran debate académico, especialmente en la doctrina constitucional latinoamericana. Una pregunta que surge en e [...] ste escenario es cuál es la relación entre el control de constitucionalidad y el control de convencionalidad. El derecho comparado nos permitirá aportar argumentos y criterios para abordar esta cuestión. Abstract in english In the Almonacid case (2006), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights enounced for the first time the doctrine of the control of conventionality. The control of conventionality has propelled a significant academic debate, especially between Latin-American constitutional scholars. One question that [...] arises in this scenario is about the relationship between the control of constitutionality and the control of conventionality. The comparative law brings arguments and criteria to address this question.

  20. Performance Analysis of Indirect Vector Control of Induction Motor Drive Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The induction motors were characterized by complex, highly non-linear and time-varying dynamics, and hence their promptness control is a stimulating problem in the engineering applications especially in high performance drive system. The fuzzy logic controller is found to be a very useful technique to obtain a high performance speed control. The present approach avoids the use of flux and speed sensor which increase the installation cost and mechanical robustness. The indirect vector controlled induction motor drives involve decoupling of the stator current in to torque and flux producing components. The comparative performance of Fuzzy Logic control technique has been presented and analyzed in this work. This paper based on the speed control of induction motor (IM using Fuzzy controller with the use of indirect vector control technique using MATLAB.

  1. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Nang Lee; Tsung-Min Lin; Chien-Chih Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for con...

  2. On the economics of controlling an invasive plant: a stochastic analysis of a biological control agent

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, S. M.; Ruijs, A. J. W.; Ierland, E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive plants can cause significant problems in natural and agricultural ecosystems. It is recognised that biological agents may assist in controlling invasions, but due to stochastic effects of biological control, the biological agent may not be effective. In this article, we analyse to what extent the stochastic effects of a biological control agent affect the optimal choice of control strategies to deal with the invasion of the Californian thistle in New Zealand. A stochastic dynamic opt...

  3. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  4. Analysis of Operational and Management Cybersecurity Controls for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. NRC developed this RG 5.71 by tailoring the baseline security controls described in NIST Special Publication 800-53 'Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations' to provide an acceptable method to comply with the 10 CFR 73.54. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidelines for selecting and specifying security controls for information systems. In this paper, we are going to analyze and compare the NRC RG 5.71 and the NIST SP800-53, in particular, for operational security controls and management security controls. If RG 5.71 omits the specific security control that is included in SP800-53, we would review that omitting is adequate or not. If RG 5.71 includes the specific security control that is not included in SP800-53, we would also review the rationale. And we are going to consider some security controls to strengthen cybersecurity of nuclear facilities

  5. Numerical analysis of distributed optimal control problems governed by elliptic variational inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Olgui?n, Mariela; Tarzia, Domingo A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous optimal control problem governed by an elliptic variational inequality was considered in Boukrouche-Tarzia, Comput. Optim. Appl., 53 (2012), 375-392 where the control variable is the internal energy $g$. It was proved the existence and uniqueness of the optimal control and its associated state system. The objective of this work is to make the numerical analysis of the above optimal control problem, through the finite element method with Lagrange's triangles of t...

  6. Jitterbug and TrueTime: Analysis Tools for Real-Time Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cervin, Anton; Henriksson, Dan; Lincoln, Bo; Årzén, Karl-Erik

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents two recently developed, Matlab-based analysis tools for realtime control systems. The first tool, called Jitterbug, is used to compute a performance criterion for a control loop under various timing conditions. The tool makes it easy to quickly judge how sensitive a controller is to implementation effects such as slow sampling, delays, jitter, etc. The second tool, called TrueTime, allows detailed co-simulation of process dynamics, control task execution, and network commun...

  7. Analysis of reactor power distribution harmonic control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algorithm of the harmonic (modal) regulation of the reactor power distribution is studied. Clualytical criteria and quantitative estimates of steadiness, efficiency and noise stability of different control system structures are derived. It is ascertained, that as in the case of control system synthesis in the time range for the sake of noise stability increase it is desirable to filter time spectrum high-frequency harmonics, so in the case of field space control synthesis it is necessary to filter smeci spectrum highest harmonics which represent ''space noise''. For this purpose it is advisable to use as a filter harmonic control systems, providinga possibility to secure needed filtration characteristics ofspace harmonics selectively for each of them. The realization of the space/time filter idea in the reactor control systems on the fasis of harmonic regulation principle withthe use of an excessive number of regulating instruments and seusors relatively to the number of regulatedharmonics providessome new possibilities and allows to increase regulation efficiency

  8. Analysis of instantaneous feedback control system for SPWM inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Sheng; Yan, Yang-Guang

    1993-02-01

    This paper deals with the closed-loop control method for an SPWM inverter used in a dc-link VSCF electrical power system. An instantaneous feedback control system is proposed, in which an ac current inner loop and an ac voltage outer loop are involved. For a 1 kVA single phase SPWM inverter, the closed-loop control system is designed and analyzed. The result of the experiments shows that the SPWM inverter with instantaneous feedback control has good static and dynamic electrical performance, with little distortion in the output waveform and the output voltage variation due to the variable dc voltage being effectively suppressed. It is suitable to use this closed-loop control method in a system equipped by a permanent magnet generator.

  9. Analysis and Control of a New Chaotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xue-bing

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three-dimensional autonomous chaotic system is presented. There are three control parameters and three different nonlinear terms in the governed equations. Through the calculation we obtain five equilibrium points. Then fix parameters, we obtain three real equilibrium points,According to the eigenvalues of Jacobian matrix,we know that s1 is a saddle point and s2 ?s3 are saddle-focus points. Then Lyapunov exponents, Lyapunov dimension, Bifurcation diagram and Poincare map are shown through matlab software. And then three different methods, the dislocated feedback control method, the enhancing feedback control method and the speed feedback control method, are used to control the new chaotic system. On the basis of the Routh-Hurwitz theorem , the conditions of stabilization are discussed, and they are also proved theoretically. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the three different methods.

  10. Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

    2011-08-01

    The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work summarized in this report, namely the development of guidance to support the consideration of MC&A in the design of both pebble-bed and prismatic-fueled HTGRs. The objective is to identify and incorporate design features into the facility design that will cost effectively aid in making MC&A more effective and efficient, with minimum impact on operations. The theft of nuclear material is addressed through both MC&A and physical protection, while the threat of sabotage is addressed principally through physical protection.

  11. Research for quality control in the SEM/SIMS analysis of uranium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the quality-control methods applied to the analysis of uranium-containing particles by SIMS in IAEA nuclear safeguards analytical laboratory and combined with the practical conditions of laboratory, the quality-control methods for the SEM/SIMS analysis have been explored primarily. It is showed that cross-contamination is essential in the SEM/SIMS analysis. Fume hood is the critical area of the introduction of cross-contamination during the process of sample preparation and handling. The chamber of SEM is the key area of the introduction of cross-contamination in the process of analysis. The list of contamination and the corresponding measures have been established. In the research of quality-control samples, the room blanks, process blank, standard samples and blind samples were analyzed. The initial quality-control methods for the SEM/SIMS analysis have been built up. It is demonstrated that the study of quality control is effective through the analysis of swipe samples. An important progress has been made in contamination control and analysis control, which provides the support for the establishment of a sound quality-assurance system in our laboratory. (authors)

  12. Nuclear power plant control room task analysis. Pilot study for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this nuclear plant task analysis pilot study: to demonstrate the use of task analysis techniques on selected abnormal or emergency operation events in a nuclear power plant; to evaluate the use of simulator data obtained from an automated Performance Measurement System to supplement and validate data obtained by traditional task analysis methods; and to demonstrate sample applications of task analysis data to address questions pertinent to nuclear power plant operational safety: control room layout, staffing and training requirements, operating procedures, interpersonal communications, and job performance aids. Five data sources were investigated to provide information for a task analysis. These sources were (1) written operating procedures (event-based); (2) interviews with subject matter experts (the control room operators); (3) videotapes of the control room operators (senior reactor operators and reactor operators) while responding to each event in a simulator; (4) walk-/talk-throughs conducted by control room operators for each event; and (5) simulator data from the PMS

  13. Control-flow analysis of function calls and returns by abstract interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack, effectively approximating where function calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is systematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Flanagan et al. using a series of Galois connections. Abstract interpretation provides a unifying setting in which we 1) prove the analysis equivalent to the composition of a continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation followed by an abstract interpretation of a stack-less CPS machine, and 2) extract an equivalent constraint-based formulation, thereby providing a rational reconstruction of a constraint-based control-flow analysis from abstract interpretation principles.

  14. Analysis of Information Quality in event triggered Smart Grid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Olsen, Rasmus LØvenstein

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into the power grid requires added control intelligence which imposes new communication requirements onto the future power grid. Since large scale implementation of new communication infrastructure is infeasible, we consider methods of increasing dependability of existing networks. We develop models for network delays and information dynamics, and uses these to model information quality for three given information access schemes in an event triggered control scenario. We analyse the impact of model parameters, and show how optimal choice of information access scheme depends on network conditions as well as trade-offs between information quality, network resources and control reactivity.

  15. Control, stability analysis and grid integration of wind turbines.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen

    2008-01-01

    In Chapters 2 and 3 of the thesis we propose a self-scheduled control method for a doubly-fed induction generator driven by a wind turbine (DFIGWT), whose rotor is connected to the power grid via two back-to-back PWM power converters. We design a controller for this system using the linear matrix inequality based approach to linear parameter varying (LPV) systems, which takes into account the nonlinear dynamics of the system. We propose a two-loop hierarchical control structure. The inner-loo...

  16. Instrumentation of Java program code for control flow analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lösch, Felix

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we describe an approach and introduce a new tool, called JDeTEx, to extract decision tables from Java programs in order to give the maintenance engineer a better understanding of the control flow of the program. Decision tables are a compact, yet precise way to model the control flow of computer programs. In order to extract the decision tables the explicit and implicit control flow of Java programs needs to be analyzed by the tool. Firstly, the tool uses static byte code analy...

  17. Automatic analysis of signals during Eddy currents controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and the corresponding instrument have been developed for automatic analysis of Eddy currents testing signals. This apparatus enables at the same time the analysis, every 2 milliseconds, of two signals at two different frequencies. It can be used either on line with an Eddy Current testing instrument or with a magnetic tape recorder

  18. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  19. Multidimensional effects in optimal control analysis for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physically realistic step function control rod models are shown to be unsolvable under traditional formulations of distributed parameter optimal control theory. Extensions to the theory are proposed and derived to allow these systems to be analyzed using straightforward optimality conditions. The extended theory is then applied to a xenon-iodine oscillation problem in two dimensions. The conditions of optimality are found, and analytical insights concerning the importance of the control rod tip for the optimality condition are obtained. The flux influence function is found by solving an eigenvalue problem, and the required normalization condition is found in one of the optimality conditions. The optimality and normalization conditions are solved numerically for a severe xenon transient, and the transient is stabilized by the intervention of the optimal control

  20. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech.

  1. Analysis of patient exposure dose for quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure that screening mammography in asymptomatic women remains a safe and effective examination, periodic quality control for mammography equipment and determinations of patient exposure dose in different areas of the country should be performed. We analyzed patient exposure dose on the basis of when the mammography equipment had been installed, whether quality control was performed, and the area of the country. Doses varied with when the mammography equipment had been installed. Doses when quality control was performed were smaller than when it was not. Doses in the Tohoku and Kyushu areas were significantly lower than the average dose nationwide. Our results show the importance of quality control in decreasing patient exposure dose in mammography. (author)

  2. System level analysis and control of manufacturing process variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Michael S.; Martz, Harry F.; Eleswarpu, Jay K.; Preissler, Michael J.

    2005-05-31

    A computer-implemented method is implemented for determining the variability of a manufacturing system having a plurality of subsystems. Each subsystem of the plurality of subsystems is characterized by signal factors, noise factors, control factors, and an output response, all having mean and variance values. Response models are then fitted to each subsystem to determine unknown coefficients for use in the response models that characterize the relationship between the signal factors, noise factors, control factors, and the corresponding output response having mean and variance values that are related to the signal factors, noise factors, and control factors. The response models for each subsystem are coupled to model the output of the manufacturing system as a whole. The coefficients of the fitted response models are randomly varied to propagate variances through the plurality of subsystems and values of signal factors and control factors are found to optimize the output of the manufacturing system to meet a specified criterion.

  3. Game Analysis of Internal Control and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhong Pang; Qing Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on examining links and differences between internal control and risk management from their definition,this paper mainly analyzes their relation with game theory. A complete information static game model isestablished and payoff functions for managers and investors are designed. The result shows that the decrease ofbusiness risk cannot be realized by severe penalties, instead, the frequency of internal control in risk monitoringmust be taken into consideration, and otherwise it will stim...

  4. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Attitude Determination and Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Waarum, Ivar-Kristian

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the modelling and performance of an attitude determination and control system (ADCS) for a small satellite in lunar orbit. The focus is on stability analyses of each of the components in the system, and of the system as a whole. In connection to this, the separation principle for nonlinear systems is investigated. Central background information is presented, covering necessary rigid body dynamics and stability properties. Three different controller types are analy...

  5. Optimal discrimination of multiple quantum systems: controllability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the ability to dynamically discriminate between members of a set of different (but possibly similar) quantum systems. This discrimination is analysed in terms of independently and simultaneously steering about the wavefunction of each component system to a target state of interest using a tailored control (i.e. laser) field. Controllability criteria are revealed and their applicability is demonstrated in simple cases. Discussion is also presented in some uncontrollable cases

  6. Extracting Chaos Control Parameters from Time Series Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R B B [Centro Universitario da FEI, Avenida Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco 3972, 09850-901, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Graves, J C, E-mail: rsantos@fei.edu.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    We present a simple method to analyze time series, and estimate the parameters needed to control chaos in dynamical systems. Application of the method to a system described by the logistic map is also shown. Analyzing only two 100-point time series, we achieved results within 2% of the analytical ones. With these estimates, we show that OGY control method successfully stabilized a period-1 unstable periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor.

  7. Analysis of optimal control models for the human locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Chitour, Yacine; Chittaro, Francesca; Jean, Fre?de?ric; Mason, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In recent papers it has been suggested that human locomotion may be modeled as an inverse optimal control problem. In this paradigm, the trajectories are assumed to be solutions of an optimal control problem that has to be determined. We discuss the modeling of both the dynamical system and the cost to be minimized, and we analyse the corresponding optimal synthesis. The main results describe the asymptotic behavior of the optimal trajectories as the target point goes to infinity.

  8. Cultural Meaning of Perceived Control: A Meta-Analysis of Locus of Control and Psychological Symptoms across 18 Cultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Shu-fai; Chio, Jasmine Hin-man; Chan, Man-pui Sally

    2013-01-01

    Integrating more than 40 years of studies on locus of control (LOC), this meta-analysis investigated whether (a) the magnitude of the relationship between LOC and psychological symptoms differed among cultures with distinct individualist orientations and (b) depression and anxiety symptoms yielded different patterns of cultural findings with LOC.…

  9. Control analysis as a tool to understand the formation of the las operon in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KØbmann, Brian Jensen; Solem, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In Lactococcus lactis the enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are uniquely encoded in the las operon and we here apply Metabolic Control Analysis to study the role of this organisation. Earlier work showed that LDH at wildtype level has zero control on glycolysis and growth rate but high negative control on formate production. We find that PFK and PK have zero control on glycolysis and growth rate at the wildtype enzyme level but both enzymes exert strong positive control on the glycolytic flux at reduced activities. PK has high positive control on formate and acetate production, whereas PFK has no control on these fluxes. Decreased expression of the entire las operon resulted in a strong decrease in growth rate and the glycolytic flux; at 53% expression of the las operon the glycolytic flux was reduced to 44% and the flux control coefficient increased towards 3. Increased las expression resulted in a slight decrease in the glycolytic flux. At the wildtype level the control was close to zero on both glycolysis and the pyruvate branches. The sum of control coefficients for the three enzymes individually was comparable to the control coefficient found for the entire operon; the strong positive control by PK almost cancels out the negative control by LDH on formate production. The analysis suggests that co-regulation of PFK and PK provides a very efficient way to regulate glycolysis, and co-regulating PK and LDH allows the cells to maintain homolactic fermentation during regulation of glycolysis.

  10. Performance analysis of automatic generation control of interconnected power systems with delayed mode operation of area control error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardan Nanda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents automatic generation control (AGC of interconnected power systems comprising of two thermal and one hydro area having integral controllers. Emphasis is given to a delay in the area control error for the actuation of the supplementary controller and to examine its impact on the dynamic response against no delay which is usually the practice. Analysis is based on 50% loading condition in all the areas. The system performance is examined considering 1% step load perturbation. Results reveal that delayed mode operation provides a better system dynamic performance compared with that obtained without delay and has several distinct merits for the governor. The delay is linked with reduction in wear and tear of the secondary controller and hence increases the life of the governor. The controller gains are optimised by particle swarm optimisation. The performance of delayed mode operation of AGC at other loading conditions is also analysed. An attempt has also been made to find the impact of weights for different components in a cost function used to optimise the controller gains. A modified cost function having different weights for different components when used for controller gain optimisation improves the system performance.

  11. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calccharacteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  12. Metodologias de controle de qualidade de análises granulométricas do solo / Methodologies for quality control of soil particle size analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilson Antonio, Klein; Tiago, Madalosso; José Miguel, Reichert; Luis Eduardo Akiyoshi Sanches, Suzuki; Milton da, Veiga; Jackson Adriano, Albuquerque; Eloy Antonio, Pauletto.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da análise granulométrica é imprescindível para a adequada classificação textural dos solos e enquadramento no Zoneamento Agroclimático. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar metodologias de controle de qualidade das análises granulométricas. Foram coletadas amostras de solos com diferen [...] tes texturas, as quais foram analisadas por cinco laboratórios. O controle da qualidade foi realizado utilizando duas metodologias, uma proposta pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC) e a outra pela Rede Oficial de Laboratórios de Análise de Solo e de Tecido Vegetal dos Estados do RS e SC (ROLAS). Verificou-se maior número de inconformidades para as frações argila e silte, independentemente do método, sendo que o método da ROLAS apresentou maior número de inconformidades (76% das amostras), principalmente para amostras com teores mais elevados dessas frações. A metodologia da ROLAS com utilização da mediana é mais rigorosa no controle da qualidade das análises. Abstract in english The quality of particle size analysis is essential for correct soil textural classification and defining the Brazilian Agroclimatic Zoning. The objectives were to evaluate methods of particle size analysis and develop a spreadsheet for use in quality control analyzes. We collected 50 soil samples wi [...] th different particle size distribution, in RS and SC states of Brazil, which were analyzed by five laboratories in the two states that perform the soil particle size analysis using two methods: one proposed by the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC) and the other by the Network of Soil and Plant Tissue Analysis Laboratories of the states of RS and SC (ROLAS). A greater number of disparities were observed for the clay and sand fractions regardless of the method. The ROLAS method had a higher number of mismatches (76% of samples), especially for samples with higher contents of those two fractions. The use of the median value in the ROLAS methodology is more rigorous in analysis quality control.

  13. Metodologias de controle de qualidade de análises granulométricas do solo Methodologies for quality control of soil particle size analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Antonio Klein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da análise granulométrica é imprescindível para a adequada classificação textural dos solos e enquadramento no Zoneamento Agroclimático. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar metodologias de controle de qualidade das análises granulométricas. Foram coletadas amostras de solos com diferentes texturas, as quais foram analisadas por cinco laboratórios. O controle da qualidade foi realizado utilizando duas metodologias, uma proposta pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC e a outra pela Rede Oficial de Laboratórios de Análise de Solo e de Tecido Vegetal dos Estados do RS e SC (ROLAS. Verificou-se maior número de inconformidades para as frações argila e silte, independentemente do método, sendo que o método da ROLAS apresentou maior número de inconformidades (76% das amostras, principalmente para amostras com teores mais elevados dessas frações. A metodologia da ROLAS com utilização da mediana é mais rigorosa no controle da qualidade das análises.The quality of particle size analysis is essential for correct soil textural classification and defining the Brazilian Agroclimatic Zoning. The objectives were to evaluate methods of particle size analysis and develop a spreadsheet for use in quality control analyzes. We collected 50 soil samples with different particle size distribution, in RS and SC states of Brazil, which were analyzed by five laboratories in the two states that perform the soil particle size analysis using two methods: one proposed by the Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC and the other by the Network of Soil and Plant Tissue Analysis Laboratories of the states of RS and SC (ROLAS. A greater number of disparities were observed for the clay and sand fractions regardless of the method. The ROLAS method had a higher number of mismatches (76% of samples, especially for samples with higher contents of those two fractions. The use of the median value in the ROLAS methodology is more rigorous in analysis quality control.

  14. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. PMID:25480794

  15. Analysis and control of excitation, field weakening and stability in direct torque controlled electrically excited synchronous motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrhoenen, O.

    1998-12-31

    Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque reference. This method is however parameter sensitive and requires a safety margin between the theoretical torque maximum and the actual torque limit. The DTC modulation principle allows however a direct load angle adjustment without any current control. In this work a direct load angle control method has been developed. The method keeps the drive stabile and allows the maximal utilisation of the drive without a safety margin in the torque limitation. (orig.) 39 refs.

  16. Spatial Analysis for Flood Control by Using Environmental Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Gharagozlou; Hassan Nazari; Mohammadjavad Seddighi

    2011-01-01

    To create the final spatial information and analysis, flood hazard maps and land development priority maps and information, data for the flood events to 2009 in north of Iran were incorporated with using Geo-spatial Information System data of physiographic divisions, geologic divisions, land cover classification, elevation, drainage network, administrative districts and population density and environmental parameters modeling. Special analysis also attention was paid to population density for...

  17. Fracture analysis for controlled blasting demolition of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward establishing a design method for controlled blasting demolition used for the designed dismantling of large reinforced concrete (RC) structures, this study is intended to prove the overall suitability and efficiency of this method. The previous paper (Controlled Blasting for Demolition of Biological Shield Concrete Wall: Part 2) described an application of controlled blasting demolition to an inner part of the radioactive RC biological shield in the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). Through this experience, it was confirmed that the partial demolition of the structure was carried out safely and rationally using this method. In order to clarify the characteristics of blasting effect, an RC cylinder blasting test was performed and the results of this test were compared with analytical simulation of this test using the discrete element method (DEM) and the finite element method (FEM). This paper outlines the test, the analyses and the comparison. (author)

  18. Uncontrolled rod cluster control assembly bank withdrawal transient analysis at full power for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncontrolled rod cluster control assembly bank withdrawal transient at full power is analysed. Using a transient analysis code TRAWA calculations of the transient for NPP Krsko were performed. (author)

  19. Software requirements specification for the program analysis and control system risk management module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAEFER, J.C.

    1999-06-02

    TWR Program Analysis and Control System Risk Module is used to facilitate specific data processes surrounding the Risk Management program of the Tank Waste Retrieval environment. This document contains the Risk Management system requirements of the database system.

  20. Bifurcation Tools for Flight Dynamics Analysis and Control System Design Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the project is the development of a computational package for bifurcation analysis and advanced flight control of aircraft. The development of...

  1. Software requirements specification for the program analysis and control system risk management module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TWR Program Analysis and Control System Risk Module is used to facilitate specific data processes surrounding the Risk Management program of the Tank Waste Retrieval environment. This document contains the Risk Management system requirements of the database system

  2. [Application of multivariate statistical analysis and thinking in quality control of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Li, Jun; Li, Bao-Guo

    2014-11-01

    The study of quality control of Chinese medicine has always been the hot and the difficulty spot of the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is also one of the key problems restricting the modernization and internationalization of Chinese medicine. Multivariate statistical analysis is an analytical method which is suitable for the analysis of characteristics of TCM. It has been used widely in the study of quality control of TCM. Multivariate Statistical analysis was used for multivariate indicators and variables that appeared in the study of quality control and had certain correlation between each other, to find out the hidden law or the relationship between the data can be found,.which could apply to serve the decision-making and realize the effective quality evaluation of TCM. In this paper, the application of multivariate statistical analysis in the quality control of Chinese medicine was summarized, which could provided the basis for its further study. PMID:25775806

  3. Fuzzy control systems with time-delay and stochastic perturbation analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ligang; Shi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on fuzzy control systems. It presents solutions to a series of problems with new approaches for the analysis and synthesis of fuzzy time-delay systems and fuzzy stochastic systems, including stability analysis and stabilization, dynamic output feedback control, robust filter design, and model approximation. A set of newly developed techniques such as fuzzy Lyapunov function approach, delay-partitioning, reciprocally convex, cone complementary linearization approach are presented. Fuzzy Control Systems with Time-Delay and Stochastic Perturbation: Analysis and Synthesis is a comprehensive reference for researcher and practitioners working in control engineering, system sciences and applied mathematics, and is also a useful source of information for senior undergraduates and graduates in these areas. The readers will benefit from some new concepts, new models and new methodologies with practical significance in control engineering and si...

  4. Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems With Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tempo, Roberto; Dabbene, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The presence of uncertainty in a system description has always been a critical issue in control. The main objective of Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems, with Applications (Second Edition) is to introduce the reader to the fundamentals of probabilistic methods in the analysis and design of systems subject to deterministic and stochastic uncertainty. The approach propounded by this text guarantees a reduction in the computational complexity of classical  control algorithms and in the conservativeness of standard robust control techniques. The second edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect recent research and new applications with chapters on statistical learning theory, sequential methods for control and the scenario approach being completely rewritten.   Features: ·         self-contained treatment explaining Monte Carlo and Las Vegas randomized algorithms from their genesis in the principles of probability theory to their use for system analysis; ·    ...

  5. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-06-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos` Mechanical & Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  6. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos' Mechanical Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  7. Stability Analysis of DC-link Voltage Control on Autonomous Micro Hydro Power Plant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Yusivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro Hydro Power Plant has become one of the interesting topics to be researched nowadays. This paper deals with the stability analysis on control system of excitation voltage in Micro Hydro Power Plant. The control of this voltage can be achieved by controlling the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM with particular algorithm so the voltage on the DC-link part of the system can be controlled. Without knowing the exact specification of system parameters, the system will be most likely unstable. The DC-link control system is modeled, simulated, and mathematically analyzed so the parameter specification for the stable system can be obtained.

  8. Control and Analysis of Costs Based On Results Account of the ABC method

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel Capusneanu; Sorin Briciu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a modality of control and cost analysis based on the results account of Activity-Based Costing method. The results account model and situations for determining deviations are presented based on the purpose, composition and classification in the existing literature. There are presented the statements for determining costs deviations resulting from their control and analysis in terms of pilot indicators, all highlighted by a case study application. The article ends with the ...

  9. Reliability analysis of the automatic control of the A-1 power plant coolant temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability analysis of the automatic control of the A-1 reactor coolant temperature is performed taking into account the effect of both the dependent failures and the routine maintenance of control system components. In a separate supplement, reliability analysis is reported of coincidence systems of the A-1 power plant reactor. Both safe and unsafe failures are taken into consideration as well as the effect of maintenance of the respective branch elements

  10. Nutrient Analysis Critical Control Point (NACCP): Hazelnut as a Prototype of Nutrigenomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Di Renzo; Alberto Carraro; Daniela Minella; Roberto Botta; Cecilia Contessa; Chiara Sartor; Anna Maria Iacopino; Antonino De Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to apply the Nutrient Analysis Critical Control Point (NACCP) process to ensure that the highest nutrient levels in food can determine a beneficial effect on the health of the consumer. The NACCP process involves a sequence of analysis and controls that depart from raw material production to the evaluation of the effect of nutrition on health. It is articulated through the following points: 1) identification of nutrient level in the food; 2) identi...

  11. Electromagnetic analysis of locking device for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical electromagnetic analysis was performed for the control rod locking device which is installed in the control element drive mechanism of integral reactor, SMART. A plunger model for the electromagnetic analysis of the locking device was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to plunger pushing force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the plunger pushing force with finite element method

  12. Schedule Control of Coal Mine Construction Projects Based on Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Fan; Hui Zhang; Xiao Li

    2013-01-01

    Schedule management is the crucial capability for large-scale coal mining investors to successful finish the construction project, which could get by the accumulation of the long-time institutional executive force and ability training. By using factor analysis and validation analysis, extracted control factors of schedule management from data have been made in large coal mine construction companies. Some control factors have a greater influence on the schedule management which are the system ...

  13. Modelling and Analysis of Tiltrotor Aircraft for Flight Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As known that flight control design and real-time simulation is very important in the aircraft system, in order to realize linear/nonlinear flight control design and real-time simulation, this study presents the full nonlinear flight dynamic model of tiltrotor aircraft. Primary dynamic equations of the model are developed considering nacelles tilting dynamics. The force and the moment in primary equations are decomposed and calculated by multi-body aerodynamic models, including the aerodynamic effect of rotor wake on the wing/elevator/rudder. Rotor dynamic model is developed based on the blade element theory and the gyroscopic moment caused by nacelles tilting is introduced into the blade flapping dynamics. By the linearization of full nonlinear equations of motion, a family of linear state-space models in the whole flight envelop is obtained. For the velocity control of the aircraft in hover or low speed, the nacelle angle is derived as a new control input. Because the number of unknown parameters is bigger than that of equations, two different algorithms are applied to trim the mathematical model. The results by these trimming methods are in conformity with each other and then the reference transition curve is determined. The results of trimming and linearization derivatives are identical with GTRS (Ground Test Reactor System, so the model is valid.

  14. REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.

  15. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  16. Analysis of operational control of nuclear power stations in yugoslavia surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anticipated activities on operational control of nuclear power stations in Yugoslavia surroundings were considered. Three groups of control activities (refuelling, maintenance, others) were analysed, and their time characteristics as like effects on unavailability of Level 1 of 'defence of depth' were espied. The results of analysis point at relation between unavailabilities of defence' levels of nuclear power stations 'Kozloduy' and 'Pacs'. (author)

  17. EEG neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Fond, Guillaume; Lopez, Régis; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We undertook a meta-analysis of published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) with semi-active control and sham-NF groups to determine whether Electroencephalogram-neurofeedback (EEG-NF) significantly improves the overall symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity dimensions for probably unblinded assessment (parent assessment) and probably blinded assessment (teacher assessment) in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  18. Effects of joint controller on analytical modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ming; Zhang, Yanheng; Chen, Gang; Sun, Hanxu

    2015-04-01

    Modal analysis is a fundamental and important task for modeling and control of the flexible manipulator. However, almost all of the traditional modal analysis methods view the flexible manipulator as a pure mechanical structure and neglect feedback action of joint controller. In order to study the effects of joint controller on the modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator, a closed-loop analytical modal analysis method is proposed. Firstly, two exact boundary constraints, namely servo feedback constraint and bending moment constraint, are derived to solve the vibration partial differential equation. It is found that the stiffness and damping gains of joint controller are both included in the boundary conditions, which lead to an unconventional secular term. Secondly, analytical algorithm based on Ritz approach is developed by using Laplace transform and complex modal approach to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes. And then, the numerical simulations are performed and the computational results show that joint controller has pronounced influence on the modal parameters: joint controller stiffness reduces the natural frequency, while joint controller damping makes the shape phase non-zero. Furthermore, the validity of the presented conclusion is confirmed through experimental studies. These findings are expected to improve the performance of dynamics simulation systems and model-based controllers.

  19. Theoretical Analysis of the Longitudinal Behavior of an Automatically Controlled Supersonic Interceptor During the Attack Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Ordway B., Jr.; Woodling, C. H.

    1959-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the longitudinal behavior of an automatically controlled supersonic interceptor during the attack phase against a nonmaneuvering target is presented. Control of the interceptor's flight path is obtained by use of a pitch rate command system. Topics lift, and pitching moment, effects of initial tracking errors, discussion of normal acceleration limited, limitations of control surface rate and deflection, and effects of neglecting forward velocity changes of interceptor during attack phase.

  20. Integrated control and structural analysis of DFIG wind turbines using a monolithic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiongzhong; D Ambrosio, Flavio; Defourny, Michel; Bruls, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Design of wind turbines requires the coupled analysis among the mechanical, control and aerodynamic subsystems. Different from previous research, which either uses a complicated mechanical model with a simple control system model, or vice versa, this paper studies the coupling of subsystems’ dynamics using a high-fidelity aeroelastic model of wind turbine and a detailed analytical model of control generating systems. A monolithic time integration approach is applied so that better numerical...

  1. Development of Control Program for Plant Growth Parameter Analysis in Lowland Tropical Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ishak, W. I.; Tan Ming Yin; Hudzari, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop control system for environment parameter in the lowland tropical greenhouse using Microcontroller. The plant growth analysis covered both inside and outside greenhouse was presented. The controller was used to monitor the temperature, relative humidity and Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) in the planting of chili. The study of VPD is to show air moisture conditions for plant production while taking into account different temperature levels. The controller...

  2. Statistical Considerations in the Analysis of Matched Case-Control Studies. With Applications in Nutritional Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Lisbeth

    2001-01-01

    The case-control study is one of the most frequently used study designs in analytical epidemiology. This thesis focuses on some methodological aspects in the analysis of the results from this kind of study. A population based case-control study was conducted in northern Norway and central Sweden in order to study the associations of several potential risk factors with thyroid cancer. Cases and controls were individually matched and the information on the factors under study was provided by me...

  3. Alternative Representation of Management Control Design: an empirical exploration and critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Rooney

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a critical analysis of three recently published theoretical frameworks developed to explain management control design within inter-organisational collaborations. The particular concern is that, despite a plethora of theoretical frameworks attempting to explain management control design choices, these frameworks have yet to be utilised in practice. The focus is on their respective ability to explain control change in response to coordination problems, recognisi...

  4. Modelling and Control of a Residential Wind/PV/Battery Hybrid Power System with Performance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Antonucci, V.; Ferraro, M.; Napoli, G.; Yasin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Time domain performance analysis results of a standalone hybrid system are presented based on commercial wind generator, photovoltaic generator and battery energy storage system. The hybrid system is designed and modelled using Matlab/Simulink/SimPowSys environment, a control strategy has been proposed to control the voltage DC bus and the energy flow between the different energy sources. The wind and photovoltaic generators are controlled locally to obtain the maximum power extraction, while...

  5. Defect Analysis in Power Mode Control Logic of Low-Power SRAMs

    OpenAIRE

    Zordan, Leonardo; Bosio, Alberto; Dilillo, Luigi; Girard, Patrick; Todri, Aida; Virazel, Arnaud; Badereddine, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Summary form only given. Low-power SRAMs embed power gating mechanisms for reducing static power consumption. Power gating is applied in SRAMs using power switches for controlling the supply voltage applied to the various memory blocks (array, decoders, I/O logic, etc.). This paper provides a detailed analysis based on electrical simulations to describe the impacts of resistive-open defects on the power mode control logic, which generates control signals of power switches.

  6. Effect of the A-site cation on methane oxidation of perovskite-type (La{sub 1-x}M{sub x})CoO{sub 3} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Hideki, E-mail: htaguchi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Science), Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Matsu-ura, Keiko [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Science), Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Takada, Masao; Hirota, Ken [Department of Molecular Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-Tanabe 610-0321 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Perovskite-type (La{sub 1-x}M{sub x})CoO{sub 3} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) synthesized at 700 Degree-Sign C in air using the polymerizable complex method had a rhombohedral perovskite-type structure in the range of x{<=}0.06. The oxygen content of the samples was 2.98-2.99, and the specific surface area was 3.5-8.3 m{sup 2}/g regardless of the M ion or x. The Rietveld method indicated that the Co-O distance was also constant regardless of the M ion or x, and that the Co-O-Co angle between two CoO{sub 6} octahedra increased with an increase in the ionic radius of the M ion. The temperature corresponding to the 50% conversion (T{sub 1/2}) of CH{sub 4} oxidation was almost constant for the samples with x=0.04, while the T{sub 1/2} of the samples with x=0.06 was linearly lowered with increases in the ionic radius of the M ion. - Graphical abstract: The conversion from CH{sub 4} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O on (La{sub 0.94}M{sub 0.06})CoO{sub 3} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (La{sub 1-x}M{sub x})CoO{sub 3} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) was synthesized using the polymerizable complex method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co-O distance was constant regardless of the M ion or x. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co-O-Co angle increased with an increase in the ionic radius of the M ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CH{sub 4} oxidation started above 300 Degree-Sign C and finished at 700 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalytic activity increased with increases in the ionic radius of the M ion.

  7. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the solid state full length rod control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Full Length Rod Control System (FLRCS) controls the power to the rod drive mechanisms for rod movement in response to signals received from the Reactor Control System or from signals generated through Reactor Operator action. Rod movement is used to control reactivity of the reactor during plant operation. The Full Length Rod Control System is designed to perform its reactivity control function in conjunction with the Reactor Control and Protection System, to maintain the reactor core within design safety limits. By the use of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the FLRCS will perform its reactivity control functions considering the loss of single active components. That is, sufficient fault limiting control circuits are provided which blocks control rod movement and/or indicates presence of a fault condition at the Control Board. Reactor operator action or automatic reactor trip will thus mitigate the consequences of potential failure of the FLRCS. The analysis also qualitatively demonstrates the reliability of the FLRCS to perform its intended function

  8. Lyapunov Stability Analysis for Control Systems with Controllers Based on Shepard Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Sanda; Bara, Alexandru; Nagy, Zoltan Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Interpolative-type control structures wereanalyzed and discussed a lot in the last decades, fromthe most known ones (as fuzzy and neural ones) to thenewest (purely interpolative control structures). Thestability issue for the class of complex non-linearsystems, were those kind of systems can be integrated,is a very challenging one. The solutions are usuallymade only for a small amount of applications and theyhave many limitative assumptions. In the paper will bepresented some methods and tech...

  9. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is the most committed type of regulation in living cells where transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of their target genes and TF expression is controlled by other TFs forming complex transcriptional regulatory networks that can be highly interconnected. Here we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network as a measure of the organization and interconnectivity of the network. We find that the number of driver nodes n(D) needed to control the whole network is 64% of the TFs in the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to only 17% for the yeast network, 4% for the mouse network and 8% for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles can be associated with potential unstable steady-states where even small changes in binding affinities can cause dramatic rearrangements of the state of the network.

  10. Exploratory multivariate analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Husson, Francois; Pages, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Full of real-world case studies and practical advice, Exploratory Multivariate Analysis by Example Using R focuses on four fundamental methods of multivariate exploratory data analysis that are most suitable for applications. It covers principal component analysis (PCA) when variables are quantitative, correspondence analysis (CA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) when variables are categorical, and hierarchical cluster analysis.The authors take a geometric point of view that provides a unified vision for exploring multivariate data tables. Within this framework, they present the prin

  11. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2014-01-01

    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  12. Comparative Analysis of the CERN Accelerator Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, C

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a future unique accelerator control structure for the LHC era, the convergence of the PS and SL systems was relaunched in 1997. The present study was triggered by a directive from the SL and PS Divisions to investigate and propose concrete actions. The two systems are compared in the areas of server architecture, networking capabilities including performance and flexibility, support for generic, re-configurable applications, and general purpose operator interfaces. Additional sub-systems covered by this report include the timing system software, error reporting, and the alarm sub-system. Areas where duplication of effort exists are noted, as are areas where each system could profit from the strengths of the other system. Additionally, areas are pointed out where features are missing from both systems as compared to other state- of-the-art accelerator control systems. A set of specific recommendations is proposed leading in the direction of future integration of these two systems. features ...

  13. GEOPLEX: Control and analysis of GSSA and VSS models

    OpenAIRE

    Batlle Arnau, Carles; Fossas Colet, Enric; Gaviria, César; Griñó Cubero, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Two studies about a full-bridge boost rectifier are reported in this deliverable. In the first one the converter is analysed in the frame of Variable Structure Systems and Sliding Mode. In the section 2 of the deliverable, the converter is analyzed in the frame of PCHS and controlled using IDA-PBC. The later includes experimental results. The results reported here for both approaches can be generalized to several plants. The particularization to the full-bridge boost rectifier is natural, ...

  14. Requirements Analysis of a Quad-Redundant Flight Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, John; Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven; Whalen, Mike

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we detail our effort to formalize and prove requirements for the Quad-redundant Flight Control System (QFCS) within NASA's Transport Class Model (TCM). We use a compositional approach with assume-guarantee contracts that correspond to the requirements for software components embedded in an AADL system architecture model. This approach is designed to exploit the verification effort and artifacts that are already part of typical software verification processes in...

  15. Pollution abatement and control expenditure in Romania: A multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Rault, Christophe; Sova, Robert; Sova, Anamaria

    2010-01-01

    The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe was associated with growing environmental awareness. This paper analyses the determinants of Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure (PACE) at plant level in the case of Romania using survey data and a Multilevel Regression Model (MRM). Our findings suggest that, although Romania has improved its environmental performance, formal and informal regulation are still only partially developed due to the difficulties of economic transition, a...

  16. Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Michael K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082. Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

  17. Simulation and Analysis of Control Strategies for DSTATCOM

    OpenAIRE

    Zaveri, Tejas; Bhalja, B.R; Zaveri, Naimish

    2010-01-01

    Reactive power and supply unbalance compensation in power distribution network is a key factor in improving quality at user end. Further, the control techniques applied to the DSTATCOM play major role in its performance. A Distribution STATic COMpensator (DSTATCOM) has been proposed for compensation of reactive power and unbalance caused by various loads in distribution system. An evaluation of three different methods has been made to derive reference currents for a DSTATCOM. These methods ar...

  18. Comparative analysis of controlling urbanization in Slovenia and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Parovel, Maja

    2011-01-01

    In the diploma thesis, the legal and institutional framework for monitoring urban growth is analyzed, where urbanization is examined primarily from a spatial perspective. Controlling the expansion of urban areas can be implemented in different ways: through planning acts, various regulations and permits, inspections, active local land policy, such as the purchase or exchange of land, land banks, design of local infrastructure, supervision and regulation of land (parcel) structu...

  19. Computational Analysis of Control Systems Using Dynamic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Wei; Xu, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Several concepts on the measure of observability, reachability, and robustness are defined and illustrated for both linear and nonlinear control systems. Defined by using computational dynamic optimization, these concepts are applicable to a wide spectrum of problems. Some questions addressed include the observability based on user-information, the determination of strong observability vs. weak observability, partial observability of complex systems, the computation of $L^2$...

  20. Risk analysis of SIP monitoring and control system user interface

    OpenAIRE

    Markevi?ius, V.; Navikas, D.; Jonynas, V.; Dubauskien?, N.

    2008-01-01

    There are analyzed properties of syringe infusion pumps (SIP) control system user interface that allows reducing patient risk during the infusion. Also there are analysed main reasons of SIP security problems for the patient. Patient risk variation evaluation method according to statistical SIP reliability and personel human mistake factor during the work is presented. Infusion for one patient using n single syringe infusion pumps reliability and infusion for one patient using SIPCS with n sy...

  1. Analysis of Control Strategies for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, C. R.; Natarajan, S. P.; Revathy, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of various Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) strategies for the three phase Diode Clamped Multi Level Inverter (DCMLI). The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of new modulation schemes with Variable Amplitude (VA) and various new schemes adopting the constant switching frequency and also variable switching frequency multicarrier control freedom degree combination concepts are developed and simulated for the chosen three phase DCMLI. The three phase D...

  2. Economic analysis and randomised controlled trials: an investment appraisal approach

    OpenAIRE

    Backhouse, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) play a fundamental role in the development and marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies. They are the primary means of evaluating the tolerability, safety and efficacy of a drug, and for providing information relevant for pricing and reimbursement decisions and clinical decision-making. RCTs require a substantial investment by pharmaceutical companies and the financial consequences of poorly or sub-optimally designed trials are potentially substanti...

  3. Measurement and analysis of heterogeneity for quality control of planners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of heterogeneity is important for absolute dose calculations to the entire field of radiation. Loss or increase of scattered radiation in the environment, not simulated correctly in the scheduler, may, in normal clinical practice to mfra-or over-dosages significant. Therefore, as stated in the National Protocol for quality control planning systems of radiation therapy in SEFM DOH6 test, we verify the accuracy of the calculation in various conditions of heterogeneity.

  4. How to control confounding effects by statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    A Confounder is a variable whose presence affects the variables being studied so that the results do not reflect the actual relationship. There are various ways to exclude or control confounding variables including Randomization, Restriction and Matching. But all these methods are applicable at the time of study design. When experimental designs are premature, impractical, or impossible, researchers must rely on statistical methods to adjust for potentially confounding effects. These Statisti...

  5. Universal Power Quality Controller Modeling and Inverters Loading Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gharedaghi, F.; Jamali, H.; Deysi, M.; Khalili, A.

    2011-01-01

    As much as nonlinear loads and power electronics devices are more applied in power distribution systems, the importance of power quality increases. This study proposes a Universal Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) with double-converter structure. The operation principle, the algorithm of compensation reference generation, and the control method are introduced. Computer simulation and many prototype experiments are carried out to verify the operation principle and investigate the compensation c...

  6. Analysis and Design of Embedded Controlled Parallel Resonant Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar, P.; Reddy, Sathi Rama

    2009-01-01

    Microcontroller based constant frequency controlled full bridge LC parallel resonant converter is presented in this paper for electrolyser application. An electrolyser is a part of renewable energy system which generates hydrogen from water electrolysis. The DC power required by the electrolyser system is supplied by the DC-DC converter. Owing to operation under constant frequency, the filter designs are simplified and utilization of magnetic components is improved. This converter has advanta...

  7. Analysis of Setups of the Control of Rail Microprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lukasik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article will have been introduced possibilities following from the application of the microprocessor technology in rail systems of the control of traffic will remain for example of modern signalling on railway crossings. Introduction to microcomputer and microprocessor systems of rail devices will permit to eliminate and to replace disused
    relay devices with them and raising safety on railway and increasing reliability of used devices.

  8. Performance Analysis of Concurrency Control Mechanisms for OLTP Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaspi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concurrency control (CC in distributed and multidimensional databases is becoming more important due to recent increase in high-volume data storage with increasing online transaction processing (OLTP requirements for medium and large organisations. This paper examines three concurrency control mechanisms commonly adopted and analyses their performance in distributed databases for OLTP operational systems of enterprises. The three CC mechanisms investigated are, two phase locking (2PL, wait depth limited (WDL and optimistic concurrency control. These CC mechanisms have been studied well in disk-based systems. However, with the recent advances of cost-effective main memory or in-memory storage that can support much higher transaction rates than disk-based systems, there is sufficient motivation to re-investigate the performance of such CC mechanisms in diverse processor configurations. This paper presents a comparison of their behaviour and performance in terms of throughput rates achieved with varying transaction size and contention. The outcome of this study has resulted in further research proposals for improving the performance of these CC mechanisms for OLTP databases.

  9. Performance analysis of gas purging operation in volume control tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Volume Control Tank (VCT) is designed to provide for control of hydrogen concentration in the coolant and the means for the removal of radioactive gases by purging the accumulated gases in the tank. NRC notified the licensees that the charging pump with the minimum bypass line could be damaged by the gas binding in the suction piping. It is caused by the evolution of hydrogen gas at the point where the local pressure is less than the saturated pressure. The purging operation results in the pressure reduction of the VCT. The computer code is developed to evaluate the capacities and set points of the pressure regulating valves which are installed on the gas control system of the VCT. In order to exclude the hydrogen evolution during the purging operation with the supply capacity of 20 SCFM, the set points of the regulating valves for nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas shall not be higher than 45 psig and 30 psig, respectively. The capacities shall be more than 25 SCFM for nitrogen gas and 55 SCFM for hydrogen gas to get the adjustable set point of 20 through 50 psig. To minimize the purging time and the wasted gas mass during the purging operation, the set point shall be reduced as low as possible within this set point range

  10. Uranium enrichment using gas centrifugation. An analysis focusing export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has performed a study on uranium enrichment by gas centrifugation. The theory and principles of gas centrifugation is described in this report and relevant equipment used in the process has been identified. Different aspects of operating a gas centrifuge facility - and its indicators - are also presented. The separation efficiency and the flow of material through a centrifuge are very small, and therefore, a large number of centrifuges in cascades is needed to produce a larger amount of enriched uranium within a reasonable time. Countries with nuclear weapons ambitions often show an interest in gas centrifuges to produce weapons grade uranium - if they have managed to acquire the technology - because of the efficiency of the process and since it is relatively easy to conceal. Most equipment used in gas centrifuge facilities is under export control to prevent clandestine uranium enrichment. The Nuclear Suppliers' Group has compiled lists of nuclear related equipment and components that are of importance to export control. The control lists have also been included in the EU legislation

  11. Data acquisition, control, and analysis for the Argonne Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AATF has been used to study wakefield acceleration and focusing in plasmas and rf structures. A PC-based system is described which incorporates the functions of beamline control and acquisition, storage, and preliminary analysis of video images from luminescent screen beam diagnostics. General features of the offline analysis of wakefield data are also discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs

  12. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise due to the conflicting objectives. The compromise can be mitigated by augmenting the fuel cell power system with an energy buffer such as a battery. We consider two different and popular ways of connecting the battery and the fuel cell to the load and we refer to them as electric architectures. Various controller gains are used to span the fuel cell operation from load-following to load-leveling, and hence, to determine adequate fuel cell-battery sizing (hybridization level) and the associated trends in the system efficiency.

  13. XRF in waste glass analysis and vitrification process control, Part 1: Sample preparation and measurement precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of several waste glasses has been carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in an attempt to develop a simple, rapid, and consistent procedure for specimen preparation. Glass disk specimens, suitable for XRF analysis, can be prepared by casting the melt directly into a preheated graphite mold followed by annealing for 30 minutes at 500 degrees C. With this technique specimens could be available for analysis within 45 minutes. Element x-ray intensities, measured from replicate specimens, were found to be highly reproducible, with relative standard deviations typically less than one percent. This XRF analysis is much more rapid and may afford greater accuracy than conventional wet chemical techniques in waste glass analysis. Furthermore, this XRF analysis may be used in vitrification process control by permitting on-site monitoring of glass composition. A product control strategy is discussed

  14. Advanced electric drives analysis, control, and modeling using MATLAB/Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Electric Drives utilizes a physics-based approach to explain the fundamental concepts of modern electric drive control and its operation under dynamic conditions. Gives readers a "physical" picture of electric machines and drives without resorting to mathematical transformations for easy visualization Confirms the physics-based analysis of electric drives mathematically Provides readers with an analysis of electric machines in a way that can be easily interfaced to common power electronic converters and controlled using any control scheme Makes the MATLAB/Simulink files used in exampl

  15. Schedule Control of Coal Mine Construction Projects Based on Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schedule management is the crucial capability for large-scale coal mining investors to successful finish the construction project, which could get by the accumulation of the long-time institutional executive force and ability training. By using factor analysis and validation analysis, extracted control factors of schedule management from data have been made in large coal mine construction companies. Some control factors have a greater influence on the schedule management which are the system factor, measures factor, economic controlling factor, behavioral factor, process factor, organization factor, thus the enterprise schedule management system should include the terms of the above factors.

  16. Analysis of Human Error Types and Performance Shaping Factors in the Next Generation Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main control room of nuclear power plants has been computerized and digitalized in new and modernized plants, as information and digital technologies make great progresses and become mature. Survey on human factors engineering issues in advanced MCRs: Model-based approach, Literature survey-based approach. Analysis of human error types and performance shaping factors is analysis of three human errors. The results of project can be used for task analysis, evaluation of human error probabilities, and analysis of performance shaping factors in the HRA analysis

  17. Technical aspects of quality management in gamma analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a Quality Management System is the best way to comply with international requirements concerning the achievement of confident and traceable analytical results. Some important points dealing with the technical aspects of quality management in gamma analysis of environmental samples are discussed. Results of our own analytical procedure validation are presented including the principal sources of variability that may be associated with basic stages of the gamma analysis of environmental samples, as well as the assumed significance of these sources in the overall uncertainty of the determined radionuclide activity during validation. Particularly, the identified significant sources, namely counting statistics and the detection efficiency for specific radionuclide are discussed and a significant attention was reserved for the validation of the photopeak area evaluation code: the MCA emulation and gamma ray spectrum analysis software SILENA EMCAPLUS (version 3.00.3, 1995). The outcome of the experimental validation of the uncertainty equation based on the verification of complete statistical control for real sample materials is given. Moreover, results of the application of standardized procedures to the analysis of ALMERA intercomparison samples, as well as outcome of the utilization of Certified Reference Materials for the quality control of measurements are presented. In fact, the implantation of simple technical principles reports reliable results ancal principles reports reliable results and allows to elevate the quality of the measurements at a cost relatively low according to the real possibilities of the small laboratories, even in developing countries

  18. Numerically Analysis of Corrosion Resistance and Control Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sanjay Kumar.k*1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt water Corrosion resistance with can potentially replace the Special marine Time applications. Corrosion is defined as the deterioration of a material, usually a metal, because of a reaction with its environment. If we expose iron or steel to air and water we can expect to see rust form in a short time, showing the familiar color of red-brown iron oxide. Depending on the environment the rust may develop in minutes. In this project corrosion resistance with salt water desalination process & analyzed for catholic production analysis various operating parameters to enhance the performance of the corrosion less analysis coating and without coating of the process experimentally and numerically by using comsol with Radiographic Testing process Best Corrosion resistance –salt Water treatment model optimum will be validated experimentally.

  19. Postural control analysis of diabetic individuals through baropodometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Jeanne Lourenço Nozabieli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to analyze the postural balance of neuropathic diabetic individuals through baropodometry, related to losses in the sensorimotor system. Twenty-eight healthy and 25 diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy were subjected to static evaluation (measurement of displacement of body center of pressure and dynamic (temporal analysis of the stance phase of gait cycle. The tactile sensitivity of the feet was assessed by Semmes Weinstein monofilaments and isometric muscle strength of ankle dynamometry. Analyses of multivariânvia (MANOVAs and variance (ANOVAs indicated lower performance in tactile sensitivity, muscle strength and dynamic balance, but showed no difference for static equilibrium of diabetic neuropathy. With this study by regression analysis, one can infer that the equilibrium differences in gait of neuropathic insensitivity may result from tactile and muscle strength.

  20. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinga, K. A.; Valenberg, H. J. F.; Hooijdonk, A. C. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw milk without quality defects was shown to always contain the same seven volatile components. It was also shown that treatments like heating and homogenization of raw milk may drastically change th...

  1. Analysis of a Second Order Iterative Learning Control Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Norrlo?f, Mikael

    2000-01-01

    In the report aspects on stability, performance, and robustness is discussed for general second order methods. The basis for the analysis is linear iterative systems which are also covered in the report. The behavior of second order ILC systems is discussed both from a transient as well as an asymptotic point of view. Two different design algorithms are proposed and analyzed theoretically. The two algorithms are then compared with a first order ILC design in an experiment on an industrial rob...

  2. Statistical inference in behavior analysis: Experimental control is better

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Statistical inference promises automatic, objective, reliable assessments of data, independent of the skills or biases of the investigator, whereas the single-subject methods favored by behavior analysts often are said to rely too much on the investigator's subjective impressions, particularly in the visual analysis of data. In fact, conventional statistical methods are difficult to apply correctly, even by experts, and the underlying logic of null-hypothesis testing has drawn criticism since...

  3. Analysis of the work of air traffic controllers of the approach control area (APP) of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C V; Guimarães, L B de M; Sant'Anna, A M O

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a study on the activities of the air traffic controllers of the Approach Control Area (APP) of Porto Alegre, Brazil, in different real scenarios. Based on interviews, questionnaires and the analysis of film of real scenes, the following were identified and analyzed: i) the perceptions of risk and complexity of the different air traffic scenes observed; ii) the cognitive factors (knowledge, strategy and attention dynamics) involved in the task and iii) the perception of the controller's workload. The results showed that the task complexity depends on the weather conditions, the number and type of aircraft in observation and that the controllers perceive the scenes in a similar way irrespective of their time in the profession and the type of control (radar or coordination). Attention is the cognitive factor with the greatest impact on the work and mental demand has the greatest impact on workload followed by time demand. The literature on the controllers work in Brazil is scarce and, therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the work in one APP in order to promote future changes in the very problematic Brazilian air traffic system. PMID:22316715

  4. Impedance Based Analysis and Design of Harmonic Resonant Controller for a Wide Range of Grid Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, JunBum; Wang, Xiongfei

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of grid impedance variation on harmonic resonant current controllers for gridconnected voltage source converters by means of impedance-based analysis. It reveals that the negative harmonic resistances tend to be derived from harmonic resonant controllers in the closed-loop output admittance of converter. Such negative resistances may interact with the grid impedance resulting in steady state error or unstable harmonic compensation. To deal with this problem, a design guideline for harmonic resonant controllers under a wide range of grid impedance is proposed, where the controller gain boundary region is derived based on the short circuit ratio. The nonlinear time domain simulations are presented to verify the theoretical analysis in the frequency domain, and the experimental results based on the analysis results are included.

  5. Radial basis function (RBF) neural network control for mechanical systems design, analysis and Matlab simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinkun

    2013-01-01

    Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network Control for Mechanical Systems is motivated by the need for systematic design approaches to stable adaptive control system design using neural network approximation-based techniques. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the concrete design methods and MATLAB simulation of stable adaptive RBF neural control strategies. In this book, a broad range of implementable neural network control design methods for mechanical systems are presented, such as robot manipulators, inverted pendulums, single link flexible joint robots, motors, etc. Advanced neural network controller design methods and their stability analysis are explored. The book provides readers with the fundamentals of neural network control system design.   This book is intended for the researchers in the fields of neural adaptive control, mechanical systems, Matlab simulation, engineering design, robotics and automation. Jinkun Liu is a professor at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronauti...

  6. Performance analysis of cryotron generator of relaxation oscillation of controlled frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of cryotron generator of relaxation oscillations (CGRO) with controlled frequency, the basic element of which is a cryotron with two controlling circuits is considred. Current in additional controlling circuit can be controlled by the frequency of such a CGRO without changing the supply current value. An expression for CGRO frequency, depending on cryoptron parameters, supply and control currents, is obtained on the basis of linear analysis where CGRO is considered as n-cascade linear amplifier, with feedback. Current effect on CGRO frequency in the main and additional controlling circuits is considered. A three cascade CGRO with controlled frequency built up on the basis of wire two-winding lead-tin cryotrons is studied experimentally during operation. Calculation values of the frequency are compared with experimental data

  7. Análisis de orina: estandarización y control de calidad / Urine analysis: standardization and quality control / Análise de urina: padronização e controle de qualidade

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Javier, Fernández; Sofía, Di Chiazza; Fernando Pedro, Veyretou; Liliana Mónica, González; , Romero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O exame de urina completa data dos tempos de Hipócrates. Atualmente é baseado no uso de tiras-teste e a visualização no microscópio, carecendo de uma padronização atualizada e controle de qualidade. No presente trabalho foi realizado um estudo comparativo entre observadores padronizando o processo e [...] elaborando uma solução de controle juntamente com uma coleção de fotografias do sedimento para ensino, treinamento e controle interno. 200 amostras de urinas de pacientes selecionados aleatoriamente foram avaliadas. Os parâmetros físico-químicos foram determinados em um equipamento Urisys 2400 (Roche). A análise microscópica foi realizada por dois operadores experientes. Foi realizada uma solução controle positiva dos parâmetros usuais de tiras-teste. Os resultados foram analisados através do teste Kappa, p Abstract in spanish El examen de orina completa data de los tiempos de Hipócrates. En la actualidad se basa en la utilización de tiras reactivas y la visualización al microscopio, careciendo de una estandarización actualizada y control de calidad. En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio comparativo entre observado [...] res, estandarizando el proceso y elaborando una solución control junto con una colección fotográfica del sedimento para enseñanza, entrenamiento y control interno. Se evaluaron 200 muestras de orinas de pacientes al azar. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos se determinaron en un equipo Urisys 2400 (Roche). El análisis microscópico fue realizado por dos operadores experimentados. Se preparó una solución control positiva de los parámetros usuales de tiras reactivas. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante el test Kappa, p Abstract in english Urine analysis is one of the most ancient tests. It dates back from Hyppocrates times. Nowadays it is based on the use of reactive dipsticks and visual examinations in the microscope, with no quality control or adjusted standardization. In the present work, a standardized procedure, a positive contr [...] ol solution for dipsticks and a photographic collection of urine sediment were performed for teaching, training and control of the laboratory staff. Urisys 2400 (ROCHE) was used to analyze 200 samples randomly. The microscopic analysis was made by two experienced operators. A positive control solution of usual parameters of reactive dipsticks was performed. Data analysis was fulfilled by Kappa test p

  8. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals (?): Quality Control and Chemical Analysis of Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1969 this laboratory had prepared 131 mc. of radiopharmaceuticals in total (Hippuran and other four kinds) and distributed to the major medical establishment. The quality and stability of these products were reviewed by means of radio paper partition chromatography and thin layer chromatography and results were compared to those of foreign products. Generally, the quality and stability of the product of this laboratory were better than those of the foreign product, even though the properties of the radiopharmaceutical were varied by the procedure of the preparation adopted. Various precautions for handling radiopharmaceuticals for clinical use were also described with a view of quality control and stability test there of.

  9. Robust stability analysis for uncertain sampled-data control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates robust stability (RS) of uncertain sampled-data (SD) control systems with generalized sampled-data hold functions (GSHF). A new sufficient condition for robust stability of such systems is developed. Unlike that of most of the previous works, it directly uses the data of tile continuous-time plant and therefore it is less conservative. The condition is expressed in terms of the spectral radius of a certain matrix and is shown to l)e a uni modal function of a free parameter. Thus standard one-dimensional optimization algorithm can be used to perform the proposed test

  10. FINANCIAL AUDIT OF FINANCIAL CONTROL VERSUS - AN OVERALL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROSAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our society, the audit is regarded as a branch of financial management conducted to confirm the accuracy of financial reporting in a company, but also to help the company's management, financial and the financial control is regarded as a perfect knowledge of things, a finding practical realities and their comparison. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the picture of the two concepts by presenting the differences and the similarities of them. The paper presents an evolution of the two terms in terms of Romanian organizations.

  11. Analysis of adaptive control schemes for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the research was to evaluate the efficiency of two methods of adaptive control for a nuclear reactor, the dynamics of which depend on power level. In the first an estimate of the system impulse response is found by cross-correlation identification, using pseudo-random binary noise sequences. In the second scheme pseudo-random noise perturbation sequences are applied directly to the adjustable parameters. Multivariable cross-correlation theory enables all the small-signal impulse responses of the parameter figure of merit paths to be estimated. Digital and hybrid computer simulations are used

  12. Analysis and Design of Embedded Controlled Parallel Resonant Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CHANDRASEKHAR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Microcontroller based constant frequency controlled full bridge LC parallel resonant converter is presented in this paper for electrolyser application. An electrolyser is a part of renewable energy system which generates hydrogen from water electrolysis. The DC power required by the electrolyser system is supplied by the DC-DC converter. Owing to operation under constant frequency, the filter designs are simplified and utilization of magnetic components is improved. This converter has advantages like high power density, low EMI and reduced switching stresses. DC-DC converter system is simulated using MATLAB, Simulink. Detailed simulation results are presented. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results.

  13. Analysis of flow instability in steam turbine control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the sponsorship of Electricite de France and the French steam turbine manufacturers, the Gas Turbine Laboratory of CETIM has started a research about the unsteady phenomena of flow in control valves of steam turbines. The existence of unsteady embossment in the valve cone at rise has been as certained, and a conventional computing procedure has been applied to locate the shock waves in the valve. These shock waves may suddenly arise at some valve lifts and give way to fluttering. Valve geometries attenuating instability of flow and increasing therefore the reliability of such equipment are proposed

  14. Energy Analysis of Pid Controlled Heat Pump Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan CEYLAN

    2009-01-01

    In this experimental study, a heat pump dryer was designed and manufactured, in which drying air temperature was controlled PID. Manufactured heat pump dryer was tested in drying kiwi, avocado and banana from among tropical fruits and energy and exergy analyses were made. Drying air temperature changed between 40 oC - 40.2 oC while drying the tropical fruits. Before the drying process in heat pump dryer, initial moisture contents were determined as 4.31 g water / g dry matter for kiwi, 1.51 g...

  15. Control Volume Analysis, Entropy Balance and the Entropy Production in Flow Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Niven, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    This chapter concerns "control volume analysis", the standard engineering tool for the analysis of flow systems, and its application to entropy balance calculations. Firstly, the principles of control volume analysis are enunciated and applied to flows of conserved quantities (e.g. mass, momentum, energy) through a control volume, giving integral (Reynolds transport theorem) and differential forms of the conservation equations. Several definitions of steady state are discussed. The concept of "entropy" is then established using Jaynes' maximum entropy method, both in general and in equilibrium thermodynamics. The thermodynamic entropy then gives the "entropy production" concept. Equations for the entropy production are then derived for simple, integral and infinitesimal flow systems. Some technical aspects are examined, including discrete and continuum representations of volume elements, the effect of radiation, and the analysis of systems subdivided into compartments. A Reynolds decomposition of the entropy ...

  16. Time series modeling for analysis and control advanced autopilot and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Kohei; Kitagawa, Genshiro

    2015-01-01

    This book presents multivariate time series methods for the analysis and optimal control of feedback systems. Although ships’ autopilot systems are considered through the entire book, the methods set forth in this book can be applied to many other complicated, large, or noisy feedback control systems for which it is difficult to derive a model of the entire system based on theory in that subject area. The basic models used in this method are the multivariate autoregressive model with exogenous variables (ARX) model and the radial bases function net-type coefficients ARX model. The noise contribution analysis can then be performed through the estimated autoregressive (AR) model and various types of autopilot systems can be designed through the state–space representation of the models. The marine autopilot systems addressed in this book include optimal controllers for course-keeping motion, rolling reduction controllers with rudder motion, engine governor controllers, noise adaptive autopilots, route-tracki...

  17. Analysis and control of complex dynamical systems robust bifurcation, dynamic attractors, and network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Imura, Jun-ichi; Ueta, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to report on theoretical breakthroughs on control of complex dynamical systems developed by collaborative researchers in the two fields of dynamical systems theory and control theory. As well, its basic point of view is of three kinds of complexity: bifurcation phenomena subject to model uncertainty, complex behavior including periodic/quasi-periodic orbits as well as chaotic orbits, and network complexity emerging from dynamical interactions between subsystems. Analysis and Control of Complex Dynamical Systems offers a valuable resource for mathematicians, physicists, and biophysicists, as well as for researchers in nonlinear science and control engineering, allowing them to develop a better fundamental understanding of the analysis and control synthesis of such complex systems.

  18. Factors Controlling Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetics: An Integrated Analysis and Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Hunter, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Intravenously injected nanoparticulate drug carriers provide a wide range of unique opportunities for site-specific targeting of therapeutic agents to many areas within the vasculature and beyond. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these carriers are controlled by a complex array of interrelated core and interfacial physicochemical and biological factors. Pertinent to realizing therapeutic goals, definitive maps that establish the interdependency of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface characteristics in relation to interfacial forces, biodistribution, controlled drug release, excretion, and adverse effects must be outlined. These concepts are critically evaluated and an integrated perspective is provided on the basis of the recent application of nanoscience approaches to nanocarrier design and engineering. The future of this exciting field is bright; some regulatory-approved products are already on the market and many are in late-phase clinical trials. With concomitant advances in extensive computational knowledge of the genomics and epigenomics of interindividual variations in drug responses, the boundaries toward development of personalized nanomedicines can be pushed further.

  19. Quality control of clinker products by SEM and XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and chemical properties of industrial Portland cement clinkers have been examined by SEM and XRF methods to establish the nature of the clinkers and how variations in the clinker characteristics can be used to control the clinker quality. The clinker nodules were found to show differences in the chemical composition and microstructure between the inner and outer parts of the clinker nodules. Microstructure studies of industrial Portland cement clinker have shown that the outer part of the nodules are enriched in silicate more than the inner part. There is better crystallization and larger alite crystal size in the outer part than in the inner part. The alite crystal size varied between 16.2 -46.12 ? m. The clinker chemical composition was found to affect the residual >45 ? m, where a higher belite content causes an increase in the residual >45 ? m in the the cement product and will cause a decrease in the concrete strength of the cement product. The aluminate and ferrite crystals and the microcracks within the alite crystal are clear in some clinker only. The quality of the raw material preparation, burning and cooling stages can be controlled using the microstructure of the clinker product

  20. Statistical analysis of quality control of automatic processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To strengthen the scientific management of automatic processor and promote QC, based on analyzing QC management chart for automatic processor by statistical method, evaluating and interpreting the data and trend of the chart. Method: Speed, contrast, minimum density of step wedge of film strip were measured everyday and recorded on the QC chart. Mean (x-bar), standard deviation (s) and range (R) were calculated. The data and the working trend were evaluated and interpreted for management decisions. Results: Using relative frequency distribution curve constructed by measured data, the authors can judge whether it is a symmetric bell-shaped curve or not. If not, it indicates a few extremes overstepping control limits possibly are pulling the curve to the left or right. If it is a normal distribution, standard deviation (s) is observed. When x-bar +- 2s lies in upper and lower control limits of relative performance indexes, it indicates the processor works in stable status in this period. Conclusion: Guided by statistical method, QC work becomes more scientific and quantified. The authors can deepen understanding and application of the trend chart, and improve the quality management to a new step

  1. Multiple factor analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Pagès, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factor analysis (MFA) enables users to analyze tables of individuals and variables in which the variables are structured into quantitative, qualitative, or mixed groups. Written by the co-developer of this methodology, Multiple Factor Analysis by Example Using R brings together the theoretical and methodological aspects of MFA. It also includes examples of applications and details of how to implement MFA using an R package (FactoMineR).The first two chapters cover the basic factorial analysis methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The

  2. Parameter identification for spatial xenon transient analysis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real-time, on-line control of xenon-induced spatial flux oscillations in a large PWR requires the use of fairly simple models of the process for minicomputer implementation. Model simplification requires that the analyst reduce the physical phenomena to mathematical terms with coarser approximations and greater inaccuracies. In order to make a model's behavior fit that of a reactor as closely as possible, the estimation of parameters in the model requires special care. Three parameters were chosen for identification: the diffusion coefficient, D; the power reactivity coefficient, ?sub(f); and the microscopic 135Xe cross section, ?sub(x). The method of maximum likelihood was used to obtain estimates of these parameters by comparing calculated results with the actual plant data. Numerical values of these parameters are presented. (author)

  3. Quality control in diagnostic radiology for fluoroscopy: an analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research through it's Medical Physics Group has been providing Quality Control (QC) services for medical x-ray apparatus used in diagnostic radiology to private clinics and hospitals since the year 1997. This paper analyzes performance standard of fluoroscopic x-ray apparatus in a period of year 2000 to 2002. MINT's experience in measuring performance and safety standard of fluoroscopic x-ray apparatus in the year 2000 and 2001 indicated that 70% of the irradiating apparatus tend to deliver unnecessary exposures to patients due to various causes however improve to 60% in the year 2002. Improper calibration and the usage of unoptimized fluoroscopic x-ray apparatus are identified as two major causes that lead to unoptimized medical exposures to patient. (Author)

  4. Analysis of technology states on nucleonic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Doo Soo; Ahn, Pi Us; Kim, Byong Ki [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Choon [Seoil College, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    The measurement principle of NCS is based on a theory of a radiation absorption, a radiation reflection, scattering, a secondary radiation measurement, a fluorescence radiation measurement, an interaction of neutron radiation, a selective interaction of gamma-ray. NCS consists of radiation source, detector, proper geometrical structure between radiation source and detector and protectable container, stage structure of electricity and electronic control unit, data processing unit. NCS is broadly using level, thickness and coating thickness, density, water and moisture content measurement, determining material composition, and major nuclide are Pm-147, Sr-90, Ni-63, Kr-85, Am-241, Co-60, Cs-137, Gd-153, H-3, Ra-226, Ir-192, Cd-109, Cs-134, I-125, Se-75, Tc-99, C-14. This report analyze a technology states of an industrial NCS using RI and radiation generator which those and propose proper development directions with recognition related to domestic industries and technical problems. (author). 28 refs., 43 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Flexible aircraft dynamic modeling for dynamic analysis and control synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    The linearization and simplification of a nonlinear, literal model for flexible aircraft is highlighted. Areas of model fidelity that are critical if the model is to be used for control system synthesis are developed and several simplification techniques that can deliver the necessary model fidelity are discussed. These techniques include both numerical and analytical approaches. An analytical approach, based on first-order sensitivity theory is shown to lead not only to excellent numerical results, but also to closed-form analytical expressions for key system dynamic properties such as the pole/zero factors of the vehicle transfer-function matrix. The analytical results are expressed in terms of vehicle mass properties, vibrational characteristics, and rigid-body and aeroelastic stability derivatives, thus leading to the underlying causes for critical dynamic characteristics.

  6. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control. PMID:16435690

  7. Universal Power Quality Controller Modeling and Inverters Loading Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gharedaghi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As much as nonlinear loads and power electronics devices are more applied in power distribution systems, the importance of power quality increases. This study proposes a Universal Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC with double-converter structure. The operation principle, the algorithm of compensation reference generation, and the control method are introduced. Computer simulation and many prototype experiments are carried out to verify the operation principle and investigate the compensation characteristics of UPQC for different power quality problems. It is verified that the UPQC can effectively compensate multiple different power quality interferences originated either from the load side or from the line side. The capacity of series and shunt inverters is calculated through loading calculations of these inverters applying phasor diagram to increase the design accuracy. The results of simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK software show that the system operates correctly.

  8. Analysis, testing, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aerospace Corporation has completed the development of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) sensor - an airborne multi-spectral infrared instrument that is designed to discriminate surface composition and to detect gas emissions from the environment. Sensor performance was demonstrated in a series of flights aboard a Twin Otter aircraft in December 2011 as a stepping stone to a future satellite sensor design. To meet sensor performance requirements the thermal control system was designed to operate the HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) at 50 K with a 1.79 W heat rejection load to a 44.7 K sink and the optical assembly at 100 K with a 7.5 W heat load to a 82.3 K sink. Two commercial off-theshelf (COTS) Sunpower Stirling cryocoolers were used to meet the instrument’s cooling requirements. A thermal model constructed in Thermal Desktop was used to run parametric studies that guided the mechanical design and sized the two cryocoolers. This paper discusses the development, validation, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system. Detailed energy balances and temperature predictions are presented for various test cases to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the thermal model. Model inputs included measured values of heat lift as a function of input power and cold tip temperature for the two cryocoolers. These measurements were also used to make predictions of the cool-down behavior from ambient conditions. Advanced heater software was developed to meet unique requirements for both sensor cool-down rate and stability at the set point temperatures

  9. Analysis of illegal peptide biopharmaceuticals frequently encountered by controlling agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, Celine; Janvier, Steven; Desmedt, Bart; Moens, Goedele; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in genomics, recombinant expression technologies and peptide synthesis have led to an increased development of protein and peptide therapeutics. Unfortunately this goes hand in hand with a growing market of counterfeit and illegal biopharmaceuticals, including substances that are still under pre-clinical and clinical development. These counterfeit and illegal protein and peptide substances could imply severe health threats as has been demonstrated by numerous case reports. The Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) and customs are striving, together with their global counterparts, to curtail the trafficking and distributions of these substances. At their request, suspected protein and peptide preparations are analysed in our Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). It stands to reason that a general screening method would be beneficiary in the battle against counterfeit and illegal peptide drugs. In this paper we present such general screening method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the identification of counterfeit and illegal injectable peptide preparations, extended with a subsequent quantification method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The screening method, taking only 30min, is able to selectively detect 25 different peptides and incorporates the proposed minimum of five identification points (IP) as has been recommended for sports drug testing applications. The group of peptides represent substances which have already been detected in illegal and counterfeit products seized by different European countries as well as some biopharmaceutical peptides which have not been confiscated yet by the controlling agencies, but are already being used according to the many internet users forums. Additionally, we also show that when applying the same LC gradient, it is also possible to quantify these peptides without the need for derivatization or the use of expensive labelled peptides. This quantification method was successfully validated for a representative subset of 10 different peptides by using the "total error" approach in accordance with the validation requirements of ISO-17025. PMID:26003685

  10. Preliminary Experimental Analysis of Soil Stabilizers for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major focus of Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental management mission at the Hanford site involves characterizing and remediating contaminated soil and groundwater; stabilizing contaminated soil; remediating disposal sites; decontaminating and decommissioning structures, and demolishing former plutonium production process buildings, nuclear reactors, and separation plants; maintaining inactive waste sites; transitioning facilities into the surveillance and maintenance program; and mitigating effects to biological and cultural resources from site development and environmental cleanup and restoration activities. For example, a total of 470,914 metric tons of contaminated soil from 100 Areas remediation activities were disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) during 2004. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) is supporting the Hanford's site remediation program by analyzing the effectiveness of several soil stabilizers (fixatives) for contamination control during excavation activities. The study is focusing on determining the effects of varying soil conditions, temperature, humidity and wind velocity on the effectiveness of the candidate stabilizers. The test matrix consists of a soil penetration-depth study, wind tunnel experiments for determination of threshold velocity, and temperature and moisture-controlled drying/curing experiments. These three set of experiments are designed to verify perfof experiments are designed to verify performance metrics, as well as provide insight into what fundamental forces are altered by the use of the stabilizer. This paper only presents the preliminary results obtained during wind tunnel experiments using dry Hanford soil samples (with 2.7% moisture by weight). These dry soil samples were exposed to varying wind speeds from 2.22 m/sec to 8.88 m/sec. Furthermore, airborne particulate data was collected for the dry Hanford soil experiments using an aerosol analyzer instrument. (authors)

  11. Analysis, testing, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sonny; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Kasper, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation has completed the development of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) sensor - an airborne multi-spectral infrared instrument that is designed to discriminate surface composition and to detect gas emissions from the environment. Sensor performance was demonstrated in a series of flights aboard a Twin Otter aircraft in December 2011 as a stepping stone to a future satellite sensor design. To meet sensor performance requirements the thermal control system was designed to operate the HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) at 50 K with a 1.79 W heat rejection load to a 44.7 K sink and the optical assembly at 100 K with a 7.5 W heat load to a 82.3 K sink. Two commercial off-theshelf (COTS) Sunpower Stirling cryocoolers were used to meet the instrument's cooling requirements. A thermal model constructed in Thermal Desktop was used to run parametric studies that guided the mechanical design and sized the two cryocoolers. This paper discusses the development, validation, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system. Detailed energy balances and temperature predictions are presented for various test cases to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the thermal model. Model inputs included measured values of heat lift as a function of input power and cold tip temperature for the two cryocoolers. These measurements were also used to make predictions of the cool-down behavior from ambient conditions. Advanced heater software was developed to meet unique requirements for both sensor cool-down rate and stability at the set point temperatures.

  12. Development of MCESC software for selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahiem Abdul Razak Al-Hadu, Lariyah Mohd Sidek, Mohamed Nor Mohamed Desa, Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited into the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper aims to develop and apply Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA software called Multi Criteria Erosion and Sediment Control (MCESC software in which it can be applied in selecting the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. Visual Basic 6 was adopted as a development tool. This software can help the engineers, contractors on site and decision makers to find the best stormwater control measure in any construction site in Malaysia. Users of the MCESC software are given the opportunity to select the best stormwater control measure via expert’s judgments that are built in the system or via their own expertise. MCESC software has many benefits since the experts are not always available and the consultancy is a costly issue which add further financial allocations to the project..

  13. A Mathematical Framework for the Analysis of Cyber-Resilient Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Kisner, Roger [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The increasingly recognized vulnerability of industrial control systems to cyber-attacks has inspired a considerable amount of research into techniques for cyber-resilient control systems. The majority of this effort involves the application of well known information security (IT) techniques to control system networks. While these efforts are important to protect the control systems that operate critical infrastructure, they are never perfectly effective. Little research has focused on the design of closed-loop dynamics that are resilient to cyber-attack. The majority of control system protection measures are concerned with how to prevent unauthorized access and protect data integrity. We believe that the ability to analyze how an attacker can effect the closed loop dynamics of a control system configuration once they have access is just as important to the overall security of a control system. To begin to analyze this problem, consistent mathematical definitions of concepts within resilient control need to be established so that a mathematical analysis of the vulnerabilities and resiliencies of a particular control system design methodology and configuration can be made. In this paper, we propose rigorous definitions for state awareness, operational normalcy, and resiliency as they relate to control systems. We will also discuss some mathematical consequences that arise from the proposed definitions. The goal is to begin to develop a mathematical framework and testable conditions for resiliency that can be used to build a sound theoretical foundation for resilient control research.

  14. Comparative analysis of supercritical CO2 power conversion system control schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of control system performance was carried out for the S-CO2 re-compressing cycle. In this study two control strategies were developed for managing process variables for a change in load at the electrical generator. Both relied on inventory control to reduce power but differed in other significant respects. In inventory control turbomachine mass flow rates are reduced through density change with the goal of preserving velocity triangle similarity and, hence, cycle efficiency. An inventory and low temperature control scheme was operated to maintain a trajectory that avoids close approach to the critical point by controlling the main compressor inlet temperature. Shaft power tracks a setpoint by controlling density. This control scheme may be preferred in plant configurations that use a flow-split. There the rapid density change with pressure near the critical point can lead to flow rate instability. An inventory and turbine bypass control scheme was operated to more closely approach the critical point. Inventory in addition to turbine bypass was used to control shaft power. The first control scheme yielded greater efficiency at reduced power as a result of two factors. First, bypassing coolant around the turbine increases the mass flow rate through the compressors while shaft speed is maintained constant. As a result the compressor velocity triangles are altered from their peak efficiency values. Second, the bypass flow rate results in . Second, the bypass flow rate results in non-isothermal mixing downstream where the turbine and bypass flow combine which also penalizes efficiency. (authors)

  15. Analysis and improvement of digital control stability for master-slave manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some bilateral controls of master-slave system have been designed, which can realize high-fidelity telemanipulation as if the operator were manipulating the object directly. While usual robot systems are controlled by software-servo system using digital computer, little work has been published on design and analysis for digital control of these systems, which must consider time-delay of sensor signals and zero order hold effect of command signals on actuators. This paper presents a digital control analysis for single degree of freedom master-slave system including impedance models of both the human operator and the task object, which clarifies some index for the stability. The stability result shows a virtual master-slave system concepts, which improve the digital control stability. We first analyze a dynamic control method of master-slave system in discrete-time system for the stability problem, which can realize high-fidelity telemanipulation in the continuous-time. Secondly, using the results of the stability analysis, the robust control scheme for master-slave system is proposed, and the validity of this scheme is finally confirmed by the simulation. Consequently, it would be considered that any combination of master and slave modules with dynamic model of these manipulators is possible to construct the stable master-slave system. (author)

  16. Trend analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance data from the Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Lemaster, P. S.; Mell, Richard J.; Miller, Edgar R.; Zwiener, James M.

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) on the LDEF was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive pre- and post-flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment. The TCSE is the first space experiment to directly measure in-situ total hemispherical reflectance of thermal control surfaces in the same way they are routinely measured in the laboratory. In-space optical measurements performed by the TCSE provide the unique opportunity for trend analysis of the performance of materials in the space environment. Such trend analysis of flight data offers the potential to develop an empirical life time prediction model for several thermal control surfaces. For material research, trend analysis of the TCSE flight data, particularly the spectral data, can provide insight into the damage mechanisms of space exposure. Trend analysis for the TCSE samples has been limited to those materials that were not significantly eroded by the atomic oxygen (AO) environment. The performance of several materials on the LDEF mission was dominated by AO effects. Trend analysis was performed on both the detailed spectral reflectance measurements (in-space, pre-flight, and post-flight) and on the integrated solar absorptance. Results of this analysis for the five selected TCSE materials are presented along with the spectral flight data. Possible degradation and effects mechanisms will be discussed to better understand and predict the behavior of these materials in the LEO space environment.

  17. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator - Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype for electromagnetic bearings and other machinery with build-in actuators. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows one to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method without a priori study of a model. Depending on the algorithm for estimating the Jacobian required by Newton's method we find two almost disjoint sets of suitable control parameters. Control-based continuation succeeds reliably in producing the full bifurcation diagram including both stable and unstable equilibrium states for an appropriately tuned controller.

  18. A Functional Analysis Framework for Modeling, Estimation and Control in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, HT

    2012-01-01

    A Modern Framework Based on Time-Tested Material A Functional Analysis Framework for Modeling, Estimation and Control in Science and Engineering presents functional analysis as a tool for understanding and treating distributed parameter systems. Drawing on his extensive research and teaching from the past 20 years, the author explains how functional analysis can be the basis of modern partial differential equation (PDE) and delay differential equation (DDE) techniques. Recent Examples of Functional Analysis in Biology, Electromagnetics, Materials, and Mechanics Through numerous application exa

  19. Economic Analysis of Maize Stalk Borer Control in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers significantly reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no farm level systematic study has been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate the loss of stem borers in maize production, experiments were carried out with the objectives of: estimating the economic value of maize losses due to stem borers; estimating the functional relationship between maize yield losses and stem borer damage estimators; and also obtain farmer perceptions on maize stem borers. The trials were superimposed on farmers' fields with one plot measuring 100M2 treated with Bulldock pesticide and the other one not. The experiment covered all the 7 maize agro-climatic zones in Kenya. Direct measurement of the Grain yields in the plots indicated that the average percentage yield loss was between, 3.5% - 15.7% in all sites. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 6 billion or about 6 million bugs/90 kg , an equivalent of annual maize grain requirements for 3 million adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers in order to meet household and national food security and income generation

  20. Nonlinear Magnetic Circuit Analysis of SMART Control Rod Drive Actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we derive a nonlinear magnetic circuit model of an electromagnetic control-rod actuator in the SMART. The results of the nonlinear model are compared with those by linear circuit model and finite-element analyses. gnetic circuit modeling is a useful tool when designing an electromagnetic actuator, as it allows fast calculations and enables parametric studies. It is particularly essential when the actuator is to be used in a very complex system such as a nuclear reactor. Important design parameters must be identified at the early stage of the design process. Once the design space is narrowed down, more accurate methods such finite-element analyses (FEA) can be employed for detailed design. Magnetic circuit modeling is based on the assumption that a flux path consists of sections in each of which field quantities are constant with linear constitutive relations. This assumption fails to hold when portions of the flux path become saturated. The magnetic circuit must be modified in order to accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of saturation

  1. Scenario analysis of false indication in computer-control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new failure mode and effect for safety-critical systems is proposed. ? False indication is the most dreadful kind of partial failures. ? A model-based simulation approach to generate failure scenarios is proposed. ? Simulation results showed that multiple errors may cause undesired consequences. ? An assertion-based method to detect false indication problems is provided. -- Abstract: Computer control may cause additional failure modes and effects that are new to analogue systems. False indication is one such failure mode that may bring unknown risks to a system. False indication refers to the problem when part of a system fails while other processes still work, and the failure is not revealed to operators. This paper presents a model-based simulation approach to systematically generate potential false indication and unintended consequences. Experiments showed that once a false indication occurs, it may have drastic effects on system safety. False indication can mislead the operator to perform adverse actions or no action. Therefore, we propose an assertion-based detection method to alleviate such failures. Our assertions contain process/device dependencies, timing relations and physical conservation rules. With these assertions, the operator may be alerted at run time. The proposed technique can reduce false indication problem. Moreover, it can also be used to assist the system design.

  2. An improved, computer-based, on-line gamma monitor for plutonium anion exchange process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved, low-cost, computer-based system has replaced a previously developed on-line gamma monitor. Both instruments continuously profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in the nitrate anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The latest system incorporates a personal computer that provides full-feature multichannel analyzer (MCA) capabilities by means of a single-slot, plug-in integrated circuit board. In addition to controlling all MCA functions, the computer program continuously corrects for gain shift and performs all other data processing functions. This Plutonium Recovery Operations Gamma Ray Energy Spectrometer System (PROGRESS) provides on-line process operational data essential for efficient operation. By identifying abnormal conditions in real time, it allows operators to take corrective actions promptly. The decision-making capability of the computer will be of increasing value as we implement automated process-control functions in the future. 4 refs., 6 figs

  3. An automatic control unit for A neutron diffraction crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic transistorized unit has been designed and constructed to control the operation of the double axis crystal spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The function of the automatic unit is to store the diffracted neutrons at a certain angle with respect to the direction of the incident neutron beam in a selected channel of a 1024-multichannel analyzer for a certain preadjusted time period. AT the end of this time period the unit rotates the spectrometer's arm to another angle, selects the next channel of the MCA and provides the measurement of the diffracted neutron for the same time period. Such a sequence is repeated automatically over all angles required for the neutron diffraction pattern of the sample under investigation. As a result, the stored information at the MCA provides the neutron diffraction pattern as a function of channel number, where each channel corresponds to a certain scattering angle. The stored distribution at MCA can be obtained through the analyzer read out unit. The designed automatic unit has the possibility of providing the neutron diffraction pattern using a 6-digit scaler and a printer

  4. Stability Analysis and Control of Nonlinear Phenomena in Buck Converters Using Variable Structure Control Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. R. PARANJOTHI,; C. KAMALAKANNAN,; Subashini, M.; Ramaswamy, M.

    2011-01-01

    The time varying, nonlinear nature of the power switches and several other sources of nonlinearities in DC-DC Converters deviates its performance from the theoretical prediction of stability. The switching nature necessitates a study of the stability and their periodic orbit rather than the equilibrium point. The closed loopoperation exhibits several types of nonlinear phenomena including bifurcation, chaos and quasi-periodicity. This paper is oriented with the analysis of such nonlinear phen...

  5. A simplified analysis of parameters controlling dewatering in accretionary prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Dreiss, Shirley J.

    1992-04-01

    One of the many dynamic geologic processes taking place at subduction zones is the compaction-driven dewatering of seafloor sediments as they are accreted to the overriding plate. The rate of dewatering is equal to the divergence of the sediment matrix velocity field. This rate can be estimated analytically if simplifying assumptions are made about the geometry of the prism and motion of the sediments. The analytical expression depends only on the sediment accretion velocity, thickness of the accreted section, prism taper angle, and sediment porosity distribution. A sensitivity analysis of the solution shows that the fluid production distribution is relatively insensitive to the sediment porosity distribution. However, the solution is very sensitive to the taper angle of the wedge. High-angle wedges expel almost all of the incoming water within 20 km, while low-angle wedges may retain a significant fraction of the incoming water for 50 or more kilometers. Thickness of the incoming section is also important. Dewatering of thin accreted sections is more concentrated near the toe of the wedge. Analyses of transects through the Northern Barbados, Makran, Vancouver, and Nankai accretionary prisms illustrate a range of dewatering rates and spatial distributions of dewatering.

  6. Quantitative analysis of factors controlling sediment yield in mountainous watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. H.; Huang, X. D.; Ai, L.; Fang, N. F.; Wu, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment and turbidity are primary causes of impaired river ecosystems; remedial action for these impairments requires the identification of their sources and controlling factors. This paper examines the combined effects of watershed complexity in terms of land use and physiography on the specific sediment yield of the upper Du River watershed (8973 km2) in China. The land use composition, land use pattern, morphometric variables, and soil properties of the watershed were calculated at the subwatershed scale and considered to be potentially influential factors. Because these watershed characteristics are highly codependent, a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the linkages between the specific sediment yield and metrics composed of 19 selected watershed characteristics. The first-order factors were identified by calculating the variable importance for the projection (VIP). The results revealed that the land use composition and land use pattern exerted the largest effects on the specific sediment yield and explained 65.2% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. A set of physiographic indices was also found to have a large effect on the specific sediment yield and explained 17.7% of the observed variation in the specific sediment yield. The following are the dominant first-order factors of the specific sediment yield at the subwatershed scale: the areal percentages of agriculture and forest, patch density, value of the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, value of the hypsometric integral, and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity. The watershed size exerted a substantial effect on the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). The VIP values also suggested that the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, and hypsometric integral are important factors in the SDR. With a readily available digital spatial database and rapid developments in geographic information system (GIS) technology, this practical and simple PLSR approach could be applied to a variety of watersheds.

  7. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  8. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars were investigated. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; navigation, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks were studied: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement and transport parameter evaluation.

  9. Certified reference materials for analytical quality control in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical quality control in neutron activation analysis (NAA) requires the use of certified reference materials (CRM) in order to produce reliable analytical results. It is essential to evaluate the performance of NAA method when analyzing various sample matrices. Therefore, the CRM selected for an analysis should be suitable for the type of samples. There are many aspects such as concentration range, matrix match, sample size and uncertainty, which need to be considered when selecting a suitable CRM. Eventually, results of analysis of CRM were plotted into control charts in order to evaluate the qualify of the data. This is to ensure that the results are within the 95 % confidence interval as stipulated in the certificate of CRM. Thus, this article aims to discuss the uses of certified reference materials for quality control purposes in NAA involving various sample matrices. (author)

  10. Gas turbine microprocessor control system: reliability test and analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, R.G.; Rowen, W.I.; Withey, D.J.; Schaeffer, D.G.; Buckley, L.P.; Freeman, M.A.; MacFarland, W.J.; Norman, B.G.; Multhaup, H.A.; Roncevich, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents the results of a program conducted under EPRI Project RP2101-1, ''Gas Turbine Control System Reliability Analysis and Verification.'' This project articulates the operational capabilities of a new SPEEDTRONIC Mark IV gas turbine control system designed to improve reliability and availability of the system. The project was divided into three phases of study, including the Mark IV control system review, a study of reliability analysis and predictions, and a field verification test conducted at the Salt River Project Santan Generating Station, for a period of one year during which 2930 operating hours were logged on a preproduction Mark IV prototype unit. Improvements in the reliability and availability of the control system were demonstrated during this period. The Mark IV control system uses microprocessor technology where the control functions are distributed among four microcomputers. Three are identical and redundant control sections while the fourth handles communications. Powerful on-line diagnostics indicate the faulty section, which includes replaceable elements, and allows panel repair to be done while the gas turbine is operating, and therefore reduces the meantime to repair. Results of this project indicate that this new control system can upon reaching maturity attain established reliability objectives. Most importantly, design improvements were identified early in the program to enable adjustments to be made in the design, and to be checked out during the program. 3 refs., 88 figs., 44 tabs.

  11. Gestión del análisis de peligros y puntos críticos de control / Hazard-analysis and critical-control-points management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Juliana, Moreno Guavita.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es presentar una revisión teórica de los beneficios y limitaciones del sistema "Análisis de riesgos y puntos críticos de control o HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points)". Se ha demostrado que la implementación del sistema HACCP es una buena elección como instr [...] umento regulador y preventivo en las industrias alimenticias, pero no es suficiente, tiene limitaciones como: altos costos de infraestructura, falta de concientización, tiempo de ejecución, actividades de supervisión y documentación excesiva, entre otras. Quizás sea porque la industria es dinámica, evolutiva, flexible, rápida y no está limitada. Abstract in english The purpose of this arricie is to present a theoretical review of the benefits and limitations of the system called HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points). The HACCP system has proved to be a good implementation choice (with its seven principies) as a regulatory and preventive instrument wi [...] thin the food industry. However, HACCP is not enough due to some limitations, namely its high infrastructure costs, the lack of widespread awareness, its implementation time, the demanding monitoring and excessive documentation, among others. This might occur since industry, in general, is dynamic, evolutionary, flexible, fast and unlimited.

  12. Best estimate SBLOCA analysis of CANDU 9 systems. Part II: control system modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantify the uncertainty and seek a better understanding of small break loss-of-coolant-accident (SBLOCA) as a design-basis accident (DBA) of the CANDU 9 reactor system, the best estimate analysis approach is proposed. Due to the relatively long transient that needs to be simulated, the key component of the Best Estimate SBLOCA analysis is the accurate modeling of the control system. The detailed modeling of the reactor shut down system, Reactor Regulating system bulk power control and reactor step back routine, and Pressure and Inventory Control system are discussed Some preliminary results calculated by the code coupled between CATHENA and my Control System simulation code are also given at the end of paper. (author)

  13. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided

  14. Controlling hypertension immediately post stroke: a cost utility analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistri Amit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood pressure (BP levels are common following acute stroke. However, there is considerable uncertainty if and when antihypertensive therapy should be initiated. Method Economic evaluation alongside a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial (National Research Register Trial Number N0484128008 of 112 hypertensive patients receiving an antihypertensive regimen (labetalol or lisinopril within 36 hours post stroke versus 59 receiving placebo. Outcomes were incremental cost per incremental: QALY, survivor, and patient free from death or severe disability (modified Rankin scale score Results Actively treated patients on average had superior outcomes and lower costs than controls at three months. From the perspective of the acute hospital setting, there was a 96.5% probability that the incremental cost per QALY gained at three months is below £30,000, although the probability may be overstated due to data limitations. Conclusion Antihypertensive therapy when indicated immediately post stroke may be cost-effective compared with placebo from the acute hospital perspective. Further research is required to confirm both efficacy and cost-effectiveness and establish whether benefits are maintained over a longer time horizon.

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices in the agate industry, Khambhat (Gujarat)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagia Lakho; Sadhu H

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that an exposure to crystalline silica gives rise to silicosis and silico-tuberculosis (TB). In the agate industry of Khambhat (Gujarat) not only workers but also people staying in the vicinity of the agate-grinding facilities are exposed to crystalline silica. To reduce their dust exposure, dust control devices were developed. There are approximately 500 grinding machines located in Khambhat. A cost–benefit analysis of installing dust control devices on all agate-grinding ...

  17. Interorganizational Relationships Within State Tobacco Control Networks: A Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Krauss; Nancy Mueller; Douglas Luke

    2004-01-01

    Introduction State tobacco control programs are implemented by networks of public and private agencies with a common goal to reduce tobacco use. The degree of a program?s comprehensiveness depends on the scope of its activities and the variety of agencies involved in the network. Structural aspects of these networks could help describe the process of implementing a state?s tobacco control program, but have not yet been examined. Methods Social network analysis was used to examine the str...

  18. Stability Analysis of a Voltage-Based Controller for Robot Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Orrante-Sakanassi; Victor Santiban?ez; Javier Moreno-Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    A voltage?based control scheme for robot manipulators has been presented in recent literature, where feedback linearization is applied in the electrical equations of the DC motors in order to cancel the electrical current terms. However, in this paper we show that this control technique generates a system of the form Ex = Ax + Bu, where is a singular matrix, that is to say, a generalized state?space system or singular system. This paper introduces a formal stability analysis of the resp...

  19. Stability Analysis Results Concerning the Fuzzy Control of a Class of Nonlinear Time-Varying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Radu-Codru?; Drago? Claudia-Adina; Petriu Emil M.; Precup Radu-Emil

    2011-01-01

    The paper offers new stability results concerning the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy control systems dedicated to a class of Single Input-Single Output (SISO) nonlinear time-varying systems. Lyapunov's approach based on quadratic positive definite Lyapunov function candidates is emplyed to derive a sufficient uniform asymptotic stability condition. An illustrative example validates the stability analysis results by the design of a T-S fuzzy control system for a SISO nonlinear process.

  20. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885